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FEATURES

File Name
Before we start, the name of output file needs to be specified first. The default name of output
file is ‘NCAT.’

Load
A single circular wheel load shown below can be applied to pavement structures.

a = Radius

q = Vertical Loading Stress


Structure
The number of layers can be varied from 2 to 4 in which the thickness of each layer can be also
varied except for the last layer. The thickness of this layer is routinely considered to be infinite in
the program.

Material
The first layer can be treated as either an elastic or viscoelastic layer, while other layers should
be elastic. For elastic layers, the following table needs to be filled in.

If the first layer is viscoelastic, then the Material type should be changed to either Viscoelastic-
Creep or Viscoelastic-Complex and the table shown below needs to be filled in. The number of
input data can be varied from 5 to 10. In the first option (Viscoelastic-Creep), creep compliances
measured at multiple times at any single temperature are required to be input, while in the second
option, complex moduli (dynamic moduli and phase angles) measured at multiple frequencies at
any single temperature need to be input. The V-LAYER program considers the Poisson’s ratio of
viscoelastic materials to be time independent; therefore a constant Poisson’s ratio is required to
be input for the viscoelastic analysis.

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Coordinate System
The following coordinate system is used for the STA and THA options described in the
subsequent sections:

x z

P
( x, y , z )

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The following coordinate system is used for the SMA and MHA options described in the
subsequent sections:

x
Direction of Loading

z y
P
(x 0, y , z )
Distance from loading

Note: P is a location of interest specified by a user. In the moving load analysis (SMA and MHA
options), the x coordinate of P is automatically set to ‘0.’

Analysis Type
Four analysis types are currently available in V-LAYER. Each analysis will create a separate
output file with the extension name shown below:

*.sta : Single Time Analysis for a static load


*.tha : Time History Analysis for a static load
*.sma : Single Maximum Analysis for a moving load
*.mha : Moving History Analysis for a moving Load

STA (Single Time Analysis for a static load) - This analysis simulates the response of pavement
structure subjected to static loading beginning at time zero and returns output in terms of stress,
strain, and displacement at a user-specified location and time.

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THA (Time History Analysis for a static load) - This analysis simulates pavement response
subjected to static loading beginning at time zero and returns output at a location specified by a
user. Computation will be performed at 10 different time points. The time between the points is
increased by a user-specified time interval.

SMA (Single Maximum Analysis for a moving load) - This analysis simulates pavement
response subjected to a moving load starting at -100 inches (x = -100) apart from the user-
specified location P (shown above) and traveling at a user-specified speed. This analysis returns
output at the time when the moving load passes the origin of the x axis (x = 0).

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A schematic illustration of load shift is shown below:

y
-100 inches 100 inches

2 inches

P (x = 0, y, z)

x
Loading Path

A Moving Load Top View

MHA (Moving History Analysis for a moving Load) - This analysis simulates pavement
response subjected to a moving load. For a given pavement structure, a moving load starting at
the same location as above and traveling at the given speed is shifted every 2 inches along the x
axis (direction of loading). This analysis returns output at the point P when loading is shifted.
Computation continues until the moving load arrives at 100 inches (x = 100) apart from the point.

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Position
The POSITIONS indicate the layer number, the x, y, z coordinate, and time or speed at the
location of interest. The last term is changed to Time of Interest, Time Interval, or Speed in each
analysis. We can add multiple locations and times, intervals, or speeds by clicking the Next
Input/Run button.

Sign Convention
The figure below illustrates the positive stress condition on an element in addition to positive
displacements.

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x
y z

y x
z yz
xz ux
xz
P(x, y, z) xy
x uy
xy xy
z
yz uz
y

Positive Stresses Positive Displacements

Save File
Once an analysis is completed, all output files must be saved in a certain folder by clicking the
Save File button:

The following output files are stored in the folder:


*.inp: Contains a list of the input data
*.sta: Contains output data of the single time analysis for a static load
*.tha: Contains output data of the time history analysis for a static load
*.sma: Contains output data of the single maximum analysis for a moving load
*.mha: Contains output data of the moving history analysis for a moving load

Open File
The previously saved input data (*.inp) and output data (*.sta, *.tha, *.sma, *.mha) can be loaded
by clicking the Open File icon below. The input data is loaded into the user interface, while the
output data are opened as Excel workbooks.

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Close
Close exits the program.

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EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

This section was designed to introduce the functionality and usage of V-LAYER by solving
example problems. The example problems were selected to represent the typical pavement
structures constructed in the roadways and would be sufficient for users to understand the several
analysis types and features available in the V-LAYER program.

Problem 1: Elastic Multilayer Analysis Using the STA Option


Consider a four-layer pavement system below:

Load
y

Top View of Loading

a = 5.9 in.
q = 100 psi
x

E1 = 500,000 psi, 1 = 0.35 h1 = 4 in.

h2 = 12 in.
E2 = 30,000 psi, 2 = 0.40

E3 = 12,000 psi, 3 = 0.40


h3 = 12 in.

E4 = 5,000, 4 = 0.45 z

Side View of Pavement Structure

Plot the longitudinal stress and strain distributions along the x axis at the bottom of the
asphalt concrete layer (first layer) at time zero.

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Plot the vertical stress and strain distributions along the x axis at the top of the subgrade layer
(last layer) at time zero.

Step 1. Output File Name: Change the file name to Prob1.

Step 2. LOAD: Set the Vertical Loading Stress to 100 and the Radius to 5.9.

Step 3. LAYERS: Set the layer number to 4 and enter the thicknesses, moduli, and Poisson’s
ratios into the layer table.

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Step 4. POSITIONS: Input the first location and time (0, 0, 4, 0).

Step 5. Next Input / Run: Click the Next Input / Run button.

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Step 6. POSITIONS: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for different locations. Let us evaluate structural
responses at nine different positions: (1, 0, 4, 0), (2, 0, 4, 0), (4, 0, 4, 0), (6, 0, 4, 0), (10, 0, 4, 0),
(20, 0, 4, 0), (30, 0, 4, 0), (50, 0, 4, 0), and (100, 0, 4, 0).

Step 7. POSITIONS: Set the Layer No. to 4 and input the first location and time (0, 0, 28, 0).

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Step 8. POSITIONS: Repeat the above steps for Layer No. 4 at nine different positions: (1, 0, 28,
0), (2, 0, 28, 0), (4, 0, 28, 0), (6, 0, 28, 0), (10, 0, 28, 0), (20, 0, 28, 0), (30, 0, 28, 0), (50, 0, 28, 0),
and (100, 0, 28, 0).

Step 9. Save File: Click the Save File button and create a folder where the output files are stored.
Then click Save.

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Step 10. Open File: Click the Open File icon and open Prob1.sta.
(Note: the Prob1.inp and Prob1.sta files in the output folder can be also opened manually using
either WordPad or Notepad)

Longitudinal Stresses and Strains

Vertical Stresses and Strains

Plots are as follows:

At the Bottom At the Bottom


300
4.0E-04
250 3.5E-04
3.0E-04
200
2.5E-04
150 2.0E-04
1.5E-04
100
1.0E-04
50 5.0E-05
0.0E+00
0
-5.0E-05 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
-50 -1.0E-04
X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

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At the Top At the Top
0.0 1.0E-04
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
-0.5 0.0E+00
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
-1.0E-04
-1.0
-2.0E-04
-1.5
-3.0E-04
-2.0
-4.0E-04
-2.5 -5.0E-04

-3.0 -6.0E-04
X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

Problem 2: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Static Load Using the STA Option
Consider the four-layer pavement system shown below in which H(t) is the unit step function:

a = 6 in.
q H(t), q=100 psi
x

E = Varied, 1 = 0.35 h1 = 4 in.

h2 = 12 in.
E2 = 30,000 psi, 2 = 0.40

E3 = 12,000 psi, 3 = 0.40


h3 = 46 in.

E4 = , 4 = 0.01 z

The following creep compliance data was obtained from the indirect tension (IDT) test
performed as specified in AASHTO T 322 at 0 C.

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Table 1. Creep Compliance
Sec Creep Compliance (1/psi)
1 5.0332E-07
2 5.7226E-07
5 6.4811E-07
10 7.3774E-07
20 8.4116E-07
50 9.9974E-07
100 1.1652E-06

Plot the change in stress and strain over time at the center and bottom of the asphalt concrete
layer (first layer).

Step 1. Output File Name: Change the file name to Prob2.

Step 2. LOAD: Set the Vertical Loading Stress to 100 and Radius to 6.

Step 3. LAYERS: Set the layer number to 4 and Material type to Viscoelastic-Creep. Then enter
the thicknesses, moduli, and Poisson’s ratios shown above into the layer table and creep
compliance values into the material property table.

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Step 4. POSITIONS: Input the first location and time (0, 0, 4, 0).

Step 5. Next Input / Run: Click the Next Input / Run button.

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Step 6. POSITIONS: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for different times. Let us evaluate structural
responses at nine different times: (0, 0, 4, 1), (0, 0, 4, 2), (0, 0, 4, 3), (0, 0, 4, 4), (0, 0, 4, 5), (0, 0,
4, 6), (0, 0, 4, 7), (0, 0, 4, 8), and (0, 0, 4, 9).

Step 7. Save File: Click the Save File icon (create the output folder if you skipped Problem 1)
and click Save.

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Step 8. Open File: Click the Open File icon and open Prob2.sta.
(Note: the Prob2.inp and Prob2.sta files in the output folder can be also opened manually using
either WordPad or Notepad)

Stresses

Strains

Plots are as follows:


700 2.5E-04

600
2.0E-04
500

400 1.5E-04

300 1.0E-04
200
5.0E-05
100

0 0.0E+00
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

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0 0.0E+00
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

-5 -5.0E-05

-10 -1.0E-04

-15 -1.5E-04

-20 -2.0E-04

-25 -2.5E-04
Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

Problem 3: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Static Load Using the THA Option
Problem 2 can be solved using the THA option. This analysis is effective for problems where the
time intervals are equally distributed over time.

Step 1. Click the Open File icon and open Prob2.inp.

Step 2. Change Output File Name to Prob3 and set the extension name of output file to THA.

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Step 3. Input the location and time interval.

Step 4. Click the Next Input / Run button. The following computation window shows up less than
a second. Do not proceed to the next step until the computation window disappears.

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Step 5. Click the Save File button and click Save.

Step 6. Click the Open File icon and open Prob3.sta. It is noted that stresses and strains are
identical to those of Problem 2.

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Problem 4: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Moving Load Using the SMA Option
Consider the pavement system consisting of four layers including the rigid layer at its bottom
and loaded by the circular, uniform stress of 100 psi with a contact radius of 6.77 inches.
Let us consider the traffic load moving along the x axis beginning at (-100, 0, 0) apart from the
point P. Suppose we measure the response of the given pavement structure at the point P (0, 0, 0).

4 in.

12 in.
Direction of Loading
P
y
-100 in.
112 in.
128 in.

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The following data was obtained from the dynamic modulus tests conducted at various
frequencies as recommended in AASHTO T 62 at 21.1 C.

Frequency (Hz) Dynamic Modulus (psi) Phase Angle (degree)


0.01 142891.2 29.60
0.1 303660.7 27.22
0.5 466828.1 24.39
1 551191.7 23.32
5 779916.3 20.50
10 896526.6 19.23

Plot the change in maximum tensile stress and strain occurring at the point P at various
traffic speeds.

Step 1. Change Output File Name to Prob4 and set the extension name of output file to SMA.

Step 2. Set the Vertical Loading Stress to 100 and Radius to 6.77.

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Step 3. Set the layer number to 4 and the Material type to Viscoelastic-Complex. Then enter the
thicknesses, moduli, and Poisson’s ratios shown above into the layer table and the dynamic
moduli and phase angles into the material property table.

Step 4. Input the location of point P and a speed of 10 (MPH).

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Step 5. Click the Next Input / Run button.

The following computation window shows up for 2 to 3 seconds. Do not proceed to the next step
until the computation window disappears.

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Step 6. Let us evaluate structural responses at nine different speeds: (0, 0, 4, 20), (0, 0, 4, 30), (0,
0, 4, 40), (0, 0, 4, 50), (0, 0, 4, 60), (0, 0, 4, 70), (0, 0, 4, 80), (0, 0, 4, 90), and (0, 0, 4, 100).

Step 7. Click the Save File button and click Save.

Step 8. Click the Open File icon and open Prob4.sma.

Stresses

Strains

The plots are as follows:

StressXX StressYY StrainXX StrainYY

370 3.7E-04

350 3.5E-04

330 3.3E-04

310 3.1E-04

290 2.9E-04

270 2.7E-04
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
Speed (MPH) Speed (MPH)

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Problem 5: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Moving Load Using the MHA option

For the pavement structure shown in Problem 4, plot the change in horizontal stress and
strain at the point P over the one pass of loading traveling at 45 miles per hour.

Step 1. Click the Open File icon and open Prob4.inp.

Step 2. Change Output File Name to Prob5 and set the extension name of output file to MHA.

Step 3. Input the location of point P and the speed of 45.

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Step 4. Click the Next Input / Run button. The following computation window shows up for
approximately 20 minutes. Do not proceed to the next step until the computation window
disappears.

Step 5. Save the output files.

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Step 6. Click the Open File icon and open Prob5.mha.

Horizontal Stresses

Distance from
loading
Horizontal
Strains

The plots are as follows:

StrainXX StrainYY
StressXX StressYY
3.50E-04
400
3.00E-04
350
300 2.50E-04
250 2.00E-04
200 1.50E-04
150 1.00E-04
100
5.00E-05
50
0.00E+00
0
-100.0
-5.00E-05 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0
-100.0
-50 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0
-100 -1.00E-04
Distance from Loading (in.) Distance from Loading (in.)

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VERIFICATION

The objective of this section is to verify the reliability and accuracy of the results presented in
the section of ‘Example Problems’ by comparing the solutions to those from other analysis tools.
This section is helpful for users to confirm that V-LAYER is properly installed and to gain
familiarity and confidence in the features of the program.

Verification of Problem 1
To verify the solutions of the first problem, BISAR, which is a well-know elastic multilayer
analysis program, was used (De Jong et al. 1973). For the same geometry shown in the Problem
1, the longitudinal stresses and strains at the bottom of the first layer and the vertical stresses and
strains at the top of the last layer were obtained at the same locations using the BISAR program.
Plots are as follows:

At the Bottom At the Top

V-Layer BISAR V-Layer BISAR


300 0.0
250 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
-0.5
200
-1.0
150
-1.5
100
50 -2.0

0 -2.5

-50 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 -3.0


X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

At the Bottom At the Top

V-Layer BISAR V-Layer BISAR

4.0E-04 1.0E-04
0.0E+00
3.0E-04
-1.0E-04 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
2.0E-04 -2.0E-04

1.0E-04 -3.0E-04
-4.0E-04
0.0E+00
-5.0E-04
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
-1.0E-04 -6.0E-04
X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

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Verification of Problems 2 and 3
To verify the solutions of the problems 2 and 3, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was chosen. For
FEA, the commercial FE software, ADINA (2008), was used. When performing FEA on
viscoelastic structures, most FE programs require the viscoelastic shear and bulk moduli of given
viscoelastic materials in the forms of Prony series as their input (Kim et al. 2010). The Prony
series representation of creep compliance is of the following form:
N
t
D (t ) D0 Di 1 exp( )
i 1 i

where D0, and Di, are Prony series parameters, and i are retardation times. In fitting the creep
compliance shown in Problem 2, the fitting technique proposed by Kim et al. (2008a) and Kim
and West (2010a and 2010b) was used. Based on the literature, the above Prony series with six
Kelvin elements (N=6) and retardation times with one decade interval, i = 10(i-4) (i = 1, 6)
were selected and then the unknown coefficients were determined by solving the linear system of
equations.
According to the theory of linear viscoelasticity, the relationships among the relaxation,
D(t), shear, G(t), and bulk, K(t), moduli are expressed as algebraic equations in the Laplace
transforms:
1
G (s)
2 s 2 (1 s ( s )) Dˆ ( s )
1
K (s)
3s 2 (1 2 s ( s )) Dˆ ( s )

where the term of s (s ) is because it was assumed to be the time-independent value in the V-
LAYER program. After substituting Laplace-transformed Prony series, D(t), into the equations
above, taking the inverse Laplace transforms of the equations yields (Kim et al. 2009 and
2008b):
N
G (t ) G0 Gi (exp( ri t ))
i 1

N
K (t ) K0 K i (exp( ri t ))
i 1

The shear and bulk moduli determined (shown below) were used as input for FEA:

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Prony Series
Index, i ri (1/sec) Gi (psi) Ki (psi)
0 0.000E+00 2.651E+05 7.953E+05
1 1.085E+03 1.106E+05 3.319E+05
2 1.131E+02 1.494E+05 4.482E+05
3 1.214E+01 2.029E+05 6.086E+05
4 1.355E+00 2.464E+05 7.393E+05
5 1.437E-01 2.118E+05 6.353E+05
6 1.798E-02 1.974E+05 5.921E+05

FEA was performed for the same pavement structure used in Problems 2 and 3 but with a
finite width of 100 inches. The width was estimated based on the previous work done by
Thompson (1982). The study recommended that the minimum distance of the width should be at
least 12 times the radius of the applied load. By introducing the fixed boundary conditions
underneath the subgrade layer (that is, this would act as the rigid layer shown in Problems 2 and
3), the three-layered pavement system was prepared. For the given geometry, the rectangular
element with nine nodes was used as the element type of model. The viscoelastic analysis, which
considered the asphalt layer as viscoelastic and the other layers as elastic, was performed on the
FE model below:

62 inches

z 100 inches

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Stresses and strains obtained at the same location and at the same time were compared to those in
Problems 2 and 3. The plots are presented below:

V-Layer FEM V-Layer FEM

700 2.5E-04

600
2.0E-04
500
1.5E-04
400

300 1.0E-04
200
5.0E-05
100

0 0.0E+00
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

V-Layer FEM V-Layer FEM

0 0.0E+00
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
-5 -5.0E-05

-10 -1.0E-04

-15 -1.5E-04

-20 -2.0E-04

-25 -2.5E-04
Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

Verification of Problem 5
To verify the solutions of Problem 5, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was also chosen. To
determine the material input in terms of Prony series using the complex modulus data presented
in Problem 4, the conversion process proposed by Kim et al. (2008a) and Kim and West (2010a
and 2010b) which determines the viscoelastic creep compliance D(t) by means of the well-
known power model from the measured dynamic modulus, |E*|, and phase angle, , values was
employed. The power model has the following form:
D(t) = D0+D1tn
where D0, D1, and n are regression coefficients.

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The storage compliance, D = cos( )/|E*|, and loss compliance, D = sin( )/|E*|, are related to the
power model (Findley et al. 1976) as:
n
D' ( ) D 0 D1 (n 1) cos(n (2k 1 / 2))
n
D' ' ( ) D1 (n 1) sin( n (2k 1 / 2))

k 0, 1, 2
where is angular frequency, and is the gamma function. Given that the k values from the two
equations at each frequency should be identical, Kim et al. (2008a) derived a single equation by
combining the two equations as:
n
y D1 (n 1)

where y = ( D ' ( ) D 0) 2 D ' ' ( ) 2 . The equation can be fitted to the known storage and loss
compliances using the nonlinear regression technique. Finally, the shear and bulk moduli are
determined using the scheme outlined in the previous verification. The shear and bulk moduli are
as follows:
Prony Series
Index, i ri (1/sec) Gi (psi) Ki (psi)
0 0.000E+00 1.760E+04 5.281E+04
1 1.079E+03 2.550E+04 7.650E+04
2 1.203E+02 5.462E+04 1.639E+05
3 1.383E+01 7.598E+04 2.279E+05
4 1.867E+00 8.773E+04 2.632E+05
5 1.989E-01 4.964E+04 1.489E+05
6 2.881E-02 2.717E+04 8.151E+04

According to the previous study (Kim et al. 2008b), responses measured near the center
of a pavement model 200 inches long by 200 inches wide were not sensitive to its boundaries.
They also reported that the symmetry about the x axis alone can be used for the three-
dimensional viscoelastic model subjected to a moving load because of the asymmetric
viscoelastic responses occurring before and after the loading passes. On the basis of the previous
study, this study arrived at the final geometry of the FE model shown below. The same

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thicknesses and elastic moduli as those used in Problem 5 were used for the three-layered FE
model with the fixed boundary condition underneath the subgrade layer, which would act as the
rigid layer in the analytical model. The roller supports allowing the model to move in the vertical
axis alone were applied to all the vertical sides of the FE model.

100 inches
200 inches
x

Direction of Loading
P

-100 inches
128 inches y

A brick element with 8 nodes, which has been successfully used in three-dimensional
FEA, was used as the element type of the model along with the typical meshing technique that
achieves a finer mesh in the area of interest while keeping a relatively coarser mesh in the
remaining area. The numbers of elements used for the first, second, and third layers were 6400,
9600, and 12800, respectively. In order to achieve a similar loading condition to that used in the
analytical model, a uniform, square load of 100 psi distributed over the area of 144 square inches,
which is identical to that of the circular area used for the analytical model, was shifted every 2
inches traveling at the same speed of 45 miles per hour. Stresses and strains obtained at the same
location and at the same distance from loading compared to those in Problem 5 are present
below:

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V-LAYER FEM V-LAYER FEM

400 400
350 350
300 300
250 250
200
200
150
150
100
100
50
0 50
-100.0
-50 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0 0
-100 -100.0
-50 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0
Distance from Loading (in.) Distance from Loading (in.)

V-LAYER FEM V-LAYER FEM

4.0E-04 4.E-04
3.5E-04 3.E-04
3.0E-04
3.E-04
2.5E-04
2.0E-04 2.E-04
1.5E-04 2.E-04
1.0E-04
1.E-04
5.0E-05
0.0E+00 5.E-05
-100.0
-5.0E-05 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0 0.E+00
-1.0E-04 -100.0 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0
Distance from Loading (in.) Distance from Loading (in.)

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