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NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)

DOCUMENT CODE NO. OFPAGES: 26


PLAN/PRJ/SUB UNIT PHASE DISCIPLINE DOCUMENT TYPE SERIAL NO. REV. NO. DATE
NIOEC 000 EG SF SP 4727 A3 MARCH 2018

NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL REFINING & DISTRIBUTION COMPANY


NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL ENGINEERING
& CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

NIOEC SPECIFICATION
FOR

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION DESIGN CRITERIA

SECOND EDITION

MARCH, 2018

THIS SPECIFICATION IS THE PROPERTY OF NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. IT IS CONFIDENTIAL AND ALL
RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE OWNER. NEITHER WHOLE NOR ANY PART OF THIS DOCUMENT MAY BE DISCLOSED TO ANY THIRD PARTY,
REPRODUCED, STORED IN ANY RETRIEVAL SYSTEM OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN
CONSENT OF THE NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY.
March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)

IN THE NAME OF GOD

FOREWORD

By their very nature, technical Specifications are continuously subject to modifications and
revisions. To strengthen their merit and usefulness, continuous improvements, addendum, deletion
of disparate information and consequently provision of updated revisions are to be made in order to
ascertain that such Specifications meet the current requirements, inclusive of Iranian Petroleum
Standards (IPS) and the recognized and acceptable national and international Standards, as well as
the optimal codes and practices based on the accumulated in-house know-how and plant knowledge
and experiences.

However, in reality, due to several reasons, not to mention the complexity of the matter, the
ultimate goal of continuous direct embedment of the required changes on the relevant Specifications
may be far reaching. Therefore, in the interim periods between the officially issued revisions, the
required changes will appear in other documents related to the engineering and design work of the
ongoing projects.

In response to the initiative of the Design and Engineering Directorate, and considering that the task
of the execution of several important and mega projects for the realization of the new oil refineries,
pipelines and oil terminals as well as improvements of the existing facilities, has been assigned to
NIOEC, it was decided to update the NIOEC Specifications and to issue new official revisions.

The Design and Engineering Directorate was itself entrusted to carry out this important task, and as
such by forming several special technical committees, working in close co-operation and cohesion
and sharing their expertise and knowledge, the updated and revised NIOEC Specifications were
successfully prepared and complied.

These Specifications are intended to be used for Oil Refineries, Distribution Depots, Oil Terminals,
Pipelines and Pump Stations within NIOEC's projects, and have been proven to be of high value
for such purposes. It must however be appreciated that these Specifications represent the minimum
requirements and should in no way be interpreted as a restriction on the use of better procedures,
engineering and design practices or materials.

We encourage and highly appreciate the users and other clear sighted and experts to send their
comments on the Specifications to the Design and Engineering Director of NIOEC for evaluation
and approval.
March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)

REVISION INDEX
REV. REV. REV. REV.
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
PAGE PAGE PAGE PAGE
1 X X X 26 X 51 76
2 X X 27 52 77
3 X X 28 53 78
4 X X X 29 X 54 79
5 X X X 30 55 80
6 X X X 31 56 81
7 X X X 32 57 82
8 X X X 33 58 83
9 X X X 34 59 84
10 X X X 35 60 85
11 X X X 36 61 86
12 X X X 37 62 87
13 X X X X 38 63 88
14 X X X X 39 64 89
15 X X X 40 65 90
16 X X X 41 66 91
17 X X 42 67 92
18 X X 43 68 93
19 X X 44 69 94
20 X X 45 70 95
21 X X 46 71 96
22 X X 47 72 97
23 X X 48 73 98
24 X X 49 74 99
25 X X 50 75 100

NOTES:

1) THIS SHEET IS A RECORD OF ALL REVISIONS TO THIS SPECIFICATION.


2) WHEN APPROVED, EACH REVISION SHALL BE CONSIDERED AS A PART OF THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENT.
3) NUMBER OF PAGES EXCLUDES THIS SHEET AND THE COVER SHEET.

M.KAREGAR A.ARMAN
4 MARCH, 2018 SH. GHASSEMI SH. GHASSEMI
NAJAFI MOGHADAM
M.KAREGAR A.ARMAN
3 DECEMBER, 2014 SH. GHASSEMI SH. GHASSEMI
NAJAFI MOGHADAM
2 OCTOBER, 2006 M.KHEZRI M.R.FARZAM M.A.A.SAJEDI

1 JULY, 2005 M.KHEZRI M.R.FARZAM M.A.A.SAJEDI

REV. DATE PREPARED CHECKED APPROVED AUTHORIZED


March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
CONTENTS: PAGE NO.
1. SCOPE.........................................................................................................................................2
1.1. General ................................................................................................................................2
1.2. Exclusions ............................................................................................................................2
2. REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................................2
3. UNITS ..........................................................................................................................................3
4. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................3
5. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS ................................................................................................4
5.1. General ................................................................................................................................4
5.2. Water for Fire Protection ..................................................................................................5
5.3. Foam for Fire Protection ...................................................................................................5
5.4. Gaseous Extinguishing System ..........................................................................................6
5.5. Other Gaseous Fire Suppression Systems ........................................................................6
5.6. Summary .............................................................................................................................6
6. FIRE WATER SYSTEM ...........................................................................................................7
6.1. General ................................................................................................................................7
6.2. Fire Water Pump and Drive ..............................................................................................7
6.3. Fire Water Network ...........................................................................................................9
6.4. Fire Water Storage Tank .................................................................................................10
6.5. Fixed Water Spray Systems ............................................................................................10
6.6. Hydrant, Monitor and Hose Reel....................................................................................14
6.7. Fire Water Sprinkler System ..........................................................................................15
6.8. Fire Water Demand Calculation .....................................................................................15
7. FOAM FOR FIRE FIGHTING ..............................................................................................17
7.1. General ..............................................................................................................................17
7.2. Foam for Extinguishing Tanks........................................................................................18
7.3. Foam Concentrate Capacity Requirements ...................................................................20
8. GASEOUS EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM .............................................................................21
8.1. CO2 System ........................................................................................................................21
8.2. CF3I Rim Seal Area Protection System ..........................................................................22
8.3. Clean Agent .......................................................................................................................22
9. PORTABLE AND MOBILE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ......................................................22
9.1. General ..............................................................................................................................22
9.2. Location Layout................................................................................................................23
10. FIRE FIGHTERS FACILITIES.............................................................................................23
10.1. Fire Station and Mobile Fire Truck ...............................................................................23
10.2. Fire Training Area and Facilities ...................................................................................24
APPENDIX A ...................................................................................................................................25
APPENDIX B....................................................................................................................................26

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1. SCOPE

1.1. General
1.1.1. This Specification covers the minimum requirements for active fire protection design
criteria to be employed for control of burning and extinguishing of fire in refineries, pump stations,
distribution depots and oil terminals.
1.1.2. An approved altering and communicating system is required with fire detector systems for
special risks.
1.1.3. Deviations from this specification will only be permitted on obtaining written approval
from NIOEC.
1.1.4. Resolution on cases not explicitly stipulated in this Specification, or on cases where
conflicts may arise among the requirements of the referenced/relevant IPS and the international
standards, shall be made through written consent and approval of NIOEC.

1.2. Exclusions
1.2.1. It is not the intention of this Specification to cover fire resistant construction, insulation or
fireproofing, trenching or fire-walling, electric bonding or earthing, fire and gas detection systems,
alarm and call points or general regulations affecting personnel or equipment.

2. REFERENCES
The following standards, codes, and specifications, to the extent specified hereinafter, shall
constitute a part of this NIOEC Specification. Latest edition of the undated referenced documents
and the cited edition of the dated references shall apply. The applicability of changes made to the
dated references ,after the cited date shall be mutually agreed upon between NIOEC and the
Vendor/Contractor.
API (AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE)
API RP 2030 “Application of Fixed Water Spray Systems for Fire
Protection in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries”
API PUBL 2510A “Fire-Protection Considerations for the Design and Operation
of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Storage Facilities”
ASME (AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
ASME B16.5 “Steel Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings”
BS (BRITISH STANDARD)
BS–336 “Specification for Fire Hose Couplings and Ancillary
Equipment”
IEEE (INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS)
IEEE 979 “Guide for Substation Fire Protection”
IPS (IRANIAN PETROLEUM STANDARD)
IPS E-SF-520 “Engineering Standard for Fire Stations “
IPS-G-SF-100 “Engineering and Equipment Standard for Fire Fighting
Trucks and Pumps”
IPS-G-SF-503 “General Standard for Delivery-Commissioning, Preventive
Maintenance of Fire Fighting Trucks “
IPS-G-SF-540 “General Standard for Safety & Fire Training Centers Fire
Station Facilities”

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NIOEC-SP (NIOEC SPECIFICATIONS)
NIOEC-SP-00-10 “NIOEC Specification for Units”
NIOEC-SP-00-66 “NIOEC Specification for Liquid & Gas Transfer & Storage”
NIOEC-SP-46-16 “NIOEC Specification for Fire Water Pumps”
NIOEC-SP-47-28 “NIOEC Specification for Fire Water Distribution& Storage
Facilities”
NIOEC-SP-47-29 “NIOEC Specification for Safety and Firefighting
Equipment”
NIOEC-SP-47-32 “NIOEC Specification for CO2 Extinguishing System”
NIOEC-SP-50-01 “NIOEC Specification for General Piping, Process and Utility
Design, Equipment Layout and Drawing Procedure”
NIOEC-SP-90-52 “NIOEC Specification for Packing and Packages”
NIOEC-SD (NIOEC STANDARD DRAWINGS)
NIOEC-SD- 5013-1/1 “Standard DWG Underground & Misc. Piping Details”
NFPA (NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION CODES)
NFPA 10 “Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers”
NFPA 11 “Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam”
NFPA 12 “Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems”
NFPA 14 “Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose System”
NFPA 15 “Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection”
NFPA 20 “Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire
Protection”
NFPA 24 “Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains
and Their Appurtenances”
NFPA 25 “Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of
Water-Based Fire Protection Systems”
NFPA 30 “Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code”
NFPA 2001 ”Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems”

3. UNITS
International System of Units (SI) shall be used in accordance with NIOEC-SP-00-10, unless
otherwise specified.

4. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY


Client: National Iranian Oil Engineering & Construction Company.
Purchaser: National Iranian Oil Engineering and Construction Company in cases where this
Specification is part of direct order by NIOEC and contractor where this Specification is part of
contract Documents.
Adjacent Tank(s): Adjacent tank(s) are defined as the tank(s) located in the same bund wall and/or
affected by the radiation of the tank on fire resulted from consequence analysis.
Adjacent Sphere(s): Adjacent sphere(s) are defined as sphere(s) with shell to shell distance less
than or equal to 30 m.
Control of Burning: Application of water spray to equipment or areas where a fire can occur to
control the rate of burning and thereby limit the heat release from a fire until the fuel can be
eliminated or extinguishment effected.
Combustible Liquid: Any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F).

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Density: The unit rate of water or water/foam application to an area or surface expressed in
(L/min)/m2.
Design Fire Water Demand: In refineries, the maximum figure for firewater demand resulted from
investigation of the simultaneous occurrence of both process area and tankage area fires. In pump
stations, distribution depots and oil terminals, the maximum figure for firewater demand resulted
from investigation of occurrence of one major fire at tankage area.
Exposure Protection: Absorption of heat through application of water spray to equipment exposed
to a fire, to limit surface temperature to a level that will minimize damage and prevent failure.
Fire Hazardous equipment: Equipment, which due to specific operating conditions, enhances a
fire hazard higher than the fire potential equipment.
Fire hazardous equipment includes:
- Pumps handling flammable or combustible liquids or gases, close or above their auto-ignition
point temperature.
- Compressors handling flammable gas; lube oil and associated appurtenance.
- Gas turbine enclosure.
- LPG pressure storage spheres, bullets and large separators.
- LPG truck loading area.
- Storage tank storing more than 190 m3 of flammable or combustible liquids (NFPA 30 Class I
and II).
- Oil filled transformers.
Fire Potential equipment: Any equipment handling flammable or combustible products.
Flammable liquid: Any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point below 37.8°C (100°F) or heated
above its flash point.
Flash Point: The minimum temperature of a liquid at which sufficient vapor is given off to form an
ignitable mixture with the air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used.
Isolated Room: Room where personnel are not normally present and where access time for
intervention would take more than 5 minutes.
Risk Area: An area that is physically separated from other areas by space, barriers, walls, or other
means in order to contain fire within that area.
In general:
- In Process area each unit shall be considered a single risk area as confined by roads
surrounding the same unit.
- In Tankage area each groups of adjacent bounds, as surrounded by common roads, shall be
considered a single Risk Area.

5. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS

5.1. General
5.1.1. Firefighting activities may be carried out on facilities on fire using monitors, hose reels,
hydrant nozzles, foam system, fixed spray system, CO2 system, portable fire extinguishers, steam
extinguishing means, mobile firefighting equipment (fire trucks, mobile foam unit), etc.
5.1.2. Firefighting facilities can be categorized as below:
Fixed System: A fire protection system that is permanently installed and connected to a supply of
extinguishing agent(s). These systems may be automatically or manually activated. A water spray
system supplied directly by the plant fire water system or a gaseous clean agent system in a control
room or computer room are examples of fixed systems found in refineries.

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Semi-fixed System: A fire protection system that is permanently installed but not connected to a
supply of extinguishing agent. These systems generally require personnel to manually connect an
extinguishing agent supply to the system prior to use. One example is a tank foam system that
terminates at a connection located at the dike wall.
Portable Equipment: Fire suppression equipment that must be moved to the site of the fire,
manually assembled or positioned before being put into service. It is generally stored until needed at
a location accessible to its intended users.
5.1.3. The following fire protection systems shall be provided:
- Fire water storage and fire water pumping/distribution systems (including outdoor water
hydrants, fixed and portable water monitors and outdoor/indoor hose reels).
- Foam extinguishing system for tanks containing flammable and combustible liquids, as
outlined in this specification.
- Fixed water cooling system for tanks containing hydrocarbons.
- Fixed water spray system for fire hazardous equipment.
- CF3I extinguishing or similar systems for quick action fire suppression in refineries floating
roof tanks.
- CO2/clean agent extinguishing system for unmanned technical rooms containing electrical
equipment and turbine enclosures.
- Clean agent extinguishing system for manned technical rooms containing electrical equipment
in refineries and process plants.
- Fire extinguishers and mobile foam units.
- Fire truck and its accessories.
- Fire training area including all facilities and connections.
- Safety and lifesaving equipment such as safety shower, eye-wash, breathing apparatus and
safety sign.

5.2. Water for Fire Protection


5.2.1. Water is used universally as a fire-fighting agent. It serves as a cooling, quenching,
smothering, emulsifying, diluting, and displacing agent. Also it is used for foam generation and
propagation systems.
The fire water system shall provide water for firefighting and fire protection for the process units,
utility area, tankage area, buildings, other off-site areas, etc. Water shall be available for Foam
systems and also, for the cooling of equipment and structures near a fire. Water for firefighting shall
be provided by an independent main fire ring fed by the fire pumps and normally cross connected to
the Refinery cooling water system. A dedicated water storage system shall be provided for firewater
applications. Firewater shall not be used or share with process or potable water.
5.2.2. As a part of design criteria, firefighting system including water storage, piping distribution
and pumping facilities shall be sized adequately and designed for:
- Fighting two major fires in refineries; one of them occurring at process area (defined as an
area in which the fire can be confined without significant danger of the fire spreading to an
adjacent area), the other at tankage area.
- Fighting one major fire in pump stations, distribution depots and oil terminals.

5.3. Foam for Fire Protection


5.3.1. Foam is generally used for fire suppression in tankage area. See section 7 for more detail.

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5.3.2. Also foam can be used for supplementary protection in process area or tankage area by
using equipment such as mobile foam unit or monitors having the opportunity to apply foam.
5.3.3. Foam can also be used in floating roof tanks as a quick action fire suppression system. In
this case foam solution stored in pressurized vessels is installed on the roof of floating roof tanks
and will be activated by fusible plugs. This system is an alternative system to that described in 5.5.1
and may be used upon Client’s approval. In this case the effect of the weight of this system on the
roof of the tank shall be considered.

5.4. Gaseous Extinguishing System


5.4.1. In refineries and process plants gaseous extinguishing system shall be selected as follows:
- Fixed automatic clean agent extinguishing system for manned rooms such as Engineering,
Auxiliary, Control Room and cable gallery in control buildings.
- Fixed automatic CO2/clean agent extinguishing system for Isolated rooms such as battery
room, UPS room, Cable gallery and switch gear room in substation buildings.
- Adequate wheeled and portable CO2 extinguishers also shall be provided for supplementary
protection.
5.4.2. In pump stations, distribution depots and oil terminals gaseous extinguishing system shall
be selected as follows:
- Where substation is separated from control building, and is an unmanned and isolated room,
its rooms shall be protected by fixed automatic CO2/clean agent extinguishing system. Also
adequate wheeled and portable CO2 extinguishers shall be provided for supplementary
protection.
- Where substation is located in the control building and is not an isolated room; it shall be
protected by adequate wheeled and portable CO2 extinguishers.
- Cable galleries and cable trenched of all technical rooms (Control room, substation and …)
shall be protected by fixed automatic CO2/clean agent extinguishing system.
- Battery room if located in manned area shall be protected by adequate portable CO2
extinguishers.

5.5. Other Gaseous Fire Suppression Systems


5.5.1. Fire suppression systems using CF3I is used in tankage area of refineries for floating roof
tanks. See clause 8.2 for more detail.
5.5.2. Portable CO2 extinguishers shall be used in enclosed areas only for electrical fires. They
may be used for primary protections or supplementary protection some of them are as below:
- In technical rooms such as control room, that is protected by total flooding system, as
supplementary protection.
- In technical rooms such as control room, that is not protected by total flooding system, as
primary protection.
- In non-technical buildings such as administration building, workshop, restaurant, warehouse
… for suppression of fires in electrical equipment such as computer, electric panel, hood of
kitchen … as primary protection.
5.5.3. Steam system: Snuffing steam shall be made available at furnace header boxes, fire boxes
and hydrocarbon PSVs open to atmosphere.

5.6. Summary
5.6.1. Table A1 in the appendix A and Table B1 in the appendix B are provided as guideline for
selection of appropriate fire extinguishing agent and fire extinguishing system.

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6. FIRE WATER SYSTEM

6.1. General
6.1.1. Fire water system has the following major components:
1- Fire water pump and drive.
2- Fire water network.
3- Fire water storage tanks.
6.1.2. Also the following components are used in fire suppression using water:
1- Fixed water spray system.
2- Hydrant, monitor and hose reel.
3- Fire water sprinkler system.

6.2. Fire Water Pump and Drive


6.2.1. General Requirements
6.2.1.1. A building of adequate size shall be provided to house fire water pumps. Adequate space
for maintenance and suitable overhead crane with adequate capacity for heaviest load shall be
provided.
6.2.1.2. The fire water pumps shall have suction line access to the raw water line and raw water
tanks for emergency purposes and shall be located in a safe location from blast and fire.
6.2.1.3. Provision should be made for pumping from storage tanks or other reliable sources.
Adequate supply of water must be made available in accordance with National Fire Code, and
company, requirements and approval.
6.2.1.4. Suitable suction strainer shall be provided. The screen shall be cleanable with the pumps
in service.
6.2.1.5. Firefighting pump requirements shall be as per NIOEC-SP-46-16 and NFPA 20.
6.2.2. Main Pump
6.2.2.1. The pressure at discharge of fire water pumps shall be at least 10.35 barg at normal
capacity; however pumps and piping system shall be designed in a manner that the pressure of fire
water at the farthest point of the network be at least 10 barg.
6.2.2.2. The pressure rise at shut-off should never exceed 20 percent of operating pressure or 14
barg. Where the pressure can build up to exceed the design rating of the lines, a pressure relief valve
discharging into the source of supply shall be provided.
6.2.2.3. Pumps shall be of horizontal construction.
6.2.2.4. The installed main pumping capacity shall be based on the total consumption described
in 5.2.2.
6.2.2.5. The main fire-water pump shall be driven by an electric motor and the second pump, of
100% stand-by capacity, by some other power source, preferably a diesel engine. Alternatively,
three pumps, each capable of supplying 50% of the required capacity may be installed, with one
pump driven by an electric motor and the other two by diesel engine. Where more than three pumps
(include standby and in-service) are used, they shall be selected in such a way that the whole water
capacity can be supplied by diesel driven pumps.
6.2.2.6. Unless otherwise specified by the Client, each main fire-water pump used in refineries
should have a pumping capacity of 818 m3/h (3600 gpm).

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6.2.2.7. Under any circumstances, the pumping capacity of main fire-water pumps shall never be
above 1000 m3/hr.
6.2.2.8. To avoid overloading the driver of the main and standby pump, it shall be sized at 110%
of the power absorbed by pumps at 150% of operating capacity or end of cure power, whichever is
greater..
6.2.2.9. All pump drivers shall have totally independent power supply.
6.2.2.10. For diesel engine drivers for fire pumps, the fuel tank shall have sufficient capacity of 24
hours of continuous operation. The radiator and diesel fuel tank should be equipped with a electrical
heater for winter time. Diesel driven pumps shall be installed indoors at a safe location. The fuel
supply shut off valve shall be operable from outside the room. The valve shall be locked open.
6.2.2.11. To avoid pumps overheating in case of no flow operation, each main fire pump should be
fitted with an automatic circulation relief valve (CRV).
6.2.2.12. A test line equipped with a flow rate measuring device shall be provided to enable
individual testing of each fire water pump. Testing facilities shall be designed to enable testing of
the pump at 150 % of the operating pump capacity
6.2.2.13. In addition, in compliance with NFPA 20 requirements, any diesel engine driven pump
shall be fitted with a pressure relief valve recirculating to the fire water tank to limit discharge
pressure to 14 bar g maximum even in case of over-speed operation.
6.2.2.14. Pump suction header and NPSH shall be sized for 150% of normal capacity.
6.2.3. Jockey Pump
6.2.3.1. The jockey pumps shall maintain the pressure in the fire water line system to 10.35 barg,
automatically.
6.2.3.2. Jockey pump shall be “spared” and both pumps shall have same capacity
6.2.3.3. In refineries the capacity of jockey pump shall be 113m3/h (500 gal/min) and in pump
stations, distribution depots and oil terminals it shall be 22.5 m3/h (100 gal/min).
6.2.4. Control Philosophy
6.2.4.1. The startup sequence shall be designed to achieve two objectives: (I) start the pumps up
as fast as possible and (II) avoid that two pumps start simultaneously
6.2.4.2. The main firewater pumps should be equipped for automatic and manual starting; the
standby pump shall be push button start. Electric motor driven main pumps should be started as
follows:
- Automatically upon low pressure in the fire water network.
- Manually locally at the pump controllers by start push button.
- Manually remotely from control room by push button.
6.2.4.3. Electric motor driven main pumps should be stopped manually only at pumps controller
by push button.
6.2.4.4. Diesel engine driven stand-by pumps can be started as follows:
- Automatically upon low pressure in the fire water network.
- Manually locally at the pump controllers by start push button.
- Manually remotely from control room by push button.
6.2.4.5. Diesel engine driven stand-by pumps should be stopped manually only at pumps
controller by push button.
6.2.4.6. Electric motor driven Jockey pumps should be started as follows:

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- Automatically upon low pressure in the fire water network.
- Manually locally at the pump controllers by start push button.
- Manually remotely from control room by push button.
6.2.4.7. Jockey pumps should be able to be stopped automatically and manually.
6.2.4.8. There shall be a minimum of two pressure transmitters in the firewater main ring
providing the low-pressure start signal to the firewater pump system. The transmitters shall be
located in different segments of the ring main.
6.2.4.9. In emergency operation status when pressure in the fire water network decrease down to
one bar below the network set pressure, by receiving this pressure drop from pressure transmitters,
control system should automatically activate the following starting sequence:
- To start immediately the electric motor driven pump selected as first pump to be started.
- To start every 20 seconds one of the remaining electric pumps unless during the delay time
the pressure in the network will not rise again to the network set pressure. The pressure
transmitters should stop the timer operation (sequence of pumps starting) when the pressure in
the pump discharge header reach the network set pressure.
6.2.4.10. Suitable manual selector should be located in control room allow the selection of starting
sequence of all of the electric motor driven main pumps.
6.2.4.11. Failure of any one pump to start should not prevent subsequent starting of the other
pumps.
6.2.4.12. All fire water pumps, once started, can be stopped manually only by stop push button on
the pump controller.
6.2.4.13. The pressure in the pumps discharge header shall be monitored in control room by means
of a pressure transmitter and a pressure recorder.
6.2.4.14. If the fire water demand increases after the fire water pump station has been started and
has reached a first steady state running status, e.g. another deluge valve opens or monitors are
activated to provide additional firefighting capability, and if this demand cannot be met with the
pumps in operation, then the whole starting sequence shall be repeated from the very beginning
except that pump(s) already running shall be skipped

6.3. Fire Water Network


6.3.1. The fire water system shall be sized adequately and designed to meet requirements
of 5.2.2.
6.3.2. Each process unit, a tank bounded area or a LPG scheme is considered as a single hazard.
6.3.3. Basically, the flow velocity shall not exceed 3.5 m/sec in the wet piping system when one
pipe in the network is blocked and 6.0 m/s in dry piping systems, which is generally after deluge
valve.
6.3.4. The system design shall conform to NFPA 24, using a Hazen-Williams formula and C-
factor of 100 for carbon steel pipe and 120 for galvanized pipes. If using other types of piping
material, appropriate C-factor shall be used as per NFPA 15.
6.3.5. Connection shall not be provided for permanent use of fire water other than for
firefighting.
6.3.6. Sufficient isolating valves and cross links shall be provided so that a section of the fire
main can be taken out of service without interrupting supplies of water. In each process unit area,
utility area, and bund wall area isolation should be such that at least 50% of hydrants and hose reels

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
remain in service. The distance between block valves on fire mains will not exceed 300 m and they
will be provided near the main for more 15 m length of branch lines feeding more than one of
hydrants, monitors or hose reel.
6.3.7. As a guideline a 4-way junction will be fitted with three valves, while a 3-way junction (a
Tee) will be equipped with two valves.

6.3.8. Block valves will be provided at all tapping points, for future expansion of the network, on
firewater headers.
6.3.9. All main block valves shall be operable from grade and shall be mounted in underground
valve boxes, per Standard drawing no. NIOEC-SD-5013-1/1. Hand wheel extension details shall be
according to standard drawing no. NIOEC-SD-5013-1/1. Valve boxes shall be filled with removable
insulating material to protect valve and pipe from frost. Valve boxes shall be large enough for easy
access to valves for repair and removal.
6.3.10. Fire water main will be laid in closed loops all along the roads and around the units and
areas of the plant.
6.3.11. Single fire water line will be laid only for firefighting training ground and flares area.
6.3.12. Fire water mains will normally be laid not less than 1 m below grade in order to provide a
safe and secure system.
6.3.13. When in exceptional circumstances, fire water mains shall be installed above ground they
will be laid alongside roads and not in pipe tracks where they could be at risk from spill fire.
6.3.14. The minimum size of fire water main network shall be 8 inch; branches to monitor and
hydrant will be 6 inch minimum.
6.3.15. Tapping with blind flange assembly shall be provided for future expansion of the network.
6.3.16. Fire water main shall be provided with 1 mm corrosion allowance carbon steel material.
Underground fire water main piping shall be provided with external corrosion protection coating
and wrapped. All piping material shall be as per NIOEC-SP-50-04.
6.3.17. Other requirements fire water network shall be as per NIOEC-SP-47-28.

6.4. Fire Water Storage Tank


6.4.1. The storage tank capacity shall be adequate to meet the high-pressure water requirements
for a period of at least six hours. It is desirable to have adequate supply of makeup water available
in addition to storage requirements.
6.4.2. Other requirements fire water storage facilities shall be as per NIOEC-SP-47-28.

6.5. Fixed Water Spray Systems


6.5.1. General
6.5.1.1. Fixed water spray systems may be employed for extinguishing, cooling or restricting a
fire in areas of high fire risk when rapid response is necessary, considering time to failure of

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
equipment under thermal impact, fire bridge availability and etc. fixed water spray systems should
only be used to protect vulnerable items.
6.5.1.2. Fixed fire water spray system is a fixed pipe system permanently connected to the
distribute fire water network and equipped with water spray nozzles properly located for specific
water discharge and distribution over the surface area of the equipment to be protected.
6.5.1.3. To control flow of water each spray system is supplied with a single line fitted with a
deluge valve; this last being operated either automatically and manually.
6.5.2. System selection
6.5.2.1. Fixed water spray system by means of automatic activation shall be installed for
protecting the following equipment:
a- Storage tanks containing hydrocarbon (Sphere Tanks, atmospheric tanks).
b- Horizontal vessels, bullets and large separators containing high pressure flammable
gases or light oils likely to cause BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanded Vapor
Explosion) such as C3, C4 or flammable liquid, such as naphtha, condensate, etc.
c- Vertical vessels, containing high pressure flammable gases or light oils likely to
cause BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanded Vapor Explosion) such as C3, C4.
Columns does not need to be protected by fixed water spray system. Cooling by
fixed water monitors are better suited to this purpose.
d- Compressors handling flammable gas.
e- Liquid-cooled transformers, except those that are adequately separated as per IEEE
979 or that qualify as:
i) Spare transformers not intended to be used in place, or
ii) Transformers containing less than 500 gal (1893 L) of combustible transformer liquid.
6.5.2.2. Fixed water spray system by means of manual activation shall be installed for protecting
the following equipment:
a- Hydrocarbon Pumps handling high temperature (higher than the auto ignition
temperature of the fluid or more than 260 °C) or high pressure (500 psig or above)
liquid.
6.5.3. Design
6.5.3.1. The design of water spray system shall be in compliance with appropriate section of
NFPA codes.
6.5.3.2. A fire area may be divided in to several deluge areas. All deluge in one fire area shall be
released when fire is detected anywhere in the fire area.
6.5.3.3. As per NFPA 15 and good engineering experiences, the system shall be designed so that
the hydraulically most remote nozzle will operate at a specific pressure which for medium velocity
nozzles is not less than 2 bar g minimum and not more than 3.5 barg. This pressure for different
nozzle type may vary and manufacturer’s data shall be followed.
6.5.3.4. To meet the above mentioned requirement, where the network pressure is higher than the
required, pressure control deluge valve shall be used. Alternatively the required pressure drop
between the deluge valve and the hydraulically most remote nozzle can be provided by using piping
restriction such as sacrificial pipe (flanged spool piece) of small bore size or restriction orifice upon
the Client’s approval. Generally restricted orifice is not allowed due to blockage but in deluge valve
by pass line.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
6.5.3.5. Resulting velocity in water spray piping system shall not exceed 6 m/sec except in
sacrificial pipes.
6.5.3.6. Hydraulic calculations shall be performed for each water spray system according to
NFPA 15 assuming Hazen & Williams formula as per 6.3.4.
6.5.4. Deluge Valves
6.5.4.1. Water spray system shall be connected to the fire water distribution main through a
deluge valve.
6.5.4.2. The deluge valve shall be installed upwind of prevailing wind direction and located at
access-way or road side at least 15 m outside the protected area.
6.5.4.3. A shield against radiation shall be provided only in case that distance is not respected.
6.5.4.4. The deluge valve shall include an isolation block valve, bypass valve and a strainer.
6.5.4.5. For optimization purpose, deluge valves shall be grouped as much as possible.
6.5.4.6. The deluge valve shall be suitable for horizontal arrangement, water operated type and
shall be operated either automatically or manually as below described:
- Manually locally at the deluge valve by mechanical emergency release valve.
- Manually remotely from control room by push button.
- Automatically upon fire detection. This can be done by means of electric signal from F&G
system or pneumatic signal from fusible plug.
6.5.4.7. Once activated, all automatic deluge valve can be reset to close manually only at field.
6.5.5. Strainer
6.5.5.1. The strainer located in the water line for deluge valves, shall be basket type, for easy
cleaning with minimum shutdown requirement.
6.5.5.2. As per NFPA 15 strainer mesh shall be 3.2 mm perforation for removing of solids which
can obstruct the spray nozzle.
6.5.6. Spray System Piping
6.5.6.1. The piping downstream the control valve is normally dry and shall be installed with a
slope of 1:250 to allow for draining after operation.
6.5.6.2. A suitable flushing connection shall be incorporated in the design of the system to
facilitate routine flushing as required.
6.5.6.3. The material for fire water spray system piping shall be galvanized carbon steel.
6.5.7. Spray Nozzle Selection:
6.5.7.1. The selection of type and size of spray nozzles shall be made taking into consideration
both the general purpose of the system and all external factors affecting spray jet efficiency like the
reference hazard and wind dispersion; based on the above the following shall be generally applied:
Table 1 Spray Nozzle Selection for Different Equipment

Water Spray Nozzle Type


Equipment to be Protected
M H F D L R
Pumps 
Compressors  

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
Water Spray Nozzle Type
Equipment to be Protected
M H F D L R
Vessels 
Exchangers 
Columns 
Spheres  
LPG Truck Loading Areas 
Atmospheric Storage Tanks  
Oil Filled Transformers 
M = Medium velocity water spray nozzles (deflector type).
H = High velocity water spray nozzle (without deflector).
F = Flat jet water spray nozzle.
D = Deluge Head.
L = Adjustable Large Flow Nozzle.
R = Reverse Action Full Pattern Nozzle.
6.5.7.2. All spray nozzles type shall not have internal strainer and shall have 5 mm internal bore
minimum size.
6.5.7.3. Spray nozzles shall be made of brass / bronze made as per standard market availability.
6.5.8. Water discharge densities
6.5.8.1. The following specific discharge densities water plus 20% safety factor shall be applied
for both water demand calculation and system design. Water discharge densities shall be applied to
target surface at (minimum) densities as per API 2030 which has been summarized in Table 2.
Table 2 Water Discharge Densities

Density
Application to Purpose Target Surface
(l/min)/m2
Pumps 20.4 Control of Burning Projected ground area (1)
Compressors 20.4 Control of Burning Equipment envelope surface
Vertical Vessels 10.2 Exposure Protection Equipment surface (2)
Horizontal Vessels 10.2 Exposure Protection Equipment surface (2)
Exchangers 10.2 Exposure Protection Equipment surface (2)
Columns 10.2 Exposure Protection Equipment surface (2)
Spheres 10.2 Exposure Protection Equipment surface
Bullets 10.2 Exposure Protection Equipment surface
Large Separators 10.2 Exposure Protection Equipment surface
LPG Truck Loading Areas 10.2 Control of Burning Floor Area

Atmospheric Shell 4.1 Exposure Protection, Tank shell and roof as applicable,
Storage Tanks (3) Roof 2.1 Control of Burning Tank on fire and adjacent tanks.

Transformer envelope and


Oil Filled Transformers 10.2 (4) Exposure Protection
non-absorbent area

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
Notes:
(1) The foundation/skid of the pumps including an outskirt of at least 0.6 m shall be covered by
water spray.
(2) Vertical spray application shall be extended to no more than 12 m maximum height from any
possible hydrocarbon accumulation level, this in compliance with NFPA 15 recommendation.
(3) See 6.8.3.1 and 6.8.3.2 for detail information.
(4) The water shall be applied at a net rate of not less than 6.1(L/min)/m2 on the expected
nonabsorbent ground surface area of exposure.

6.6. Hydrant, Monitor and Hose Reel


6.6.1. Permanent hydrants shall be located in strategic positions and the spacing shall be
established in accordance with the following provisions:
- 45 m around process units and LPG truck loading areas.
- 45 m around loading/unloading facilities and off-site pumps.
- 45 m around storage and pumping facilities for LPG.
- 60 m around hydrocarbon storage facilities.
- 60 m alongside pipe tracks.
- 60 m around utility areas, buildings, offices, workshops, laboratories, flares and other areas.
6.6.2. All fixed water monitors shall be placed at ground level in order to enable easy operation
and so as to provide effective cooling.
6.6.3. All fixed water monitors shall be carefully placed to avoid unnecessary obstructions like
pipe lines and support columns. However, monitors shall be at least 15m away from equipment to
be protected. Clear access must be provided for all fixed water monitors.
6.6.4. In locations, such as LPG Storage and bullets, hydrogen plants, location mentioned
in 6.8.3.2-b, etc., where very large quantities of water in jet or fog forms are required, fixed
monitors, permanently secured to monitor hydrants shall be installed.
6.6.5. Use of portable water monitors is recommended in combination with fixed water monitors.
6.6.6. Fire hose reels shall be located in each process unit and utility (Boiler area) normally
30~45m apart at certain strategic points. In general, hose reels are not required for protection of
elevated platform or fin fans containing hydrocarbons. These areas will be protected by fixed water
monitors.
6.6.7. Outdoor hose reels shall be mounted on a frame to facilitate waist level operation.
6.6.8. Hose reels in stores and buildings
6.6.8.1. Hose reels shall be connected to fire water mains and mounted on swivel or other
suitable fittings on the basis of NFPA code 14.
6.6.8.2. Each indoor hose reel shall consist of a cabinet, recess mounted for the Administration
and surface mounted for other buildings. Other requirements of indoor hose reels shall be as per
NIOEC-SP-47-29.
6.6.8.3. Each hose reel assembly shall incorporate a quick opening Lever operating on/off ball
valve and terminate in 1” gunmetal NST (National Fire Hose Connection screw Threads) female
coupling as per NFPA 1963.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
6.7. Fire Water Sprinkler System
6.7.1. Fixed water sprinkler systems shall only be utilized to provide protection of areas within
buildings, in particular:
- Workshops.
- Warehouses.
- Administrator buildings.
- Laboratories.
6.7.2. The layout and detailing of the sprinkler system shall be related to the intending use of the
building, the materials within the building and the type of storage as per NFPA 13.
6.7.3. Sprinkler system is a fixed pipe tailor made system to which sprinklers with fusible bulbs
are attached. Each sprinkler riser system includes a controlling valve and a device for actuating an
alarm for the operation of the system.
6.7.4. Sprinkler systems shall be wet type.
6.7.5. The activation of the system will originate the following alarms:
- Audible local alarm;
- Visual and audible alarm in Control Room
- Visual and audible alarm on DCS
- Visual alarm on mimic panel
6.7.6. Sprinkler system shall be designed as per NIOEC-SP-47-36 specification.

6.8. Fire Water Demand Calculation


6.8.1. Fire water demand calculation shall be done as per clauses 5.2.2, 6.8.2 and 6.8.3.
6.8.2. Fire in Process Area
The process area should be divided into multiple risk areas. Unless other specified by the Client,
fire water demand for each Risk Area should not exceed 818 m3/h (3600 gpm) and shall be
calculated by summing the following:
a- Water demand for one or more fixed water sprays systems up to 458 m3/h max.
b- Water demand for two fixed water monitors (120 m3/h per monitor).
c- Water demand for two hose streams (60 m3/h per hose stream).
6.8.3. Fire in Tankage Area
Fire water demand shall be related to the type of tanks included in any risk area as described in the
following clauses.
6.8.3.1. Atmospheric Storage Tank Risk Area
The scenario shall be based on the following:
- Fire is confined inside the tank wall.
To this purpose of water demand calculation only, any fire rising from fuel accumulation at
ground is assumed to be controlled/extinguished by hose/monitor streams or portable
extinguishers, see 6.8.3.1-d, e and 6.8.3.5-c, d.
- Each one of the storage tanks is to be considered, time by time, as the tank on fire.
- If required, three (3) maximum, among the tanks adjacent to the tank on fire, shall be
simultaneously considered as exposed to radiation.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
Fire water demand for each Risk Area shall be calculated by summing the following:
a- Water demand calculated for applying foam on a tank on fire.
b- Water for cooling the shell and the roof of tank on fire.
c- If applicable, water shall be considered for cooling shell and roof of adjacent tank(s)
exposed to radiation (see adjacent tank(s) definition);
d- Water demand for two (2) fixed water monitors (120 m3/h per monitor).
e- Water demand for two (2) hose streams (60 m3/h per hose stream).
6.8.3.2. For cooling the atmospheric tank on fire and adjacent tanks, following assumption shall
be considered:
a- For cooling the shell of the tank on fire and the adjacent tanks, rate of 4.1 lpm/m2
plus 20% of safety factor shall be considered for half of the shell (upper portion).
For cooling the adjacent tanks, upper portion of the area faced to the tank on fire
(generally ¼ of the total area) shall be considered for cooling with the same rate.
b- For cooling the roof of the tank on fire and the adjacent tanks, rate of 2.1 lpm/m2
plus 20% of safety factor shall be considered. For cooling the adjacent tanks, the
area faced to the tank on fire (generally ½ of the total area) shall be considered for
cooling with the same rate.
c- When there are four tanks in one bund-wall, three tanks will be adjacent to the tank
on fire so ⅔ of the roof and the shell of the adjacent tanks shall be considered for
exposure protection to ensure areas face the fire will be covered. Consequently ⅓ of
the shell (upper portion of ⅔ of the shell) and ⅔ of the roof shall be considered for
exposure protection. Other assumptions mentioned in clauses a and b remain
unchanged.
6.8.3.3. If the tank roof is frangible, and only one tank can be considered as tank on fire and no
other tank will be exposed to its radiation, cooling for the roof is not required.
6.8.3.4. Atmospheric storage tanks containing fluids with flash point at or above 93 °C (200 °F)
does not need fixed spray water system, other protections such as fire main ring, hydrants, etc for
such case shall be considered.
6.8.3.5. Spheres Risk Area
The scenario shall be based on the following:
- Fire is a jet fire only having origin at the sphere.
- Each one of the spheres in the same Risk area is to be considered, time by time, as the sphere
in fire.
- If required, three (3) maximum, among the spheres adjacent to the sphere in fire, shall be
considered as simultaneously exposed to radiation.
Fire water demand for each Risk Area shall be calculated by summing the following:
a- Water demand for cooling of the sphere in fire.
b- If applicable, water demand shall be considered for cooling of the adjacent sphere(s)
exposed to radiation (see adjacent sphere(s) definition).
c- Water demand for two (2) fixed water monitors (120 m3/h per monitor).
d- Water demand for two (2) hose streams (60 m3/h per hose stream).

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
7. FOAM FOR FIRE FIGHTING

7.1. General
7.1.1. The purpose of firefighting foam systems is to deliver extinguishing foam onto liquid
hydrocarbon pool to control vapors or extinguishing a fire.
7.1.2. Foam generators shall be based on mechanical air foam generation only. This system may
comprise either a fixed installation or portable equipment.
7.1.3. Extinguishing foam shall be low expansion type, suitable for the liquid in fire. It may be
hydrocarbon products or polar solvent (like MTBE).
7.1.4. Foam will be applied to protected areas by means of:
- General purpose equipment (monitor streams, hose streams, mobile foam units)
- Dedicated semi-fixed injection system (sub-surface, top-surface application to storage tanks)
in refineries by means of fire trucks.
- Dedicated fixed injection system (sub-surface, top-surface application to storage tanks) in
pump stations by means of suitable foam skids.
7.1.5. Depending on the application method, either premixed foam solution or foam concentrate
will be supplied:
- Premixed foam solution will be supplied to all dedicated semi-fixed systems by means of fire
trucks which are equipped with suitable facilities for water suction, foam concentrate storage
and proportioning.
- Foam concentrate will be supplied to foam skids which are equipped with suitable facilities
water suction, foam concentrate storage and proportioning.
- Foam concentrate will be supplied to mobile foam units which are equipped with fixed foam
inductor. These units contain appropriate amount of foam and will be connected to fire water
network by hose and will deliver foam-water mixture which will be applied by foam branch
pipe.
- Foam concentrate for primary operation is all stored into fire trucks.
- Foam concentrate for reserve shall be stored in two portions. A portion shall be stored at
quick refilling stations and the rest at conditioned warehouse.
7.1.6. In fixed roof tanks, when the stored product has a closed-cup flash point of 65°C (150°F)
or higher, the tank can be considered relatively safe. Then water for foam extinguishment is not
required, provided the following conditions are met:
- If the product is heated, there must be no possibility of the storage temperature exceeding
either the flash point or 93°C (200°F).
- There must be no possibility of hot oil streams entering the tank at temperatures above 93°C
(200°F) or their flash point.
- Cutter stock having a flash point below the storage temperature must never be pumped into
the tank for blending purposes.
- Sufficient fire water shall be available to cool exposed adjacent tankage in the event of
ignition. Then the tank should be pumped out or allowed to burn out.
- The product shall not be crude oil with boil over characteristics. If the product were crude, the
fire would have to be extinguished before the heat wave reached water at the tank bottom.
- Storage temperatures between 93°C (200°F) and 121°C (250°F) shall be avoided, as water
lenses or water at the tank bottom may reach boiling temperature at any time, resulting in a
serious froth over.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
7.1.7. If the product is heated above 121°C (250°F) foam extinguishment cannot be
accomplished and slipover will occur if foam is applied.

7.2. Foam for Extinguishing Tanks


7.2.1. Subsurface Foam System.
7.2.1.1. Subsurface foam injection system shall be provided for Cone and Dome Roof Tanks
identified as Fire Hazardous Equipment (tanks containing liquids with flash point below 22.8 ºC
and boiling point below 37.8 ºC are excluded), and shall be designed all in accordance with
NFPA 11. The required foam solution application rate has been shown in Table 5 in
paragraph 7.2.4.1.
7.2.1.2. Outlets shall be sized so that foam generator discharge pressure and foam velocity
limitations are not exceeded. The foam velocity at the point of discharge into the tank contents shall
not exceed 6 m/s for tanks containing Combustible liquids and shall not exceed 3 m/s for tanks
containing Flammable liquids.
7.2.1.3. The minimum number of foam discharge outlets has been determined in accordance with
NFPA 11 which has been summarized in Table 3.

Table 3 Minimum Number of Subsurface Foam Discharge Outlets for Fixed-Roof Tanks

Minimum Number of Discharge Outlets


Tank Diameter (m)
Flammable liquids Combustible liquids
Up to 24 1 1
Over 24 to 36 2 1
Over 36 to 42 3 2
Over 42 to 48 4 2
Over 48 to 54 5 2
Over 54 to 60 6 3
6 3
Over 60 Plus 1 outlet for each Plus 1 outlet for each
additional 465 m2 additional 697 m2

7.2.1.4. The distribution piping, including check valve, bursting disc and block valve, shall be
installed to each inlet nozzle on the tank and the foam discharge outlets shall be located at least
0.3 m above the highest water level to prevent destruction of the foam.
7.2.1.5. The block valve, bursting disc and check valve shall be installed as close as possible to
the tank nozzle.
7.2.1.6. The bursting disc shall be constructed of stainless steel and installed in order to prevent
the tank product from entering the check valve. The minimum bursting disc break pressure shall be
governed by the thermal relief pressure.
7.2.2. Top Pouring Foam System (Seal Area Protection)
7.2.2.1. Top pouring foam system shall be provided for Open Top Floating Roof Tanks identified
as Fire Hazardous Equipment (see definitions) and shall be designed all in accordance with
NFPA 11. This system discharges foam solution onto the seal area of the tank, between the tank
wall and the foam dam. The required foam solution application rate has been shown in Table 5 in
paragraph 7.2.4.1.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
7.2.2.2. Fixed foam discharge outlets, (foam chambers with foam maker) shall be mounted above
the top of the tank and for this application, the fixed foam discharge outlets shall not be fitted with a
frangible vapor seal device.
7.2.2.3. Discharge outlets shall be located on the tank circumference with a maximum spacing of
24.4 m where the height of foam dam is 0.61 m in accordance with NFPA 11.
7.2.2.4. Seal area protection systems shall also be permitted for the following types of roof
construction:
a- Steel double deck.
b- Steel pontoon.
c- Full liquid surface contact, metallic sandwich panel, conforming to Appendix H,
“Internal Floating Roofs,” requirements of API 650.
7.2.2.5. All other types of roof construction shall require full surface area protection as per 7.2.3.
7.2.3. Top Pouring Foam System (Full Surface Area Protection)
7.2.3.1. Top pouring foam system shall be provided for covered (Internal) floating roof tanks not
mentioned in clause 7.2.2.4 and shall be designed all in accordance with NFPA 11.
7.2.3.2. This system discharges foam solution onto the liquid surface area of the tank. The
required foam solution application rate has been shown in Table 5 in paragraph 7.2.4.1.
7.2.3.3. Fixed foam discharge outlets, (foam chambers with foam maker) shall be attached to the
tank shell above the maximum liquid level and for this application, the fixed foam discharge outlets
shall not be fitted with a frangible vapor seal device.
7.2.3.4. Each foam chamber shall be fitted with a discharge closure in case the protected tank
shall be pressurized by inert gas blanket.
7.2.3.5. The minimum numbers of foam discharge outlets have been determined in accordance
with NFPA 11 which has been summarized in Table 4.

Table 4 Number of Fixed Foam Discharge Outlets for Fixed-Roof Tanks

Tank Diameter (m) Minimum Number of Discharge Outlets


Up to 24 1
Over 24 to 36 2
Over 36 to 42 3
Over 42 to 48 4
Over 48 to 54 5
Over 54 to 60 6
7.2.3.6. Basically, one lateral pipe shall be provided for each foam discharge outlets.
7.2.4. Foam discharge densities
7.2.4.1. The following specific discharge densities for foam shall be applied for both water
demand calculation and system design. Foam Discharge Densities shall be applied to target surface
at (minimum) densities as indicated in Table 5:

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
Table 5 Foam Discharge Densities

Density
Application to Purpose Target Surface
(l/min)/m2
Fixed (Cone) Roof Tanks 4.1 Fire Control Entire liquid surface area
Fixed (Dome) Roof Tank 4.1 Fire Control Entire liquid surface area
Open Top Floating Roof Tank and Covered (Internal)
12.2 Fire Control Rim seal area
Floating Roof Tank mentioned in 7.2.2.4.
Covered (Internal) Floating Roof Tank mentioned
4.1 Fire Control Entire liquid surface area
in 7.2.2.5.
MTBE Covered (Internal) Floating Roof Tank. 5 Fire Control Entire liquid surface area

7.2.5. Common requirements


7.2.5.1. In refineries, foam solution shall be delivered by the first intervention team using mobile
facilities (fire trucks) and expanded by portable or fixed high back pressure generator.
7.2.5.2. In pump stations foam solution shall be delivered by the suitable foam skid and expanded
by fixed high back pressure generator.
7.2.5.3. The horizontal piping between the tank and the connection(s) shall be installed with a
slope of 1:250 and it shall be equipped with adequate free-draining facilities (typically 6 mm
diameter weep hole) and flush facilities.
7.2.5.4. Piping inside the bound shall be supported on sleepers.
7.2.5.5. In semi-fixed system, the lateral pipes shall be ended with foam solution inlet hose
connection(s) 2½ inch BS-336 male coupling(s) outside bound wall.
7.2.5.6. The foam solution inlet connection(s) or the deluge skid shall be located outside the dike
and at least 15 m or one tank diameter whichever is larger, apart from the tank to be protected.
7.2.5.7. A sign shall be provided at the connection point stating the required foam concentration
type, foam solution rate (l/min) and supply pressure (bar g).

7.3. Foam Concentrate Capacity Requirements


7.3.1. The basis for the storage capacity for foam concentrate shall be the quantity required to
extinguish the largest credible fire that could occur in atmospheric storage area.
7.3.2. The quantity of foam concentrate available for immediate use in the system shall not be
less than the sum of the need for primary protection and 100% reserve.
7.3.3. Protection Duration Requirements
The required time of foam application rate to be discharged to atmospheric tank is being set by
NFPA 11 and summarized in Table 6.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
Table 6 Minimum Foam Discharge Time

Minimum Discharge Time


Atmospheric Tank Type
(min)
Cone and dome fixed roof tanks containing combustible fluid. 30
Open top floating roof tanks containing flammable liquid. 20
Internal floating roof tanks storing Combustible liquids. 30
Internal floating roof tanks storing Flammable liquids. 55
Internal floating roof tanks storing foam destructive liquids. 55

8. GASEOUS EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM

8.1. CO2 System


8.1.1. CO2 extinguishing systems shall be designed, installed and tested as per NIOEC-SP-47-32.
8.1.2. CO2 System for Substations and Remote Control Buildings
8.1.2.1. Fixed carbon dioxide total flooding system will be provided to protect unmanned
enclosures in Electrical Substation and Remote Instrument Building (RIB) as below summarized:
- Panel room.
- Battery room.
- Cable basement (cable void) below the panel and battery room.
8.1.2.2. The system will be designed to meet the requirements of NIOEC-SP-47-32 and NFPA 12
for total flooding intervention.
8.1.2.3. The system consist of main and 100% inline reserve of carbon dioxide cylinders arranged
for easy changeover and permanently connected to a fixed piping arrangement with distribution of
nozzles suitable to meet the required concentration of carbon dioxide into the enclosure.
8.1.2.4. To minimize the number of carbon dioxide cylinders installed, the system in each
building will be designed for flooding only one enclosure at any time, requiring the largest amount
of gas; this except in building in which gas demand allow for enclosures grouping and simultaneous
flooding of more than one enclosure, in this case will be considered the total of the volumes.
8.1.2.5. The carbon dioxide quantity will be stored in pressure cylinders designed to be filled at
gas density corresponding to a nominal pressure of 58.6 bar at 21°C (the filling density commonly
used for high-pressure storage container shall be between 60 and 68 percent). The carbon dioxide
cylinders will be adequately mounted and suitably supported in a rack provided for the purpose,
including facilities for convenient individual servicing and stored in a containers located as near as
possible to the protected enclosure; anyway they will not be located indoor of the same protected
enclosure. The containers shall also be protected from direct sunlight, from interference by
unauthorized persons and shall be dry, ventilated (the temperature mustn’t be more than 54°C and
not less than -18°C).
8.1.2.6. Each cylinder battery will have a weighing system able to control the possible loss of
pressure in the cylinders and send a signal to F&G system.
8.1.2.7. All the alarms will send a signal to F&G system and DCS alarm in Control Room.
8.1.2.8. All the manual release push buttons and/or pull handle will be housed in a box and
protected by a glass front or other quick access front.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
8.1.3. CO2 System for Gas Turbine Flooding
8.1.3.1. The system shall be generally similar to the system described for electrical substation
except needs for extended discharge and other requirements typical of the protected item. To this
purpose the system shall be supplied package all together by the turbine vendor.
8.1.3.2. Main status signals, fire alarms and carbon dioxide discharge alarms to be duplicated in
the nearest Control Room.

8.2. CF3I Rim Seal Area Protection System


8.2.1. In refineries CF3I rim seal protection system shall be provided for Open top floating roof
tanks storing flammable and combustible liquid (NFPA Class I & II) in conjunction with semi-fixed
foam system.
8.2.2. This system is self-acting and provides a combination of facilities to detect, actuate and
discharge CF3I to extinguish rim seal fire at storage tank.
8.2.3. Any open top floating roof storage tank shall be provided with a number of CF3I units,
each one covering 40 m maximum rim seal circumference, consisting of:
- One CF3I storage vessel, 20 Kg capacity, located on the tank roof and fitted with sunshield,
pressure switch and level switch.
- One stainless steel distribution line connected to the CF3I storage vessel, located along the rim
seal periphery and fitted with glass bulb operated nozzles properly directed to discharge the
extinguishing agent to the fire area.
- In case of fire, the flame will impinge the glass bulb operated nozzle causing to open and
allow for the extinguishing agent discharge.
- Each unit shall operate fully independently from any other unit on the same tank and shall
originate both fault and fire alarms to be recorded in the nearest Control Room.
- CF3I Units shall be designed by skilled vendor which can prove experience in such an
installation.

8.3. Clean Agent


8.3.1. Clean agents such as FM200 or IG55 are used for manned area such as control room in
refineries. Design, installation and testing of clean agent extinguishing systems shall be as per
NFPA 2001 and Company requirements.

9. PORTABLE AND MOBILE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

9.1. General
9.1.1. Portable and mobile extinguisher units shall be provided in different areas of the refinery
for immediate use by operators upon fire occurrence. Extinguisher shall be furnished as follows:
Fire class Extinguisher Size and Type
A (ordinary combustible) 9 kg multipurpose ABC dry chemical (Such as ammonium
phosphate agent)
B (Flammable liquids) 12 kg and/or 50 kg wheeled BC dry chemical (such as Potassium
bicarbonate agent)
C (energized electrical 6 kg and/or 20 kg wheeled CO2 (generally for indoor)
equipment) 9 kg multipurpose dry chemical (generally for outdoor)

9.1.2. Each portable extinguishers located outside shall be provided with a cover suitable for
direct sunshine.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
9.1.3. Stored pressure type portable extinguishers (CO2 type excluded) shall incorporate a
pressure gauge showing the normal minimum and maximum allowable pressure. The gauge shall
have a color-coded pressure range and be located on the top of the extinguisher.
9.1.4. Other requirements of portable and wheeled fire extinguishers shall be as per NIOEC-SP-
47-34.

9.2. Location Layout


9.2.1. Portable extinguishers shall be mounted on walls, columns, etc. so that the basic maximum
walking distance to extinguishers shall be, as follow:
- 15.25 m in correspondence of flammable liquids, oils, gases, etc.
- 22.7 m in correspondence of ordinary combustible materials.
9.2.2. Portable extinguishers units weighting less than 18.2 kg shall be mounted so that the
extinguisher top is not more than 1.5 m above the floor.
9.2.3. Dry chemical powder fire extinguishers shall be distributed throughout the plant where
there are flammable products, as follow:
- Along main access ways in process and utility areas.
- On overhead structures, near the stairway landings in process and utility areas.
- Overhead main platform with stairway access in process and utility areas, walk ways besides
air fin coolers and heaters platform.
- Pump and compressor areas in process and utility areas
- Outside the fenced enclosure gate for oil filled transformers
- One for each island in truck loading racks.
9.2.4. Multipurpose dry chemical powder fire extinguishers shall be distributed throughout
buildings and electrical substations.
9.2.5. Wheeled dry chemical powder fire extinguishers shall be located in areas with a high fire
risk where a portable extinguisher would not be expected to have a sufficient capacity. The units
shall also be distributed at ground level throughout process plants, utility plants and loading
facilities in addition to portable extinguishers, as follow:
- One (1) every four bays in truck loading racks.
9.2.6. The travel distance to a wheeled unit shall range between 30 m and 50 m depending on the
expected fire hazard.

10. FIRE FIGHTERS FACILITIES

10.1. Fire Station and Mobile Fire Truck


10.1.1. Fire station shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the project requirement.
Fire station shall be designed in accordance with IPS-E-SF-520.
10.1.2. Mobile fire truck shall also be provided in accordance with IPS-G-SF-100 and project
requirements. Each fire truck should have the following main characteristics:
- Water booster pump, connected with truck engine, with a capacity of 360 m3/h at 7 bar.
- Foam concentrate booster pump, connected with truck engine, with a capacity of 24 m3/h.
- Stainless steel foam concentrate tank with a capacity of 5 m3.
- Two 250 kg dry powder extinguishing with one hose reel.
- Water/foam solution monitor 180 m3/h at 10 bar mounted over driver’s cabin.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)
- Foam system by passing water pump six inlets and six outlets manifold all in accordance with
BS-336 Standard.
- Foam ejector proportioning system.
- Foam control system.
- Line-up and piping design of water/foam.
- Operating and control panel.
- Miscellaneous equipment.
10.1.3. Firefighting trucks shall be delivered and maintained as per IPS-G-SF-503.

10.2. Fire Training Area and Facilities


Fire training area shall be considered in order to provide training exercise against simulated
incidents. Equipment in fire training area shall be furnished and installed by contractor.
Arrangement of equipment shall be approved by NIOEC. Fire training area shall be designed in
accordance with IPS-G-SF-540.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)

APPENDIX A
Extinguishing agents will be applied to fire source and exposures by means of both fixed and
portable facilities as well as by means of fixed dedicated systems as summarized in Table A1
Table A1 Extinguishing Agents and Their Application

Fire Fighting Agent Equipment


Water (Fire Water) - To control/fight fires having origin at selected Hazardous equipment.
- To provide for exposure protection of selected fire potential and
hazardous equipment.
- To provide for shell and roof cooling of both atmospheric and
pressure storage tanks exposed to radiation.
- To provide for fire control inside selected buildings enclosures.
Low Expansion Foam - To fight unconfined pool fires originated by flammable and
Fluoroprotein (FP) combustible liquid release.
3% Solution (note 1) - To fight confined fires having origin inside Fixed (Cone) Roof
Tanks, Fixed (Dome) Roof Tanks, Open Top Floating Roof Tank
and Covered (Internal) Floating Roof Tanks.
- To fight unconfined pool fires originated by water soluble liquids,
other flammable liquids and polar solvents those are destructive to
foam.
Carbon Dioxide - To provide for fire extinguishing of selected unmanned enclosures
(CO2) inside Electrical Substation, Remote Instrument Building and Gas
Turbine enclosures
- To provide for “Battery Room” of substation.
- To provide where under floor cable void is provided, CO2
distribution piping shall be extended to the cable void.
- To provide for Remote Instrument Buildings (RIB) the same
philosophy of substations should be applied.
CF3I Clean Agent - To provide for Fire extinguishing at rim seal area of floating roof
tanks.
Dry Chemical Powder - To provide for fire extinguishing through all plant areas and
(General Application) buildings.
Note:
(1) Fluoroprotein foam concentrate suitable for application to both hydrocarbons and polar
solvent fuels like MTBE, for top pouring and sub-surface injection systems.

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March, 2018 NIOEC-SP-47-27(3)

APPENDIX B
Table B1 can be used as a guideline to select appropriate firefighting system.
Table B1 Firefighting System Application

Clean Agent Extinguishing System


Clean agent extinguishing system
Typical Fire Protection
Facilities

Subsurface Foam System (1)

Dry Chemical Extinguishers


Automatic Sprinkler System

CO2 Extinguishing System


Top Surface Foam System
Automatic Spray System

Fire and Service Trucks


Rim Seal Foam System

CF3I Rim Seal System


Manual Spray System
Hose Storage Boxes

CO2 Extinguishers
Indoor Hose Reels
Wet Riser (2)
Hose Reels
Plant Area Summary

Monitors
Hydrants

General Unit Area  -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  


Utility & Process

Fire Potential Equipment -  -  -  - - - - - - - - - - -  


Units

Fire Hazardous Equipment - - -  -    - - - - - - - - -  


Compressors - - -  - - -  - - - - - - - - -  
Gas Turbine Enclosure - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - -  
General Offsite Areas  -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
Offsite Pumps -  - - - -  - - - - - - - - - -  
Fixed (Cone) Roof Tanks -  - - - -  - -  - - - - - - -  
Fixed (Dome) Roof Tanks -  - - - -  - -  - - - - - - -  
Off-sites Areas

Open Top Floating Roof -  -


Tanks -  - - - -  - - - -  - -  
Covered (Internal) Floating - -
Roof Tanks -  - - - -  - - -   - - -  
LPG Spheres -  - - - -   - - - - - - - - -  
LPG Loading Area -  - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -  
Flare  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
General Building Areas  -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
Oil Filled Transformers - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -  
Administrator and General - -
Buildings Areas

Area - - - -  - - -  - - - - - -  
Workshops and Warehouses - - - -  - - -  - - - - - - -   -
Electrical Substation - -   
(unmanned) - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
Control Room - - - - - - - - - - - -  - -    
Remote Instrument Buildings - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  -   
Note:
(1) Subsurface foam protection systems shall not be used for protection of liquids having flash
points below 22.8°C and a boiling point below 37.8°C or for the protection of alcohols, esters,
ketones, aldehydes, anhydrides, or other products requiring the use of alcohol-resistant foams.
Top surface with foam chambers can be used for protection of these products.
(2) To be applied for equipment installed in high elevation (more than 12 m or third floor)

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