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Curvilinear Motion of Particles

Curvilinear Motion of Particles

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210 210 Bahan ajar ini dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bacaan bagi para

mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Mesin Universitas Andalas yang berdasarkan

kepada pengalaman penulis serta merujuk kepada beberapa buku standar

seperti tercantum berikut ini:

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

/1/. Beer, F.P.; Johnston, E.R.

DYNAMICS Mechanics for Engineer: Dynamics, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008

/2/. Meriam, J.L.; Kraige, L.G.

3 3 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 6th. Ed., John Wiley, 2008.

/3/. Hibbeler, R.C.

Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 12 Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey,

Mulyadi Bur

2010.

Bahan ajar ini dipakai di lingkungan sendiri dan disediakan secara gratis bagi

Structural Dynamics Laboratory

peserta kuliah Dinamika Partikel TMS-210 yang dapat diunduh dari portal

ANDALAS UNIVERSITY akademik.

LDS LDS

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210 Curvilinear Motion 210 Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity &

Acceleration

A particle moving along a curve other than a straight line • Position vector of a particle at time t is defined

is said to be in curvilinear motion. by a vector between origin O of a fixed

reference frame and the position occupied by

particle.

• Consider particle which occupies position P

3 3 r r

defined by r at time t and P’ defined by r ′

at t + ∆t,

r r

r ∆r dr

v = lim =

∆t →0 ∆t dt

= instantaneous velocity (vector)

∆s ds

v = lim =

∆t →0 ∆t dt

= instantaneous speed (scalar)

Velocity is tangent to path

LDS http://news.yahoo.com/photos/ss/441/im:/070123/ids_photos_wl/r2207709100.jpg

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210 Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & 210 Rectangular Components of Velocity &

Acceleration Acceleration

r

• Consider velocity v of particle at time t and rectangular components:

r

velocity v′ at t + ∆t, r r r r

r r r = xi + y j + zk

r ∆v dv

3 a = lim = 3

∆t →0 ∆t dt • Velocity vector,

= instantaneous acceleration (vector) r dx r dy r dz r r r r

v = i + j + k = x&i + y& j + z&k

dt dt dt

• In general, acceleration vector is not tangent

r r r

to particle path and velocity vector. = vx i + v y j + vz k

• Acceleration vector,

r d 2 xr d 2 y r d 2 z r r r r

a = 2 i + 2 j + 2 k = &x&i + &y& j + &z&k

dt dt dt

r r r

= ax i + a y j + az k

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210 Rectangular Components of Velocity & 210 Example

Acceleration

• Rectangular components are useful when

acceleration components can be integrated

independently, ex: motion of a projectile. A projectile is fired from the edge of a 150-m cliff with an

a x = &x& = 0 a y = &y& = − g a z = &z& = 0 initial velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of 30° with the

with initial conditions, horizontal. Find (a) the range, and (b) maximum height.

3 x0 = y0 = z0 = 0 ( vx )0 = ( v y )0 = given 3 y

Therefore:

v x = ( v x )0 v y = ( v y ) − gt

0 Remember:

y = ( v y ) t − gt 2

1

x = ( v x )0 t

0 2 v = v0 + at

• Motion in horizontal direction is uniform. x

• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly

x = x0 + v0t + 12 at 2

accelerated.

• Motion of projectile could be replaced by

v 2 = v02 + 2a ( x − x0 )

LDS two independent rectilinear motions. LDS

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210 Example 210 Tangential and Normal Components

Car A is traveling at a constant speed of 36 km/h. As A • Velocity vector of particle is tangent to

crosses intersection, B starts from rest 35 m north of path of particle. In general,

acceleration vector is not. Wish to

intersection and moves with a constant acceleration of

express acceleration vector in terms

1.2 m/s2. Determine the speed, velocity and acceleration of tangential and normal

of B relative to A 5 seconds after A crosses intersection. components.

3 3 r r

• et and et′ are tangential unit vectors for the

particle path at P and P’. When drawn with

r r r

respect to the same origin, det = et′ − et

r r r

r et′ = et + det

det

From geometry: det = dθ

dθ r r r

det r det = dθ en

= en

dθ

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210 Tangential and Normal Components 210 Radial and Transverse Components

r r

• With the velocity vector expressed as v = vet • If particle position is given in polar

the particle acceleration may be written as coordinates, we can express

r r r velocity and acceleration with

r dv dv r de dv r de dθ ds

a= = et + v t = et + v t components parallel and

dt dt dt dt dθ ds dt perpendicular to OP.

but r r r

det r ds • Particle position vector: r = rer

3 = en ρ dθ = ds =v 3

dθ dt

After substituting, • Particle velocity vector:

r dv r v r 2

dv v 2

r

a = et + en at = an = r d r dr r der

dt ρ dt ρ v = ( rer ) = er + r

• Tangential component of acceleration dt dt dt

reflects change of speed and normal

dr r dθ r r r

component reflects change of direction.

v= er + r & r + rθ&eθ

eθ = re

• Tangential component may be positive or dt dt

negative. Normal component always points

toward center of path curvature.

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210 Radial and Transverse Components 210 Sample Problem 11.10

r r

r = re r

3 3

r r

der r

= eθ

deθ r

= − er

r d r

a= ( r

& r + rθ&eθ

re )

dθ dθ dt

r r

r de r r de

r r

der der dθ r dθ rer + r& r + r&θ&eθ + rθ&&eθ + rθ& θ

= && A motorist is traveling on curved section of highway at 60 mph. The

= = eθ dt dt

motorist applies brakes causing a constant deceleration.

dt dθ dt dt r r dθ r r r dθ

r r = &&

rer + re

&θ + r&θ&eθ + rθ&&eθ − rθ&er

deθ deθ dθ r dθ dt dt Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 45 mph,

= = − er determine the acceleration of the automobile immediately after the

dθ dt

( ) ( )

dt dt r r r

r − rθ& 2 er + rθ&& + 2r&θ& eθ

a = && brakes are applied.

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210 210 Sample Problem 11.11

Sample Problem 11.10

Determine the minimum radius of curvature of the

SOLUTION:

trajectory described by the projectile.

• Calculate tangential and normal components of

acceleration.

∆v (66 − 88) ft s ft

at = = = −2.75 2 v2

∆t 8s s Recall:

an =

3 v 2

(88 ft s )

2

ft 3 ρ

an = = = 3.10 2

ρ 2500 ft s v2

ρ=

60 mph = 88 ft/s • Determine acceleration magnitude and direction an

45 mph = 66 ft/s with respect to tangent to curve.

Minimum ρ, occurs for v is min and an is max

a = at2 + an2 = (− 2.75)2 + 3.10 2 small v and large an

ft

a = 4.14

(155.9 )

2

s2 ρ= = 2480 m

an 3.10

α = tan −1 = tan −1 9.81 an

at 2.75 α = 48.4°

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210 Sample Problem 11.12 210 Sample Problem 11.12

SOLUTION:

• Evaluate time t for θ = 30o.

θ = 0.15 t 2

= 30° = 0.524 rad t = 1.869 s

first and second derivatives at time t.

r = 0.9 − 0.12 t 2 = 0.481 m

r& = −0.24 t = −0.449 m s

Rotation of the arm about O is defined by θ = 0.15t2 where θ is in radians

and t in seconds. Collar B slides along the arm such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 r& = −0.24 m s 2

&r&

where r is in meters.

θ = 0.15 t 2 = 0.524 rad

After the arm has rotated through 30o,

determine (a) the total velocity of the

θ& = 0.30 t = 0.561 rad s

collar, (b) the total acceleration of the collar, and (c) the relative

acceleration of the collar with respect to the arm. θ&& = 0.30 rad s 2

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TMS TMS

210 Sample Problem 11.12 210 Sample Problem 11.12

• Calculate velocity and acceleration.

vr = r& = −0.449 m s

vθ = rθ& = (0.481m )(0.561rad s ) = 0.270 m s • Evaluate acceleration with respect to

−1 vθ arm.

v= vr2 + vθ 2

β = tan

vr

Motion of collar with respect to arm

v = 0.524 m s β = 31.0° is rectilinear and defined by

3 3

ar = &r& − rθ& 2 coordinate r.

= −0.240 m s 2 − (0.481m )(0.561rad s )2

= −0.391m s 2 a B OA = &r& = −0.240 m s 2

aθ = rθ&& + 2r&θ&

( )

= (0.481m ) 0.3 rad s 2 + 2(− 0.449 m s )(0.561rad s )

2

= −0.359 m s

a

a = ar2 + aθ2 γ = tan −1 θ

ar

a = 0.531m s γ = 42.6°

LDS LDS

Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 19/20 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 20/20

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