RMO -Paper & Solution- 2014

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RMO -Paper & Solution- 2014

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Regional Mathematical Olympiad-2014

Time : 3 Hours December 07, 2014

Instructions :

• Calculators (in any form) and protractors are not allowed.

• Rulers and compasses are allowed.

• Answer all the questions.

• All question carry equal marks. Maximum marks : 102

• Answer to each questions should start on a new page. Clearly indicate the question number.

Q.1 Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle and suppose ∠ABC is the largest angle of the triangle. Let R be its

circumcentre. Suppose the circumcircle of triangle ARB cuts AC again in X. Prove that RX is perpendicular

to BC.

Sol. Extend XR produced to cut BC at D .

A

Now consider various angles in the figure.

Let ∠ABR = θ = ∠BAR θ X

∠RAX = A – θ

∠ – 2θ

ARB = 180° θ R

C

D

∠AXR = 180° – θ B

= 180° – (A – θ + 180° – θ) = 2θ – A

A

∠BRD = 180° – (∠ARB + ∠ARX)

X

= 180° – (180° – 2θ + 2θ – A) =A 180°–θ

R

θ

∠CXR = 180° – (∠AXR) = 180° – (180° – θ) = θ B

∠ACR = ∠CAR = A – θ

∠CRD = ∠CXR + ∠XCR =θ+A–θ =A

R

Hence, in ΔBRC, (Note, ΔBRC is issosceles)

AA

∠BRD = ∠DRC = A

RD is angle bisector of ∠BRC B D

C

Hence RD ⊥r BC

1

Q.2 Find all real numbers x and y such that x 2 + 2 y 2 + ≤ x (2 y + 1) .

2

1

Sol. x 2 + 2y 2 + ≤ 2xy + x

2

⇒ 2x2 + 4y2 – 4xy – 2x + 1 ≤ 0

⇒ x2 –4xy + 4y2 + x2 – 2x + 1 ≤ 0

⇒ (x – 2y)2 + (x – 1)2 ≤ 0

⇒ x – 2y = 0 and x – 1 = 0

1

⇒ x = 1, y =

2

Q.3 Prove that there does not exist any positive integer n < 2310 such that n(2310 – n) is a multiple of 2310.

Sol. n < 2310

n(2310 – n) = 2310λ

'2310' has factors 2, 3, 5, 7, 11

all are prime numbers.

clearly, n ≠ odd

Now

if n = even = 2k

2k(2310 – 2k) = 2310 λ

4k(1155 – k) = 2310 λ

⇒ – k) = 1155 λ

2k (1155

2k (1155 − k )

λ =⇒

3 × 5 × 7 × 11

Since λ ∈ 'I'

∴ k must be multiple of '3' ⇒ k = 3μ1

& simililarly, μ1 = 5μ2

μ2 = 7μ3

μ3 = 11μ4

∴

k = 3.5.7.11 μ4

in that case k > 1155

Which is not allowed. [hence proved]

Q.4 Find all positive real numbers x, y, z, such that –

1 1 1 1 1 1

2x − 2 y + = , 2 y − 2z + = , 2z − 2 x + = .

z 2014 x 2014 y 2014

1 1

Sol. 2x − 2 y + = ...(1)

z 2014

1 1

2 y − 2z + = ...(2)

x 2014

1 1

2z − 2 x + = ...(3)

y 2014

1 1 1 3

+ + = ...(4)

x y z 2014

Now,

z

2xz − 2 yz + 1 = ...(5)

2014

x

2xy − 2xz + 1 = ...(6)

2014

y

2 yz − 2 xy + 1 = ...(7)

2014

adding (5), (6) & (7)

x+y+z

=3

2014

x + y + z = 3 × 2014 ...(8)

Now,

x+y+z

A.M. = = 2014

3

3

H.M. = = 2014

1 1 1

+ +

x y z

as A.M. = H.M. ⇒ x = y = z = 2014

Q.5 Let ABC be a triangle. Let X be on the segment BC such that AB = AX. Let AX meet the circumcircle Γ of

triangle ABC again at D. Show that the circumcentre of ΔBDX lies on Γ .

Sol. Draw AP⊥BX

AP ⊥r bisector of BX ⇒ BP = PX. A

∠BAP = ∠PAD

α α Γ

∴ BP= PD (equal chord subtend equal angle at same segment)

∴ In ΔBDX,

BP = XP = DP

X

∴ 'P' is circumcentre of ΔBDX which is lying on circumcircle of B C

ΔABC

D

P

Q.6 For any natural number n, let S(n) denote the sum of the digits of n. Find the number of all 3-digit numbers n

such that S(S(n)) = 2.

where n = a×100 + b × 10 + c a three digit number

a + b + c = S(n); Here note that S(n) ≤ 27

Since S(S(n)) = 2,

It means sum of digits of S(n) is 2

Now, S(n) can be, S(n) = 2, 11, 20 only

Now Case-1

a + b + c = 2; possible cases are {0, 1, 1} gives 2 number and {2,0, 0} gives 1 number (ex : 200)

Total number in case (1) are 3

Case-2

a + b + c = 11

If a, b, c are non zero

then a + b + c = 11 {a ≥ 1, b ≥1, c ≥1}

⇒ a + b + c = 8 {give one to each}

8+ 2

⇒ number of solutions = C 2 = 10 C 2 = 45

ordered triplet of

{(a,b,c)} ≡ {(2,0,9); (3,0,9); (4,0,8); ....(9,0,2)}

Total 8 triplets.

Each triplet has 2 arrangements

∴ Total = 8 × 2 = 16 numbers

Total number in case (2) are 45 + 16 = 61

Case-3

a + b + c = 20

a + b + c = 20 (No. of ways)

2 9 9 ⎯→ 3! / 2! = 3 ways

3 9 8 ⎯→ 3! = 6 ways

4 9 7 ⎯→ 6 ways

5 9 6 ⎯→ 6 ways

4 8 8 ⎯→ 3 ways

5 7 8 ⎯→ 6 ways

6 6 8 ⎯→ 3 ways

7 6 7 ⎯→ 3 ways

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