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Reg.No

## B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2015.

Fourth Semester

Aeronautical Engineering

AE 6401 – AERODYNAMICS – 1

(Regulation 2013)

## 1. Describe briefly when the use of an irrotational flow modal for

incompressible aerodynamics applications is justified.
2. Explain briefly why induced drag of a finite wing is more than that of an
infinite wing.
3. What is meant by Magnus effect?
4. State and explain Kutta condition.
5. State the continuity equation for compressible flow.
6. Why does lift and hence the circulation go to zero at the wing tips?
7. Why is turbulent boundary layer preferred for flow over spheres and
cylinders?
8. Which kind of drag is predominant in the flow over bunt body and that over
a stream lines body?
9. Usually, for an elliptical lift distribution over a wing must the chord vary
10.Write the Karman-Tsien rule for compressibility corrections.

## PART B- (5×16 = 80 marks)

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11. (a) (1) If ∅ is defined as a scalar function of space coordinates and time,
then show that curl grad ∅ =0 certifies the flow field to be irrotational.
(2) What is the nature of streamlines forms ya uniform sources when placed
all alone?
(3) A long elliptical cylinder with thickness to chord ratio of 1: 7 is placed
with its major axis aligned with a uniform irrotational stream of 36 m/s.
Calculate the perpendicular to each other?
Or
(b) (1) By considering the gradient of a scalar field show that the velocity
potential lines and stream lines are perpendicular to each others?

(2) How we can synthesize the lifting flow over a circular cylinder?
Explain with the sketches how the stream line pattern and stagnation points
changes for different values of circulation.
12.(a) Derive the equation of velocity field for non-lifting flow over a cylinder
and obtain the location of stagnation points.
Or

(b) (1) Explain the physical meaning of divergence of velocity? Also write
down the relation between line integrals, surface integrals, and volume integrals.

(2)Define and explain the circulation? Why the concept of circulation is very
important in theoretical aerodynamics?

13.(a) It is a well known result from the thin airfoils theory that, the coefficient
of lift (C1) for a symmetrical airfoils kept in the potential flow at angle 𝛼 is
C1=2𝜋𝛼.Derive this result by transforming the lift flow over a circular into
flow over a symmetrical airfoil using the Kutta – Joukowski transformation.
Or

(b) (1) Explain difference between point vortex, constant strength vortex
panel and linearly varying strength vortex panel.

## (2) A planer horse shoe vortex is placed symmetrically along OX on the x-

axis with its BV aligned with the Y-axis. Determine a general expression for the
down wash in the plane of symmetry.

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## 14.(a) What is downwash? How does it affect the aerodynamics characteristic

of a finite wing? Derive an expression for downwash using Prandtl’s lifting
line theory?
Or

(b) Consider an airplane that weighs 10,700 N and cruises in level flight at
300 km/h at an altitude of 1000 m. The wing has a surface area of 17 square meters
and an aspect ratio of 6.2.Assume that the lift co-efficient is linear function of the
angle of attack and zero – lift angle of attack = -1.2.If the toad distribution is
elliptic, calculate the value of the circulation at the centre of the wing, the
downwash, induced drag coefficient? Take density value at this altitude as
0.90748.

## 15.(a) Prove Blasius theorem for incompressible flow a flat plate.

Or

(b) Consider the flow over a small flat which is 8 cm long in the flow
direction and 1 m wide. The free stream conditions correspond to standard sea
level, and the flow velocity is 120 m/s. Assuming laminar flow, calculate the
boundary layer thickness at the downstream edge and the drag force on the plate.
For the same flow over the same plate, assume that the boundary layer is now
completely turbulent. Calculate the boundary layer is now completely turbulent
Calculate the boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge and the drag force on
the plate

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