You are on page 1of 6

TMS TMS

210 210 Bahan ajar ini dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bacaan bagi para
mahasiswa Jurusan Teknik Mesin Universitas Andalas yang berdasarkan
kepada pengalaman penulis serta merujuk kepada beberapa buku standar
seperti tercantum berikut ini:

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
/1/. Beer, F.P.; Johnston, E.R.
DYNAMICS Mechanics for Engineer: Dynamics, 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008
/2/. Meriam, J.L.; Kraige, L.G.
4 4 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 6th. Ed., John Wiley, 2008.
/3/. Hibbeler, R.C.
Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 12 Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
Mulyadi Bur
2010.

Bahan ajar ini dipakai di lingkungan sendiri dan disediakan secara gratis bagi
Structural Dynamics Laboratory
peserta kuliah Dinamika Partikel TMS-210 yang dapat diunduh dari portal
ANDALAS UNIVERSITY akademik.
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 2/21

TMS TMS
210 210
Contents Introduction
• Newton’s first and third laws are sufficient for the study of bodies at
Introduction
rest (statics) or bodies in motion with no acceleration.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Linear Momentum of a Particle • When a body accelerates (changes in velocity magnitude or direction),
Systems of Units Newton’s second law is required to relate the motion of the body to the
Equations of Motion forces acting on it.
4 Dynamic Equilibrium 4
Sample Problem 12.1 • Newton’s second law:
Sample Problem 12.3
- A particle will have an acceleration proportional to the magnitude of
Sample Problem 12.4 the resultant force acting on it and in the direction of the resultant
Sample Problem 12.5 force.
Sample Problem 12.6
- The resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to the rate of
change of linear momentum of the particle.

- The sum of the moments about O of the forces acting on a particle is


equal to the rate of change of angular momentum of the particle
about O.
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 3/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 4/21
TMS TMS
210 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 210 Linear Momentum of a Particle
• Newton’s Second Law: If the resultant force acting on a
particle is not zero, the particle will have an acceleration • Replacing the acceleration by the derivative of the
proportional to the magnitude of resultant and in the velocity yields
direction of the resultant. r r
dv
∑ F = m
• Consider a particle subjected to constant forces, dt
r
d r dL
F1 F2 F3
= = = L = constant = mass, m = (m v ) =
4 a1 a2 a3 4 dt dt
r
r L = linear momentum of the particle
• When a particle of mass m is acted upon by a force F ,
the acceleration of the particle must satisfy
r r • Linear Momentum Conservation Principle:
F = ma If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the linear
• Acceleration must be evaluated with respect to a momentum of the particle remains constant in both
Newtonian frame of reference, i.e., one that is not magnitude and direction.
accelerating or rotating.
• If force acting on particle is zero, particle will not
accelerate, i.e., it will remain stationary or continue on a
straight line at constant velocity.
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 5/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 6/21

TMS TMS
210 Systems of Units 210 Equations of Motion
• Of the units for the four primary dimensions (force, • Newton’s second law provides
mass, length, and time), three may be chosen r r
arbitrarily. The fourth must be compatible with ∑ F = ma
Newton’s 2nd Law.
• Solution for particle motion is facilitated by
resolving vector equation into scalar
• International System of Units (SI Units): base
component equations, e.g., for rectangular
units are the units of length (m), mass (kg), and
4 time (second). The unit of force is derived, 4 components,

∑ (Fx i + Fy j + Fz k ) = m(a x i + a y j + a z k )
r r r r r r
 m kg ⋅ m
1 N = (1 kg )1 2  = 1 2
 s  s ∑ Fx = ma x ∑ Fy = ma y ∑ Fz = ma z
• US customary units – these units are, respectively ∑ Fx = m&x& ∑ Fy = m&y& ∑ Fz = m&z&
the foot (ft), the pound (lb) and second (s)
1 foot = 0.3048 m • For tangential and normal components,

1 lb = 0.4535 kg ∑ F t = mat ∑ F n = man


g = 32.2 ft/s2= 9.81 m/s2 dv v2
∑Ft = m ∑Fn = m
dt ρ
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 7/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 8/21
TMS TMS
210 Dynamic Equilibrium 210 Sample Problem 12.1
• Alternate expression of Newton’s second law,
r r
∑ F − ma = 0 SOLUTION:
r
− ma ≡ inertial vector • Resolve the equation of motion
• With the inclusion of the inertial vector, the for the block into two rectangular
system of forces acting on the particle is component equations.
equivalent to zero. The particle is in dynamic
4 equilibrium.
4
• Unknowns consist of the
• Methods developed for particles in static applied force P and the normal
equilibrium may be applied, e.g., coplanar reaction N from the plane. The
forces may be represented with a closed two equations may be solved
vector polygon. for these unknowns.
• Inertia vectors are often called inertial forces A 90.7 kg block rests on a horizontal
as they measure the resistance that particles plane. Find the magnitude of the force P
offer to changes in motion, i.e., changes in required to give the block an accelera-
speed or direction. tion or 3 m/s2 to the right. The coef-
• Inertial forces may be conceptually useful but ficient of kinetic friction between the
are not like the contact and gravitational block and plane is µk = 0.25.
LDS forces found in statics. LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 9/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 10/21

TMS TMS
210 Sample Problem 12.1 210 Sample Problem 12.3
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:
• Resolve the equation of motion for
the block into two rectangular • Write the kinematic relationships for
component equations. the dependent motions and
accelerations of the blocks.
∑ Fx = ma :
4 (
P cos 30° − 0.25R = (90.7 kg ) 3 m s 2 ) 4
• Write the equations of motion for the
y = 272 N blocks and pulley.
∑ Fy = 0 : • Combine the kinematic relationships
O R − P sin 30° − 890 N = 0 with the equations of motion to solve
x
for the accelerations and cord
• Unknowns consist of the applied force P tension.
The two blocks shown start from rest.
W = mg = 890 N and the normal reaction N from the plane. The horizontal plane and the pulley are
The two equations may be solved for these frictionless, and the pulley is assumed
unknowns.
F = µk N to be of negligible mass. Determine
= 0.25 N N = P sin 30° + 890 N the acceleration of each block and the
P cos 30° − 0.25(P sin 30° + 890 N ) = 272 N tension in the cord.
P = 667.3 N
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 11/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 12/21
TMS TMS
210 Sample Problem 12.3 210 Sample Problem 12.3
SOLUTION: • Combine kinematic relationships with
• Write the kinematic relationships for the equations of motion to solve for
O dependent motions and accelerations of the O accelerations and cord tension.
x x
blocks. y B = 12 x A a B = 12 a A
yB = 2 x A
1 aB = 2 a A
1
y
T1 = (100 kg )a A
y
• Write equations of motion for blocks and
4 pulley.
∑ Fx = m A a A :
4 T2 = 2940 N - (300 kg )a B
T1 = (100 kg )a A (
= 2940 N - (300 kg ) 12 a A )
∑ Fy = m B a B : T2 − 2T1 = 0
mB g − T2 = m B a B 2940 N − (150 kg )a A − 2(100 kg )a A = 0

(300 kg )(9.81 m s 2 )− T2 = (300 kg )a B a A = 8.40 m s 2


T2 = 2940 N - (300 kg )a B a B = 12 a A = 4.20 m s 2
∑ Fy = mC aC = 0 : T1 = (100 kg )a A = 840 N
T2 − 2T1 = 0 T2 = 2T1 = 1680 N
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 13/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 14/21

TMS TMS
210 Sample Problem 12.4 210 Sample Problem 12.4
SOLUTION:
• The block is constrained to slide down the
SOLUTION: wedge. Therefore, their motions are
dependent.
• The block is constrained to slide r r r
down the wedge. Therefore, their aB = a A + aB A
motions are dependent. Express • Write equations of motion for wedge and
the acceleration of block as the block.
4 acceleration of wedge plus the 4 ∑ Fx = m A a A :
acceleration of the block relative y N1 sin 30° = m A a A
to the wedge.
0.5 N1 = (W A g )a A
The 5.4 kg block B starts from rest • Write the equations of motion for
and slides on the 13.6 kg wedge A, the wedge and block. ∑ Fx = mB a x = mB (a A cos 30° − a B A ) :
− WB sin 30° = (WB g )(a A cos 30° − a B A )
which is supported by a horizontal x
surface. • Solve for the accelerations.
Neglecting friction, determine (a) the a B A = a A cos 30° + g sin 30°
acceleration of the wedge, and (b) the
acceleration of the block relative to the ∑ Fy = mB a y = mB (− a A sin 30°) :
wedge.
N1 − WB cos 30° = −(WB g )a A sin 30°
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 15/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 16/21
TMS TMS
210 Sample Problem 12.4 210 Sample Problem 12.5
• Solve for the accelerations.
SOLUTION:
0.5 N1 = (W A g )a A
• Resolve the equation of motion for the
N 1 − WB cos 30° = −(WB g )a A sin 30° bob into tangential and normal
components.
2(W A g )a A − W B cos 30° = −(W B g )a A sin 30°
• Solve the component equations for the
4 gWB cos 30° 4 normal and tangential accelerations.
aA =
2W A + WB sin 30° • Solve for the velocity in terms of the

aA =
(53N ) cos 30° The bob of a 2-m pendulum
normal acceleration.

mass of block B mB = 5.4 kg 2(133.4 N ) + (53 N )sin 30° describes an arc of a circle in a
vertical plane. If the tension in
Weight of block B WB = mBg
= 53 N a A = 1.53 m s 2 the cord is 2.5 times the weight of
mass of Wedge A mA = 13.6 a B A = a A cos 30° + g sin 30° the bob for the position shown,
kg find the velocity and accel-eration
Weight of Wedge A WA =
mAg = 133.4 N
( ) (
a B A = 1.54 m s 2 cos 30° + 9.81 m s 2 sin 30°) of the bob in that position.

a B A = 6.24 m s 2
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 17/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 18/21

TMS TMS
210 Sample Problem 12.5 210
Sample Problem 12.6
SOLUTION:
• Resolve the equation of motion for the bob SOLUTION:
into tangential and normal components.
• The car travels in a horizontal
• Solve the component equations for the normal circular path with a normal
and tangential accelerations. component of acceleration
directed toward the center of
4 ∑ Ft = mat : mg sin 30° = mat
4 the path.The forces acting on
at = g sin 30° the car are its weight and a
a t = 4 .9 m s 2 normal reaction from the road
surface.
∑ Fn = man : 2.5mg − mg cos 30° = man
Determine the rated speed of a
an = g (2.5 − cos 30°) highway curve of radius ρ = 122 m
• Resolve the equation of motion
for the car into vertical and
a n = 16.01 m s 2 banked through an angle θ = 18o. The
normal components.
rated speed of a banked highway
• Solve for velocity in terms of normal acceleration. curve is the speed at which a car
• Solve for the vehicle speed.
(2 m )(16.03 m s 2 )
should travel if no lateral friction force
v2
an = v = ρa n = is to be exerted at its wheels.
ρ
v = ±5.66 m s
LDS LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 19/21 Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 20/21
TMS
210 Sample Problem 12.6
• Resolve the equation of motion
for the car into vertical and
normal components.

∑ Fy = 0 : R cos θ − W = 0
W
R=
cos θ
4
W
∑ Fn = man : R sin θ = an
g
W W v2
SOLUTION: sin θ =
cosθ g ρ
• The car travels in a horizontal
circular path with a normal • Solve for the vehicle speed.
component of acceleration directed
v 2 = gρ tan θ
toward the center of the path.The
forces acting on the car are its
weight and a normal reaction from ( )
= 9.81 m s 2 (122 m ) tan 18°
the road surface.
v = 19.7 m / s
LDS
Unand Dipakai di lingkungan sendiri 21/21