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- FORM4 Chap 2 - Newton's Laws of Motion Q 1-7 With A
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210 210 Bahan ajar ini dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bacaan bagi para

mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Mesin Universitas Andalas yang berdasarkan

kepada pengalaman penulis serta merujuk kepada beberapa buku standar

seperti tercantum berikut ini:

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

/1/. Beer, F.P.; Johnston, E.R.

DYNAMICS Mechanics for Engineer: Dynamics, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008

/2/. Meriam, J.L.; Kraige, L.G.

4 4 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 6th. Ed., John Wiley, 2008.

/3/. Hibbeler, R.C.

Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 12 Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey,

Mulyadi Bur

2010.

Bahan ajar ini dipakai di lingkungan sendiri dan disediakan secara gratis bagi

Structural Dynamics Laboratory

peserta kuliah Dinamika Partikel TMS-210 yang dapat diunduh dari portal

ANDALAS UNIVERSITY akademik.

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210 210

Contents Introduction

• Newton’s first and third laws are sufficient for the study of bodies at

Introduction

rest (statics) or bodies in motion with no acceleration.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Linear Momentum of a Particle • When a body accelerates (changes in velocity magnitude or direction),

Systems of Units Newton’s second law is required to relate the motion of the body to the

Equations of Motion forces acting on it.

4 Dynamic Equilibrium 4

Sample Problem 12.1 • Newton’s second law:

Sample Problem 12.3

- A particle will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude of

Sample Problem 12.4 the resultant force acting on it and in the direction of the resultant

Sample Problem 12.5 force.

Sample Problem 12.6

- The resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to the rate of

change of linear momentum of the particle.

equal to the rate of change of angular momentum of the particle

about O.

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210 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 210 Linear Momentum of a Particle

• Newton’s Second Law: If the resultant force acting on a

particle is not zero, the particle will have an acceleration • Replacing the acceleration by the derivative of the

proportional to the magnitude of resultant and in the velocity yields

direction of the resultant. r r

dv

∑ F = m

• Consider a particle subjected to constant forces, dt

r

d r dL

F1 F2 F3

= = = L = constant = mass, m = (m v ) =

4 a1 a2 a3 4 dt dt

r

r L = linear momentum of the particle

• When a particle of mass m is acted upon by a force F ,

the acceleration of the particle must satisfy

r r • Linear Momentum Conservation Principle:

F = ma If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the linear

• Acceleration must be evaluated with respect to a momentum of the particle remains constant in both

Newtonian frame of reference, i.e., one that is not magnitude and direction.

accelerating or rotating.

• If force acting on particle is zero, particle will not

accelerate, i.e., it will remain stationary or continue on a

straight line at constant velocity.

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210 Systems of Units 210 Equations of Motion

• Of the units for the four primary dimensions (force, • Newton’s second law provides

mass, length, and time), three may be chosen r r

arbitrarily. The fourth must be compatible with ∑ F = ma

Newton’s 2nd Law.

• Solution for particle motion is facilitated by

resolving vector equation into scalar

• International System of Units (SI Units): base

component equations, e.g., for rectangular

units are the units of length (m), mass (kg), and

4 time (second). The unit of force is derived, 4 components,

∑ (Fx i + Fy j + Fz k ) = m(a x i + a y j + a z k )

r r r r r r

m kg ⋅ m

1 N = (1 kg )1 2 = 1 2

s s ∑ Fx = ma x ∑ Fy = ma y ∑ Fz = ma z

• US customary units – these units are, respectively ∑ Fx = m&x& ∑ Fy = m&y& ∑ Fz = m&z&

the foot (ft), the pound (lb) and second (s)

1 foot = 0.3048 m • For tangential and normal components,

g = 32.2 ft/s2= 9.81 m/s2 dv v2

∑Ft = m ∑Fn = m

dt ρ

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210 Dynamic Equilibrium 210 Sample Problem 12.1

• Alternate expression of Newton’s second law,

r r

∑ F − ma = 0 SOLUTION:

r

− ma ≡ inertial vector • Resolve the equation of motion

• With the inclusion of the inertial vector, the for the block into two rectangular

system of forces acting on the particle is component equations.

equivalent to zero. The particle is in dynamic

4 equilibrium.

4

• Unknowns consist of the

• Methods developed for particles in static applied force P and the normal

equilibrium may be applied, e.g., coplanar reaction N from the plane. The

forces may be represented with a closed two equations may be solved

vector polygon. for these unknowns.

• Inertia vectors are often called inertial forces A 90.7 kg block rests on a horizontal

as they measure the resistance that particles plane. Find the magnitude of the force P

offer to changes in motion, i.e., changes in required to give the block an accelera-

speed or direction. tion or 3 m/s2 to the right. The coef-

• Inertial forces may be conceptually useful but ficient of kinetic friction between the

are not like the contact and gravitational block and plane is µk = 0.25.

LDS forces found in statics. LDS

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210 Sample Problem 12.1 210 Sample Problem 12.3

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the equation of motion for

the block into two rectangular • Write the kinematic relationships for

component equations. the dependent motions and

accelerations of the blocks.

∑ Fx = ma :

4 (

P cos 30° − 0.25R = (90.7 kg ) 3 m s 2 ) 4

• Write the equations of motion for the

y = 272 N blocks and pulley.

∑ Fy = 0 : • Combine the kinematic relationships

O R − P sin 30° − 890 N = 0 with the equations of motion to solve

x

for the accelerations and cord

• Unknowns consist of the applied force P tension.

The two blocks shown start from rest.

W = mg = 890 N and the normal reaction N from the plane. The horizontal plane and the pulley are

The two equations may be solved for these frictionless, and the pulley is assumed

unknowns.

F = µk N to be of negligible mass. Determine

= 0.25 N N = P sin 30° + 890 N the acceleration of each block and the

P cos 30° − 0.25(P sin 30° + 890 N ) = 272 N tension in the cord.

P = 667.3 N

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210 Sample Problem 12.3 210 Sample Problem 12.3

SOLUTION: • Combine kinematic relationships with

• Write the kinematic relationships for the equations of motion to solve for

O dependent motions and accelerations of the O accelerations and cord tension.

x x

blocks. y B = 12 x A a B = 12 a A

yB = 2 x A

1 aB = 2 a A

1

y

T1 = (100 kg )a A

y

• Write equations of motion for blocks and

4 pulley.

∑ Fx = m A a A :

4 T2 = 2940 N - (300 kg )a B

T1 = (100 kg )a A (

= 2940 N - (300 kg ) 12 a A )

∑ Fy = m B a B : T2 − 2T1 = 0

mB g − T2 = m B a B 2940 N − (150 kg )a A − 2(100 kg )a A = 0

T2 = 2940 N - (300 kg )a B a B = 12 a A = 4.20 m s 2

∑ Fy = mC aC = 0 : T1 = (100 kg )a A = 840 N

T2 − 2T1 = 0 T2 = 2T1 = 1680 N

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210 Sample Problem 12.4 210 Sample Problem 12.4

SOLUTION:

• The block is constrained to slide down the

SOLUTION: wedge. Therefore, their motions are

dependent.

• The block is constrained to slide r r r

down the wedge. Therefore, their aB = a A + aB A

motions are dependent. Express • Write equations of motion for wedge and

the acceleration of block as the block.

4 acceleration of wedge plus the 4 ∑ Fx = m A a A :

acceleration of the block relative y N1 sin 30° = m A a A

to the wedge.

0.5 N1 = (W A g )a A

The 5.4 kg block B starts from rest • Write the equations of motion for

and slides on the 13.6 kg wedge A, the wedge and block. ∑ Fx = mB a x = mB (a A cos 30° − a B A ) :

− WB sin 30° = (WB g )(a A cos 30° − a B A )

which is supported by a horizontal x

surface. • Solve for the accelerations.

Neglecting friction, determine (a) the a B A = a A cos 30° + g sin 30°

acceleration of the wedge, and (b) the

acceleration of the block relative to the ∑ Fy = mB a y = mB (− a A sin 30°) :

wedge.

N1 − WB cos 30° = −(WB g )a A sin 30°

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210 Sample Problem 12.4 210 Sample Problem 12.5

• Solve for the accelerations.

SOLUTION:

0.5 N1 = (W A g )a A

• Resolve the equation of motion for the

N 1 − WB cos 30° = −(WB g )a A sin 30° bob into tangential and normal

components.

2(W A g )a A − W B cos 30° = −(W B g )a A sin 30°

• Solve the component equations for the

4 gWB cos 30° 4 normal and tangential accelerations.

aA =

2W A + WB sin 30° • Solve for the velocity in terms of the

aA =

(53N ) cos 30° The bob of a 2-m pendulum

normal acceleration.

mass of block B mB = 5.4 kg 2(133.4 N ) + (53 N )sin 30° describes an arc of a circle in a

vertical plane. If the tension in

Weight of block B WB = mBg

= 53 N a A = 1.53 m s 2 the cord is 2.5 times the weight of

mass of Wedge A mA = 13.6 a B A = a A cos 30° + g sin 30° the bob for the position shown,

kg find the velocity and accel-eration

Weight of Wedge A WA =

mAg = 133.4 N

( ) (

a B A = 1.54 m s 2 cos 30° + 9.81 m s 2 sin 30°) of the bob in that position.

a B A = 6.24 m s 2

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210 Sample Problem 12.5 210

Sample Problem 12.6

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the equation of motion for the bob SOLUTION:

into tangential and normal components.

• The car travels in a horizontal

• Solve the component equations for the normal circular path with a normal

and tangential accelerations. component of acceleration

directed toward the center of

4 ∑ Ft = mat : mg sin 30° = mat

4 the path.The forces acting on

at = g sin 30° the car are its weight and a

a t = 4 .9 m s 2 normal reaction from the road

surface.

∑ Fn = man : 2.5mg − mg cos 30° = man

Determine the rated speed of a

an = g (2.5 − cos 30°) highway curve of radius ρ = 122 m

• Resolve the equation of motion

for the car into vertical and

a n = 16.01 m s 2 banked through an angle θ = 18o. The

normal components.

rated speed of a banked highway

• Solve for velocity in terms of normal acceleration. curve is the speed at which a car

• Solve for the vehicle speed.

(2 m )(16.03 m s 2 )

should travel if no lateral friction force

v2

an = v = ρa n = is to be exerted at its wheels.

ρ

v = ±5.66 m s

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210 Sample Problem 12.6

• Resolve the equation of motion

for the car into vertical and

normal components.

∑ Fy = 0 : R cos θ − W = 0

W

R=

cos θ

4

W

∑ Fn = man : R sin θ = an

g

W W v2

SOLUTION: sin θ =

cosθ g ρ

• The car travels in a horizontal

circular path with a normal • Solve for the vehicle speed.

component of acceleration directed

v 2 = gρ tan θ

toward the center of the path.The

forces acting on the car are its

weight and a normal reaction from ( )

= 9.81 m s 2 (122 m ) tan 18°

the road surface.

v = 19.7 m / s

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