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Coatings and their applications

in textiles
G. Buyle – MIICS 2012
Textiles… various applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Outline
 Introduction Centexbel
 Basic textile coating
 Advanced coating techniques
 Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Acknowledgements
 Research at Centexbel on topic “smart
textiles” enabled via several research
projects
 Acknowledgement of the funding agencies
on different levels:
 Regional: IWT
 National: BELSPO
 European: FP6 and FP7 programmes
 Acknowledgement of the numerous
partners (both from academia and
industry) worked with in these projects

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Outline
 Introduction Centexbel
 Basic textile coating
 Advanced coating techniques
 Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Centexbel: centre of competence
 collective research and technical centre
 membership organisation
 Belgian textile companies
 associated (international) member companies and
organisations
 staff
 140 skilled and highly educated men and women

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Research groups
 Three domains:
 Functional thermoplastic textiles: compounding, extrusion, (bio)
polymers, nano-additives, textile reinforced composites,…
 Textile functionalisation and surface modification: coating &
finishing, sol gel, plasma treatment, lamination, hot melt,…
 Health, safety & security: medical and bio-functional textiles, smart
textiles, thermo-physiological comfort,…

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


textile functionalisation and
surface modification

 Coating, finishing and surface modification for new and superior


functional performance
 textiles with multifunctional properties
 modifying textile surfaces using coating, plasma functionalisation, UV
curing, hot melt, sol gel,…
 new sustainable technologies

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Testing laboratories
Laboratories (ISO 17025 accredited):
 Physical:
 E.g. breathability, outdoor ageing
 Chemical:
 E.g. chemical analysis, microscopy
 Microbiological:
 E.g. antimicrobial effect, biodegradability
 Fire:
 E.g. burning behaviour, smoke toxicity

Centexbel is recognized by large distribution companies,


consumers’ associations, OEM’s, …
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(pre-)standardisation

 Active participation/leading role in


standardisation committees (CEN & ISO)
 Sector operator
 Mirror committees Centexbel leads
WG31 “Smart Textiles”
(in CEN TC248)

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Outline
 Introduction Centexbel
 Basic textile coating
 Advanced coating techniques
 Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Vision: textile as flexible carrier for
offering specific functionalisation(s)
Light Reflection
Fire Retardant
Biocompatible
Anti abrasion
Breathable
Self cleaning
Water repellency
Fragrance release
Electrically conductive
Thermal insulation
Antibacterial
Bioresponsive
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314
Three levels of coating fabrics

Fabric
level Traditional
coating

Yarn
level “Advanced”
techniques
e.g. plasma
Filament/ coating
fibre
level

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Materials
 Textile coating typically Example nanoparticles
comprises 2 parts: for textile coating
 Binder for durability
(washing, abrasion)
 Additives for functionality

NP
 Materials for binder: Matrix/binder
 Polyacrylate
 Polyurethane
 Polyvinylchloride

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Example: lamination of membrane
in-between two textile fabrics
Knitted fabric

Coating

Membrane

Coating

Woven fabric

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Example:
Fire Retardant coating for carpet

Coating application
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Carpet coating analysis
via XRF mapping
Carpet structure FR additives

Ti Sb

S Br

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Example:
PVC coated polyester fabric
Textile architecture Tarpaulins for trucks

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Classical techniques:
 Wet techniques: Immersion

 Formulation: solvent or water based


 Application unit: padding/ immersion,
knife coating, transfer coating, foam Mayer bar
coating,…
 Typical add-on: 20-50g/m2
 Multitude of advantages:
 Robust
 Large scale
 Relatively simple equipment

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Classical techniques:
typical coating line

 Wet technique → need for ovens → energy issue

 “Long” → only profitable for large batches

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Search for novel techniques because
of drawbacks/limitations
 Drivers:
 Economy:
 ability to run smaller production batch sizes → “digital”
 reduce energy use → “dry techniques”
 Performance:
 minimal thickness or add-on
 accuracy, uniformity
 Ecology:
 more healthy products (e.g. prevention of phthalates)
 use of bio-based and/or bio-degradable

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Hot melt: basics
 Hot melt:
 100% system
(granulates, blocks,…)
 Melting of the polymer
 Application as melt
 Solidifying → Coating
 Materials: PE, PP, PES, PA,
EVA, TPU, silicone
Source: www.robatech.com
 Two main groups (curing based):
 Thermoplastic hot melts:
 Solidifying via cooling
 Reactive hot melts:
 Solidifying via cooling + drying or UV irradiation

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


UV curable coatings

UV UV source
IR source

Textile
IR
substrate

Coating
application
Curing
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Polyolefine-coatings (1/2)
 POD = polyolefine dispersion in water, suitable
for “standard” application techniques

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Source: Dow
Polyolefine-coatings (2/2)
 PODs have unique advantages:
 Solvent-free solution
 High solid content (typically 40 to 55 wt%)
 Functionalisation possible
 Functionalisation:
 Possible to mix in active components
 Examples: FR, antimicrobial, conductive
 Goal: replace some of the PVC
applications (prevention of phthalates)

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Outline
 Introduction Centexbel
 Basic textile coating
 Advanced coating techniques
 Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Advanced coating techniques
 ALD
 Evaporation
 Magnetron sputtering
 Atmospheric Plasma coating

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ALD technique - introduction
 Deposition via ALD:
 Atomic Layer Deposition
 Process at low pressures
(in vacuum chamber)
Standard ALD
→ highly conformal coatings technique technique

 Advantages for textile:


 Example: ALD deposition on cotton fibres
→ Extremely high conformality
→ Possibility to have anti-corrosion layer

Cross section: cotton fibre with ALD coating


Source: Hyde et al.
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ALD deposition into
non woven substrate
 Example*: ALD deposition on non woven (NW):
 Al-oxide (Al2O3) deposition
 PES NW cube dimensions: side = 3.5cm
 XPS analysis: penetration of coating ?

Outside

Inside

Deposition is uniform throughout the sample


G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314
* TMMETACEL, in collaboration with UGent - www.ald.ugent.be
Advanced coating techniques
 ALD
 Evaporation
 Magnetron sputtering
 Atmospheric Plasma coating

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Evaporation for textiles
 Evaporation is feasible on textile
 Use of existing (large scale)
equipment
 Offered via toll manufacturing
 Applications:
 UV and/ or IR reflection layers
 Conductive layers
 Antimicrobial layers
 …

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Source: Alupa
Advanced coating techniques
 ALD
 Evaporation
 Magnetron sputtering
 Atmospheric Plasma coating

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Magnetron sputtering on textile
 Commercially available: silver
coated PA monofilament
 Use:
 Textile electrodes
 Antimicrobial textile

 But… cost factor !!!

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Bron: Tersuisse Multifils
“Most Luxurious Necktie Ever ? ...”
“Retailing at 7,500 Swiss francs (or roughly $8,450) apiece, each tie will comprise
8 grams of 24-karat gold,…”

Gold coated silk

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Source: www.ecouterre.com
Advanced coating techniques
 ALD
 Evaporation
 Magnetron sputtering
 Atmospheric Plasma coating

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Atmospheric plasma coating

Plasma source

Precursor
Plasma

Textile substrate
 Plasma + Precursor (chosen according to the desired properties)
 Coating possible → permanent change of the surface properties
 Crucial: interaction between precursor, substrate and plasma

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Atmospheric plasma coating
equipment*

 Key properties:
 For wide substrates (up to 40 cm)
 Corona + possibility to add liquid precursor
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* Available through cooperation with Univ. College Ghent
Example: surface analysis
antimicrobial coating
 XPS and ToF-SIMS → chemical composition
Size = 5x5mm2, color = specific for chemical group, PES fabric

Untreated “Badly” treated Uniformly treated

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Outline
 Introduction Centexbel
 Basic textile coating
 Advanced coating techniques
 Examples of applications

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Electrical conductivity: integration of
carbon nanotubes in textile coatings
 Acrylic based coating with increasing CNT content:
 Highly flexible textile coatings
 Conductivity starts at 4 wt% CNT, resistivity down to 60 Ω (!)
8000
7000
Resistivity (Ohm)

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314 wt % CNT
SEM pictures: coated fibre with well
distributed CNT network

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Application: Integration
of solar cells in textile
 Solar cells require
(highly) conductive
layers
Coated fabric
 Potential application:
directly coating on
Flexible textile
textile materials solar cell
 e.g. tents, screens,
backpacks, garments

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Application: conductive yarn via CNT,
used in antistatic fabrics

Patent pending Antistatic fabric


G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314 (EP2011002735)
Self Healing properties
 Several principles exist for reaching self-healing
(mixing of substances when crack/scratch appears)
 Own development for textile:
Freshly scratched After self-healing

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Abrasion resistance via
sol-gel chemistry for textiles
 Characteristics: Abrasion test
 Existing technology for coating on
glass surfaces Reference
 Sustainable layers of eg. Si-O-Si
(~glass)
 Adapted to textiles
(lower curing temperature)
 Nano-porous surface, Sol gel
thickness ca. 100nm
→ Superior abrasion properties !

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Bioresponsive coatings
 Smart dressings for burn wounds: the wound dressing
releases antimicrobials when needed and signals an
(upcoming) infection via dye release
1. 2. 3.

Stabilised nanocapsules Pathogenic bacteria Nanocapsules release


containing "switched off" release toxins and signaling molecules
dye and antimicrobial enzymes → opening and antimicrobials
of nanocapsules shell

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Development of PV cells and
batteries at fibre level

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Summary
 (Coated) Textiles have a broad range of applications.
 Both for garments and for technical textiles
 Coating enables textile as “flexible functionality carrier”
 The classical techniques dominate.
 Relatively simple, reliable, large scale
 Continuous search for novel methods, materials and
applications.
 Methods: energy consumption ↓, accuracy ↑
 Materials: “bio-…”, “nano-…”
 Applications: electrical conductive, bioresponsive, …

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314


Contact
Contact info:

Guy Buyle

Centexbel
Technologiepark 7
9052 Zwijnaarde
BELGIUM
www.centexbel.be

Tel: +32 9 220 41 51


Fax: +32 9 220 49 55

Guy.Buyle@centexbel.be

G. Buyle - MIICS - 20120314