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210 210 Bahan ajar ini dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bacaan bagi para
mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Mesin Universitas Andalas yang berdasarkan
kepada pengalaman penulis serta merujuk kepada beberapa buku standar
seperti tercantum berikut ini:

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
/1/. Beer, F.P.; Johnston, E.R.
DYNAMICS Mechanics for Engineer: Dynamics, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
/2/. Meriam, J.L.; Kraige, L.G.
3 3 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 6th. Ed., John Wiley, 2008.
/3/. Hibbeler, R.C.
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 12 Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
Mulyadi Bur
2010.

Bahan ajar ini dipakai di lingkungan sendiri dan disediakan secara gratis bagi
Structural Dynamics Laboratory
peserta kuliah Dinamika Partikel TMS-210 yang dapat diunduh dari portal
ANDALAS UNIVERSITY akademik.
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210 Curvilinear Motion 210 Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity &
Acceleration
A particle moving along a curve other than a straight line • Position vector of a particle at time t is defined
is said to be in curvilinear motion. by a vector between origin O of a fixed
reference frame and the position occupied by
particle.
• Consider particle which occupies position P
3 3 r r
defined by r at time t and P’ defined by r ′
at t + ∆t,
r r
r ∆r dr
v = lim =
∆t →0 ∆t dt
= instantaneous velocity (vector)
∆s ds
v = lim =
∆t →0 ∆t dt
= instantaneous speed (scalar)
Velocity is tangent to path
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210 Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & 210 Rectangular Components of Velocity &
Acceleration Acceleration

• Position vector of particle P given by its


r
• Consider velocity v of particle at time t and rectangular components:
r
velocity v′ at t + ∆t, r r r r
r r r = xi + y j + zk
r ∆v dv
3 a = lim = 3
∆t →0 ∆t dt • Velocity vector,
= instantaneous acceleration (vector) r dx r dy r dz r r r r
v = i + j + k = x&i + y& j + z&k
dt dt dt
• In general, acceleration vector is not tangent
r r r
to particle path and velocity vector. = vx i + v y j + vz k

• Acceleration vector,
r d 2 xr d 2 y r d 2 z r r r r
a = 2 i + 2 j + 2 k = &x&i + &y& j + &z&k
dt dt dt
r r r
= ax i + a y j + az k
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210 Rectangular Components of Velocity & 210 Example
Acceleration
• Rectangular components are useful when
acceleration components can be integrated
independently, ex: motion of a projectile. A projectile is fired from the edge of a 150-m cliff with an
a x = &x& = 0 a y = &y& = − g a z = &z& = 0 initial velocity of 180 m/s at an angle of 30° with the
with initial conditions, horizontal. Find (a) the range, and (b) maximum height.
3 x0 = y0 = z0 = 0 ( vx )0 = ( v y )0 = given 3 y

Therefore:
v x = ( v x )0 v y = ( v y ) − gt
0 Remember:

y = ( v y ) t − gt 2
1
x = ( v x )0 t
0 2 v = v0 + at
• Motion in horizontal direction is uniform. x
• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly
x = x0 + v0t + 12 at 2
accelerated.
• Motion of projectile could be replaced by
v 2 = v02 + 2a ( x − x0 )
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210 Example 210 Tangential and Normal Components
Car A is traveling at a constant speed of 36 km/h. As A • Velocity vector of particle is tangent to
crosses intersection, B starts from rest 35 m north of path of particle. In general,
acceleration vector is not. Wish to
intersection and moves with a constant acceleration of
express acceleration vector in terms
1.2 m/s2. Determine the speed, velocity and acceleration of tangential and normal
of B relative to A 5 seconds after A crosses intersection. components.
3 3 r r
• et and et′ are tangential unit vectors for the
particle path at P and P’. When drawn with
r r r
respect to the same origin, det = et′ − et
r r r
r et′ = et + det
det
From geometry: det = dθ
dθ r r r
det r det = dθ en
= en

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210 Tangential and Normal Components 210 Radial and Transverse Components
r r
• With the velocity vector expressed as v = vet • If particle position is given in polar
the particle acceleration may be written as coordinates, we can express
r r r velocity and acceleration with
r dv dv r de dv r de dθ ds
a= = et + v t = et + v t components parallel and
dt dt dt dt dθ ds dt perpendicular to OP.
but r r r
det r ds • Particle position vector: r = rer
3 = en ρ dθ = ds =v 3
dθ dt
After substituting, • Particle velocity vector:
r dv r v r 2
dv v 2
r
a = et + en at = an = r d r dr r der
dt ρ dt ρ v = ( rer ) = er + r
• Tangential component of acceleration dt dt dt
reflects change of speed and normal
dr r dθ r r r
component reflects change of direction.
v= er + r & r + rθ&eθ
eθ = re
• Tangential component may be positive or dt dt
negative. Normal component always points
toward center of path curvature.
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210 Radial and Transverse Components 210 Sample Problem 11.10

• Similarly, particle acceleration:


r r
r = re r

3 3

r r
der r
= eθ
deθ r
= − er
r d r
a= ( r
& r + rθ&eθ
re )
dθ dθ dt
r r
r de r r de
r r
der der dθ r dθ rer + r& r + r&θ&eθ + rθ&&eθ + rθ& θ
= && A motorist is traveling on curved section of highway at 60 mph. The
= = eθ dt dt
motorist applies brakes causing a constant deceleration.
dt dθ dt dt r r dθ r r r dθ
r r = &&
rer + re
&θ + r&θ&eθ + rθ&&eθ − rθ&er
deθ deθ dθ r dθ dt dt Knowing that after 8 s the speed has been reduced to 45 mph,
= = − er determine the acceleration of the automobile immediately after the
dθ dt
( ) ( )
dt dt r r r
r − rθ& 2 er + rθ&& + 2r&θ& eθ
a = && brakes are applied.
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210 210 Sample Problem 11.11
Sample Problem 11.10
Determine the minimum radius of curvature of the
SOLUTION:
trajectory described by the projectile.
• Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
∆v (66 − 88) ft s ft
at = = = −2.75 2 v2
∆t 8s s Recall:
an =
3 v 2
(88 ft s )
2
ft 3 ρ
an = = = 3.10 2
ρ 2500 ft s v2
ρ=
60 mph = 88 ft/s • Determine acceleration magnitude and direction an
45 mph = 66 ft/s with respect to tangent to curve.
Minimum ρ, occurs for v is min and an is max
a = at2 + an2 = (− 2.75)2 + 3.10 2 small v and large an
ft
a = 4.14
(155.9 )
2
s2 ρ= = 2480 m
an 3.10
α = tan −1 = tan −1 9.81 an
at 2.75 α = 48.4°
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210 Sample Problem 11.12 210 Sample Problem 11.12
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for θ = 30o.
θ = 0.15 t 2
= 30° = 0.524 rad t = 1.869 s

3 3 • Evaluate radial and angular positions, and


first and second derivatives at time t.
r = 0.9 − 0.12 t 2 = 0.481 m
r& = −0.24 t = −0.449 m s
Rotation of the arm about O is defined by θ = 0.15t2 where θ is in radians
and t in seconds. Collar B slides along the arm such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 r& = −0.24 m s 2
&r&
where r is in meters.
θ = 0.15 t 2 = 0.524 rad
After the arm has rotated through 30o,
determine (a) the total velocity of the
θ& = 0.30 t = 0.561 rad s
collar, (b) the total acceleration of the collar, and (c) the relative
acceleration of the collar with respect to the arm. θ&& = 0.30 rad s 2
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210 Sample Problem 11.12 210 Sample Problem 11.12
• Calculate velocity and acceleration.
vr = r& = −0.449 m s
vθ = rθ& = (0.481m )(0.561rad s ) = 0.270 m s • Evaluate acceleration with respect to
−1 vθ arm.
v= vr2 + vθ 2
β = tan
vr
Motion of collar with respect to arm
v = 0.524 m s β = 31.0° is rectilinear and defined by
3 3
ar = &r& − rθ& 2 coordinate r.
= −0.240 m s 2 − (0.481m )(0.561rad s )2
= −0.391m s 2 a B OA = &r& = −0.240 m s 2
aθ = rθ&& + 2r&θ&
( )
= (0.481m ) 0.3 rad s 2 + 2(− 0.449 m s )(0.561rad s )
2
= −0.359 m s
a
a = ar2 + aθ2 γ = tan −1 θ
ar
a = 0.531m s γ = 42.6°
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