MKT 4003 RESEARCH IN MARKETING GROUP PROGECT

Module Leader: Seminar Tutor: Academic Group: Name: Student No: Assessment: Date:

Dr. Simon Manyiwa Cheng-Hao Chen Marketing Management Vaibhav Salvi, Gaurang Parkeh, M00286508, M00268082 GROUP COURSEWORK 4th May 2010

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TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND M, R, Q COMPONENTS RESEARCH DESIGN DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS LIMITATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCING 3 4 7 9 14 19 27 28

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Casual research was selected to conduct the research as it helps to predict about such type of µHypothetical Scenarios¶.The research study was undertaken to know the impact of Undaunted decision taken by Starbucks and how it affects the daily consumers behaviour in London (UK). Demographics are considered in the formation of research design. Non-Probability Judgemental sampling was selected to for conducting the survey for our research study. Although the research was conducted because of the problem raised in the year 2009 as Starbucks decided to close of 61 of its 84 Australian stores and to start up with the closure of 600 stores in United States but on the other side Britain was a substantial growing market with unexploited potential . Quantitative research method was used for conducting the above research study. 3 . The results from the study can be used by the marketer to better understand the consumer awareness towards Starbucks. A group 120 respondents were selected in order to achieve the desired aims and objectives. Likert summated scale was used in the questionnaire to assess the consumer attitude towards the Starbucks in terms of a Brand.Research Project on Starbucks Executive Summary This paper focuses on the research study which was conducted in London to know the consumer awareness about the Starbucks in terms of its Pricing Strategy and Brand equity.

Starbucks brand was considered as one of the finest and most effective brand names in America and the company had firmly established itself as 1 2 http://www. Howard currently serves as the Chairman of the Board in addition to lead visionary of the trade.html http://ezinearticles. primarily through Trade-operated retail stores. However there have been decline in the growth of domestic market.mhhe. But on the other side starbucks as a brand is booming in other countries. rich-brewed coffees. coffee related accessories as well as equipment.com/?Starbucks-Coffee---The-History-and-Background-of-Starbucks-Coffee &id=888962 4 . In the year 2005 Fortune magazine rated starbucks as the 11th best place to work in the United States and in the year 2007 UK stores were voted among the top 10 best places to work by Financial times.2 Starbucks as a brand had enjoyed phenomenal growth since 1988 when Howard Schultz was the chairman and also become one of the great retailing stories of recent history by producing excellent coffee drinks and selling dark-roasted coffee beans and coffee-making equipment. a selection of complimentary food items.com/business/management/thompson/11e/case/starbucks. Starbucks purchases as well as roasts high-quality whole bean coffees plus sells them. Partners know as employees of starbucks are acquiring a different kind of experience then one a regular barista would expect.1 Starbucks uses ingenious marketing strategy by offering the coffee products at a higher price as compared to the average market price. Starbucks coffeehouses began to give consumers a different kind of feeling about drinking coffee. Italian-style espresso drinks. chilly blended beverages. beside by means of fresh. Starbucks was opening new stores every day somewhere in the world during the 1990¶s and it continued into the new millennium. a selection of premium teas in addition to a line of compact discs.Background Research Starbucks was formed in 1985 under the direction plus leadership of Howard Schultz.

´4 3 4 http://www. The decision taken by Starbucks' chairman Howard Schultz to close stores in Australia will help for supporting the growth of the international business. The announcement made by the starbucks to close 600 coffee shops across America as the economy falter and customers shy away from their daily $4 coffee shot. This decision taken by the starbucks has generated outrage from many devoted customers of starbucks in the US and they had also set up a campaign called save our Starbucks.uk/finance/personalfinance/2793942/Would-you-save-your-Starbucks-fromclosure.co. Starbucks had more than 1.3 Starbucks has developed the market all over the globe. Howard Schultz also added that ³This decision represents business challenges unique to the Australian market.000 stores in 47 countries. There was a boom in the stock price as it increased nearly nine fold since going public in 1992. There are more than 400 coffee shops in UK alone and more than 15. roaster.mhhe. it in no way reflects the strong state of Starbucks business in countries outside of the US.500 stores in North America and Pacific Rim. and brand of specialty coffee in North America.telegraph.the dominant retailer.4 million.html http://www. In the financial year 1997 starbucks sales was recorded around $967 million and profit was $57.com/business/management/thompson/11e/case/starbucks.html 5 .

The above graph demonstrates the financial market condition of Starbucks. Starbucks during the middle of its restructuring were facing the problem because of the effects of slower store traffic and a weak economy and due to this there was a drop in the market share of starbucks. Looking forward starbucks forecast that it would earn in the range of 59 cents to 78 cents for the financial year 2009 depending on whether comparable store sales decline 2% or as much as 7%. Starbucks earned $158. The company acquired $5. As per the Factset analyst survey. Starbucks cut its plans of global expansion and capital spending.5 million or 21 cents per share in the year 2007. continuing the year¶s trend. company earned around 10 cents a share excluding charges to shut down and cut jobs. In the year 2008 Starbucks shares went down to 3%. Starbucks has decided to spend $750 million for their expansion plans but due to the economic conditions they have cut down their budget to $700 million. Starbucks sales rose up to $2.5 5 http://www. The company has decided to open up 700 new coffee stores by the end of 2009.com/story/economic-slowdown-restructuring-costs-batter-starbucks 6 .5 billion during the quarter ended in 2008. The economic slowdown in the California and Florida markets and the increase in the rate of unemployment have broken down the previously highflying coffee chain.marketwatch.4 million or 1 cent a share in fourth quarter of 2008.

Analysts indicated that. as though Whitbread's Costa coffee chain. in Cardiff. University of surrey and village Hotels. from signage to the flow of customers. Starbucks announced a deal in June with SSP.MDP. when. The reasons for the closures of stores were because of the expired leases or the availability of the better sites. its aspirations outside America. The company is also expanding its franchised business with Centre Parcs. the caterer. poor performance. the past slack in like-for-like sales development at Starbucks had comprised mostly down to the strong comparatives from last year.timesonline. to open more than 150 new coffee shops at airports and rail stations in the next 3 years. Hence it becomes clear that if Starbucks does not adapt. However experts think that the sufferings that have afflicted Starbucks in America and Australia could come to roost in Britain. taking its total number to 679. Starbucks recent developments include the opening of new first roadside drive-to outlets. and Europe's first drive-through store.6 The 78 new coffee shop openings in 2008 had been a partial offset by 10 closures. Global market all together continues to be a growth engine for Starbucks as the company is excited by the constant growth in the UK market.co.ece 7 . Starbucks should re-evaluate all parts of the business. Starbucks has opened around 78 stores. including Britain. MRQ. the companies third quarter was on the track to meets its target of opening 100 new stores by the end of the fiscal year. The managing director of Starbucks Phil Broad stated that despite of slight decline in the traffic in the three months to June 29. for much of the summer. Starbucks has detected Britain as a substantial growing market with unexploited potential. dire weather sent people running for cover into the nearest coffee shop.Starbucks stores are the equivalent as they were 5 years ago. Components The undaunted decision taken by Starbucks to close of 61 of its 84 Australian stores and to start up with the closure of 600 stores in United States. in surrey. store design and product range and mix. could soon run out steam.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article4453831. 6 http://business.

Pricing and competition. etc. Consumer franchise (facilitates loyalty) .Hence the research study was conducted in London to know the consumer awareness about the Starbucks in terms of its Pricing Strategy and Brand equity. Recognition. Lower the communication costs. confidence. Hence. Value to your Consumer. Consequently taking into consideration the above benefits of Brand equity it has become significant to know the customers awareness towards Starbucks as a brand. Brand equity helps in Asset management/leveraging. Starbucks must set objectives to improve the brand equity as measurement is a management essential. Managing and measuring brand equity has become an important part to study. the main purpose of this research was to know the consumer attitude and behaviour towards Starbucks which will be studied in detail by focusing on Branding. consistency. Hence the study will help us to know the understanding of consumer¶s awareness towards Starbucks. Managing brand equity primarily involves managing the consumer¶s mind. Improved prices/margins/market share. image/status. 8 .

The number of male and female participants taken for the survey are approx.001 .RESEARCH DESIGN Quantitative research method was used for conducting the above study.£15.£25. For the above study a group of 120 respondents were selected in order to achieve the desired aims and objectives.27respondents Income: £1 . same as it would help in understanding the brand equity amongst the two groups (male and female). Demographics was consider in the formation of research design which is given as follows DEMOGRAPHICS: Gender: Age: Male ± 66 Female ± 54 45respondents 48respondents 15-24 years 25-34 years - 35 years and above. Considering the limitations of budget the research study was undertaken on a small scale by selecting the respondents who are regular visitors of Starbucks. 9 .000 £15.000£25001 and above34respondents 28respondents 58respondents Gender: .

2) agree.Age group selected for this particular survey is from 15-24 years as it represents the student category which can include students from high school and also at university level. Every question had an option 1) Strongly agree. The second age group is 25-34 years as this group represents the working population. 3 is neither agree nor disagree. 2 is agree. The scale was analyzed in the following form. 10 . it was rated from 1 to 5 in which 1 is strongly agree. 3) neither agree nor disagree. Hence the band equity can be measured amongst this group Scale Selection: The questionnaire was given to the respondents and it was based on Likert summated scale which is mostly used to assess consumer attitude towards the Starbucks in terms of a Brand. 4 is disagree and 5 is strongly disagree. 4) disagree and 5) strongly disagree. The research survey was conducted at different Starbucks outlets where all the regular customers participated.

store design and product range and mix. casual research will help to measure the impact of the new product packaging in the market.marketresearchworld. could soon run out steam.´7 Casual research is concerned with the establishing cause and effect relationships and it examines the degree of influence of one or more independent variables upon one or more dependent variables.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article4453831.8 Casual research helps market researchers to predict about such type of µHypothetical Scenarios¶ which can be best explained with the help of following example. However experts consider that the sufferings that have troubled Starbucks in U.Research selected (Causal Research) ³Casual Research analyses the degree of influence of one or more independent variables upon one or more dependent variables.S.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=799&Itemid=64 9 http://business. and Australia could come to roost in United Kingdom. its inspirations outside America. Conducting the casual research the company will be able to make a decision whether to change the packaging of the product and whether it is profitable for the company. Casual research is applied to evaluate affect of a particular change on existing norms. 7 Ray Kent.ece 8 11 . Undismayed by the closedown of 61 of its 84 Australian stores and the beginning of a 600-store closedown programme in the United States.9 The same situation is with Starbucks stores. Consequently it becomes clear that if Starbucks does not accommodate.net/index. Marketing Research Approaches.timesonline.co. from signage to the course of customers. From the above example it can be concluded that casual research is a process by which we can see how the current actions taken by the company affects the business in the future. if the company comes up with the new style of product packaging. Methods and Applications in Europe http://www. Starbucks has discovered Britain as a substantial growing market with unexploited potential. including Britain. The organization can build their business plan depending upon the hypothetical scenarios. Starbucks stores are the equivalent as they were 5 years ago. Starbucks should revaluate entirely parts of the business.

Sampling process can be explained as a method in which the information validity can be ascertained by randomly selecting a sample from the entire population. saves time. The welfares of sampling process are it economizes money. (1999). W. Therefore this research study was carried on to check whether closedown of Starbucks stores has an affect over Brand Image perceived by target customers.10 Defining the Target: . The aim of this research study was to find out Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Starbucks in term of its Brand.. the data can be more precise. The research will be more focused on Pricing. Thus the research study was acquitted to acknowledge the consumers consciousness about the Starbucks in terms of pricing strategy and its Brand image. As referred in our research objective store closedown have mainly been in Australian and American countries. This is the main reason for choosing Starbucks coffee shops in London for this particular research study. Marketing Research . Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd 12 . The respondent targeted for the research is no. it¶s the procedure of specifying the target population. however the market condition is different in Great Britain as the market is growing at a good speed. 10 Quee.As the advert indicate. Hence the 2 variables suggesting effect and cause relationship can be expressed as decline in business and comprehended brand name and Image of Starbucks. Altogether the respondents chosen for this research are London placed.T. as London being the capital for UK. of males and females which is 66 and 54 respectively. Sampling Process Sampling method plays an important role in marketing research. and faster results. Third Edition.. Brand and Competition.

The customers at Starbucks are from different ethnic background.Non-Probability sampling was selected to carry out our research study. Non-probability sampling methods include 3 types of sampling. In Non-probability sampling. Hence the survey study was utterly founded on the interviewer¶s delicacy which campaigners were supposed to be designated. however because of the limited budget and allocated time constraints the sample size selected was 120. Therefore the selection process for sampling cannot be done from a specific document. Sampling Method: . For conducting our survey we have selected Judgmental sampling which is cheaper and takes less time. sample is selected in which the chances of selecting a case from the population of cases is not calculable since the selection is made on a subjective basis. This sampling method is mostly used for shopping centre surveys so the main reason it has been selected for our Starbucks research. 13 .Demonstrating sample frame: . Determining Sample size: Sample size helps in deciding the accuracy suitable for the research study. The interviewer is given a set guidelines and it¶s up to his or her delicacy how the sample is conducted. 1) quota sampling 2) Judgmental sampling 3) Convenience sampling. The selection of the sample is dependent on the personal judgment of the researcher. large number of respondents are generally selected to carry out the survey.

2) I visit Starbucks as compared with any other Coffee Shop. frequently 3) I consider it more prestigious to have meeting with my colleagues at Starbucks 4) I would consider keeping starbucks merchandise in my home (consider keeping starbucks merchandise in my home) 5) Starbucks logo is easily recognizable as compared to other brand logos (McDonalds.DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS Questionnaire (Pre and Post Test) Introduction You are kindly asked to fill in this questionnaire. The questionnaire is for a study which is conducted for a project as a part of our MA Marketing Management at Middlesex University. Thank you for your time. Costa) (logo is easily recognizable as compared to other brand logos) 6) Is Starbucks LOGO easily recognisable to what they offer? 14 . 1) According to me Starbucks is one of the most popular Brands.

7) I think Starbucks should offer some discount for students (Starbucks should offer some discount for students) 8) Starbucks eatables are very much costly? 9) I would switch to Starbucks from the current place I eat breakfast or recommend it to others if Starbucks reduces prices.) 14) As compared to Starbucks other fast food joint and coffee shops are coming with competitive offers to attract customers (competitive offers to attract customers) 15) Is Starbucks Menu easily understandable than Other Coffee Shops (Costa & Rittiza) (Starbucks Menu easily understandable than Other Coffee Shops) 16) Is Starbucks Overall Service better than other coffee shops? (Starbucks Overall Service better than other coffee shops) 17) The Starbucks Coffee Superior in taste as compared to its rivals (The Starbucks Coffee Superior in taste as compared to its rivals) 18) I visit Starbucks once or twice in a week (I visit Starbucks once or twice in a week) 19) I am familiar with Starbuck's Food Menu (I am familiar with Starbuck's Food Menu) 20) I think Starbucks provides very much friendly service compared to its rivals 15 .£3 for a meal (coffee and sandwich) at Starbucks 11) The promotional activities of Starbucks are better than other coffee shops (Promotional activities of Starbucks are better than other coffee shops) 12) Starbucks needs to have more number of branches as compared with other coffee shops (Starbucks needs to have more number of branches) 13) Starbucks is superior as compared with other coffee shops in terms of comfortable seating and good ambience (Comfortable seating and good ambience. 10) I would not mind spending £2 .

001-£25.000 GBP £15.Demographics Gender Male Age 15-24 Yrs 25-34 Yrs 35yrs and above Female Income Group (per annum) £5 .001GBP and above Occupation Student Working 16 .£15.000GBP £25.

Articles also written by academic scholars suggest that brands must ³inspire and captivate customers´. given the recent recession and the premium prices Starbucks issues out to the consumer. this is also backed by the inclusion of the brand Starbucks as one of the top hundred brands of the world by Interbrand in 2008. they absolutely want to establish a multifaceted holistic relationship with that of the brand. Variables (1) and (5) were made to ascertain the relative brand value and image of the company as put out by the Swot analysis of the Data Monitor. and this means they expect the brand to play a positive. Other competitors like McDonalds in as much as they were not mentioned in the survey are a strong indication of growing competitive problems for Starbucks as they plan on opening about 1200 McCafe stores in Europe including the United Kingdom. also setting itself up as a differentiated coffee product with the same traditional brewing it came up with in the seventies when it was founded and the fact the company have been marketing their ethics in the sense that they aid under privileged coffee communities. The above statement given by Gobe serves as a guide in measuring how much of an attachment the consumer has for the brand Starbucks. (as cited by Thompson et. all this in the leeway in building a strong consumer loyalty. but due to the present decline in consumer spending and the switching of coffee loving consumer from premium goods to cheaper. (4) and (5) how strong the brand image is reflected in the consumers¶ lives.´ We also seek from variables (3). Gobe explains. providing an avenue for the consumer to be compelled to relate his/her aspirations dreams and goals to the brand product or service. 2008). It is no conundrum to say that Starbucks being in a specialty coffee industry offers high end prices as this is the case (Larson. As Starbucks has had to close some coffee shops amidst poor sales.Interpretation of above questionnaire is as follows. proactive role in their lives. Al): ³consumers today not only want to be romanticized by the brands the bring into their lives. variables (12) seeks 17 . no frills and more cost effective spending. competitors like costa for example who despite the slowdown in the economy have been opening more stores especially in unconventional locations like colleges and airports.

Shields. On the other hand. results indicated that customers seemed to prefer coffee shops ran by private individuals as they seemed more authentic and less sterile. This then proposes a question (as seen in the thirteen variable): Does it still maintain the same atmosphere or has it subtly and unconsciously changed over time to become known as a pale and drab imitation of its former image? The VIA instant coffee brand recently launched by Starbucks at a reduced price of 33p to encourage frugal minded customers purchase from their store seems like a reasonable marketing strategy to combat the poor sales due to the recession. Indeed it seemed that coffee shops whether they were ran by a corporation or just by a single owner provided more than just a place to grab a cappuccino. gender and students as well as working class will indicate what demographic the company is meant to focus their marketing strategy on in terms of pricing. 1997. competition and brand. The questionnaires given in the research survey aim to find an indication of any reduction in the brand attitude of the consumer with an association of its premium pricing or a rise and fall in the customer loyalty if the company does decide to offer more reductions or promotions regarding their products. 18 . Starbucks previous success on the other hand had been attributed to its association of the ambience and warmth of a pleasant European cafe (Shultz. 2002). Previous research had been undertaken in discovering the cultural atmosphere or cosmopolitan motif of Starbucks coffee shop (Thompson et al). The survey taken by different income groups. their core customers might be less inclined to purchase the product as it might contradict the premium quality usually associated with their brewed coffees.to examine the probable marketing strategy of Starbucks in opening shops right next to each other and their relative success.

33.000 1.6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .DATA ANALYSIS. The statement is rejected. as the Sig value is 0.24.00 which less than 0.060 1 . Value Pearson Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association Chi. Sig.783( a) 27. 19 .05 Therefore following Hypothesis can be accepted.000 4 .303 N of Valid Cases 120 a 5 cells (55. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CHI SQUARE TEST ANALYSIS Hypothesis for Branding ANALYSIS I Q1 and Q2 Starbucks brand has no impact on me on visiting Starbucks.487 df sided) (2- 4 . Hypothesis 1 Asymp.

ANALYSIS II Q1 & Q3 The brand image of Starbucks does not give me an incentive to have a business meeting with my colleagues Hypothesis 2 Asymp.939 Df sided) (2- 6 . Sig.010 9.05 Therefore following Hypothesis can be accepted. The statement is rejected.703 1 .002 N of Valid Cases 120 a 7 cells (58. Value Pearson Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association Chi.17.020 6 . as the Sig value is 0.020 which less than 0. The brand image of Starbucks gives me an incentive to have a business meeting with my colleagues 20 . The minimum expected count is .15.064( a) 16.3%) have expected count less than 5.

6%) have expected count less than 5.000 1.783( a) 27.24.060 1 . Value Pearson Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association Chi.303 N of Valid Cases 120 a 5 cells (55. The minimum expected count is .487 df sided) (2- 4 . The statement is rejected.33.000 4 . 21 . as the Sig value is 0.00 which less than 0. Sig.05 Therefore following Hypothesis can be accepted I visit Starbucks as the menu does appeal to me.Hypothesis for Competition ANALYSIS I Q18 and Q19 I rarely visit Starbucks as the menu does not appeal to me Chi-Square Tests Asymp.

088 1.13.106 df sided) (2- 9 .688 1 .194 N of Valid Cases 120 a 12 cells (75.ANALYSIS II Q19 and Q 20 I rarely visit Starbuck as the service is not up the standards. Sig.0%) have expected count less than 5. Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Value Pearson Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association Chi.09 22 . The minimum expected count is .488( a) 15.142 9 .

Sig.72.005 1 .Hypothesis for Pricing ANALYSIS I Q1 and Q8 The premium prices do not hold true to Starbucks products perceived quality Chi-Square Tests Asymp.17.001 4 .05 Therefore following Hypothesis can be accepteds Starbucks premium prices make it a highly popular coffee shop 23 . as the Sig value is 0.01 which less than 0.788( a) 25.594 df sided) (2- 4 . Value Pearson Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association Chi.944 N of Valid Cases 120 a 5 cells (55.6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .000 . The statement is rejected.

323 8. as the Sig value is 0.001 1 . Value Pearson Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association Chidf sided) (2- 6.969 N of Valid Cases 120 a 6 cells (50.972(a) 6 .780 6 .323 which greater than 0. The Hypothesis is accepted. The minimum expected count is .186 .ANALYSIS II Q9 and Q14 I would not prefer going to Starbucks even if other coffee shops come up with better pricing offers Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig.05 24 .07.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The relation between overall service of Starbucks and Frequency of customer visits to Starbucks is medium.390(**) .CORRELATION TEST ANALYSIS ANALYSIS I Q16) Is Starbucks Overall Service better than other coffee shops Q 18) I visit Starbucks once or twice in a week Correlations Q16 Q16 Pearson Correlation Sig.01 level (2-tailed). (2-tailed) N Q18 Pearson Correlation Sig.000 120 120 Correlation is significant at the 0.390(**) 1 .000 120 .390 25 . (2-tailed) N 120 Q18 1 . since R is 0.

(2-tailed) N 120 . The relation between Awareness of Logo and Brand Loyalty is very strong.661(**) . (2-tailed) N Q6 Pearson Correlation Sig.000 120 1 Q6 . ANALYSIS II Q 4) I would consider keeping Starbucks merchandise in my home Q 6) Is Starbucks LOGO easily recognisable to what they offer Correlations Q4 Q4 Pearson Correlation Sig.661 Brand loyalty of Starbucks is very much dependent on Awareness of Starbucks Logo.Frequency of customer visits to Starbucks is not much depending on overall service of Starbucks.01 level (2-tailed).000 120 1 120 Correlation is significant at the 0. 26 . since R is 0.661(**) .

Starbucks although popular needs to come up with more offers in terms of pricing to gain its popularity back. The hypothesis equates premium prices to better quality from the consumer¶s perspective. This could be attributed to the current economic slowdown thus making more customers selective in terms of frugality when going to a coffee shop.Limitations The above observations state that the Brand image of Starbucks is intact inspite of the store closures in different countries.the food and beverages offered to the customers in terms of its brand reputation. The premium pricing plays a significant role in perceiving Starbucks as a leading Brand from customers¶ point of view. It becomes evident from the above hypothesis that Starbucks is superior than its rivals in terms of different aspects like. Consumers are still attracted to the Starbucks brand image inspite of the decline in the sales and would consider it as a global brand based on its past reputation. The brand equity is one of their major strengths of the industry relating the consumer to their value and attachment to the cosmopolitan lifestyle recognized in the brand. The taste and quality of the different coffee and its other components are better in more than one way from its competitors. 27 . Pricing can be one of the main components for its popularity.

Third Edition.com/business/management/thompson/11e/case/starbucks. ece http://business.co.mhhe. Methods and Applications in Europe.timesonline. ³Marketing Research´.com/story/economic-slowdown-restructuring-costs-batterstarbucks http://business.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article4453831.html http://ezinearticles. London: Thomson Learning.com/?Starbucks-Coffee---The-History-and-Background-ofStarbucks-Coffee &id=888962 http://www. Quee.T.html http://www.mhhe.uk/finance/personalfinance/2793942/Would-you-save-yourStarbucks-from-closure.com/story/economic-slowdown-restructuring-costs-batter-starbucks http://www.marketresearchworld.html http://www.marketwatch. http://www.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article4453831.marketwatch. (2007) Marketing Research: Approaches.com/business/management/thompson/11e/case/starbucks. 28 .References:Kent.co. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd. W.. ece http://www.net/index. R.timesonline. (1999).php?option=com_content&task=view&id=79 9&Itemid=64.telegraph.

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