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ASEAN and Asian Regionalism:

Institutional Networks

Huong Le Thu
le2huong@gmail.com
Presentation for the NATSEM, UC
Canberra 21 March 2013
Outline
• I. ASEAN’s origin and
development
• Phases of ASEAN’s enlargement
• “ASEAN Way”
• Transformations
• The ASEAN Community

• II. ASEAN in Asian regionalism


processes
• ASEAN as the driver of regional
processes
• ASEAN and East Asia Summit
• Challenges for ASEAN Centrality

• III. Discussion
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
The establishment

• 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the


ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration)
• Founding Fathers of ASEAN: 5 Foreign Ministers - Adam
Malik (Indonesia), Narciso R. Ramos ( the Philippines), Tun
Abdul Razak (Malaysia), S. Rajaratnam (Singapore) and
Thanat Khoman (Thailand)
ASEAN at glance
Phases of development
Phase Characteristics

Formative phase: The Cold War context;


1967-1977 Zone of Peace Freedom and Neutrality Declaration
(ZOPFAN) 1971;
The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) 1976;
Conflict with the Vietnam-Cambodia conflict;
Indochinese states: Strengthening solidarity among the members;
1977-1987
Peaceful expansion ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF);
and the economic ASEAN enlargement : Vietnam admission in 1995 and
crisis: 1988-1997 Laos and Myanmar joining in 1997;
The Asian financial crisis;
Recovery and Recovery from the Asian financial crisis;
transition: 1998-2007 Bali Concorde II in October 2003;
The Community The ASEAN Charter;
building: 2008- ASEAN Intergovernmental Committee on Human Rights
(AICHR);
Three-pillar Community;
Key documents
ZOPFAN
1971
Bangkok TAC
Declaration
1967 1976

ASEAN
Way
Non-interference – from TAC to the Charter

1. Refraining from criticising the actions of a member government


towards its own people, including the violation of human rights,
and from making the domestic political system of states and the
political styles

2. Criticising the actions of states which were deemed to have


breached the non-interference principle

3. Denying recognition, sanctuary or other forms of support to any


rebel group seeking to overthrow the neighbouring state’
government

4. Providing political support and material assistance to member


states in their campaign against subversive and destabilising
activities
The Charter

• The Charter brought in new


directions for ASEAN development •
• Gave the Association a legal
personality
• Declared parallel building of the 3
communities
• Created ASEAN Community
Councils
• Reconfirmed consultation,
consensus and peaceful settlement
of disputes
• Brought up the compliance issue –
the new role of the Secretariat
• Established the ASEAN Human
Rights Body
ASEAN External relations

11
A rising regional personality
“Today, ASEAN is not only a well-functioning,
indispensable reality in the region. It is a real force to
be reckoned with far beyond the region. It is also a
trusted partner of the United Nations in the field of
development”

Kofi Annan,
Secretary General of the United Nations,
16 February 2000
The world of regions
Cambodia Canada

Brunei China
Darussalam
Australia
DPRK

Vietnam
European Union

United States India

Thailand ASEAN Regional Forum Indonesia

(ARF)
Singapore
Japan

Russia Laos

Rep. of
Mongolia
Korea

Philippines Malaysia
Papua New Myanmar 15
Guinea New
Zealand
ASEAN’s extensions

China
ASEAN
ASEAN Japan
+3
S. Korea
ASEAN’s extensions

India ASEAN +
China
Australia 6
ASEAN Japan
New East Asia
S. Korea Summit
Zealand
ASEAN’s extensions

India
China
Australia U.S.A.
ASEAN Japan ASEAN + 8
New Russia
S. Korea
Zealand
ASEAN’s extensions

China
ASEAN
ASEAN Japan
+3
S. Korea

India ASEAN +
China
Australia 6
ASEAN Japan
New East Asia
S. Korea Summit
Zealand

India
China
Australia U.S.A.
ASEAN Japan ASEAN + 8
New Russia
S. Korea
Zealand
Chronological evolution of multilateral
institutions in the region

ASEAN APEC ARF ASEM SCO APT EAS TPP


ASEAN and EAS
• East Asia Summit came into life as an initiative of APT
• EAS is a forum for broad strategic, political, economic issues and
promoting peace and stability and economic prosperity in East Asia
• EAS is to promote community building in consistency with the ASEAN
Community
• EAS is to strengthen norms that are recognized values with ASEAN as
the driving force
• Participation in the EAS is based on the criteria for participation
established by ASEAN
• EAS is hosted by ASEAN Member country, assumes ASEAN
Chairmanship and held back-to-back with annual ASEAN Summit
ASEAN centrality?

ASEAN

APT

EAS
C like challenges
CENTRALITY
• Central in the regional architecture; in the ‘driving seat’

COMMUNITY
• Community-building is an on-going process; beyond 2015

CONNECTIVITY
• Connectivity among ASEAN countries

CREDIBILITY
• Credible to the peoples and the world

COLLECTIVE ACTION
• National interests vs. collective interests

COMPETITION
• Competing with other regional processes
• Internally competitive over markets, investments, resources
Regional identity – a developing concept

One Vision, One Community, One Identity


The alphabet soup
• ASEAN
• EAS
• APT
• ARF
• ADMM
• SOM
• TPP
• AANZFTA
• APSC
• AEC
• ASCS
• APMM
• AHA
• AICHR
• CMM
• TAC
• ZOPFAN
Thank you for your participation!