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DATA

Design Discharge 11.80


cumecs
FSL @ surge shaft 477.68
m
Lowest C/L elevation of penstock 378.00
m
Length of penstock (L) 520.00
m (approx)
Time constant (T) 10.00
sec (assume)
Thk. Of steel liner (t) 12.00
mm (assume)
2
Stress in steel 1274.65 kg/cm
Calculation
Limiting velocity (v) in penstock 2.23 m/s (assume)
Area of penstock req. 5.29 sq.m
Dia. Of penstock (d) 2.60 m
say 2.60 m 2600 mm
Area of penstock 5.31 sq.m OK
Water Hammer (Max. Design head)
Water level @ Forebay/Surge shaft (NWL) 477.68 m
Lowest C/L elevation of penstock 378.00 m
Internal steady head h1 99.68 m
Referring to Allevi's chart

Pipe line constant (in ft units) 𝑎 ∗𝑣


2 ∗ 𝑔 ∗ ℎ1

where, a From Allevi's chart


v velocity
h1 initial steady head
v 2.22 m/s
Ratio of dia. Of penstock to thk. Of steel liner (d/t) 216.6667
(from graph) , a 2750
Pipe line constant (in ft units) k 0.95
Time constant (in ft units) 𝑎 ∗𝑇 8.06
2∗𝐿
where T is the closer time
From graph, P 0.07
Ratio of pressure rise to initial steady head 0.13339
Hence Pressure rise 20% 13.34%
Initial steady head 99.68
Add for water hammer 19.94 m
Head 119.62 m
2
Pressure 11.96 kg/cm
𝑃 ∗𝐷
Thk. Of steel liner, t 2∗𝑆
where, P pressure in penstock
D dia. Of penstock in cm.
S stress in steel in kg/cm2
t 1.22 cm