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Diesel power plant

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Introduction
 The oil engines and gas engines are called Internal
Combustion Engines. In IC engines fuels burn
i id the
inside th engine
i andd the
th products
p d t off combustion
b ti
form the working fluid that generates mechanical
power.
 Whereas, in Gas Turbines the combustion occurs
in another chamber and hot working fluid
containing thermal energy is admitted in turbine.
 Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine
which uses diesel as fuel
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Diesel power plant


 Diesel electric plants in the range of 2 to 50 MW capacity are
used as central stations for small supply authorities and works
and they are universally adapted to supplement hydroelectric
or thermal power stations where standby generating plants
are essential for starting from cold or under emergency
conditions
Diesel engine: is a heat engine which transforms the chemical
energy of a fuel into thermal energy and utilizes this
thermal energy to perform useful work.

Thermal Mechanical Generator


energy of Diesel Engine Electricity
shaft work
diesel fuel

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Engine Classification
IC engines can be classified on the basis of different design
setups and operating conditions:
 Basic engine design: Reciprocating, rotary (wankel)
 Working cycle: Otto cycle (SI engine ), and diesel
cycle (CI engine)
 Number of strokes: four stroke and two stroke
(both SI and CI engines)
 Fuel supply and mixture preparation: carbureted
types, fuel supplied through carburetors and injection
types (fuel injected to inlet pots or inlet manifold and
f l injected
fuel i j d into
i the
h cylinder
li d just
j before
b f ignition)
i ii )
 Method of Ignition: In SI engines battery or
magneto ignition
 Method of cooling: Water cooled or air cooled
 Cylinder arrangement: Inline,V, radial, opposed

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Operating Principles
 In diesel engines, air is compressed separately and
mixed with the fuel at the time of combustion in
the engine cylinder.
 In such an arrangement fuel can be injected into the
cylinder which contains compressed air at a higher
temperature than the self-ignition temperature of
the fuel.
 Such engines work on heavy liquid fuels. These
engines are called compression-ignition engines and
they work on a ideal cycle known as Diesel cycle

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How diesel engine works


 Diesel engine operates on a four stroke cycle:
 A stroke is a single traverse of the cylinder by the piston
((from TDC to BDC))
 1 revolution of crankshaft = 2 strokes of piston

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How diesel … cont’d


1. Intake/suction stroke: The air is sucked in the
cylinder by the piston sliding downward.
2. Compression stroke: The piston compresses the
air using work of the crankshaft.
3. Power stroke: In the upper dead-center, diesel fuel
is injected and the mixture ignites due to the high
temperature developed by high pressure. The
pressure of the burning mixture pushes the piston
back into the cylinder: Work is performed.
4. Ejection/exhaust stroke: The burned exhaust is
ejected by the rising piston through a second valve.

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How diesel … cont’d


 In the case of diesel engines, fuel is injected into the
combustion chamber towards the end of the compression
stroke
 Diesel engines don’t need
spark plug since the
temperature reached due
to compression exceeds
self-ignition temperature
of diesel
 The compression ratio
for diesel engines is high
ranging from 6 to 20.
Fig. Diesel cycle
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Characteristics of Diesel engine

 Has higher compression ratio; hence it has


the potential to achieve higher thermal
efficiency.
 Since the components need to withstand
the high pressure, diesel engines are
heavier than spark
p ignition
g engines.
g
 As the fuel burns heterogeneously, diesel
engine produce lower speeds.

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Piston-Cylinder geometry of a
reciprocating engine
B=bore
S=stroke
R=connecting rod length
a=crank offset
S=piston position
θ= crank angle
Vc = clearance volume
Vd =displacement volume
TDC= top dead centre
BDC=bottom dead centre

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Thermodynamic analysis of IC engines


The three steps of Thermodynamic Analysis of IC
Engines are
 Ideal Gas Cycle (Air Standard Cycle)
 Idealized processes
 Idealize working Fluid
 Fuel-Air Cycle
 Idealized Processes
 Accurate
A W
Working
k Fluid
Fl d M
Model
d l
 Actual Engine Cycle
 Accurate Models of Processes

 Accurate Working Fluid Model


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Air-Standard Cycle Assumptions


 Simplifications to the real cycle include:
 Fixed amount of air (ideal gas) for working fluid
 Combustion process not considered
 Intake and exhaust processes not considered (There is Heat
addition and heat rejection source and Sink)
 There is no heat losses from the system to the surrounding
 Engine friction and heat losses not considered
 All the processes that constitute the cycle are reversal
 Specific heats independent of temperature
 For Air Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K Cv = 0.717kJ/kgK , γ = 1.4 M
= 29kg/kmol
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Ideal diesel cycle


DIESEL CYCLE
 In Diesel cycles, heat is
added at constant pressure

Processes in diesel cycle:


1-2 Isentropic Compression
2-3 Con Pre. Heat Addition Fuel injection starts

3 4 Isentropic Expansion
3-4 Actual diesel cycle

4-1 Con Vol. Heat Rejection

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Thermal efficiency of the Diesel cycle


Wnet Q
 th , Diesel   1  out
Qin Qin
Apply the first law closed system to process 22-33, P = constant,
constant
the heat input is:

Qnet , 23  U 23  P2 (V3  V2 )
Qnet , 23  Qin  mCv (T3  T2 )  mR ( T3  T2 )
Qin  mC p (T3  T2 )
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Thermal … cont’d
Apply the first law closed system to process 4-1, V = constant

Thus, for constant specific heats

Qnet , 41  U 41
Qnet , 41   Qout  mCv ( T1  T4 )
Qout   mCv ( T1  T4 )  mCv ( T4  T1 )
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Thermal … cont’d
What is T3/T2 ?
C ( T  T1 )
 th , Diesel  1 v 4 PV PV
C p ( T3  T2 ) 3 3
 2 2 where P3  P2
T3 T2
1 T1 ( T4 / T1  1)
 1 T3 V3
  rc
k T2 ( T3 / T2  1) T2 V2

Where rc is called the cutoff ratio, defined as V3 /V2, and


is a measure of the duration of the heat addition at
constant pressure.
Since the fuel is injected directly into the cylinder, the
cutoff ratio can be related to the number of degrees that
the crank rotated during the fuel injection into the
cylinder.
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Thermal … cont’d

PV PV
4 4
 1 1 where V4  V1
T4 T1
What is T4/T1 ?
T4 P4

T1 P1
Recall processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, so

1 1  PV 4 4  PV
k k k k
PV 2 2 and PV 3 3

Since V4 = V1 and P3 = P2, we divide the second equation


by the first equation and obtain

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DIESEL CYCLE Efficiency

1 T1 (T4 / T1  1)
 th , Diesel  1 
k T2 (T3 / T2  1)
1 T1 rck  1
 Diesel  1  k 1  
 
1  1 rck  1 
 1
k T2 (rc  1) 
r  k rc  1 
1 rck  1
 1
r k 1 k (rc  1)

Note the term in the square bracket is always larger than unity
so for the same compression ratio, r, the Diesel cycle has a
lower thermal efficiency than the Otto cycle
Also note: diesel needs higher r compared to ignite

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Engine Performance Parameters


 In the evaluation of engine performance, certain
basic parameters (called engine performance
parameters) are chosen and the effect of various
operating conditions, design concepts and
modifications on these parameters are studied.
 Engine performance is also characterized by
convenient graphical presentation called engine
characteristic curves
 Engine characteristic curves are constructed from
the data obtained during actual test runs of the
engine and are particularly useful in comparing the
performance of one engine with that of another
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Engine … cont’d
 The basic performance parameters are:
 Power and Mechanical efficiencyy
 Volumetric efficiency and Fuel-air ratio
 Mean effective pressure and torque
 Specific output
 Specific fuel consumption
 Thermal efficiency and heat balance
 Exhaust smoke and other emissions

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Power and Mechanical Efficiency

 The main purpose of running an engine is mechanical


power
 Defined as the rate of doing work and is equal to the
product of force and linear velocity
 The power developed by an engine by the output
shaft is called the Brake power (bp) and is give by:

b p  2 N T
Where, N= Engine speed, RPM
T= Torque, N-m
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Torque and power against engine speed

 The speed at which peak


torque occurs is called
maximum brake torque (MBT)
or maximum best torque.
torque
Indicated power increases with
speed while brake power
increases to a maximum and
then decreases. This is because
friction power increases with
engine speed to a higher power
and becomes dominant at
higher speed
 Many modern IC engines have
maximum torque in the 200 to
300 N-m range at engine
speeds usually around 4000 to
6000 RPM

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Mechanical Efficiency
 The total power developed by combustion of fuel in
the combustion chamber is, however, more than the bp
and is called indicated power (ip)
 The difference between the ip and bp is the indication
of the power lost in the mechanical components of the
engine and forms the basis of Mechanical efficiency
bp
Mechanical efficiency(m ) 
ip
 The difference between ip and bp is called friction
power (fp)
ip = fp + bp
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Volumetric Efficiency
 Ideally, a mass of air equal to the density of atmospheric air
times the displacement volume of the cylinder should be
ingested for each cycle. However, because of the short cycle
time available and the flow restrictions presented by the air
cleaner, carburetor (if any), intake manifold, and intake valve(s),
less than this ideal amount of air enters the cylinder.
 Volumetric efficiency of an engine is an indication of the
measure of the degree to which the engine fills its swept
volume
 It is defined as the ratio of the mass of air inducted into the
engine cylinder during the suction stroke to the mass of the air
corresponding to the swept volume of the engine at
atmospheric pressure and temperature.
 It also shows the degree of completeness with which the
cylinder is re-charged with fresh combustible mixture

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Volumetric…. Cont’d
 Volumetric efficiency,

 Standard values of surrounding air pressure and temperature can be used


to determine density of air

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Air fuel ratio


 Energy input to an engine comes from combustion of a
hydrocarbon fuel.
 Air is used to supply
pp y the oxygen
yg needed for this chemical reaction
 For combustion reaction to occur, the proper relative amounts of
air (oxygen) and fuel must be present
 Air-fuel ratio (AF) and fuel-air ratio (FA) are parameters used to
describe the mixture ratio

 AF input of gasoline: 12-18, AF input of CI engine18-70


 Equivalence ratio,
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Mean effective pressure


It is known that pressure in the cylinder of an engine is
continuously changing during the cycle.
Mean Effective pressure(mep) is defined as a
hypothetical pressure which is thought to be acting
on the piston throughout the power stroke

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Mean … cont’d
mep is a good parameter to compare engines for
design or outputs because it is independent of
engine
i size
i and/or
d/ speed d
 If torque is used for comparison, a larger engine
looks better
 If power is used for comparison, the engine with
higher speed looks better
 Classified in to two:
o Indicated mean effective pressure (imep)
o Brake mean effective pressure (bmep)

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Mean … cont’d

Indicated Mean Effective pressure (imep)


 The net area on the pp-V trace or indicator diagram
g from an
engine is the indicated work done by the gas on the piston.
 The imep is a measure of the indicated work output per
unit swept volume, in a form independent of the size and
number of cylinders in the engine and engine speed.

 The pressure in the cylinder initially increases during the


expansion stroke due to the heat addition from the fuel, and
then decreases due to the volume increase

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Mean … cont’d
Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep)
 The external shaft work per unit displacement
volume
l d
done by
b the
h engine
 It is the average pressure that results in the same
amount of indicated or brake work produced by
the engine
N
Pb  bmep
b * LA
60
where, N= number of working strokes per revolution

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bmep … cont’d
In a more general way
60 pb
b m ep ( kkp a ) 
LAnK
Where: n shows number of working strokes per revolution
or minute
Thus, n=N/2 for 4-stroke and N for 2-stroke
K=number of cylinder
 For two-stroke, there are N working strokes for N
revolutions
 For four-stroke, there are N/2 working strokes for N
revolutions of the engine
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Mean … cont’d

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Specific fuel consumption

m f
b f (kg
bsfc k  hr
k / kw h )
pb

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sfc … cont’d

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Brake specific fuel consumption


 bsfc decreases as engine speed increases, reaches a minimum, and then
increases at high speeds.
 Fuel consumption increases at high speed because of greater friction
losses. At low engine speed, the longer time per cycle allows more heat
loss and fuel consumption goes up

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Bsfc … cont’d
 bsfc is minimum at a slightly lean condition, increasing
with both rich and leaner mixture

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Bsfc … cont’d

 Generally, average fuel


consumption is less
withh larger
l engines.
One reason for this is
less heat loss due to
the higher volume to
surface area ratio of
the combustion
chamber in a large
engine. Also larger
engines operate at
lower speeds which
reduces friction losses.

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Specific Energy Consumption


Brake Specific Energy Consumption (bsec)

 Is the energy used by the engine to produce unit


power
 It can be calculated as:

Bsec (KJ/kw-h)=bsfc * calorific value (KJ/Kg)

b sec  bsfc * LCV

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Combustion Efficiency
 The time available for the combustion process of an
engine cycle is very brief, and not all fuel molecules
may find an oxygen molecule with which to combine,
or the local temperature may not favor a reaction.
Consequently, a small fraction of fuel does not react
and exits with the exhaust flow. A combustion
efficiency is defined to account for the fraction of
f l which
fuel hi h bburns.
 Combustion efficiency typically has values in the range
0.95 to 0.98 when an engine is operating properly.

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Thermal Efficiency

 Thermal efficiency of an engine is defined


as the ratio of the output to that of the
chemical energy input released by
combustion of the fuel.
 It may be based on brake or indicated
output
 It is the true indication of the efficiency
with which the thermodynamic input is
converted into mechanical work
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Brake thermal Efficiency,b

 The ratio of the energy in the brake power


to the
h fuel
f l consumption
i

pb
b  *100%
m f * L V C

This assumes 100% combustion efficiency

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Indicated thermal Efficiency, i

 The ratio of the energy in the brake


power to the fuel consumption

pi
i  *100%
m f * L V C

This assumes 100% combustion efficiency

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Engine efficiency Characteristic curves

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Emissions and Exhaust Smoke


 The four main engine exhaust emissions which must be
controlled are oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon
monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and solid
particulates (part).
 Two common methods of measuring the amounts of
these pollutants are specific emissions (SE) and the
emissions index (EI). Specific emissions typically has units
of gm/kW-hr, while the emissions index has units of
emissions flow per fuel flow.
flow
 With increasing emphasis on air pollution control, all
efforts are being made to keep them minimum
 Smoke is an indication of incomplete combustion
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Emissions … cont’d
Specific emission:

Emission index:

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Fuel System of Diesel Power Plant

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Essential functions of a fuel


injection system
1. To deliver oil from the storage to the fuel
injector.
2. To raise the fuel pressure to the level required
for atomization.
3. To measure and control the amount of fuel
admitted in each cycle.
4T
4. To controll time
i off injection.
i j i
5.To spray fuel into the cylinder in atomized
form for thorough mixing and burning.
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Fuel injection system

 The fuel-injection system is the most vital


component
p in the workingg of CI engine
g
 The engine performance is greatly dependent on
the effectiveness of the fuel injection system
 The purpose of carburetion and injection is the
same
 In carburetor
carburetor, air speed is greater than fuel speed
while in injection the fuel is speed is greater than
the air speed

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Fuel … cont’d
 The injection is CI engine is by a nozzle with large
pressure differential across the nozzle orifice
 Th cylinder
The li d pressure at injection
i j i iis typically
i ll iin the
h
range of 50 to 100 atm
 Fuel injection pressure in the range of 200 to 1700atm
are used depending on the engine size and type of
combustion system employed
 These large pressure differences across the injector
nozzle
l are required
i d so that
h theh iinjected
j d liquid
li id fuel
f l jjet
will enter the chamber at sufficiently high velocity to:
 Atomize into small sized droplets
 Traverse the combustion chamber in the limited time

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Diesel Injector system need to make


 Accurate metering
 Timing the injection
 The rate of the injection should be such that it results in
the desired heat release pattern
 Proper atomization of the fuel
 Proper spray pattern
 Uniform distribution of fuel throughout the CC
 Proper distribution in multi-cylinder engines
 Injection timing should change to suite the engine speed
and load requirements
 Weight and size of the injector should be minimum

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Components of Fuel Injection


Injection Pump
 Objective is to deliver accurately metered quantity
of fuel under high pressure
 G
Generallyll ttwo ttypes off iinjection
j ti pumps:
 Jerk Type
 Works with a reciprocating plunger inside a
barrel
 The plunger is driven by a cam shaft
 Distributor Type
 Contains single pumping element and the fuel is
discharged to each cylinder by means of a rotor
 Small size and high weight
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Components … cont’d
Distributor system
 The fuel is metered at a central point i.e., the pump that
pressurizes, meters and times the injection.

From here, the fuel


is distributed to
cylinders in correct
firing order by cam
operated poppet
valves, which open
to admit
d i fuel
f l to
nozzles.

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Components … cont’d
Injection Nozzle

 Nozzle is that part of an injector which the


li id fuel
liquid f l is
i sprayed d into
i the
h combustion
b i
chamber
 Should fulfill the following:
 Atomization
 Distribution
 Injection pressure

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General layout of diesel power plant


 Generally the units are placed in parallel lines
 In any plant some space is always provided for
further expansion.
 Also sufficient space should provide for
maintenance of diesel engine.
 Proper ventilation is also provided in power
plant.
 Storage of fuel for power plant is always
provided outside the main building.
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General … cont’d

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Heat balance sheet


 Heat balance sheet is a useful method to watch the
performance of the diesel power plant.
 Th distribution
The di t ib ti off th
the hheatt iimparted
t d tto an engine
i iis
called its heat balance.
 The heat balance of an engine depends on a number of
factors among which load is primary importance.
 The heat balance of an internal combustion engine shows
that the cooling water and exhaust gases carry away
about 60-70% of heat produced during combustion of
fuel.

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Heat … cont’d

 In order to draw the heat balance sheet of Diesel


engine,
i theh engine
i iis run at constant load
l d andd
constant speed and the indicator diagram is drawn
with the help of indicator
 Preparation of heat balance sheet gives us an idea
about the amount of energy wasted in various parts
and allows us to think of methods to reduce the
losses so incurred

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Heat … cont’d
The energy supplied to Diesel engine in the form of fuel
input is usually broken into:
A
A. Indicated power
B. Heat Rejected to Cooling Water

mcw (T 1  T 2 )
C. Heat Carried Away by Exhaust Gases

meg (T 4  T 3)
D. Heat Unaccounted for (Heat Lost Due to Friction,
Radiation etc.)
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Heat … cont’d
Item Head units Percent Typical
kcal or kJ values
Heat in fuel supplied 100% 100%
(a) Heat absorbed by I.H.P. 30%
(b) Heat rejected to cooling 30%
water
(c) Heat carried away by 26%
exhaust ggases
(d) Heat unaccounted for 10%
(by difference)
Total 100% 100%

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Diesel plant operation


 To ensure most economical operation of diesel engines of
different sizes when working together and sharing load, it is
necessary that they should carry the same percentage of
their full load capacity at all times as the fuel consumption
would be lowest in this condition.
 In order to get good performance of a diesel power plant the
following points should be taken care of:
1. It is necessary to maintain the cooling temperature
within the prescribed range and use of very cold water
should be avoided.
avoided The cooling water should be free from
suspended impurities and suitably treated to be scale and
corrosion free. If the ambient temperature approaches freezing
point, the cooling water should be drained out of the engine when it
is kept idle.

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Diesel … cont’d
2. During operation the lubrication system should work
effectively and requisite pressure and temperature maintained.
The engine oil should be of the correct specifications and should
be in a fit. Condition to lubricate the different parts. A watch may
be kept on the consumption of lubricating oil as this gives an
indication of the true internal condition of the engine.
3. The engine should he periodically run even when not required to
be used and should not be allowed to stand idle for more
than 7 days.
4. Air litter, oil filters and fuel filters should be periodically
serviced
i d or replaced l d as recommended d d by
b the
h manufacturers
f
or if found in an unsatisfactory condition upon inspection.
5. Periodical checking of engine compression and firing pressures
and also exhaust temperatures should be made.

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Advantages of diesel power plants


1.Very simple design also simple installation.
2. Limited cooling water requirement.
3 Standby losses are less as compared to other Power plants.
3. plants
4. Low fuel cost.
5. Quickly started and put on load.
6. Smaller storage is needed for the fuel.
7. Layout of power plant is quite simple.
8. There is no problem of ash handling.
9. Less supervision required.
10. For small capacity, diesel power plant is more efficient as
compared to steam power plant.
11. They can respond to varying loads without any difficulty
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Disadvantages of diesel power plants


1. High Maintenance and operating cost.
2. Fuel cost is more costly,
y, especially
p y non-oil
producing countries like Ethiopia.
3. The plant cost per kW is comparatively more.
4. The life of diesel power plant is small due to
high maintenance.
5. Noise is a serious problem in diesel power
plant.
l
6. Diesel power plant cannot be constructed for
large scale.

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Application of diesel engines in power field


 Peak load plant: they can be easily started or stopped at a
short notice to meet the peak demand
 M bil pl
Mobile plant:
t can beb easily
il transported
t t d on trailers
t il
 Standby unit: can supply when short fall in power occurs
 Emergency plant: can generate power for vital units like
hospitals or key industrial plants during power interruption
 Nursery station: in the absence of main grid, a diesel plant
can be installed to supply power in a small town.
town
 Starting stations: can be used to run aouxiliaries (like FD and
ID fans, etc) for starting a large steam power plant
 Central stations: as central stations where demand is small
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