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RMO-Paper & Solution 2015

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Regional Mathematical Olympiad-2015

Time : 3 Hours December 06, 2015

Instructions :

• Calculators (in any form) and protractors are not allowed.

• Rulers and compasses are allowed.

• Answer all the questions.

• All question carry equal marks. Maximum marks : 102

• Answer to each questions should start on a new page. Clearly indicate the question number.

Q.1 Let ABC be a triangle. Let B' and C' denote respectively the reflection of B and C in the inernal angle

bisector of ∠A. Show that the triangle ABC and AB'C' have the same incentre.

Sol. Consider the following figures

A

B

A

I M

I

B' B C

Figure (1) Figure (2)

(Figure 2) 'I' is in centre of ΔABC,AI is angle bisector of ∠BAC. Reflection of B in AI is B'(Figure1).

In figure (1), BM = B'M

AM ⊥ BM

IM = IM

ΔBMI ≅ ΔB'MI

∠IBM = ∠IB'M

Now similarly ∠ABM = ∠AB'M

⇒ ∠AB'I = ∠ABI.

So, B' will lie on AC & similarly C' will lie on AB.

C'

N

M

I C

B'

A

Figure (3)

Note in above figure ΔABC has incentre 'I'. Quadrilateral BB'CC' is on issosceles trapezium.

{AC = AC' & AB = AB'}

{i.e., AC – AB' = AC' – AB ⇒ B'C = BC'}

Now B'C' = BC & BC, B'C' & AI are concurrent. at N.

∠IBC = ∠IBA (incentre is intersection point of internal angle bisectors)

∠MB'N = ∠MBN (issosceles trapezium)

∠IBM = ∠IB'M

So ∠IBC = ∠IB'C'

& ∠ABI = ∠AB'I {Q ∠ABM = ∈AB'M}

⇒ ∠IBC = ∠ABI = ∠AB'I = ∠IB'C'

So B'I is internal angle bisector of ∠AB'C' similarly C'I will be internal angle bisector of ∠AC'B'

So 'I' is incentre of ΔAB'C'.

Q.2 Let P(x) = x2 + ax + b be a quadratic polynomial with real coefficients. Suppose there are real numbers s ≠ t

such that P(s) = t and P(t)= s. Prove that b – st is a root of the equation x2 + ax + b – st = 0.

Sol. P(s) = t ⇒ s2 + as + b = t ...(i)

P(t) = s ⇒ t + at + b = s

2

...(ii)

(i) – (ii)

s2 – t2 + a (s – t) = (t – s)

(s + t) (s – t) + a(s – t) = – (s – t)

⇒ s+t=–a–1 (as s ≠ t)

Now (i) + (ii)

s2 + t2 + a (s + t) + 2b = s + t

(s + t)2 – 2st + a (s + t) + 2b = s + t

∴ 2b – 2st = (s + t) (1 – a) – (s + t)2

2(b – st) = – (a + 1) (1 – a) – (a + 1)2

2(b – st) = – 2(a + 1)

(b – st) = – 2(a + 1)

b – st = – (a + 1)

So the equation x2 + ax + b – st = 0

becomes x2 + ax – (a + 1) = 0

whose one root is – (a + 1)

so (b – st) is a root of

x2 + ax + b – st = 0.

a2 = bc + 1, b2 = ca + 1

Sol. a,b,c,∈I

Q a2 = bc + 1 ...(1)

2

b = ca + 1 ...(2)

(1) – (2)

a2 – b2 = c(b – a)

(a – b) (a + b + c) = 0

Q a = b or (a + b + c) = 0

Case (i) a=b

So a, b are roots of

∴ x2 – cx – 1 = 0 ...(3)

∴x∈I

so, D should be perfect square

c2 + 4 = k 2

∴ (k ∈ I as c ∈ I)

4 = (k – c) (k + c) k–c=–4&k+c=–1 k – c = ± 2, k + c = ± 2

∴4–c=4&k+c=1 Add k=±2

3 5

c=– (not true) k=– c=0

2 2

k ∉I true

will not give c ∈ I will not give c ∈ I

put c = 0 in ...(3)

x=±1

∴ a = b = 1, c = 0

a = b = – 1, c = 0

Case (ii) a+b+c=0 ...(4)

Add (1) & (2)

a2 + b2 = c(a + b)+2

(a + b)2 – 2ab = c(a +b) + 2

c2 – 2ab = c(– c) + 2 Case - (4)

2

2c – 2 = 2ab

c2 – 1 = ab

ab = (c – 1) (c + 1)

ab = (c – 1) (c + 1)

possibilities a = c – 1, & b = c + 1

∴ a + b = 2c

put in (4)

c=0

a = –1, b = 1

(i) Also a = c + 1, & b = c – 1

a + b = 2c

put in (4)

c=0

a = 1, b = – 1

So a = ± 1, b = ± 1, c = 0

Q.4 Suppose 32 objects are placed along a circle at equal distances. In how many ways can 3 objects be chosen

from among them so that no two of the three chosen objects are adjacent nor diametrically opposite ?

Sol. First select any one point and then from remaining 29 points (except that point and two neighbouring points)

select two points such that they are not consecutive then numbers of ways will be

32

C1 × 28

C2

3

Now substract the number of ways of selection of diametrically opposite points.

So total number of ways

32

C1 × 28

C2

= – 16C1 × 26C1

3

= 4032 – 416 = 3616

Q.5 Two circles Γ and Σ in the plane intersect at two distinct points A and B and the centre of Σ lies on Γ . Let

points C and D be on Γ and Σ, respectively, such that C, B and D are collinear. Let point E on Σ be such that

DE is parallel to AC. Show that AE = AB.

Sol.

Σ

A

E

θ

T R

φ R

P

π–θ 2θ

R R

θ π–θ θ

C B D

CA || DE

APBC one concylic on circle T

let ∠ACB = θ

∠BPA = π – θ

∠BDE = π – θ

ABDE are concylic

∠BAE = θ

∴ ∠BPE = 2θ

Now at P

π – θ + 2θ + φ = 2π

φ=π–θ

Now

ΔPAB ≅ ΔPEA (congruent)

∴ AB = AE

Q.6 Find all real numbers a such that 4 < a < 5 and a(a – 3{a}) is an integer. (Here {a} denotes the fractional part

of a. For example {1.5} = 0.5; {–3.4} = 0.6.)

Sol. 4<a<5

{a} = a – [a]

[a] = 4.

a(a – 3{a}) = Integer = I

a(a – 3a + 3[a]) = I

a(–2a + 3[a]) = I

2a2 – 3a[a] + I = 0

2a2 – 12a + I = 0

2a(a – 6) + I = 0

I = – 2a(a – 6)

= 12a – 2a2

as 4 < a < 5

10 < 12a – 2a2 < 16

12a – 2a2 = I

2a2 – 12a + I = 0

12 ± 144 − 8I

a=

4

a = 3 ± 9 − I/2

a=3+ 9 − I/2

7

I → 11 a = 3+

2

I → 12 a = 3+ 3

I → 13 a = 3 + 5/ 2

I → 14 a = 3+ 2

I → 15 a = 3 + 3/ 2

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