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# TMS TMS

210 210 Bahan ajar ini dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bacaan bagi para
mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Mesin Universitas Andalas yang berdasarkan
seperti tercantum berikut ini:

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
/1/. Beer, F.P.; Johnston, E.R.
DYNAMICS Mechanics for Engineer: Dynamics, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
/2/. Meriam, J.L.; Kraige, L.G.
3 3 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 6th. Ed., John Wiley, 2008.
/3/. Hibbeler, R.C.
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 12 Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
2010.

Bahan ajar ini dipakai di lingkungan sendiri dan disediakan secara gratis bagi
Structural Dynamics Laboratory
peserta kuliah Dinamika Partikel TMS-210 yang dapat diunduh dari portal
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210 Curvilinear Motion 210 Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity &
Acceleration
A particle moving along a curve other than a straight line • Position vector of a particle at time t is defined
is said to be in curvilinear motion. by a vector between origin O of a fixed
reference frame and the position occupied by
particle.
• Consider particle which occupies position P
3 3 r r
defined by r at time t and P’ defined by r ′
at t + ∆t,
r r
r ∆r dr
v = lim =
∆t →0 ∆t dt
= instantaneous velocity (vector)
∆s ds
v = lim =
∆t →0 ∆t dt
= instantaneous speed (scalar)
Velocity is tangent to path
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210 Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & 210 Rectangular Components of Velocity &
Acceleration Acceleration

## • Position vector of particle P given by its

r
• Consider velocity v of particle at time t and rectangular components:
r
velocity v′ at t + ∆t, r r r r
r r r = xi + y j + zk
r ∆v dv
3 a = lim = 3
∆t →0 ∆t dt • Velocity vector,
= instantaneous acceleration (vector) r dx r dy r dz r r r r
v = i + j + k = x&i + y& j + z&k
dt dt dt
• In general, acceleration vector is not tangent
r r r
to particle path and velocity vector. = vx i + v y j + vz k

• Acceleration vector,
r d 2 xr d 2 y r d 2 z r r r r
a = 2 i + 2 j + 2 k = &x&i + &y& j + &z&k
dt dt dt
r r r
= ax i + a y j + az k
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210 Rectangular Components of Velocity & 210 Example
Acceleration
• Rectangular components are useful when
acceleration components can be integrated
independently, ex: motion of a projectile. A projectile is fired from the edge of a 150-m cliff with an
a x = &x& = 0 a y = &y& = − g a z = &z& = 0 initial velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of 30° with the
with initial conditions, horizontal. Find (a) the range, and (b) maximum height.
3 x0 = y0 = z0 = 0 ( vx )0 = ( v y )0 = given 3 y

Therefore:
v x = ( v x )0 v y = ( v y ) − gt
0 Remember:

y = ( v y ) t − gt 2
1
x = ( v x )0 t
0 2 v = v0 + at
• Motion in horizontal direction is uniform. x
• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly
x = x0 + v0t + 12 at 2
accelerated.
• Motion of projectile could be replaced by
v 2 = v02 + 2a ( x − x0 )
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210 Example 210 Tangential and Normal Components
Car A is traveling at a constant speed of 36 km/h. As A • Velocity vector of particle is tangent to
crosses intersection, B starts from rest 35 m north of path of particle. In general,
acceleration vector is not. Wish to
intersection and moves with a constant acceleration of
express acceleration vector in terms
1.2 m/s2. Determine the speed, velocity and acceleration of tangential and normal
of B relative to A 5 seconds after A crosses intersection. components.
3 3 r r
• et and et′ are tangential unit vectors for the
particle path at P and P’. When drawn with
r r r
respect to the same origin, det = et′ − et
r r r
r et′ = et + det
det
From geometry: det = dθ
dθ r r r
det r det = dθ en
= en

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210 Tangential and Normal Components 210 Radial and Transverse Components
r r
• With the velocity vector expressed as v = vet • If particle position is given in polar
the particle acceleration may be written as coordinates, we can express
r r r velocity and acceleration with
r dv dv r de dv r de dθ ds
a= = et + v t = et + v t components parallel and
dt dt dt dt dθ ds dt perpendicular to OP.
but r r r
det r ds • Particle position vector: r = rer
3 = en ρ dθ = ds =v 3
dθ dt
After substituting, • Particle velocity vector:
r dv r v r 2
dv v 2
r
a = et + en at = an = r d r dr r der
dt ρ dt ρ v = ( rer ) = er + r
• Tangential component of acceleration dt dt dt
reflects change of speed and normal
dr r dθ r r r
component reflects change of direction.
v= er + r & r + rθ&eθ
eθ = re
• Tangential component may be positive or dt dt
negative. Normal component always points
toward center of path curvature.
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210 Radial and Transverse Components 210 Sample Problem 11.10

## • Similarly, particle acceleration:

r r
r = re r

3 3

r r
der r
= eθ
deθ r
= − er
r d r
a= ( r
& r + rθ&eθ
re )
dθ dθ dt
r r
r de r r de
r r
der der dθ r dθ rer + r& r + r&θ&eθ + rθ&&eθ + rθ& θ
= && A motorist is traveling on curved section of highway at 60 mph. The
= = eθ dt dt
motorist applies brakes causing a constant deceleration.
dt dθ dt dt r r dθ r r r dθ
r r = &&
rer + re
&θ + r&θ&eθ + rθ&&eθ − rθ&er
deθ deθ dθ r dθ dt dt Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 45 mph,
= = − er determine the acceleration of the automobile immediately after the
dθ dt
( ) ( )
dt dt r r r
r − rθ& 2 er + rθ&& + 2r&θ& eθ
a = && brakes are applied.
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210 210 Sample Problem 11.11
Sample Problem 11.10
Determine the minimum radius of curvature of the
SOLUTION:
trajectory described by the projectile.
• Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
∆v (66 − 88) ft s ft
at = = = −2.75 2 v2
∆t 8s s Recall:
an =
3 v 2
(88 ft s )
2
ft 3 ρ
an = = = 3.10 2
ρ 2500 ft s v2
ρ=
60 mph = 88 ft/s • Determine acceleration magnitude and direction an
45 mph = 66 ft/s with respect to tangent to curve.
Minimum ρ, occurs for v is min and an is max
a = at2 + an2 = (− 2.75)2 + 3.10 2 small v and large an
ft
a = 4.14
(155.9 )
2
s2 ρ= = 2480 m
an 3.10
α = tan −1 = tan −1 9.81 an
at 2.75 α = 48.4°
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210 Sample Problem 11.12 210 Sample Problem 11.12
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for θ = 30o.
θ = 0.15 t 2
= 30° = 0.524 rad t = 1.869 s

## 3 3 • Evaluate radial and angular positions, and

first and second derivatives at time t.
r = 0.9 − 0.12 t 2 = 0.481 m
r& = −0.24 t = −0.449 m s
Rotation of the arm about O is defined by θ = 0.15t2 where θ is in radians
and t in seconds. Collar B slides along the arm such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 r& = −0.24 m s 2
&r&
where r is in meters.
θ = 0.15 t 2 = 0.524 rad
After the arm has rotated through 30o,
determine (a) the total velocity of the
θ& = 0.30 t = 0.561 rad s
collar, (b) the total acceleration of the collar, and (c) the relative
acceleration of the collar with respect to the arm. θ&& = 0.30 rad s 2
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TMS TMS
210 Sample Problem 11.12 210 Sample Problem 11.12
• Calculate velocity and acceleration.
vr = r& = −0.449 m s
vθ = rθ& = (0.481m )(0.561rad s ) = 0.270 m s • Evaluate acceleration with respect to
−1 vθ arm.
v= vr2 + vθ 2
β = tan
vr
Motion of collar with respect to arm
v = 0.524 m s β = 31.0° is rectilinear and defined by
3 3
ar = &r& − rθ& 2 coordinate r.
= −0.240 m s 2 − (0.481m )(0.561rad s )2
= −0.391m s 2 a B OA = &r& = −0.240 m s 2
aθ = rθ&& + 2r&θ&
( )
= (0.481m ) 0.3 rad s 2 + 2(− 0.449 m s )(0.561rad s )
2
= −0.359 m s
a
a = ar2 + aθ2 γ = tan −1 θ
ar
a = 0.531m s γ = 42.6°
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