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Original Title: Manual of V-Layer-embed.pdf

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You are on page 1of 38

File Name

Before we start, the name of output file needs to be specified first. The default name of output

file is ‘NCAT.’

Load

A single circular wheel load shown below can be applied to pavement structures.

a = Radius

Structure

The number of layers can be varied from 2 to 4 in which the thickness of each layer can be also

varied except for the last layer. The thickness of this layer is routinely considered to be infinite in

the program.

Material

The first layer can be treated as either an elastic or viscoelastic layer, while other layers should

be elastic. For elastic layers, the following table needs to be filled in.

If the first layer is viscoelastic, then the Material type should be changed to either Viscoelastic-

Creep or Viscoelastic-Complex and the table shown below needs to be filled in. The number of

input data can be varied from 5 to 10. In the first option (Viscoelastic-Creep), creep compliances

measured at multiple times at any single temperature are required to be input, while in the second

option, complex moduli (dynamic moduli and phase angles) measured at multiple frequencies at

any single temperature need to be input. The V-LAYER program considers the Poisson’s ratio of

viscoelastic materials to be time independent; therefore a constant Poisson’s ratio is required to

be input for the viscoelastic analysis.

2

Coordinate System

The following coordinate system is used for the STA and THA options described in the

subsequent sections:

x z

P

( x, y , z )

3

The following coordinate system is used for the SMA and MHA options described in the

subsequent sections:

x

Direction of Loading

z y

P

(x 0, y , z )

Distance from loading

Note: P is a location of interest specified by a user. In the moving load analysis (SMA and MHA

options), the x coordinate of P is automatically set to ‘0.’

Analysis Type

Four analysis types are currently available in V-LAYER. Each analysis will create a separate

output file with the extension name shown below:

*.tha : Time History Analysis for a static load

*.sma : Single Maximum Analysis for a moving load

*.mha : Moving History Analysis for a moving Load

STA (Single Time Analysis for a static load) - This analysis simulates the response of pavement

structure subjected to static loading beginning at time zero and returns output in terms of stress,

strain, and displacement at a user-specified location and time.

4

THA (Time History Analysis for a static load) - This analysis simulates pavement response

subjected to static loading beginning at time zero and returns output at a location specified by a

user. Computation will be performed at 10 different time points. The time between the points is

increased by a user-specified time interval.

SMA (Single Maximum Analysis for a moving load) - This analysis simulates pavement

response subjected to a moving load starting at -100 inches (x = -100) apart from the user-

specified location P (shown above) and traveling at a user-specified speed. This analysis returns

output at the time when the moving load passes the origin of the x axis (x = 0).

5

A schematic illustration of load shift is shown below:

y

-100 inches 100 inches

2 inches

P (x = 0, y, z)

x

Loading Path

MHA (Moving History Analysis for a moving Load) - This analysis simulates pavement

response subjected to a moving load. For a given pavement structure, a moving load starting at

the same location as above and traveling at the given speed is shifted every 2 inches along the x

axis (direction of loading). This analysis returns output at the point P when loading is shifted.

Computation continues until the moving load arrives at 100 inches (x = 100) apart from the point.

6

Position

The POSITIONS indicate the layer number, the x, y, z coordinate, and time or speed at the

location of interest. The last term is changed to Time of Interest, Time Interval, or Speed in each

analysis. We can add multiple locations and times, intervals, or speeds by clicking the Next

Input/Run button.

Sign Convention

The figure below illustrates the positive stress condition on an element in addition to positive

displacements.

7

x

y z

y x

z yz

xz ux

xz

P(x, y, z) xy

x uy

xy xy

z

yz uz

y

Save File

Once an analysis is completed, all output files must be saved in a certain folder by clicking the

Save File button:

*.inp: Contains a list of the input data

*.sta: Contains output data of the single time analysis for a static load

*.tha: Contains output data of the time history analysis for a static load

*.sma: Contains output data of the single maximum analysis for a moving load

*.mha: Contains output data of the moving history analysis for a moving load

Open File

The previously saved input data (*.inp) and output data (*.sta, *.tha, *.sma, *.mha) can be loaded

by clicking the Open File icon below. The input data is loaded into the user interface, while the

output data are opened as Excel workbooks.

8

Close

Close exits the program.

9

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

This section was designed to introduce the functionality and usage of V-LAYER by solving

example problems. The example problems were selected to represent the typical pavement

structures constructed in the roadways and would be sufficient for users to understand the several

analysis types and features available in the V-LAYER program.

Consider a four-layer pavement system below:

Load

y

a = 5.9 in.

q = 100 psi

x

h2 = 12 in.

E2 = 30,000 psi, 2 = 0.40

h3 = 12 in.

E4 = 5,000, 4 = 0.45 z

Plot the longitudinal stress and strain distributions along the x axis at the bottom of the

asphalt concrete layer (first layer) at time zero.

10

Plot the vertical stress and strain distributions along the x axis at the top of the subgrade layer

(last layer) at time zero.

Step 2. LOAD: Set the Vertical Loading Stress to 100 and the Radius to 5.9.

Step 3. LAYERS: Set the layer number to 4 and enter the thicknesses, moduli, and Poisson’s

ratios into the layer table.

11

Step 4. POSITIONS: Input the first location and time (0, 0, 4, 0).

Step 5. Next Input / Run: Click the Next Input / Run button.

12

Step 6. POSITIONS: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for different locations. Let us evaluate structural

responses at nine different positions: (1, 0, 4, 0), (2, 0, 4, 0), (4, 0, 4, 0), (6, 0, 4, 0), (10, 0, 4, 0),

(20, 0, 4, 0), (30, 0, 4, 0), (50, 0, 4, 0), and (100, 0, 4, 0).

Step 7. POSITIONS: Set the Layer No. to 4 and input the first location and time (0, 0, 28, 0).

13

Step 8. POSITIONS: Repeat the above steps for Layer No. 4 at nine different positions: (1, 0, 28,

0), (2, 0, 28, 0), (4, 0, 28, 0), (6, 0, 28, 0), (10, 0, 28, 0), (20, 0, 28, 0), (30, 0, 28, 0), (50, 0, 28, 0),

and (100, 0, 28, 0).

Step 9. Save File: Click the Save File button and create a folder where the output files are stored.

Then click Save.

14

Step 10. Open File: Click the Open File icon and open Prob1.sta.

(Note: the Prob1.inp and Prob1.sta files in the output folder can be also opened manually using

either WordPad or Notepad)

300

4.0E-04

250 3.5E-04

3.0E-04

200

2.5E-04

150 2.0E-04

1.5E-04

100

1.0E-04

50 5.0E-05

0.0E+00

0

-5.0E-05 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

-50 -1.0E-04

X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

15

At the Top At the Top

0.0 1.0E-04

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

-0.5 0.0E+00

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

-1.0E-04

-1.0

-2.0E-04

-1.5

-3.0E-04

-2.0

-4.0E-04

-2.5 -5.0E-04

-3.0 -6.0E-04

X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

Problem 2: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Static Load Using the STA Option

Consider the four-layer pavement system shown below in which H(t) is the unit step function:

a = 6 in.

q H(t), q=100 psi

x

h2 = 12 in.

E2 = 30,000 psi, 2 = 0.40

h3 = 46 in.

E4 = , 4 = 0.01 z

The following creep compliance data was obtained from the indirect tension (IDT) test

performed as specified in AASHTO T 322 at 0 C.

16

Table 1. Creep Compliance

Sec Creep Compliance (1/psi)

1 5.0332E-07

2 5.7226E-07

5 6.4811E-07

10 7.3774E-07

20 8.4116E-07

50 9.9974E-07

100 1.1652E-06

Plot the change in stress and strain over time at the center and bottom of the asphalt concrete

layer (first layer).

Step 2. LOAD: Set the Vertical Loading Stress to 100 and Radius to 6.

Step 3. LAYERS: Set the layer number to 4 and Material type to Viscoelastic-Creep. Then enter

the thicknesses, moduli, and Poisson’s ratios shown above into the layer table and creep

compliance values into the material property table.

17

Step 4. POSITIONS: Input the first location and time (0, 0, 4, 0).

Step 5. Next Input / Run: Click the Next Input / Run button.

18

Step 6. POSITIONS: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for different times. Let us evaluate structural

responses at nine different times: (0, 0, 4, 1), (0, 0, 4, 2), (0, 0, 4, 3), (0, 0, 4, 4), (0, 0, 4, 5), (0, 0,

4, 6), (0, 0, 4, 7), (0, 0, 4, 8), and (0, 0, 4, 9).

Step 7. Save File: Click the Save File icon (create the output folder if you skipped Problem 1)

and click Save.

19

Step 8. Open File: Click the Open File icon and open Prob2.sta.

(Note: the Prob2.inp and Prob2.sta files in the output folder can be also opened manually using

either WordPad or Notepad)

Stresses

Strains

700 2.5E-04

600

2.0E-04

500

400 1.5E-04

300 1.0E-04

200

5.0E-05

100

0 0.0E+00

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

20

0 0.0E+00

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

-5 -5.0E-05

-10 -1.0E-04

-15 -1.5E-04

-20 -2.0E-04

-25 -2.5E-04

Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

Problem 3: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Static Load Using the THA Option

Problem 2 can be solved using the THA option. This analysis is effective for problems where the

time intervals are equally distributed over time.

Step 2. Change Output File Name to Prob3 and set the extension name of output file to THA.

21

Step 3. Input the location and time interval.

Step 4. Click the Next Input / Run button. The following computation window shows up less than

a second. Do not proceed to the next step until the computation window disappears.

22

Step 5. Click the Save File button and click Save.

Step 6. Click the Open File icon and open Prob3.sta. It is noted that stresses and strains are

identical to those of Problem 2.

23

Problem 4: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Moving Load Using the SMA Option

Consider the pavement system consisting of four layers including the rigid layer at its bottom

and loaded by the circular, uniform stress of 100 psi with a contact radius of 6.77 inches.

Let us consider the traffic load moving along the x axis beginning at (-100, 0, 0) apart from the

point P. Suppose we measure the response of the given pavement structure at the point P (0, 0, 0).

4 in.

12 in.

Direction of Loading

P

y

-100 in.

112 in.

128 in.

24

The following data was obtained from the dynamic modulus tests conducted at various

frequencies as recommended in AASHTO T 62 at 21.1 C.

0.01 142891.2 29.60

0.1 303660.7 27.22

0.5 466828.1 24.39

1 551191.7 23.32

5 779916.3 20.50

10 896526.6 19.23

Plot the change in maximum tensile stress and strain occurring at the point P at various

traffic speeds.

Step 1. Change Output File Name to Prob4 and set the extension name of output file to SMA.

Step 2. Set the Vertical Loading Stress to 100 and Radius to 6.77.

25

Step 3. Set the layer number to 4 and the Material type to Viscoelastic-Complex. Then enter the

thicknesses, moduli, and Poisson’s ratios shown above into the layer table and the dynamic

moduli and phase angles into the material property table.

26

Step 5. Click the Next Input / Run button.

The following computation window shows up for 2 to 3 seconds. Do not proceed to the next step

until the computation window disappears.

27

Step 6. Let us evaluate structural responses at nine different speeds: (0, 0, 4, 20), (0, 0, 4, 30), (0,

0, 4, 40), (0, 0, 4, 50), (0, 0, 4, 60), (0, 0, 4, 70), (0, 0, 4, 80), (0, 0, 4, 90), and (0, 0, 4, 100).

Stresses

Strains

370 3.7E-04

350 3.5E-04

330 3.3E-04

310 3.1E-04

290 2.9E-04

270 2.7E-04

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

Speed (MPH) Speed (MPH)

28

Problem 5: Viscoelastic Multilayer Analysis for a Moving Load Using the MHA option

For the pavement structure shown in Problem 4, plot the change in horizontal stress and

strain at the point P over the one pass of loading traveling at 45 miles per hour.

Step 2. Change Output File Name to Prob5 and set the extension name of output file to MHA.

29

Step 4. Click the Next Input / Run button. The following computation window shows up for

approximately 20 minutes. Do not proceed to the next step until the computation window

disappears.

30

Step 6. Click the Open File icon and open Prob5.mha.

Horizontal Stresses

Distance from

loading

Horizontal

Strains

StrainXX StrainYY

StressXX StressYY

3.50E-04

400

3.00E-04

350

300 2.50E-04

250 2.00E-04

200 1.50E-04

150 1.00E-04

100

5.00E-05

50

0.00E+00

0

-100.0

-5.00E-05 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0

-100.0

-50 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0

-100 -1.00E-04

Distance from Loading (in.) Distance from Loading (in.)

31

VERIFICATION

The objective of this section is to verify the reliability and accuracy of the results presented in

the section of ‘Example Problems’ by comparing the solutions to those from other analysis tools.

This section is helpful for users to confirm that V-LAYER is properly installed and to gain

familiarity and confidence in the features of the program.

Verification of Problem 1

To verify the solutions of the first problem, BISAR, which is a well-know elastic multilayer

analysis program, was used (De Jong et al. 1973). For the same geometry shown in the Problem

1, the longitudinal stresses and strains at the bottom of the first layer and the vertical stresses and

strains at the top of the last layer were obtained at the same locations using the BISAR program.

Plots are as follows:

300 0.0

250 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

-0.5

200

-1.0

150

-1.5

100

50 -2.0

0 -2.5

X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

4.0E-04 1.0E-04

0.0E+00

3.0E-04

-1.0E-04 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

2.0E-04 -2.0E-04

1.0E-04 -3.0E-04

-4.0E-04

0.0E+00

-5.0E-04

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

-1.0E-04 -6.0E-04

X Coordinate (in.) X Coordinate (in.)

32

Verification of Problems 2 and 3

To verify the solutions of the problems 2 and 3, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was chosen. For

FEA, the commercial FE software, ADINA (2008), was used. When performing FEA on

viscoelastic structures, most FE programs require the viscoelastic shear and bulk moduli of given

viscoelastic materials in the forms of Prony series as their input (Kim et al. 2010). The Prony

series representation of creep compliance is of the following form:

N

t

D (t ) D0 Di 1 exp( )

i 1 i

where D0, and Di, are Prony series parameters, and i are retardation times. In fitting the creep

compliance shown in Problem 2, the fitting technique proposed by Kim et al. (2008a) and Kim

and West (2010a and 2010b) was used. Based on the literature, the above Prony series with six

Kelvin elements (N=6) and retardation times with one decade interval, i = 10(i-4) (i = 1, 6)

were selected and then the unknown coefficients were determined by solving the linear system of

equations.

According to the theory of linear viscoelasticity, the relationships among the relaxation,

D(t), shear, G(t), and bulk, K(t), moduli are expressed as algebraic equations in the Laplace

transforms:

1

G (s)

2 s 2 (1 s ( s )) Dˆ ( s )

1

K (s)

3s 2 (1 2 s ( s )) Dˆ ( s )

where the term of s (s ) is because it was assumed to be the time-independent value in the V-

LAYER program. After substituting Laplace-transformed Prony series, D(t), into the equations

above, taking the inverse Laplace transforms of the equations yields (Kim et al. 2009 and

2008b):

N

G (t ) G0 Gi (exp( ri t ))

i 1

N

K (t ) K0 K i (exp( ri t ))

i 1

The shear and bulk moduli determined (shown below) were used as input for FEA:

33

Prony Series

Index, i ri (1/sec) Gi (psi) Ki (psi)

0 0.000E+00 2.651E+05 7.953E+05

1 1.085E+03 1.106E+05 3.319E+05

2 1.131E+02 1.494E+05 4.482E+05

3 1.214E+01 2.029E+05 6.086E+05

4 1.355E+00 2.464E+05 7.393E+05

5 1.437E-01 2.118E+05 6.353E+05

6 1.798E-02 1.974E+05 5.921E+05

FEA was performed for the same pavement structure used in Problems 2 and 3 but with a

finite width of 100 inches. The width was estimated based on the previous work done by

Thompson (1982). The study recommended that the minimum distance of the width should be at

least 12 times the radius of the applied load. By introducing the fixed boundary conditions

underneath the subgrade layer (that is, this would act as the rigid layer shown in Problems 2 and

3), the three-layered pavement system was prepared. For the given geometry, the rectangular

element with nine nodes was used as the element type of model. The viscoelastic analysis, which

considered the asphalt layer as viscoelastic and the other layers as elastic, was performed on the

FE model below:

62 inches

z 100 inches

34

Stresses and strains obtained at the same location and at the same time were compared to those in

Problems 2 and 3. The plots are presented below:

700 2.5E-04

600

2.0E-04

500

1.5E-04

400

300 1.0E-04

200

5.0E-05

100

0 0.0E+00

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

0 0.0E+00

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

-5 -5.0E-05

-10 -1.0E-04

-15 -1.5E-04

-20 -2.0E-04

-25 -2.5E-04

Tim e (sec) Tim e (sec)

Verification of Problem 5

To verify the solutions of Problem 5, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was also chosen. To

determine the material input in terms of Prony series using the complex modulus data presented

in Problem 4, the conversion process proposed by Kim et al. (2008a) and Kim and West (2010a

and 2010b) which determines the viscoelastic creep compliance D(t) by means of the well-

known power model from the measured dynamic modulus, |E*|, and phase angle, , values was

employed. The power model has the following form:

D(t) = D0+D1tn

where D0, D1, and n are regression coefficients.

35

The storage compliance, D = cos( )/|E*|, and loss compliance, D = sin( )/|E*|, are related to the

power model (Findley et al. 1976) as:

n

D' ( ) D 0 D1 (n 1) cos(n (2k 1 / 2))

n

D' ' ( ) D1 (n 1) sin( n (2k 1 / 2))

k 0, 1, 2

where is angular frequency, and is the gamma function. Given that the k values from the two

equations at each frequency should be identical, Kim et al. (2008a) derived a single equation by

combining the two equations as:

n

y D1 (n 1)

where y = ( D ' ( ) D 0) 2 D ' ' ( ) 2 . The equation can be fitted to the known storage and loss

compliances using the nonlinear regression technique. Finally, the shear and bulk moduli are

determined using the scheme outlined in the previous verification. The shear and bulk moduli are

as follows:

Prony Series

Index, i ri (1/sec) Gi (psi) Ki (psi)

0 0.000E+00 1.760E+04 5.281E+04

1 1.079E+03 2.550E+04 7.650E+04

2 1.203E+02 5.462E+04 1.639E+05

3 1.383E+01 7.598E+04 2.279E+05

4 1.867E+00 8.773E+04 2.632E+05

5 1.989E-01 4.964E+04 1.489E+05

6 2.881E-02 2.717E+04 8.151E+04

According to the previous study (Kim et al. 2008b), responses measured near the center

of a pavement model 200 inches long by 200 inches wide were not sensitive to its boundaries.

They also reported that the symmetry about the x axis alone can be used for the three-

dimensional viscoelastic model subjected to a moving load because of the asymmetric

viscoelastic responses occurring before and after the loading passes. On the basis of the previous

study, this study arrived at the final geometry of the FE model shown below. The same

36

thicknesses and elastic moduli as those used in Problem 5 were used for the three-layered FE

model with the fixed boundary condition underneath the subgrade layer, which would act as the

rigid layer in the analytical model. The roller supports allowing the model to move in the vertical

axis alone were applied to all the vertical sides of the FE model.

100 inches

200 inches

x

Direction of Loading

P

-100 inches

128 inches y

A brick element with 8 nodes, which has been successfully used in three-dimensional

FEA, was used as the element type of the model along with the typical meshing technique that

achieves a finer mesh in the area of interest while keeping a relatively coarser mesh in the

remaining area. The numbers of elements used for the first, second, and third layers were 6400,

9600, and 12800, respectively. In order to achieve a similar loading condition to that used in the

analytical model, a uniform, square load of 100 psi distributed over the area of 144 square inches,

which is identical to that of the circular area used for the analytical model, was shifted every 2

inches traveling at the same speed of 45 miles per hour. Stresses and strains obtained at the same

location and at the same distance from loading compared to those in Problem 5 are present

below:

37

V-LAYER FEM V-LAYER FEM

400 400

350 350

300 300

250 250

200

200

150

150

100

100

50

0 50

-100.0

-50 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0 0

-100 -100.0

-50 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0

Distance from Loading (in.) Distance from Loading (in.)

4.0E-04 4.E-04

3.5E-04 3.E-04

3.0E-04

3.E-04

2.5E-04

2.0E-04 2.E-04

1.5E-04 2.E-04

1.0E-04

1.E-04

5.0E-05

0.0E+00 5.E-05

-100.0

-5.0E-05 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0 0.E+00

-1.0E-04 -100.0 -50.0 0.0 50.0 100.0

Distance from Loading (in.) Distance from Loading (in.)

38

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