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Service Training

MALAGA

992G WHEEL LOADER

4. POWER TRAIN ELECTRONICS


1. Components Layout
2. Operation
3. Testing & Adjusting

Adolfo
October 1997
Page:

POWER TRAIN ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


CAT DATA
4-2

POWER TRAIN ECM LINK


CONTROL AND
(MAC-14) MONITOR SYSTEMS

INPUT COMPONENTS OUTPUT COMPONENTS


STIC
UPSHIFT, DOWNSHIFT,
F,N,R STARTER
RELAY
REDUCED RIMPULL
KEYSWITCH INDICATOR LAMP
REDUCED RIMPULL CLUTCH 1
ON/OFF SWITCH REVERSE SOLENOID
REDUCED RIMPULL
SELECTION SWITCH CLUTCH 2
FORWARD SOLENOID
RIDE CONTROL

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


ON/OFF SWITCH CLUTCH 3
3RD GEAR SOLENOID
PARKING BRAKE

992G WHEEL LOADER


LIMIT SWITCH
CLUTCH 4
QUICK-SHIFT 2ND GEAR SOLENOID
SWITCH
LOCKUP CLUTCH CLUTCH 5
ENABLE SWITCH 1ST GEAR SOLENOID

STEERING/TRANSMISSION RIDE CONTROL


LOCKOUT SWITCH SOLENOID
TORQUE CONVERTER
PEDAL POSITION IMPELLER CLUTCH
SOLENOID
TORQUE
CONVERTER SPEED LOCKUP CLUTCH
SOLENOID
TRANSMISSION
SPEED
PARKING BRAKE BACKUP
PRESSURE SWITCH ALARM
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POWER TRAIN ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


COMPONENTS
4-3

Electronic Control Module (MID 081)


- MAC 14 ( 2x 40 pin connectors)

- No Personality Module

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Flashed with ET

992G WHEEL LOADER


- Shifts electronic shift transmission
- Neutral start function

- Backup alarm function


- Reduced rimpull function
- Ride control & L.U. clutch functions
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SWITCH TYPE INPUTS


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STIC CONTROLLER
- Combines steering & shifting

- Upshift (two inputs to ecm / NO or NC)

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Downshift (two inputs to ecm / NO or NC)
- No fault code

992G WHEEL LOADER


- Directional (R-N-F)
- Fault code depending on combination
RIDE CONTROL SWITCH
- ON / OFF / AUTO
- Always should be in OFF or AUTO
- Fault code available
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SWITCH TYPE INPUTS


4-5

LU CLUTCH ENABLE

- LU enabled if conditions met


- No fault code
REDUCED RIMPULL ON / OFF

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Enabled if conditions met

992G WHEEL LOADER


- No fault code

REDUCED RIMPULL SELECTION SWITCH

- Four position switch (35, 50, 65, 80)


- On / Off must be on
- Determines amount of rimpull
- No fault code
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SWITCH TYPE INPUTS


4-6

KEY START SWITCH


- Three position (Off / On / Start)
- Neutral start function
- Direction switch neutral
- Voltage < 32 Volts
STEERING / XMS LOCK SWITCH

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


992G WHEEL LOADER
- XMS neutralized if lock on & XMS not in neutral
-Two circuits n/c & n/o
- Fault code available

QUICK-SHIFT SWITCH
- Enables quick shift function
- Two circuits
- Fault code available
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SWITCH TYPE INPUTS


4-7

PARKING BRAKE SWITCH

- Identifies position of parking brake knob

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Two circuits n/o, n/c
- Fault code available

992G WHEEL LOADER


PARKING BRAKE PRESSURE SWITCH
- Identifies if parking brake engaged
- Two circuits n/o, n/c
- Fault code available
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SENSOR TYPE INPUTS


4-8

FREQUENCY SENSORS

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


-Transmission output speed sensor

992G WHEEL LOADER


-Torque converter output speed sensor

PWM SENSORS
-Torque converter pedal position
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SENSOR TYPE INPUTS


4-9

TOS SENSOR

- Magnetic pick-up
- No supply voltage
- Generates AC signal (sine wave / one pulse per gear tooth)
- ECM reads frequency (Hertz) to determine RPM
- TOS needed for
- XMS shifting
- Impeller clutch function

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Ride control
- Axle protextion

992G WHEEL LOADER


COS SENSOR

- Hall effect
- 8V supply from ECM
- Generates DC signal (square wave / one per rotor tooth)
- ECM reads frequency (Hertz) to determine RPM & direction
- COS needed for
- Impeller clutch operation
- LU clutch operation
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SENSOR TYPE INPUTS

TORQUE CONVERTER PEDAL POSITION SENSOR


(Left brake pedal position sensor)

- PWM type

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- 24V supply voltage

992G WHEEL LOADER


- Generates varying duty cycle signal

- ECM reads duty cycle (%) to determine pedal position

- Determines modulation of impeller clutch


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OUTPUT COMPONENTS
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TRANSMISSION CLUTCH SOLENOID VALVES

- Direct pilot oil to the ends of control spool

- Energized by 24V PWM signal from ECM


- Avarage voltage 8-12V

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Do not energize with 24V DC (+ battery)

992G WHEEL LOADER


- Five solenoids have common return to ECM

- ECM uses pulse and hold strategy


- Initiall maximum current (pull in)
- Current reduced after one second (hold)

- Two second delay before engaging neutral clutch (3)


(No clutch neutral state improves directional shifts quality)
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OUTPUT COMPONENTS
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TORQUE CONVERTER SOLENOID VALVES

- Modulates hydraulic pressure of impeller clutch and LU clutch

- Energized by 24V PWM signal from ECM

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Avarage voltage 8-12V
- Do not energize with 24V DC (+ battery)

992G WHEEL LOADER


- ECM uses pulse and hold strategy
- Initiall maximum current (pull in)
- Current reduced after one second (hold)

- Impeller clutch:Current zero....Clutch fully engaged


- LU clutch: Current zero....Clutch released
- Very different mechanically

- Common solenoid return for Impeller, LU & Ride cntrl (975 WH)
992G WHEEL LOADER
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SOLENOID
IMPELLER
CLUTCH
SOLENOID
LOCK UP
CLUTCH

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OUTPUT COMPONENTS
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RIDE CONTROL SOLENOID VALVE

- Activates ride control function (On/ Off)

- Energized by + Bat from ECM

- Return common with impeller & LU clutches

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


START RELAY

992G WHEEL LOADER


- Turns start solenoid ON/OFF

- + Bat signal from ECM if


-Voltage < 32V
-Neutral engaged

BACKUP ALARM

- + Battery from ECM if reverse engaged


992G WHEEL LOADER
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NORMAL OPERATION
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CAT DATA LINK


POWER TRAIN ECM VIDS / VIMS
(MAC-14)
MAIN
ATTACHMENT MODULE

CODE
STIC
UPSHIFT, DOWNSHIFT, CONFIGURATION
F,N,R CODE
CLUTCH 1
REVERSE SOLENOID

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


CLUTCH 2
FORWARD SOLENOID

992G WHEEL LOADER


PARKING BRAKE
LIMIT SWITCH
CLUTCH 3
STEERING/TRANSMISSION 3RD GEAR SOLENOID
LOCKOUT SWITCH
CLUTCH 4
2ND GEAR SOLENOID
CLUTCH 5
1ST GEARSOLENOID
ATTACHMENT CODE IDENTIFIES: EXCEPTIONS:
- machine model - Upshift/downshift pressed at the same time
- installed attachments (lu, ride control) - Xms lockout switch locked...xms neutralized
STIC CONTROL: - Parking brk knob on & xms in neutral....no shift to 1F or 1R
- shifts xms as requested by operator - Parking brk knob on & xms in 1F or 1R....xms neutralized
SOLENOIDS:
- direct pilot oil to appropiate spool
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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NO CLUTCH NEUTRAL
Prevents engagement of neutral clutch during directional shifts
Two second delay from time shift is made into or through N
None of the solenoid valves energized during this time.
Improves quality of directional shifts

QUICK- SHIFT
Helps operator with high percentage second gear loading cycles
Quick-shift switch ON 1F gear
manual
shift to shift to

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


reverse 1F
shift to
forward

992G WHEEL LOADER


2R 2F
NEUTRAL START
STIC in Neutral XMS ECM activates
+ Bat < 32V start relay

PARKING BRAKE DRIVE THROUGH


In case of hydraulic failure parking brake knob stays out (engaged)
- Shift to neutral
- Press in and hold parking brake knob (disengaged)
- Select 1F or 1R
- Increase RPM and machine drives through brakes
- Warning level three on Vids/Vims
992G WHEEL LOADER
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992G WHEEL LOADER
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992G WHEEL LOADER
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ELECTRONIC TORQUE CONVERTER

A) LOCKUP CLUTCH FUNCTION

B) IMPELLER CLUTCH FUNCTION

B1) T/C PEDAL


B2) RIMPULL CONTROL
B3) DIRECTIONAL SHIFTS

C) ENGINE RESPONSE FUNCTION

D) REVERSE TURBINE FUNCTION

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ELECTRONIC TORQUE CONVERTER


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A) LOCKUP CLUTCH FUNCTION


XMS ECM engages LU clutch if:
- LU enable switch ON
- T/C speed > 1375 RPM
- T/C & Right brake pedal fully released
- At least 4 seconds have passed since LU last deactivated

XMS ECM disengages LU clutch if:


- LU enable switch OFF
- A shift is made
- T/C RPM < 1225 RPM

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


- Left or right pedal depressed

992G WHEEL LOADER


ENGINE ECM
POWER TRAIN ECM CAT DATA LINK
(MAC-14)

SERVICE BRAKE
PEDAL SWITCH

STIC
UPSHIFT, DOWNSHIFT,
FORWARD, NEUTRAL,
REVERSE

LOCKUP CLUTCH
ENABLE SWITCH

TORQUE CONVERTER
PEDAL POSITION
LOCKUP CLUTCH
TORQUE SOLENOID
CONVERTER SPEED
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ELECTRONIC TORQUE CONVERTER


4-22

B) IMPELLER CLUTCH FUNCTION

B1) TORQUE CONVERTER PEDAL (LEFT PEDAL)


- Pedal position determines impeller clutch pressure (released = 100%)
- Less pressure = More engine power available for implement & steering
- Less pressure = Reduces rimpull to avoid wheel slippage

B2) RIMPULL CONTROL


- Four levels of impeller clutch pressure reduction
- Reduced rimpull switch ON & XMS in 1F, N,or 1R
- Factory preset to 35 , 50 , 65 and 80% (80% rimpull available)
- Adjustable using SERV code with VIDS/VIMS
- Pressing left pedal further reduces rimpull from preset level

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


POWER TRAIN ECM
(MAC-14) CAT DATA LINK

992G WHEEL LOADER


VIMS/VIDS

NEW RIMPULL MAIN


PARAMETERS MODULE
STIC
1F,N,1R UPSHIFT, DOWNSHIFT,
FORWARD, NEUTRAL,
REVERSE SERV

ON REDUCED RIMPULL
ON/OFF SWITCH
REDUCED RIMPULL
INDICATOR LAMP
65 50
REDUCED RIMPULL
SELECTION SWITCH 35
80

IMPELLER CLUTCH
SOLENOID
TORQUE CONVERTER
PEDAL POSITION
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ELECTRONIC TORQUE CONVERTER


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B) IMPELLER CLUTCH FUNCTION (cont)

B3) DIRECTIONAL SHIFTS

- ECM ignores left pedal position if Prequested> Phold (Braking not affected)
- When shift begins Impeller pressure held at HOLD pressure (550+/- 207kPa)
- ECM determines that clutches engaged
- Pimpeller increased to MAXIMUM value (2584 kPa) for 1 second
- Pimpeller reduced to TOP pressure (approx 2274 kPa)
- Benefits:
- Quick impeller clutch engagement
- Extended impeller clutch life

CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.


C) ENGINE RESPONSE FUNCTION

992G WHEEL LOADER


FAVOURS ENGINE & MACHINE RESPONSE FROM LOW IDLE

- ECM ignores left pedal position if Prequested > Pengine response function
- From low idle to 1100 RPM, Pimpeller = Phold
- From 1100 RPM to 1300 RPM Pimpeller increased to maximum
- Braking not affected

D) REVERSE TURBINE FUNCTION


AVOIDS HIGH T/C TEMPERATURES IF MACHINE MOVES BACKWARD IN F GEAR

- Pimpeller increased if T/C speed > 500 RPM in reverse direction


- ECM ignores left pedal position
- Braking not affected
992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

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992G WHEEL LOADER
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992G WHEEL LOADER
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RIDE CONTROL OPERATION

Uses implement weight to smooth wheel loader ride:

POWER TRAIN ECM


(MAC-14)

RIDE CONTROL RIDE CONTROL


INDICATOR LAMP

TRANSMISSION RIDE CONTROL


OUTPUT SPEED SOLENOID

Ecm activates ride control valve all the time


Implement hydraulics dampened while digging

Ecm activates valve only if ground speed > 6 mph


Input from TOS
Ecm deactivates valve when ground speed < 5.6mph

Ride control valve deactivated

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

ENGINE SPEED CONTROLLED BY


POWER TRAIN ECM

-AXLE PROTECTION

-CONTROLLED THROTTLE SHIFTING

POWER TRAIN ENGINE


ECM ECM

TRANSMISSION
OUTPUT SPEED
SENSOR

CAT DATA LINK

TO
THROTTLE PEDAL INJECTORS
POSITION SENSOR
CAT DATA LINK

LIFT IMPLEMENT
LINKAGE FIXED PUMP
POSITION PRESSURE
SENSOR SENSOR
IMPLEMENT VIMS/VIDS INTERFACE
ECM MODULE NO.1

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

AXLE PROTECTION

- Controls torque delivered through power train while digging


- Reduces engine speed
- Extends power train life
- Improves digging performance

Torque available
for implements
TORQUE

Torque available
for power train

RPM
Reduced engine
speed
Torque converter
Engine

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

AXLE PROTECTION

Power train uses information from;


- Power train ECM
- Engine ECM
- Vids/vims interface module #1

Axle protection initiated automatically if XMS ECM


determines that machine is digging.

Dig detection parameters;

- MACHINE SPEED (TOS)


< 1.75 mph
- XMS ECM COMMANDED GEAR
1Forward
- LIFT LINKAGE POSITION (IMPL. ECM SENSOR)
Below horizontal

REQUESTED ENGINE SPEED VARIES BETWEEN 1400


AND 2500 RPM DEPENDING ON:

- ENGINE SPEED (Engine ecm)


- T/C SPEED (Interface module nr 1)
- IMPLEMENT FIXED PUMP PRESSURE (I/F Nr 1)
- T/C PEDAL POSITION ( Xms ecm)
- REDUCED RIMPULL CONTROL STATUS (Xms ecm)

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

AXLE PROTECTION

Axle protection dissabled if

TOS > 2 mph


Xms speed not 1F
Lift linkage position above horizontal

Note:

Engine ecm high idle setting limits speed to 1865 rpm

When axle protection dissabled xms ecm sends


2500rpm requested engine speed

CONVERTER STALL SPEED

AXLE PROTECTION CONVERTER STALL


STATUS SPEED
ON 1620+ / - 30 RPM
OFF 1690+ / - 30 RPM

IMPELLER CLUTCH INTERACTION


XMS ECM increases requested rpm when T/C pedal
pressed while in axle protection mode

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

AXLE PROTECTION FAILURE MODES

TOS OR LIFT LINK FAULT

MID-CID-FMI FAULT DESCRIPTION


81-191-00 TOS HIGH

TOS LOW
81-191-01
LIFT LINKAGE POSITION
81-350-11 UNKNOWN
UNABLE TO COMMUNICATE
81-596-09 WITH IMPLEMENT ECM
WRONG RESPONSE FROM
81-596-12 IMPLEMENT ECM

IF ANY OF THESE FAULTS ARE ACTIVE XMS ECM


ASSUMES MISSING INFORMATION ACTIVATES
AXLE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

AXLE PROTECTION FAILURE MODES

TOS OR LIFT LINK FAULT

MID-CID-FMI FAULT DESCRIPTION


81-191-00 TOS HIGH

TOS LOW
81-191-01
LIFT LINKAGE POSITION
81-350-11 UNKNOWN
UNABLE TO COMMUNICATE
81-596-09 WITH IMPLEMENT ECM
WRONG RESPONSE FROM
81-596-12 IMPLEMENT ECM

IF ANY OF THESE FAULTS ARE ACTIVE XMS ECM


ASSUMES MISSING INFORMATION ACTIVATES
AXLE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

AXLE PROTECTION FAILURE MODES

FIXED PUMP, T/C SPEED (COS) OR DATA LINK


FAULTS
MAX REQUESTED
MID-CID-FMI FAULT DESCRIPTION ENGINE SPEED
ENGINE SPEED SIGNAL
81-190-11 UNKNOWN ERROR 1593 RPM
81-672-00 COS HIGH 1593RPM
COS LOW 1593RPM
81-672-01
FIXED IMPL. PUMP PRESSURE 1400RPM
81-767-11 SENSOR UNKNOWN ERROR
UNABLE TO COMMUNICATE
81-590-09 WITH ENGINE ECM 1400RPM
81-590-12 ENGINE ECM MALFUNCTION 1400RPM

XMS ECM REDUCES THE MAXIMUM REQUESTED


ENGINE SPEED DEPENDING ON THE ACTIVE
FAULT.

INPUT FROM FUNCTIONING SENSORS COULD


FURTHER REDUCE RPM

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992G WHEEL LOADER
CHAPTER : POWERTRAIN ELECTR.

CONTROLLED THROTTLE SHIFTING

Enabled during directional shifts when following


codes are active in solenoid valve circuit

MID-CID-FMI FAULT DESCRIPTION


IMPELLER CLUTCH SOLENOID
81-678-03 SHORT TO BATTERY
IMPELLER CLUTCH SOLENOID
81-678-05 OPEN CIRCUIT
IMPELLER CLUTCH SOLENOID
81-678-06 SHORT TO GROUND

Engine speed limited during directional shifts

Reduces energy absorbed by directional clutches

Maximum speed requested by XMS ECM;


-1400rpm for 1 sec if shifting forward
-1400rpm for 1.4 sec if shifting into reverse
-Shifts below 1400 rpm not affected

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