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RMO Paper & Solutions 2016

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Time : 3 Hrs. Max. Marks : 102

MATHEMATICS

Q.1 Let ABC be a triangle and D be the mid-point of BC. Suppose the angle bisector of ADC is tangent to the

circumcircle of triangle ABD at D. Prove that A = 90º.

Sol. In the figure

B

x

D

x x

x

y y

C

A E

ADE = ABD = x{Let} {angle in alternate segment}

ADE = EDC {DE if angle bisector}

In ABD

ADC = DBA + DAB {exterior angle prop.}

2x = x + CDAB

DAB = x

So, ABD is isos. Triangle

AD = BD

Also BD = DC and D is the mid point of BC

AD = DC

So DAC = DCA = y {Let}

In ABC

x + x + y + y = 180º

x + y = 90º

A = 90º

Q.2 Let a, b, c be the three distinct positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

a3 b3 c3

+ + 3.

(a – b)(a – c) ( b – c)(b – a ) (c – a )(c – b)

a3 b3 c3

Sol. + + 3

(a – b)(a – c) ( b – c)(b – a ) (c – a )(c – b)

a 3 ( b – c) b 3 (c – a ) c 3 (a – b)

LHS

(a – b)(a – c)(b – c)

a 3 b – a 3c b3c – b3a c 3a – c 3b

(a – b)(a – c)(b – c)

ab(a b)(a – b) – c(a – b)(a 2 ab b 2 ) c 3 (a – b)

(a – b)(a – c)(b – c)

(a – b)[a 2 b ab 2 – ca 2 – abc – cb 2 c 3 ]

(a – b)(a – c)(b – c)

(a – b)[ab(a – c) b 2 (a – c) – c(a – c)(a c)]

(a – b)(a – c)(b – c)

(a – b) (a – c) [ab + b2 – ca – c2]

(a – b)(a – c)(b – c)(a b c)

(a – b)(a – c)(b – c)

a+b+c

a bc

By A.M. – G.M. ineq. 3

abc

3

a bc

1

3

a + b + c 3.

a c e

Q.3 Let a, b, c, d, e, f be positive integers such that < < .

b d f

Suppose af – be = –1. Show that d b + f.

a c e

Sol. Given < < …(i)

b d f

and af – be = – 1

Since a, b, c, d, e are natural numbers so ad, bc, cf and de are also natural numbers.

From (i) ad < bc ad bc – 1 …(ii)

cf < de cf de – 1 …(iii)

adf bcf – f ; bcf bde – b

adf bde – b – f

b + f bde – adf

b + f (be – af).d …(iv)

Now af – be = –1

be – af = 1

By equation (iv) b + f d

db+f

Q.4 There are 100 countries participating in an olympiad. Suppose n is a positive integer such that each of the

100 countries is willing to communicate in exactly n languages. If each set of 20 countries can communicate

in at least one common language, and no language is common to all 100 countries, what is the minimum

possible value of n.

Sol. Let C1, C2, C3, C4 ……………. C99, C100 are 100 different countries

L1, L2, L3, L4 ……………. are different languages

C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 ………….. C95, C96, C97, C98, C99, C100

(1) L1, L1, L1, L1, L1, ……………………………………….. L1 × All C1 to C99 can

speak L1 but C100

cannot speak L1

(2) × L2, L2, L2, L2 ……………………………………L2, L2, L2

(3) L3, L3, L3, L3, L3 …………………........................... L3, × L3

(4) L4, × , L4, L4, L4 ……………………………………L4, L4, L4

: : : : :

: : : : :

: : : : :

: : : : :

: : : : :

(20) L20, L20, L20, L20, L20, L20 (except for C10 all have L20)

(21) C1, C2, C3, C4 ………… C10, C91, C92, C93, C94 ………… C100 have a new common language L21.

After 1st and 2nd step we can make any group of 20 countries from C1 – C99 and C2 – C100 but we cannot form

the group in which both C1 and C100 occurs.

After 3rd step we can make group with C1and C100 together but not C1, C99, C100.

In the next step 4 we can make a group with C1, C99, C100 but we can not make a group in which C1, C2, C99,

C100 occurs.

So after 20th step we cannot make only one group of 20 countries C1, C2 ……… C9, C10, C91, C92, C93 ………

C99, C100 .

So in 21st step we can also make the group C1, C2 ……… C9, C10, C91, C92, C93 ……… C99, C100 because the

have common language L21.

So we need 21 steps therefore every country needs to speak minimum 20 languages among these 21

languages.

Hence each of the 100 countries is willing to communicate in exactly 20 languages (n = 20).

Q.5 Let ABC be a right-angled triangle with B = 90º. Let I be the incentre of ABC. Extend AI and CI; let them

intersect BC in D and AB in E respectively. Draw a line perpendicular to AI at I to meet AC in J; draw a line

perpendicular to CI at I to meet AC in K. Suppose DJ = EK. Prove that BA = BC.

1

Sol. AIC = 90 + B

2

A

K

E 45º J

45º

I 45º

45º

B D C

So, AIC = 135º

AIK = AIE = 45º

In AIE and AIK

EAI = KAI {AI is angle bisector}

AIE = AIK {both 45}

AI = AI {common}

By ASA criteria

AIE AIK

Similarly CID CIJ

EI = DI

DBI = EBI

So by AAS criteria

BIE BID

IDB = IEB

And BE = BD

Now, in ABD and CBE

BD = BE

ADB = CBE

By ASA criteria

ABD CBE

AB = BC

Q.6 (a) Given any natural number N, prove that there exists a strictly increasing sequence of N positive integers

in harmonic progression.

(b) Prove that there cannot exist a strictly increasing infinite sequence of positive integers which is in

harmonic progression.

Sol. (a) consider a decreasing A.P. for any natural number n

n n –1 n – 2 2 1

, , , ……….. , ,

n! n! n! n! n!

n –1– n –1

It’s common difference d = =

n! n!

So corresponding H.P. is

n! n! n! n!

, , , ……….

n n –1 n – 2 1

n! n!

Clearly > for every n

n –1 n

So it is an increasing H.P.

(b) Let a1, a2, a3 …. is an increasing H.P. and all terms a1, a2, a3 …….. are positive terms of H.P.

1

an =

1

( n – 1)d

a1

1 1 1 1

Where d = – = –

a2 a1 a3 a2

1

an = now for

1

– d nd

a1

1

d>

a 1 (1 – x)

the terms of H.P. will be negative hence there cannot exist a strictly increasing H.P. of infinite positive

integers.

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