2000-2001 FORMULA SAE RACECAR

EE290/291 & ME272/273 SENIOR DESIGN PROJECTS BY EE TEAM 1 & ME TEAM 15 SUSPENSION, STEERING, AND ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN FINAL REPORT
Team Members: • Andy Bilmanis, ME • Robert Hotaling, EE • Jason Mangual, CMPE • Michael McGee, EE • Nnamdi Okam, EE • Greg Pineau, ME • Justin Pribanic, ME Advisors: Professor John Ayers, Ph.D.: jayers@engr.uconn.edu Professor Jim Cowart, Ph.D.: jscowart@engr.uconn.edu SAE Collegiate Design Series: http://www.sae.org/students/formula.htm UConn Racing Team: http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~ucracing ME Due Date: May 7, 2001 EE Due Date: May 9, 2001

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Glossary
Ackerman’s Principal – While turning, the outer tire follows a larger radius than the inner tire. To account for this the control arm must connect to the upright along an imaginary line that connects the spindle and the center of the rear axis Autocross – A competition for automobiles that tests driving skill and speed. Bump Steer – Toe-in/out of a tire caused by its vertical displacement Caster Angle – Caster is a line from ball joint to ball joint seen from the side view Camber – The tilting of the tires about the horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of rotation Center of Gravity – Location where force would be if the mass of the vehicle was lumped Chicanes – S–turn in a race track Coil-on-plug system – Ignition firing scheme where an individual coil is used for each cylinder Droop – Negative displacement of the wheel Five-link suspension – A suspension system with four points of attachment to the frame Four-link suspension – A suspension system with five points of attachment to the frame Front Roll Center – Point that the front of the vehicle desires to roll about, determined by front suspension geometry Jacking – When the tires skip as the vehicle turns Jounce – Positive displacement of the wheel Kingpin inclination – An imaginary line drawn from the center of the top ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint, looking at the suspension from the front of the car LED – light emitting diode McPherson struts – Suspension type where the shock is one of the suspension arms Proto-board – An experimental device for prototyping electronic circuits

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar

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Rim spacing – Distance from centerline to the bolt on the rim Roll Axis – The imaginary line that connects the front and the rear roll centers, about which the body will rotate or roll Rear Roll Center – Point that the rear of the vehicle desires to roll about, determined by front suspension geometry RPM (revolutions per minute) – Rate of revolution of a motor Scrub radius – The distance between the two points created by the inter-section of the wheel centerline (centerline of tire patch) and the steering axis with the ground plane Short-Long arm (SLA) – Suspension type using unequal length arms for top and bottom Solid axle – No independent suspension Spindle – Connects The Wheel to the A-Arms, allows the tire to rotate Steering rack – Rack & Pinion system that transmits steering wheel turn into tire turn Tire patch – Area of tire touching the ground Toe-in/out – Toe-in is when the front of the tires angle in towards each other and toe-out is when they angle away from each other Torsen – Torque-Sensing (Gleason differential that biases torque) Track – Distance between the outside edges of the tires when viewing the car from the front Trailing Arms – Independent suspension that is pivoted ninety degrees TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic) – A common semiconductor technology for building discrete digital logic integrated circuits where the voltage swing is 0-5V Uprights – Centerpiece of suspension, connect steering, shocks, A-arms, and tires together Waste Spark – Ignition firing scheme where two companion cylinders are fired using one ignition coil Wheelbase – Distance between the front and rear tire centers

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar

4 Nomenclature σ .force (lbs) A .moment (lb•in) I .critical force (lbs) c E .moment of inertia (in4) c .stress (lbs/in2) P .modulus of elasticity (lbs/in) L – length (in) r – radius (in) psi – pounds per square inch (lbs/in2) 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .area (in2) M .distance from force (in) P r .

and spindles. and three Electrical Engineering Students. positive. The system uses feedback from the engine combined with pre-programmed information to deliver metered fuel to the cylinders. The engine control system for the Formula SAE racecar will offer a high performance engine control system.5 Abstract This report describes two combined design projects that are to be implemented through inter-disciplinary teamwork as components of the 20002001 Formula SAE vehicle being built by the Formula SAE Chapter at the University of Connecticut. It was specifically designed for a Honda F1 600cc motorcycle engine. one Electrical and Computer Engineering. and negative directions that can be achieved while competing during the Formula SAE challenge. The adaptability of the car extends to meet the needs of different sized drivers. and varying track conditions. The design project is motivated by the Formula SAE student competition. and the drive train so these will constrain several design aspects. This system is competitive in both performance and price with the current complete fuel injection systems available from various manufacturers. The system provides electronic control of the fuel injection and ignition system. and is funded by sponsorship support and the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. The goal of the suspension design is to maintain the maximum accelerations in the lateral. the steering is designed to minimize bump steer while reusing existing components such as the steering rack. Some existing components are re-used. such as the rear five link suspension arms. The Formula SAE car suspension design incorporates features that are designed to make the car’s handling predictable as well as adjustable. Similarly. The first project to be discussed is designed through a mechanical engineering senior design project while the second project is the interdisciplinary senior design project between one Mechanical. rim spacers. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . uprights. and ignition spark to the cylinders at the optimum time for peak engine performance. driver preference.

........................................................................4 Abstract.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Manufacturing considerations..........................................................................................................80 Patent Opportunities.........................52 Testing..................................................................14 Static weight..........................................................................................................52 Engine Intake Manifold Design..........................................................................................................66 MAP Sensor........................................................................................................14 Suspension Design...........................................................................13 Discussion........................................................................................................45 Pulse Width Determination..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................42 Additional Engine Decisions........................................................................................41 Motivation..............................87 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Market Research...........41 Engine Considerations............................................................................61 Engine Control System..........................................................44 EFI Requirements.........................68 Rich/Lean Adjustment Circuit.........27 Factor of Safety Development.......................................................................................................................................................................83 Suspension................................................................................................2 Nomenclature..............................................................................................................................................48 Valve Train Timing...................................................................................................82 Budget...........................................................................................................................................24 Lateral load transfer due to lateral acceleration............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28 Design Overview......................69 Ambient Air and Throttle Position sensors...............................................39 Modifications......................................................85 Timeline.......................................................................................................................65 Crankshaft Sensor (Variable Reluctance Sensor).........................................................................................................................................27 Maximum Tractive Forces.....................8 Background.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................72 Cylinder Compression Detector...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................71 Ignition Coil Driver Circuit..................................67 Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Circuit...........................76 Implementation.........................................62 Engine Control Overview......................................................................59 Engine Control Design...................................................................41 Powerplant Selection.65 Variable Reluctance Sensor (VRS) Interface Circuit.............................70 Driver Circuits............................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 Fuel Injection..........................................................................................71 Ignition System..........................................................................................................................................................................................................25 Longitudinal weight transfer due to negative acceleration................................................................................................................................................6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Glossary..............40 Engine Intake Design............................................70 Fuel Injector Driver Circuit...................74 Microcontroller.....................................................................................26 Maximum loads achieved....................5 Introduction.........................29 Safety Considerations.................................................................................................84 Engine Control.........................................................................................................................................................................83 Engine Intake...................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 Appendix B – Timeline.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Acknowledgements.................................................................................................112 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar ........................................................................7 Conclusion....................................................................................111 Appendix K – Thank you to all of our Sponsors....110 Appendix J – Simulations of Cylinder Compression Detector...................98 Appendix G – PCBoards Circuit Layout...........................94 Appendix D – Valve Timing.............................................................................................................91 Appendix..108 Appendix H – RC Compression Damping...........................................................................................93 Appendix C – Tire Data............92 Appendix A – Figure List................................................................................................................................97 Port Schema.......................................................................................95 Appendix E – String Model......................................................................................................................................................96 Appendix F – Microcontroller....................................................................................................108 ....................................................................................88 References.........................................97 Microcontroller Code.............109 Appendix I – RC Rebound Damping...................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Electrical. These planes are illustrated in Figure 1 below. build. and compete with a prototype car that is of high performance in acceleration. or any combination of cornering-accelerating and cornering-braking were directed to the vehicle’s center of mass. The car was built assuming that a manufacturing firm could produce the winning design at a rate of four cars per day in a limited production run costing less than $30. accelerating. The force generated by cornering. Our project goal was to create a competitive car that outperforms previous designs in the areas of engine performance and suspension dynamics through interdisciplinary teamwork between Mechanical.000 for a prototype vehicle. Three planes represented by the SAE standard define the center of mass of the vehicle. and rearward accelerations while responding to body roll and small vertical wheel movements. Figure 1 – Vehicle Coordinates 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . and handling. braking. and Computer Engineers. forward. and braking. The objective of our suspension system design was to maintain the maximum traction during lateral.8 Introduction The objective of the Formula SAE competition is to design.

and the ignition system delivers spark to each cylinder at the appropriate time. It was our responsibility as Formula SAE car club members to fund much of the project independently of our senior design projects. Both of these systems must be controlled so that they will vary as needed with different temperature. Input from sources such as faculty. Since time was limited the team had to focus on basic implementations rather than design ideals. creativity and communication. This underlying factor was considered throughout the design process and limited us to reusing components from previous years in some situations. Thus. Winning designs such as Texas A&M produced brainstorming sessions to develop an improved suspension design for the 2001 FSAE car. multi-port fuel 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . classmates and friends also supplied us with many ideas and solutions. However. the team met time deadlines and the projected budget. The final design was a combination of design constraints. and computer code in the microprocessor. car clubs. Virtually all automobiles use electronic fuel injection systems to deliver fuel to the cylinders. This process is accomplished using various sensors. Creativity and “thinking out of the box” are great tools when constructing preliminary designs. this coordinate system is local to front and rear suspension systems with the front suspension and steering combined. Gasoline engines that are currently in use incorporate a variety of different fuel injection systems. engine speed and load conditions. One way to build a successful first year car is to study the winning competitors.9 This coordinate system is used throughout the car’s design. feedback to a microprocessor. Research continued through Internet sources and enabled us to obtain a good idea of what features current winning designs include. Three common types of electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems used today are throttle body injection (TBI). The Engine Control System designed by the EE/CMPE and ME teams is an electronic fuel injection and ignition system. The electronic fuel injection system delivers fuel to the engine’s intake manifold. Ideas were first generated during a visit to the May 2000 competition in Pontiac Michigan.

the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) will be hosting an annual student design competition for colleges and universities across the country. Throttle body injection systems deliver all of the fuel for the engine at the same point at the intake manifold inlet through one large fuel injector. the engine stroke position must be known. the injectors are actuated individually just before each cylinder’s combustion stroke. Sequential Fuel injection offers the lowest exhaust emissions and the most efficient use of fuel. between both the Mechanical and Electrical and Computer Engineering departments of Uconn. If bank firing is used. These are both systems where the fuel is delivered to each individual cylinder by using separate fuel injectors for all the cylinders. These injectors are located in the intake manifold runners in close proximity to each individual cylinder. is to design and build certain aspects of the racecar. The reason for designing the fuel injection system comes from the fact 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The components of this project will be used on the Uconn SAE Chapter’s car for this year’s competition. The most common types of fuel injection systems today are multi-port fuel injection and sequential fuel injection. In multi-port fuel injection. This is usually accomplished through the use of a camshaft position sensor. This joint project. The competition consists of developing and racing formula style automobiles according to SAE specifications. The Mechanical students are focusing on two different aspects the suspension and the engine. This is somewhat like a hybrid between fuel injection and a carburetor. the injectors are actuated in groups (also known as bank firing). Background In May 2001. In sequential fuel injection. The components that the Electrical and Computer Engineering students are responsible for are fuel injection and ignition systems. so it is usually preferred over multi-port fuel injection by automobile manufacturers. For sequential fuel injection.10 injection (MFI) and sequential fuel injection (SFI) systems. there is no need for a camshaft position sensor to give an indication of the engine’s stroke position.

creativity. The 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . For the purpose of the competition. the design of an ignition system that will allow control of the spark timing and increase engine performance can be made without a significant loss in time and resources. Therefore. comfort and use of common parts. it is necessary to refer to the overall competition. Since both systems rely on the same parameters. The ignition system design is a logical extension of the fuel injection system design. easy to maintain. The references to the competition were included in order to explain the requirements of a competitive car and how the project affected the overall performance of the car. In addition. the car’s marketability is enhanced by other factors such as aesthetics. The end result is a great experience for young engineers in a meaningful engineering project as well as the opportunity of working in a dedicated team effort. the car should have very high performance in terms of its acceleration. The restrictions on the car frame and engine are limited so that the knowledge.11 that the Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) carburetor system on the engine will not supply adequate fuel for hard cornering portions of the competition. The manufacturing firm is planning to produce four cars per day for a limited production run and the prototype vehicle should cost below $30. and handling qualities. design. The objective of the Formula SAE competition restated from page 8 of the rulebook is: To conceive. Although the senior design project at the University of Connecticut only concentrates on a few aspects of the vehicle. and compete with small formula-style racing cars. braking. fabricate. The car should also be low in cost. and imagination of the students are challenged. the students assumed that a manufacturing firm has engaged them to produce a prototype car for evaluation as a production item. The cars are built with a team effort over a period of about one year and are taken to the annual competition for judging and comparison with approximately 100 other vehicles from colleges and universities throughout the world.000. The intended sales market is the nonprofessional weekend autocross racer. and reliable.

positive. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The combined total of both static and dynamic events is 1000 points. and cost and manufacturing analysis. Each design will be compared and judged with other competing designs to determine the best overall car. The cars will be judged both statically and dynamically. skid-pad. While the two objectives correspond to the competition. Each car must be inspected before being permitted to enter any aspect of the competition to ensure safety. The first objective is to maintain maximum lateral. and endurance events. autocross. The desired dynamics of the vehicle can be summed up by two objectives. and fuel delivery. and negative accelerations in a specified range of operating conditions. Engineering design.12 challenge is to design and fabricate a prototype car that best meets these goals and intents. spark. The second is to produce a reliable engine management system that out performs other methods of aspiration. Dynamic events are judged in areas of acceleration. fuel economy. each is designated as separate senior design projects. The static events include Presentation.

none of the complete systems fit our needs. 8.rancefi. This system allows for re-programmability of fuel injection and costs $880. E6K Haltech $1495 Provides fuel injection and ignition timing. the best low-end solution is the Accel 74022A closed loop injection controller for 4. Includes a one bar manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor. but does not include ignition control. A search of prices was done on www.com. Table 1 below summarizes the models we researched. but at a much higher price. A more advanced commercially available solution is the Haltech E6K. a throttle position sensor (TPS). software and cables. Figure 2 – Various Commercially Available Fuel Injection/Ignition Systems According to cost. Simple Digital $1134 Provides fuel injection and Systems (SDS) crank triggered. and 12 cylinder engines that are 600cc or higher. Therefore. There are additional solutions at different costs between these two extremes. a 3-wire O2 sensor. Product 74022A – Accel Closed Loop Auto/RV Computer and Harness Kit EM-3 F Description/Comments The 74022A is a general conversion kit made to replace a carburetor. Manufacturer Accel Cost $880 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .com and www.13 Market Research Although there are several commercial fuel injection systems available. 6.sdsefi. This device is programmable and provides multiple feedbacks and more engine control. air and temperature sensors. it does not include ignition or timing system control. They were either too expensive or did not provide all of the controls the engine needed. distributor-less $1300 ignition control on 4 and 6 cylinder engines.

As an example. from which we selected an SLA (short-long arm) set-up. We chose the rack and pinion steering system since it was the most common for an SLA setup and it kept us within budget. in this type of autocross race. we tested wheel 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The minimum track width will be 11. Some of the other types of suspension systems considered include McPherson struts. Maximum speeds are also suggested to be as high as 65 mph. There exist many types of suspension systems today with differing advantages and disadvantages. The length of one lap of the course is roughly ½ mile where several laps will be taken. it is stated that these dimensions suggest average speeds between 25 to 30 mph. The course is on an asphalt parking lot surface generally termed “asphalt lake” in Michigan.14 Discussion Suspension Design The autocross course is constructed of several components that are typically found in formula racing: straight-aways. The first factor was in our application where. slaloms. Another factor involved our ability to ease budget constraints by reusing old car parts. with the rack and pinion steering system. There are seven different geometric configurations possible for a front SLA suspension system. and slalom cones will have a spacing of 25 to 40 feet. the SLA design is very popular and suits the track conditions well. These dimensions directly correspond to maximum accelerations developed while competing. hairpin turns no less than 23 feet outside diameter. we reused the front uprights in a four-link SLA setup. and trailing arm. or no longer than 150 feet with wide turns on the end. From previous races. multiple turns. Using this information. hairpin turns. and varying radius turns. Choosing which system best suited our project involved a number of factors. In order to narrow down our choices. constant turns 75 to 148 feet diameter. solid axle. constant radius turns.5 feet. The straight-aways will be no longer than 200 feet with hairpins at either end. the forces generated were determined and used to design the suspension geometry and components and steering mechanism. chicanes.

After reviewing our results. We decided that these two characteristics were the most important factors since they are essential in the handling of the car. The key is to decide what is most 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .15 displacement verses both camber and roll center. There is no optimum suspension for all conditions. The geometric setup shown third is the suspension system that we are using. for every improvement there is a sacrifice. In the following table (Figure 3). Suspension Set-Up Wheel Displacement Camber Roll Center Negative None Positive Always Negative Always Positive Always Positive Positive Majority of the Displacements Always Negative Negative Majority of the Displacements Figure 3 – Suspension Setup Types One of the most difficult parts of designing a suspension system is compromising. therefore. all seven SLA geometries are illustrated. we were able to narrow our system down to three possibilities.

rc1 L. Car Body L. The software is considered kinematic because suspension geometry changes through wheel displacement. For roll centers with small radii. a line that connects the front and rear roll centers. we had to account for a race on a smooth track that contains many tight turns but can be subject to a variety of weather conditions. To fulfill our goal of maintaining the largest accelerations possible. the larger the pendulum.16 important for your particular application. Much of the geometry mentioned was calculated using this software and then verified by 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The first heavily debated design component examined was the roll axis. and the more minute the angular displacements the box will achieve. one could image a box suspended by two short strings at two corners suspended as something of a pendulum. In our case. The longer the string. provided the team kinematic software for the fall and spring semesters.rc2 Theta 1 Theta 1 > Theta 2 Theta 2 Ground Figure 4 – Roll Center Location One of our sponsors. Altair Engineering. we examined the many components of a suspension design (the definitions of these terms are conveniently defined during the discussion). As shown below. around which the car body rotates when lateral forces are applied. The roll center is defined as the effective center that the body will appear to rotate about. the body roll Theta 1 is greater than Theta 2 with a longer roll center located below ground level.

A car with some degree of body roll can be adjusted via spring rates of the shocks and anti-roll bar. Another method is to design a suspension in which the roll center stays constant. One approach is to choose the region in which you want to keep the roll center within for all displacements. The first was that “jacking” could develop on high velocity turns. and the CG. One of the difficulties involved with roll center selection is that it changes with wheel displacement. The three basic regions for the roll center location are the same height as the CG.17 a string calculator (see Appendix C). and thus. the absorption of corning forces through the suspension has been limited. it appeared the best arrangement would be to have the CG and both roll centers on the same plane. In order to understand the importance of the roll axis of a vehicle. The second problem involves the tune-ability of the system. such as using parallel links. It is usually not desirable to have your roll center change between regions since this makes handling less predictable. the roll of the vehicle is a result of the moment formed by the distance of the CG (center of gravity) from the roll axis. This would create no moment and would result in no body roll during cornering. but there were a few problems involved. A problem with no roll is that the shocks are not being compressed very much. below the ground. If the roll center is below the CG. At first analysis. The three factors that affect the roll axis of the vehicle are the front and rear roll centers. and is used purely as an efficient tool to generate geometrical changes with wheel displacement in all the specific geometrical areas considered in the design. the dynamics had to be first examined. However. but this involves sacrificing other aspects of handling. which is not desirable since contact with the ground is not maintained and the ability to fulfill the maximum lateral acceleration fails. and between the ground and the CG. Essentially. a moment is formed and the car appears to lean during the turn. but a car with no roll 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . When a car goes into a turn. a lateral force is exerted at its center of gravity. “Jacking” happens when the tires skip around the turn. the software does not analyze the dynamic response associated with a mass-spring-damper system.

We then decided on a roll center between the ground and the CG of the car. This has been determined by using a geometric approach with the existing vehicle. we found the setup suitable and two. Due to the number of factors affecting handling. to simply keep cost down. Wheel Displacement (in) 3 2 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 2 4 6 8 Roll Center Height(in) Figure 5 – Graph of Roll Center Height vs. it will be very large. The front is critical since that is where the steering is taking place. Height of CG = Wheelbase * sin −1 α * weight difference total vehicle weight Using this equation. If the roll center is too far below the generated moment. The following graph (see Figure 5) shows the range of roll center heights for our car. This choice was made for two basic reasons. causing the inner tires to lift off the ground. One major suspension limitation was that we decided to reuse the old spindles. it is desirable to be able to adjust the system as needed. Wheel Displacement Our main controlling factor of the roll axis was the front suspension geometry. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . We can only change the rear suspension to a limited extent since the rear wheels must be powered by an existing drive train.18 cannot. The only sufficient geometries are those that incorporate both positive steering and handling aspects. and the following equation. One. Our car will have a CG approximately 11 inches above the ground. The resultant moment must be investigated if the roll center is located below the CG. This is highly undesirable since the result will be loss of both power and control. we decided that the moment for any roll center below the ground would be too great.

Camber is adjusted by two methods: static and dynamic camber. This also leads to uneven tire wear results. If camber exists even when the car is not turning. the geometry must be such that the camber is zero for straight driving. It also can be a very negative characteristic if it is not properly studied and implemented. The desirable aspect of camber is that it can be used to increase tire patch area when the vehicle experiences body roll. as determined through a tire manufacturer’s data. It achieves slightly more than a degree of camber per inch of displacement. Camber is defined as the tilting of the tires about the horizontal axis perpendicular to the direction of rotation. However. Dynamic camber is determined by the suspensions geometry through the path of a vertically deflected tire. Specific tire data can be difficult to achieve but a variety of tire types were available (see Appendix A). Comparing this slope to the tire data in Appendix A. Below is a graph for our suspension system. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .19 Camber is a very important feature in controlling the handling of a vehicle during turning. To achieve this effect. camber must be positive when wheel displacement is negative (wheel droop). Figure 6 – Demonstration of Negative and Positive Camber A small amount of negative camber is desirable in a turn. and negative when wheel displacement is positive (jounce). This tilting action can be used as a valuable handling characteristic. the tire patch area is reduced and maximum possible traction is not attained. the results support that an increase in lateral force can be achieved. Static camber is gained through small adjustments to the control arm lengths.

commonly known as “bump steer”. This characteristic complicates tuning the vehicle by adding responses that are unpredictable to the driver.20 Wheel Displacement (in) -4 -2 3 2 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 Camber (degrees) 2 4 Figure 7 – Graph of Camber vs. As the figure below demonstrates. Wheel Displacement Many complications are added to the suspension geometry where the steering control arms and rack are located. which is pre-determined by re-using the vertical uprights. Both kinds of toe are a result of the position of the steering linkages. and “toe-out” is when they angle away from each other. To steer the vehicle. Since we are using an existing steering rack. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . thus turning the car. “Toe-in” is when the front of the tires angle in towards each other. One of the biggest effects it can cause is “toe-in/out”. the kingpin inclination affects scrub radius. its position has several constraints. the control arms must be a distance from the axis about which the tire turns specifically the king pin inclination (KPI) to induce a moment. It is undesirable to have the tires independently steer the vehicle when the vehicle hits bump.

Wheel Displacement (in) 3 2 1 -0.3 -0. there has been as much as 5.1 -2 -3 0.21 Figure 8 – Scrub Radius Bump steer is a very difficult characteristic to accommodate. Wheel Displacement 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . the amount of bump steer cannot be zero for all wheel displacements. we designed our suspension system with a minimal amount of Toe-In/Toe-Out by placing the rack where the pivots for inner and outer tie rod match the control arm pivot axis. In previous car designs. This amount will not noticeably affect the handling of the vehicle.4 -0.4degree angle over 4-inch wheel displacement.2 0 -1 0 -0. Our results were a considerable improvement since our design has less than a 0.5 degrees of toe-out over a 3-inch wheel displacement.2 Toe-In/Out (degrees) Figure 9 – Toe-In/Out vs.1 0. In a majority of geometries tested. Therefore.

Pneumatic trail differs from the mechanical trail defined by the KPI and caster angle by specific tire characteristics.22 Another aspect that must be considered is the caster angle.02 0. Pneumatic trail is a result of the tire patch area shape. The final design uses pneumatic trail to provide steering center effect at higher speeds. and the vehicle will exhibit under steer and feel “loose”. Wheel Displacement 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The combination of the caster angle and kingpin inclination greatly affects the handling of the car. The combination of the two has a large effect on the rate of camber change during wheel displacement.06 Caster Angle (degrees) Figure 10 – Graph of Caster Angle vs. thus providing a wedge effect with the ground and provides a horizontal centering force. Viewing from the side.04 0. and since the effect of pneumatic trail is nonlinear with vehicle speed.02 0. Wheel Displacement (in) 3 2 1 0 -1 0 -2 -3 -0. This provides an important source of driver feedback at higher speeds. Skid warning is also maintained by minimizing mechanical trail. Both types of trails act as weather vanes to the steering wheel but have varying effects at over a given range of speed. Mechanical trail is dominant at low speeds while pneumatic trail at high speeds. it is desirable to minimize both the caster angle and the kingpin angle for all wheel displacements. caster angle is the angle between the steering axis and the vertical plane. Both are very important since they influence the steering forces during lateral acceleration and the self-centering effect of the steering. As with Toe.04 -0. The patch area roughly forms a triangle. the driver will be able to sense when there is a significant decrease in pneumatic trail.

as mentioned before. For this reason. the bump steer cannot be reduced to zero with the existing wheel offset.23 Wheel Displacement (in) 3 2 1 -4 -2 0 -1 0 -2 -3 2 4 Kingpin Angle (degrees) Figure 11 – Graph of Kingpin Angle vs. A major focus of our system was to incorporate Ackerman’s principal. The following data has been chosen as the suspension parameters: 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . as mentioned above. the key to designing the suspension. and therefore. Our control arm will connect in front of the spindle. Figure 12 – Diagram of Ackerman’s Principle These parameters are coupled so that changing one aspect will change any combination of geometries. where the control arm must connect to the spindle along an imaginary line that connects the spindle and the center of the rear axis. is to compromise. Wheel Displacement Steering arm geometry is another important factor of vehicle control on driver response. must be set into the wheel. This supports the fact that the outer tire has a larger turning radius than the inner tire.

non-parallel double A-arms Track=51” Roll center height=4. SLA. and left-to-right weight distribution 50/50. Static weight The load transfer calculations use the following parameters (see Figure 13) to model the forces generated. SLA.5” Spring rate=350lbf/in Damping Coefficients of selected Fox Vanilla RC damper: Adjustable compression between 0-8. The static forces are calculated using a driver weight of 175 lbs. The height of the CG is estimated from the average of the moment of inertias of major components. The static roll centers are geometrically determined using a string computer then checked using SuspensionGen software.75lbf*s/in. non-parallel double A-arms Track=50” Roll center height=1.36->.5” Camber=-2.5° . Adjustable rebound between 087.7->2.6 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .24 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Wheel base=65” Front: 4-Link. vehicle weight of 520 lbs estimated from previous vehicles.08° No caster KPI=3° Rear: Five-Link.8-8” Camber=-2->2° No caster Predicted Center of gravity height=11” Estimated weight distribution 50/50 True Ackerman steering angle Ground static ground clearance of 2. Toe-in=-. Height of CG 11 Wheel Base (WB) 65 Front Track – 50 Rear Track – 51. front-to-rear weight distribution 50/50.5lbf*s/in.8-6.

5 1.5 g’s. This number is used as a safety factor since the car will not encounter more than 1.5 Rear Bias Negative Acceleration 0.2 g’s of force. The lateral acceleration has been set to a high value of 1. 1.5 Figure 13 – Acceleration Data used for Calculations Lateral load transfer due to lateral acceleration The lateral forces generated act through the center of gravity and are summed as a torque.5 1. or moment.5 Right Bias 0. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .5 Left Bias Lateral Acceleration 0. The two moments are summed to find Ftire and then split front to rear by multiplying by the bias ratio.25 Weight Driver (WD) Front Static Roll Center 175 4 Weight Vehicle (WV) Rear Static Roll Center 520 6 Total Vehicle Weight (TVW) = WD + WV 695 Front Bias Positive Acceleration 0. The moments are summed about the roll center axis when roll centers are determined at a static height. to determine the vertical force on a tire.5 times the force of gravity.5 1.

1 tire = 51.26 Figure 14 – Graph of Relevant Forces Front L1 = Lcg – Lrc.r = 4 L4 = rear track/2 = 25.f = 6 L2 = front track/2 = 25 Rear L3 = Lcg – Lrc.srl + Fz.8 F1 = a1*(Fz.25 Ft = (F1*L1 + F2*L3)/(L2 + L4) = 102.6082677 Figure 15 – Vertical Tire Force Calculation Fz.5 L7 = WB*rear bias = 32.30413 Rear.30413 Figure 16 – Lateral Acceleration Loads L5 = 11 L6 = WB*front bias = 32. steady state Front.5 Longitudinal weight transfer due to negative acceleration The rear-to-front weight transfer due to braking is a sum of moments about the y-axis and is defined by the intersection of the x-coordinate of the CG projected on the ground. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .srr) = 521. 1 tire = 51. Lateral Acceleration Loads.sfl + Fz.25 521.sfr) = F2 = a1*(Fz.

and/or sandy surface conditions also serve as variables. Maximum achievable loads.y) is a function of vertical force exerted on a tire and the coefficient of friction (µ ) between the tire and ground.3714 Front Right = 357. temperature.3714 Rear Left = 92.27 Figure 17 – Tire Force Schematic Fz. steady state Front = 264.73683 Rear Right = 92.3173 Rear = -264.73683 Figure 19 – Maximum Achievable Loads Maximum Tractive Forces The traction generated by a tire (Fx. The coefficient of friction is a function of many variables including velocity. Longitudinal weight transfer. lateral + negative accelerations static + lateral + negative Front Left = 357.317 Figure 18 – Longitudinal Weight Transfer Maximum loads achieved The maximum vertical loads that could be reached correspond to the combined forces of negative and lateral accelerations with the static weight of the vehicle. dry.317 Rear Right = -132. Fz.635 Rear Left = -132. negative acceleration. and tire wear.6346 Front Left = Front Right = 132.5 so that the x and y 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Wet. The coefficient is estimated to be high at 1.3173 132.

0572 Front Right = 536.5812 Rear Left = 337.5812 Rear Right = 337.05716 Rear Left = 139. Figure 20 – Schematic of tire with axes Horizontal tire force. Fx. The following is part of the analysis of the design of a front pushrod element. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . This example exhibits a realistic case for a high performance vehicle and parking lot track condition.101 Front Right = 459. since these forces will be used when determining component materials and dimensions as an added margin of safety.1052 Rear Right = 139.28 components of the forces developed are high.10524 Fx: Braking = u*(static + negative acceleration loads) Front Left = 459.5812 Fx.10096 Rear Left = 62.14904 Rear Right = 62.5812 Front Right = 337.149038 Figure 21 – Horizontal Tire Force Factor of Safety Development To determine the factor of safety we will assume worst-case scenarios for the loading of each component.y (lbs) Fy: Cornering = u*(static + lateral acceleration loads) Front Left = 337. Specifically the vehicle is under hard braking and hits a pothole or cone.y: Cornering & braking=u*(static + lateral + negative acceleration loads) Front Left = 536.

Where the factor of safety was less than three. The damping force is obtained through the manufacturer’s supply of damper dyno charts found in appendixes H & I and the spring rate is 350 lb/in with maximum x displacement of two inches. c is the damping coefficient. F = 3(350 * 2 + 900 ) = 4800 lbs The pushrod is under buckling in a pin-pin configuration. To use a worst case scenario we will assume the vehicle bottoms out. and n is the rocker ratio. thus using BernoulliEuler technique: Pcrit = πEI L2 (1) Using this method with an aluminum ¾” diameter pushrod member 14” long will result in a factor of safety of four. and the rocker ratio is three. For this worst-case scenario prediction.29 The following forces are developed in the push-rod member during full spring compression and max damping setting on the Fox Racing shock: F=n*(k*x + c*velocity) where k is the spring constant. Design Overview A-Arm Force Calculations In order to compute the thickness necessary for each arm. x is displacement. After the forces were found. The relationship between the force in the arm and its area is as follows: σ= P Mc = A I (2) 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . the maximum forces had to be computed. that is max displacement of two inches is achieved. we used the largest one to calculate the diameter needed. the damping is set at max 12 clicks closed. A factor of safety of three was used. the member was re-designed until this criterion was met. we are able to find a factor of safety by dividing the maximum load/static load to essentially get a factor of safety for each member.

The truss design seen in Figure 22b was incorporated to cut down on the moments acting on the arm. This insured that all members would be able to handle the maximum possible force encountered. when we discuss the maximum force in any of the arms. and z directions must be zero. we determined that the maximum force in any arm of the A-arms was 900 lbs.30 The area can then be used to compute the needed diameter. The last equation states that the sum of the moments about any point in the system must be equal to zero. we mean the two major arms of the A-Arm. Using the maximum 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Therefore. Our computations were completed using just a basic A-Arm with no truss braces. y. The forces were found using standard static analysis equations. we used it for all calculations. The figure below shows the forces involved and their relationship to each other. The four defining equations are as follows: ∑F ∑F ∑F x =0 =0 =0 (3) (4) (5) (6) y z ∑M o =0 They state that the sum of the forces in x. Since that force was the maximum attained for any member. Figures 22a & 22b – Force Schematic & Truss Design According to the force equations.

Therefore. The Bernoulli-Euler buckling criterion is defined as equation 1. For a round member: 1 I = π r4 2 (7) Using equation 2. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The results are shown in the figure below (see Figure 23) for the 14inch arm. where I is the moment of inertia.7468 lbs Figure 23 – Material Properities for a 14 inch pin-pin beam One of the critical factors we used to determine the best material was the strength to weight ratio of each material.37286 lbs Steel 30E6 psi 0. since they are connected with ball joints on each end. AZ91 was selected for the front and rear uprights as well as the A-Arms. other factors weighed into the decision of what material to use and AZ91 was not selected for the steering arms or the push rods.71679 in 0. the diameter needed for the A-arms was then calculated.489032 in 0. similar to the behavior of a pin. The A-arms were treated as a pin-pin beam.45326 lbs AZ91 6. The results are based on a maximum force of 900 lbs and a factor of safety of 3. Ball joints do not act against moments. This determined that AZ91 alloy magnesium is the best of the three materials.63886 in 0. In the end.3E6 psi 0. we determined the thickness needed for each type of material that we had considered. Material Modulus of Diameter Weight Elasticity Aluminum 10. Also shown is the weight of an arm of the needed diameter.5E6 psi 0.31 forces. the force calculated for a pin-pin beam is less than 2700 lbs of force. Further detail on this topic is discussed in the steering arm and push rod sections. We computed this by dividing the amount of force in the member by the weight required to hold that load.

they transfer the forces from the tire to the A-arms. Magnesium was used for the uprights since they are a part that is cast to the specific form that is needed. We modified the design heavily to incorporate a more adjustable steering arm. They are made of AZ91 magnesium to cut down on the weight of the vehicle.32 Front Uprights Upper A-arm Steering Arm Front Upright Push Rod Lower A-Arm Figure 24 – Front Uprights The front uprights are based on the design of the previous car. They also can be 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Their geometry is very important to the handling characteristics of the car. The uprights are the centerpieces of the suspension system. Casting was an excellent option since the uprights are not a simple shape that can be easily machined.

The differential used severely limits the options for rear suspension design. but this was done in other ways. Although the uprights are the same the mounting points on the body are different which leads to a different geometrical configuration. This leads to minimal machining which saves both cost and time. The suspension characteristics of the rear end were modified.33 cast very close to the exact shape needed. We chose to do this was since we are reusing the rear differential of the old car. Rear Uprights Upper A-Arm Rear Upright Push Rod Drive Shaft Lower A-Arm Suspension Link Figure 25 – Rear Uprights We are reusing the previous cars rear upright design for our car. We did this to 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The upright must only travel within the range that the drive shafts can handle.

3:3 to 3:1. The design permits the use of a single two-inch travel spring and damper unit to perform in a spring rate range of 150 lb/in to 583 lb/in while retaining the required two inches of wheel travel. This variable system is a design common to some teams and combines manufacturing time savings with material cost savings by using only one rocker to do the same work as six individually cast rockers. The final model will be based on the dynamic vehicle testing to optimize the wheel to shock travel ratio that can be changed from 1.5 increments. Magnesium was used for the same reasons discussed in the front upright section. Rockers Shock Rocker Support Brace Push Rod Figure 26 – Rockers The rocker design is a prototype rather than a final model.34 customize the handling characteristics.8 in . as we wanted them. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

Aluminum is readily available. We ended up using aluminum push rods for a number of reasons. Aluminum allowed us more versatility since we could make new arms quickly. We wanted to be able to 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Repairs are very difficult with magnesium since it is not a weldable metal. The availability factor also leads us to aluminum since we want components that can easily be repaired or replaced at the race. The calculations and results of the pin-pin calculations were shown previously. but magnesium would have to be cast to a specific length. As a result this member is subject to buckling loads in a pin-pin configuration.35 Push rods Push Rod Figure 27 – Push Rods The pushrods are the member that transmits the vertical force of the tire to the spring/damper unit. A major reason is the availability of materials. If weight was the only factor we considered then we would have used AZ91 for the push rods.

Aluminum is much less expensive than magnesium. A nut is tightened on each end to prevent it from adjusting while racing due to vibrations. the steering arms are loaded to buckle in the pin-pin configuration as well. Steering Arms Ideal Ackermans Steering Steering Arm Figure 28 – Steering Arms Like the pushrods.36 change the rod lengths if needed to adjust the system. The push rod is a rod with a left-handed thread on one side and a right-handed thread on the other. The steering arms are designed with this same setup. With this setup twisting one way enlarges the length of the rod and twisting the other decreases the length. The diameter on the rod is calculated using modulus of aluminum and required length of 12”. The force developed in this configuration is tabulated in the A-Arm force calculations section. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The push rod design is based on keeping the system highly adjustable.

Stiff Movement • • Probable Cause: High spring rate Possible Solution: Reduce spring pre-load. or analyzing a problem.050” clearance High Compression Damping • Readjust damping with 12 click knob one or two clicks lighter Nose Dive • • Probable Cause: Light front spring rate Possible Solution: Adjust pre-load. but not limited to. or high center of gravity. For example. and possible solutions to the problems listed. adjust rocker ratio Light Front Damping • Possible Solution: Adjust damping compression with incremental knob 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . steering components. if the nose of the vehicle dives during braking. low front damping. adjust rocker ratio. The method behind the sheet is to limit total time wasted during competition trying to tune the car to the current track conditions.37 Process Controls (Troubleshooting): Process controls are the events that can be attributed to some malfunction or undesirable handling effect. re-torque rocker bolts to 20 ft-lbs and verify rocker clearance for . too soft spring rate. inspect links for stiff rod-ends. the cause of this problem could be attributed. verify misalignment angle to be less than 11°. replace springs with higher rate. and replace spring with different spring rates High Friction • Possible Solution: Re-grease rocker and damper bushings. The process sheet is divided into front and rear suspension.

may be more prominent with excessively large drivers Front Brakes Over-Biased • Possible Solution: Adjust bias proportioning valve Rear Steer • • Probable Cause: Differential torque bias Possible Solution: The Torsen differential bias can be adjusted with different shims.38 High Center of Gravity • Possible Solution: None. see rear steer Over/Under steer • • Probable Cause: Ackerman angle Possible Solution: Increase the Ackerman steering angle if the vehicle under-steers. decrease for over-steer Excessive Steering Force • • • • Probable Cause: Binding rack Possible Solution: Re-grease rack and inspect for component wear Probable Cause: Rod-end misalignment Possible Solution: Verify that misalignment angle does not exceed 11° 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . otherwise a common behavior with torque-sensing differentials • • Probable Cause: Improper rear alignment Possible Solution: Calibrate using caster/camber and toe-in/out device Vehicle Pulls to One Side • Probable Cause: Torque bias in differential.

We used this method combined with “Back of the envelope calculations” to verify the validity. The safety issue is more with machining rather than the actual use on the car. Manufacturing considerations The use of magnesium for some of the suspension components is also a safety consideration due to its low ignition temperature. In our case this is a very important issue since our vehicle is very small and is capable of large accelerations and decelerations. The most detailed method would be to conduct a full detailed study of the situation using modeling and equations. Another method is to used “Back of the envelope calculations”. This is common since it only requires a little research and the values found usually have been tested to confirm their validity. The appropriate factor of safety can be determined by three different methods. The standard factor of safety for the formula SAE suspensions systems is three. One critical aspect of this project is the factor of safety used. A good analogy of this is 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . which are best done with worst case scenario numbers used. The rules have many requirements and restrictions to make the vehicle as safe as possible. The vehicle safety issues are minimized by the SAE rules. The final method is to use standard practice values.39 Steering Arm to Short • Possible Solution: Recalculate equivalent Ackerman angle and manufacture new are with greater length Improper Rack Ratio • Possible Solution: Re-cut new rack and pinion or replace rack with lower ratio Safety Considerations The suspension system of a vehicle is critical to the safety of the occupant or occupants of that vehicle.

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . At the original location. The solution to machining magnesium safely is quite simply to work at low feed rates. The steering mounts are located on the side of the upright so they don’t interfere with the turning of the tire.40 the danger of throwing a match on sawdust compared with throwing a match on a log. We added two inches changing the clearance from 7 to 9 inches. In addition to these steps one should monitor the temperature of the part during machining. There is just not enough heat to ignite the solid body and this is the case with the magnesium also. and use sharp tools. interference issues. The height of the steering rack was modified to allow for more room for the driver. Luckily this change only modified the suspension dynamics minimally. and ease of manufacture. the driver would have difficulty getting his feet into the vehicle. The modifications were for various reasons. low tool rpm’s. In fact. which include safety. aesthetics. none of the changes are large enough to be noticeable to the performance of the car. in fact water will usually make it worst. If a fire were to break out water must not be used to extinguish this. Modifications We had only a few major modifications of the design of our system. The design of the front uprights was modified in order to increase the turning ability of the car. The stops were placed directly on the rack. Material was removed from the top of the upright where the oversteer stops and steering mounts were going to be. If the part is getting too hot to touch for more than a moment then a break should be taken to give the part time to cool. A powder that is specially formulated to extinguish magnesium fires must be thrown on it.

These are the major constraints that are considered when designing the drive train. need to be contained. as long as they meet the SAE requirements. This system is sufficient in motorcycle applications since when a motorcycle turns. If the motorcycle carburetor was used in our car. Therefore the lateral acceleration experienced in a four-wheeled car is a vertical acceleration on a motorcycle with respect to the position of the engine. but it would be difficult to find a carburetor that would be suitably sized for our engine. as hard turns were performed the lateral forces in the turn would cause the fuel to spill from the carburetors and the engine would be starved. However other engines can be used. Engine Considerations The engines that are used in a Formula SAE race car are 4-stroke piston engines with no more than 610cc of displacement. However this still poses the same problem when the car experiences hard accelerations and braking. The use of a fuel injection system was the best option for our situation. Teams may choose to supercharge or turbo-charge their engines. In the early stages of brainstorming ideas came up to solve this. therefore the spilling of fuel is illegal. The SAE rules also require that all fluids. Most teams use mid-size motorcycle engines because of their compatibility with the SAE rules. it leans such that lateral forces are transmitted in the vertical plane of the bike. Engine positioning was considered as a solution to the problem.41 Engine Intake Design Motivation The reason that a fuel injection system was needed for our vehicle was that the carburetors for motorcycles are not designed to take lateral forces. SAE allows the use of 94 and 100 octane Sunoco gasoline or M85 (methanol) fuel. The only other major restriction is the fuel type. such as fuel. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Another possible solution was to use an automotive carburetor.

This would also help to reduce the chance of failure during the competition. Suzuki. But through contact with Momentum Racing in Fairfield. Powerplant Selection With the limitations on the engine displacement. With the car weight just above that of the motorcycle the engine is coming from. which make this type of engine a suitable option for a Formula SAE car. the power and torque outputs are also suitable for this type of application. Yamaha. we learned more about these 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . These controls will be used to reliably run the engine. there are no automobile engines that would meet this constraint. while also increasing its performance. while maintaining cost within our budget. These controls will allow the team the ability to tune the engine for particular aspects of the competition and for weather conditions. Another recommendation that was made early on was that we should have two engines for this project. These companies are Honda. The major controls that are needed to run the engine are a fuel injection system and the integration of an ignition system to work with the fuel injection system. We wanted to select an engine that has had proven reliability and performance. The reason for two engines is due to the stress and extensive wear associated with dyno testing and tuning. The engines in this class are generally used for high performance and racing applications. Through researching these manufactures we found that all of them have been manufacturing these types of bikes for sometime and have had good success with them in motorsport competitions. one for dynamometer (dyno) testing and one for the FSAE competition. However mid-size motorcycles have engines with a displacement of 600cc and are 4-stroke. some constraints had to be set. There are a number of motorcycle manufactures that produce the mid-size 600cc high performance motorcycles. CT. and Kawasaki. Before the engine selection process began. Some of these controls will be new designs and others will be changes to existing equipment.42 The engine group’s responsibilities are to decide on a suitable engine and the controls that will operate it.

The power output is also comparable to other manufactures engines. This was a consideration due to the abundance of F2 engine components from previous teams. which are only two years old. The high torque rating from the F3 also would work better for the car performance due to the layout of the competition. but the torque is higher than that in the F4. which is a significant increase over previous year models and only a 5-7 Hp decrease in power from the F4 model. These 600cc engines have been in development for almost 15 years now. The extra parts from previous teams also were a deciding factor in the choice of engines. For us to afford two engines for the project we looked at the Honda F3. However due to its recent development the cost associated with this was still high. The engines produced by Honda have had very good success and are well respected by racers. The Suzuki manufacture has had great success in recent months with their new 600GSXR engine in races. This motor is also known for its power and reliability. This engine produces the most horsepower out of all of the Honda motors and is known for is reliability. The F3 engine is rated at 90 Hp. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . with four different generations of these engines. The last generation of engines is known as the F4. The F3 and F4 engines are similar but have different dimensions. The F4 engine is rated at 92-95 Hp and the F3 is rated at 88-90 Hp. The increase of torque over the F4 is due to the shorter piston stroke and this increase was an important consideration due to the fact that it would help the cars performance. and would not allow for two engines under the budget. However it too is still costly due to is recent development and availability. The engines from Yamaha and Kawasaki have shown evidence of failure under hard loading in a short period of time. These engines also have a high cost for repairs and parts. these power ratings are from the manufacturer. Another note was that some of the components for the F3 and F2 engine were the same. The decision to use the Honda CBR 600 F3 engine was the most practical option to meet the driving conditions and budget constraints for the team. the power is also decreased with the F3.43 manufactures.

It has been noted by other teams that their vehicles have also not been able to achieve decent fuel economy when forced induction is used. For the induction. This was also based on an already tight budget. Therefore. and has a higher energy associated with it than gasoline. more horsepower was created with natural aspiration induction. such as different pistons. This would require internal engine modifications to lower the compression. The other decision was as to what fuel type and octane to use. Now the choice was which octane level to use. is between a 30% and 40% power increase due to the extra air fed to the engine. A forced aspiration set-up would utilize a supercharger or turbo-charger to intake air to the carburetor or fuel injection system.44 Additional Engine Decisions Under the rules from SAE. In looking at the previous teams both at UConn and elsewhere. The SAE offers three choices on fuel. However methanol is corrosive. which leads to power losses if the components are not replaced. The benefit. they are Sunoco 94 and 100-octane gasoline and M85 (methanol). When forced induction is used the compression ratio needs to be lowered to handle the extra air mass being delivered. A naturally aspirated induction system for the engine would be a tube or scoop to pull air to the carburetor or fuel injection system. Methanol is rated at about 118-octane. Another difficulty has been the tuning of the turbo to produce maximum power. if properly tuned to that particular engine. This number is relatively high 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . With this side effect considered it was clear that methanol would be risky to use. we have options as far as induction and fuel. there has been difficulty in finding a turbo-charger small enough to match the engine’s displacement. Looking at the pros and cons of gasoline and methanol we were able to select our fuel type. we can use natural aspiration or forced aspiration systems. The engine we will be using has a compression ratio of 11:1. In looking at the power output numbers from the dynamometer in last year’s competition. we have decided that we would use a naturally aspirated system and avoid the problems of forced induction. and can do serious damage to internal engine components.

there are some variables that need to be determined. as the compression ratio increases a higher-octane level is needed to prevent knocking. Therefore to prevent pre-detonation or “knocking”. The 94-octane fuel would more appropriately be used for forced induction systems. The cylinder volume is determined by summing the piston displacement volume and the cylinder clearance volume. the pressure increases to 1 atm. before the computer code can be written the engine’s fuel needs. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . the 100-octane gasoline will be used. Other system configurations need to be addressed also to properly design the computer to the engine and competition requirements. and injecting timing must be known. Before the mass of air can be calculated. For the cylinder pressure in this calculation. Therefore. pV = mRT ηv This law will be used to model one cylinder to determine its requirements. The fuel required by the engine can be determined based on the engine's displacement. the pressure in the manifold is at about 1/3 atm. the volume of the cylinder. So when the engine is running at these conditions. and the resulting pressure is 1 atm. The reason for assuming WOT is that maximum power will be produced around this position of the throttle. we are assuming that the throttle is wide open. Therefore. the pressure in the cylinder is at the respective pressure based on the throttle positions. and the temperature of air within the cylinder. When an engine is at idle. These variables are the pressure in the cylinder on the intake stroke. the air/fuel ratio. the first variable that needs to be determined is the mass of the air that the engine displaces. When the engine is at WOT. An engine is essentially a pump and the displaced mass the pump creates is what the engine needs to intake. Generally.45 for a gasoline engine. EFI Requirements The EFI system uses particular constraints to properly control the engine. This can be done using the Ideal Gas Law. where the compression ratio is lower. this is due to each cylinder having its own injector.

the temperature of the air in the cylinder can be assumed to be equal to that of the ambient air. When the engine is operating at WOT. Using the determined volume the total cylinder volume can be calculated and is equal to 163. this value for η v will increase as well. Also additional heat shields and cooling ducts can be added to insure this assumption. For the mass of air determination here. The EFI computer will have an air temperature sensor to input the temperature for the current conditions. In this case the engine has a total displacement of 599cm3 with 4 cylinders. This assumption is also based on the throttle position set at WOT.75cm3.623 cm3. As engine speed and throttle position increase. room temperature.46 The volume the cylinder displaces can be determined by dividing the total engine displacement by the number of cylinders. a 11:1 compression ratio was listed by the manufacturer. the weather conditions usually dictate the air temperature. The final variable needed for the Ideal Gas Law is the volumetric efficiency. using the compression ratio (CR) and the known displacement of the piston. This assumption is due to the fact the air velocity is so great that it does not sit in the manifold to be heated. which made the clearance volume equal to 13. the temperature will be equal to 70oF.373 cm3. The clearance volume is the volume in the cylinder above the piston when it is at top dead center (TDC) and the volume of the cylinder head. The volumetric efficiency is the measure of the efficient volume of air that is actually being inducted to the cylinders. To determine this the following equation is used: CR = (V disp + Vclearance ) Vclearance This can be applied. For our engine. This measurement is essentially a percentage of air volume inducted. For the injector testing this variable will be equal to one. The temperature determination is a variable that is tough to control in this type of situation. This assumption is based on the temperature when the injectors will be experimentally tested for verification. The change in engine speed 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . normalizing the equation. η v. which make the displaced volume of one cylinder 149.

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versus volumetric efficiency can be viewed in the following plot. This graphical representation will also be used for the microcontroller programming.

Figure 30 – Engine Speed vs. Volumetric Efficiency Now that the assumptions for the Ideal Gas Law have been made the mass of air can be calculated. The units for this will be in metric for ease of use; therefore the constant R will be equal to 8.314. The mass of air was determined to be equal to 0.006769 kg. To determine the mass of the fuel, the stoichiometric ratio must be used. The stoichiometric ratio is also known at the chemically correct ratio, and this is the ratio of air to fuel. For gasoline the operation limits are roughly 11:1 (rich) mixture to a 20:1 (lean) mixture. The stoichiometric ratio for optimum operation and lowest emissions is 14.5:1. At this ratio it is represented by letting λ = 1. This is what the initial calculations will be based on. However for fuel economy purposes a ratio of 20% lean can be used for fuel mass calculations, this would be about a 17:1 mix. For maximum performance the fuel mixture would be richened about 10% to achieve max power, this would be a ratio of 13:1. Using the stoichiometric ratio it was determined that the mass of fuel needed at λ = 1, to be equal to 4.6686 E -4 kg. This mass can now be

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar

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converted to a volume using the specific weight for gasoline, which is equal to 45.9 lb/ft3. This value will need to be converted to metric units. The volume of fuel needed for one cylinder at stoichiometric conditions is 0.63497cm3. The change in the volume of fuel compared to stoichiometric ratio can be seen in the graphical representation below.

Air/Fuel Ratio Vs Volume of Fuel Power Curve Fit
Volume of Fuel (cm^3) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Stiochiometric Ratio y = 9.2065x-1

Figure 31 – Fuel volumes compared to stoichiometric ratios This is the volume that each injector will discharge every cycle at the appropriate time. The equation posted on the graph is for the represented curve. This will be used also in the future programming to fine tune the air/fuel ratio for different engine requirements and driving conditions. The injection timing will be discussed later.
Pulse Width Determination

Now that the volumes of fuel have been determined at different stoichiometric ratios, the pulse widths for the injectors need to be determined so that the correct fuel volume can be delivered. Fuel injectors are voltage

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dependent and this voltage input is used to open the pintle and allow fuel to flow by. The duration of the voltage signal is a variable, which controls the volume of fuel discharged. The fuel pressure is another variable consideration. To determine the pulse width for the injectors, a test rig was designed to represent the fuel delivery system. This can be seen in the layout below.

Figure 32 – Fuel Injector Test Rig Using this test rig, a particular pulse width can be produced from the signal generator. This signal from the generator will be a square wave. This signal will be transmitted through the fuel injector drivers. The drivers will then send the conditioned signal to the injector. As for the fuel delivery to the injector, this will be done just as it would in an actual car set-up. The fuel will be delivered from the tank via a high-pressure fuel pump (95-psi max.) to the injector. The pressure at the injector will be regulated, to control the pressure input. The fuel pressure regulator is critical to maintain a constant pressure at the injector. This will also allow us to vary the pressure during the test. Most fuel injection systems operate at a fuel pressure of 40 psi. However it is recommended that the fuel pressure should not exceed 60 psi, this recommendation was made by the fuel injector manufactures due to internal component design limits.

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar

From this test. To achieve this. Fuel volume vs Pulse width 6.00E-02 1. Pulse Width The equation that was determined from this calibration test is only suitable for the injector used during the test.0. If injectors with a different flow rate are used this test should be preformed again with those injectors to insure proper fuel delivery per injection. This will result in a more accurate fuel volume per injection measurement. the total volume of fuel will be collected and divided by this number to determine the volume of fuel per injection.00E-02 3.00E-02 2.0028x .00E-02 4.50 The actual fuel volume will be determined by firing the injector for a given number of injections. In an 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .00E+00 0 5 y = 0. The results of the test proved to be a linear as shown in the graph below. As mentioned earlier the duration of the pulse width and the fuel pressure inputted to the injector have an effect on the volume of fuel discharged.00E-02 5. a number of different pulse widths were used and the volume of fuel was determined.0019 Vol (cm^3) 10 PW (ms) 15 20 Figure 33 – Fuel Volume vs. The fuel injector calibration test was preformed as discussed before. The ice pack that surrounds the beaker is used to minimize the amount of fuel vaporized during the injections.00E-02 0. The fuel will be collected in the beaker shown in the diagram. an equation was developed for programming the microcontroller to regulate the fuel delivered by inputting a certain pulse width.

fuel regulator and manifold. This is because a fuel injector works on the principle of differential pressure across the injector. In an earlier section it was noted that as throttle position increases the manifold pressure begins to increase.51 automotive application. setting two different conditions equal to each other can solve variables. if this is not maintained and the pulse 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . And this differential pressure is the systems operating pressure. The determination of the proper differential fuel pressure is critical. the fuel pressure will vary with respect to the manifold pressure and therefore also with respect to engine load. The diagram below shows the layout of the fuel rail. Figure 34 – Injector differential pressure layout The differential pressure is governed by Bernoulli’s equation. P V2 = cons tan t 2 ρ + Since Bernoulli’s equation always equals a constant. The fuel regulator will control the absolute fuel pressure from a vacuum tube from the intake manifold. This can be applied to determine an absolute fuel pressure based on the desired fuel volume. therefore to maintain a constant differential pressure the absolute fuel pressure must increase.

This tool will allow the EFI program a measurement of when to fire the injectors in either the bank firing or sequential firing method. This measurement is based on the position of the crankshaft. This starvation will cause the engine to operate at lean conditions causing power losses and possible engine damage if the ratio is very lean. and runners. A typical 4-cylinder intake manifold would look like something like the figure below.52 width is constant. and is measured in degrees. Calculations can be made to optimize these components for maximize engine performance. a linear valve-timing diagram can be produced. and fuel rail. since this is where the majority of tuning will be done. The manifold will consist of a throttle plate. Engine Intake Manifold Design Since a new fuel injection system will be utilized a different intake manifold will be required to deliver the fuel and air to each of the cylinders. it could mean that the engine would be starved for fuel. plenum. Using the manufacture’s specifications from the owner’s manual. restrictor. This is a graphical representation using linear bars to indicate when each of the individual valves is opening and closing with respect to one another. The main focus of the design will be the restrictor. runners. A valve timing plot was developed for the Honda F1 engine and can be viewed in appendix D. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . This timing of the valves is the point at which the intake and exhaust valves for each cylinder open and close. plenum. Valve Train Timing The timing of the valves is an important variable that is needed for fuel injection systems.

53 Figure 35 – Intake manifold for a 4-cylinder engine The restrictor is a requirement through the SAE rulebook. Therefore. It should be noted that. This is a restriction anywhere in the intake after the throttle plate and before the intake valves. The rules state that a 20mm restriction will be placed on the intake after the throttle plate. due to the restrictor. to limit the vehicle from extreme high speeds. The restrictor does not have to be the normal restrictor plate design. a venturi can be utilized to restrict the intake system. which is a thin plate (about ¼” thick) with the required bore. This was done with the following equations: A2  A2  At  =    A*  At  Ai     where A2 = exit area 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . This is more of a safety item. also with the use of a venturi a considerable amount of the air mass that is lost when using a conventional restrictor can be regained. the engine could only produce power to a maximum of about 9000 rpm. The venturi will be designed to minimize the air mass loss. Restrictors are used in other racing sports to reduce power and in turn lower speeds. This is used to restrict the engines from making their ultimate power.

The length of the induction pipe will influence the engine speed at which maximum benefit is obtained from the pulsating flow.54 At = venturi throat area Ai = inlet area m= ( PAV ) ( RT ) where m = mass flow rate A = cross sectional area The next portions of the intake that need to be studied are the plenum and intake runners. This can be seen in the following plot of the pipe length versus engine speed (Stone pg. This is called a tuned induction or “ramming” and can result in considerable power improvement of 10–20%. Inside the intake manifold the air flowing through can experience pulsations or waves. The runners need to be a certain length so that as the pulse waves travel away from they engine. These two work together to deliver the air to the engine. This resonates can be used to help increase performance if the runners and plenum are designed correctly. 310). they bounce back at the proper moment in which the intake valve opens again. This occurs due to the air flowing in and hitting a closed valve then traveling back up the intake runner. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

which is 0. which have individual carburetors or fuel injectors per cylinder. This is modeled by the Helmholtz equation below. From the plot it is shown that a shorter pipe is used when engine speeds increase.35 m or about 14 inches in length. because of the difficulty in optimizing the volumetric efficiency and the mixture distribution.55 Figure 36 – Pipe length benefits at particular engine speeds This plot is only applicable to engines. This is primarily due to the difficulty in designing an intake manifold with a single carburetor or fuel injector. fH = C 2π A LV where C = speed of sound A = pipe area L = pipe length V = resonator volume 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . A tuned induction system can be considered an organ pipe or Helmholtz resonator. In our case the intake will be designed to take advantage of this phenomenon at the optimum power band. The intake can also be acoustically modeled to study the propagation of these pulsating waves.

From the plenum air needs to be funneled into each of the intake runners. and that the airflow would resonate at about 230 Hz. the effective length was determined and used in the pipe organ equation. To confirm that the runner lengths were correct. This tuning technique benefits both volumetric efficiency and power. This proved that the effective length was in fact 0.56 The pipe variables are representatives of the intake runners.3d where L = effective length l = pipe length d = pipe diameter Either of these can be used for the determination of the resonate frequencies. a focus needs to be made to ensure that these resonating frequencies are present at particular engine speeds. Therefore to help minimize the boundary layer experienced at the mouth of the runners.35 m. With the 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .7646E-4 m3 or about 29 in3. the plenum volume could be determined. Using this frequency and the effective length in the Helmholtz equation. This was verified by a rule of thumb measure that stated that the plenum volume should be about the volume displaced by the engine. The plenum volume was calculated to be 4. Other design considerations are the intake runners from the plenum. There is a tendency in intake design to just connect the two. Therefore. mainly at speeds the engine will be run at during the competition. However the resonates frequency will only be good for particular engine speeds. and is represented by the following equation fp = C 4L L = l + 0. This shape is sometimes called a velocity stack. and the resonator is the plenum. the runners are tapered or flared. But at this junction a boundary layer is present. This runner shape at the mouth minimizes the boundary layer by helping the air to flow more smoothly. The other model for the resonant frequency is that of the organ pipe. The intake can experience more than one resonating frequency.

The fuel rail is the last point of concern for the intake system. However this should not be too big of a concern with a fuel regulator that has a quick time response to meet the need for a higher fuel pressure in the rail. It was determined that the fuel injectors would be delivered fuel at 50 psi based on the fuel regulator setting. The fuel rail will provide fuel to each of the injectors through a common pipe. To adjust the fuel pressure an adjustable fuel regulator was used. The throttle plate needs to have a matching bore to the front end of the venturi to minimize airflow losses. The only concern for the fuel rail is adequate fuel delivery for the injectors. when the engine is run the driver will not be able to adequately control the engine speed and output. a pressure gauge was installed on the inlet of the fuel rail.57 reduction of the boundary layer the runner is less prone to choking the flow. but it 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The throttle plate also needs to have a linear opening motion. These runner shapes at the mouth can be seen in the following figure. A throttle with non-linear motion will result in maximum engine speeds with out have fully opening the throttle plate. Therefore the volume of the rail needs to be examined to insure it will hold enough fuel to provide the injectors adequately under hard accelerations. To ensure that the fuel pressure did not drop significantly when the throttle was opened quickly. Figure 37 – Runner Shapes at the Mouth As far as the rest of the intake systems components they do not need as much attention to maximize the performance. This is undesirable for driving conditions. If this motion is not achieved then.

The intake layout was based on the space constraints of the car its self.com/tech).58 was decided that this would provide to many problems in tuning without any performance enhancing characteristics. It was also suggested that mild steel or stainless steel be used for the construction of the fuel rail. The rest of the intake manifold would also need to fit within the main roll bar brace. This is to protect the manifold from being hit in the event of an accident. Figure 39. It was decided that the intake runners would be bent 35 degrees to originate the plenum in a vertical plane with respect to the runners. This is because after a hot shutdown steel gathers far less heat. This design consideration would help to ensure that all the fuel is injected to the cylinder. Also by bending the intake runners 35 degrees the injectors could be mounted to the runners so that they fired directly at the base of the intake valves. minor bends do not have a significant effect on the airflow through the manifold. The use of bends in the manifold layout is not very critical. Therefore the manifold would have to incorporate some bends to meet these constraints. which could lead to fuel boiling in the rail and causing vapor lock (sdsefi. This can be seen in the following photograph. instead of aluminum. Intake Runner 145o Fuel Injector Fuel Rail Figure 38 – Intake Manifold and Fuel Rail (Side View) 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The air intake for the system was placed above the driver’s head and just under the main roll bar.

After looking at the injector orings. This was to ensure that the manifold had no leaks in any of the welds. With this location placement the manifold would receive the most external cooling effect from the open air. which seated the injectors to the fuel rail. The o-rings were replaced with smaller inside diameter and thicker o-rings. This would result in the fewest number of bends and maximize the space above the engine head. The last consideration was to place a vacuum port on the end of the manifold as close as possible to the fuel regulator vacuum port. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Testing When it was time to test the system on the engine. fuel was delivered to check for any leaks. The vacuum gauge showed that the manifold held 10 in Hg. this would also then allow the air intake runners to be originated parallel to the main roll bar brace. This proved to be the solution to the fuel leaks. With the fuel system plumbed to the fuel rail. they looked to be ineffective. and engine testing could begin safely. The fuel rail was leaking around the injectors. a series of leak checks were necessary. which provided a tighter seal at the fuel rail. Before engine testing could begin with the intake manifold. we used an engine dynamometer to decrease testing time. which could decrease the engine's performance. Below is a picture of the intake on the dyno during testing. With the engine running the manifold needed to be checked for adequate vacuum pressure. A fuel leak can pose a potentially dangerous situation especially when the engine is running.59 With the plenum in the vertical plane. Placing the vacuum ports as close as possible would help to minimize any delay effects noticed when the manifold pressure changed especially under hard accelerations. which is within manufacture's specifications. The fittings were tightened and this proved to be unsuccessful.

60 Throttle 20mm Restrictor Plenum Intake Runners Fuel Rail Figure 39 – Intake Manifold and Fuel Rail (Front View) 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

instead of purchasing a complete system. Our design was developed originally for a Honda F4 engine. we can produce maximum power only when needed. Initially. At start-up the only information available is the overall engine 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Using the performance mode. the fuel injection was going to be controlled using multi-port fuel injection. This system does not lead to a straightforward design for sequential fuel injection The EE/CMPE team devised a scheme to obtain the engine’s power stroke position from the voltage difference found at two companion ignition coils primary windings during the inductive discharge. which has a coil-on-plug ignition system (an individual coil for each cylinder) the waste spark system is redundant and inefficient since it is not necessary to fire two ignition coils at once. One of these desired features is the ability to set the system to either performance or economy mode. A number of different designs were considered before the final control system scheme was chosen. This approach allows us to design the EFI system to the exact constraints of the Honda engine with the specific features that we desire. Since the engine we originally expected to receive was a Honda F4 motorcycle engine.61 Engine Control Design Fuel Injection We decided to design our own electronic fuel injection (EFI) system similar to commercially available systems. The way that this is accomplished is to start the engine in a waste spark mode while using multi-port fuel injection. and the spark would be delivered to pairs of companion cylinders using a waste spark system. which involves firing all the injectors at once. but our final design uses a Honda F1 engine and the ignition coils from a Honda F4 engine. The F4 system has no camshaft position sensor so the engine position with respect to which cylinder is on a power stroke is not readily available. The economy mode would be used to reduce fuel consumption during certain portions of the competition.

This means that the engine is either on the first or fourth cylinder compression stroke when the crankshaft is at 0°. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . A four-stroke engine’s cylinders go up and down twice for each complete cycle. Engine Control System The inputs to the fuel injection control system are engine speed. Throttle position refers to the position of the throttle plate. Ambient air temperature affects the air to fuel ratio. It opens in order to let more air in as the accelerator is depressed. As engine speed changes. engine load. throttle position and ambient air temperature. When the engine load increases. This is only half of the information needed for sequential fuel injection. Therefore. and the second and third spark plugs are fired simultaneously just before 90°. This will be performed at the 1-4 or the 2-3 cylinder pairs. The first and fourth spark plugs are fired simultaneously just before 0°. the fuel injection system will increase the pulse width to supply more fuel. the primary voltage drop across two ignition coils will be measured simultaneously. If the throttle is opened. which induces a current in the injector’s solenoid opening the injector and allowing fuel into the intake manifold.e. The amount of fuel injected is controlled by the pulse duration (or pulse width) of the voltage signal. Once the engine is running. The pulse duration is required to change with respect to the load on the engine (i. the amount of fuel supplied increases and therefore the pulse width is increased). it is necessary to start the engine in a waste spark mode. The fuel injector is an electromechanical device that is activated by a voltage pulse. This has been successfully simulated using MicroSim PSpice software (see Appendix J).62 position from the crankshaft position sensor. with a higher load. more air is allowed in as the throttle is depressed. When the temperature is lower the density of the air changes and more fuel is required to achieve the stoichiometric ratio. the frequency of the pulses also changes in direct proportion to engine speed. The throttle plate is located at the opening of the intake manifold.

Since the pistons are moving in pairs. This creates a pressure on the order of 8-40 atmospheres (ATMs) from idle to high engine speeds. the crankshaft sensor will not tell us which of the cylinders is on a power stroke and which is on an exhaust stroke. To find this a different approach was taken. When the car is first started the position of the engine needed for proper sequential fuel injection is not known. On the end of the crankshaft there is a sensor wheel with seven teeth followed by a gap known as the missing tooth region. the exact position of the crankshaft is known. The sensor mounted on the engine case will send a signal as each tooth passes. Since the other cylinder is in its exhaust stroke no combustion will occur in that cylinder. the spark to the cylinder in the power stroke is the only spark that will induce combustion. When the pressure is greater. the pressure in the cylinder is only 1-3 atm. so there is a difference in the transient voltage present at the ignition coils. The size of the voltage is directly proportional to the pressure in each cylinder. the voltage is greater. The frequency of these signals will tell the speed of the engine. When the gap is encountered. In a pair of companion cylinders. Starting in a waste spark mode is a solution to this problem. Knowing the position of each piston is not enough to find the exact position of the engine. the injection and ignition system can be synchronized and fired sequentially. At this time the injection is performed in a bank-firing mode. When the spark plugs are fired there is a transient voltage present at both ignition coils. When the pair of spark plugs fire. which cylinder is in the power stroke.63 The crankshaft sensor determines engine speed and position. and thus. Once the correct engine position is known. When a cylinder is in its compression stroke. There is a vast pressure difference between the two cylinders. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . When a cylinder is in its exhaust stroke. This voltage difference can be used by a comparator whose output will indicate which cylinder has the greater voltage. one of the cylinders is in the power stroke and the other is in the exhaust stroke. the piston comes to the top of the cylinder compressing the fuel mixture.

The TPS senses the position by using a potentiometer that turns when the position of the throttle plate changes. Based on these inputs. more fuel is required. This amount of voltage at the secondary coil fires the spark plug. and then transformed (step-up) voltage resides at the secondary coil. the microcontroller is coded appropriately to send the required pulse to the driver circuits. Then the 12-volt supply voltage is applied at the primary coil. When the TPS measures a wider opening. The driver circuit is placed to act as a switch. The high voltage at the secondary coil induces a large transient voltage at the primary coil during the secondary discharge. Engine load is used because as the engine load is increased there is a need to adjust the timing. When the TPS changes rapidly a hard acceleration is indicated causing a need for more fuel. All of these inputs are sent to a microcontroller. and to source enough current to the ignition coil. Since this is a potentiometer. The Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) returns the position of the throttle plate. The interruption of the voltage supply at the primary coil causes an inductive discharge at the secondary coil. there will be a change in voltage at different positions. The Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor measures the amount of pressure or vacuum in the manifold.64 The inputs to the ignition control system are engine speed. the engine load increases. This is an input to the microcontroller and will be a factor when setting the voltage pulse width for the fuel injectors. this indicates a greater engine load. This sensor tells the engine load. an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is placed as the driver circuit for the ignition coil. The frequency of the sparks is directly proportional to engine speed. With greater load on the engine. which provides 12 volts to the primary ignition coil based on the position of the pistons. Crankshaft position is required as an input to the ignition system because the position of the pistons determines when the spark plugs should fire. Engine speed is used because as speed increases the frequency of the sparks will increase. crankshaft position. and engine load. This voltage is then returned to the microcontroller. In order to protect the microcontroller. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . With more pressure.

A large part of our design requires the use of a microcontroller to control the operation of these systems. One AC cycle is generated for each tooth on the wheel. and no signal is produced for the 1/8 of a revolution when the missing tooth region passes the sensor. The table below shows each control variable and the sensors that produce the signals. It can then be determined that one revolution has occurred when the missing tooth region is encountered. and a 40V signal at 6000 RPM. CONTROL VARIABLE Fuel supply frequency Spark frequency Fuel supply amount (volume) SENSOR Crank Sensor Crank Sensor MAP Sensor/Crank sensor/Air temperature sensor Spark timing (advance/retard) Crank Sensor/MAP Sensor Fuel quantity correction (rich/lean) Driver controls Figure 40 – Control Variables Crankshaft Sensor (Variable Reluctance Sensor) The crankshaft position sensor detects the speed and position of the engine. a magnet. If a voltage is applied to this thermistor in series with another resistor the voltage between the two will change as temperature changes according to the voltage divider rule. The changing flux field induces an alternating current (AC) voltage in the VRS.6V signal at cranking speeds. A thermistor is a variable resistor that varies with temperature. Engine Control Overview This section discusses the parameters of the control system. All of the necessary inputs to the microcontroller are further described in this section. and a pole piece. The sensor contains a coil of wire. The VRS sensor in the Honda F1 engine generates a 0. which consists of the Fuel Injection system and the Ignition system. The Variable Reluctance Sensor (VRS) reacts to variations in flux density created by a rotating multi-toothed wheel with a missing tooth region.65 The ambient air temperature is measured using a thermistor. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

3V negative.6V at 6. to greater than 40V at 166. The two 10V Zener diodes (D1 and D2) are configured as a Zener limiter to isolate the Op Amp from the higher voltage signal as engine speed increases.000 RPM into a square wave that is either 0V or 5V over the same frequency range.66 Variable Reluctance Sensor (VRS) Interface Circuit Figure 41 – Variable Reluctance Sensor (VRS) Interface Circuit The VRS interface circuit is designed to translate the analog sinusoidal signal from the engine’s crankshaft sensor into a square wave that can be recognized by the microcontroller. The Op Amp has a +6V supply so it will have a +5V output at 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . We chose to use an LM324 Op Amp for this circuit since it operates with a single power supply. since the microcontroller requires only positive voltage inputs. The Schottky diode (D3) prevents the input of the Op Amp from going more than 0. eliminating the need for a negative power supply.7 Hz for cranking speed.7 Hz for 10. The VRS interface uses a non-inverting operational amplifier (Op Amp) circuit to condition the crankshaft signal. The circuit converts a sinusoidal signal that varies from about 0.

high voltage at MAP Heavy load (wide open throttle): High manifold pressure. The MAP sensor operates as follows: • • • • Light load (cruise): Low manifold pressure. This amplifies a small signal of 0. Based on the voltage present at the MAP sensor. The Op Amp has a gain of (R3+R4)/R3 which is 21. MAP Sensor The MAP sensor detects the pressure in the intake manifold.67 saturation (due to a 1V internal drop in the Op Amp).6V to 12. This signal allows the microcontroller to recognize both engine speed and position.6V for an 8V supply. its output is 5V. The resulting wave is a close approximation to a square wave at low engine speeds. The MAP sensor’s output is a voltage whose level depends on the manifold pressure in the engine. the MAP voltage will decrease. and since the Op Amp saturates at 5V. the corresponding pressure can be deduced by means of a pressure-voltage graph exclusive to the particular MAP sensor being used The MAP sensor signal is proportional to the fuel that is necessary at any given engine speed. Knowledge of this pressure is vital for proper engine performance since the amount of fuel necessary for any given engine load is determined by the pressure in the intake manifold. The MAP sensor’s output voltage range is 1V . As engine load increases.6V. and virtually a square wave at higher engine speeds. This results in a TTL signal that is a series of 7 pulses corresponding to the teeth of the VRS followed by a gap that corresponds to the missing tooth region of the VRS. low High voltage: Smaller fuel pulse width and advance spark timing Low voltage: Larger fuel pulse width and retard spark timing sensor reference (5V) voltage at MAP sensor reference (1V) The previous relationships depict how intake manifold pressure and load affect the MAP sensor output. The spark timing is varied based on the engine 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

the pressure in the intake manifold can be determined by the MAP sensor voltage. Spark-angle is simply the number of degrees of rotation left in the crankshaft before the piston gets to the top of the cylinder. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . a voltage divider is needed to provide the microcontroller with a voltage less than or equal to 5V DC. Spark-angle is determined from the θspk vs. Therefore. Using the pressure-voltage relationship of our sensor. The intake manifold pressure and MAP sensor voltage have a linear relationship. This pressure along with the RPM of the engine is used to determine a parameter known as the spark-angle (θspk). Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Circuit Figure 42 – Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Circuit The MAP sensor returns a voltage between 1V and 6.68 speed and the pressure in the intake manifold. RPM graph or from look-up tables developed by the ME team during dynamometer testing.2V DC depending on manifold pressure.

8 kΩ ) = 0.69 Rich/Lean Adjustment Circuit Figure 43 – Rich/Lean Adjustment Circuit The rotary switch allows the user to select how rich or lean the engine is to run. When it is turned counterclockwise the pulsewidth is decreased to make the engine run leaner. As the contact within the switch 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Using a 6V supply and six resistors of 1.8kΩ in series creates a voltage divider circuit in -1V/step increments to ground with a current of 6V/(6 x 1.55mA. When the switch is turned clockwise the pulsewidth is increased making the engine run richer.

there can be a delay if the MAP sensor is not quick enough to pick up the pressure change in the intake. The TPS is mounted on the intake plate to determine the position of the plate. lean. Ambient Air and Throttle Position sensors The final two sensors used are the Ambient Air Temperature sensor (AAS) and the Throttle Position sensor (TPS). and R5/6 is 1V. These circuits are designed to source enough current to the ignition coils and injector solenoids. respectively. That information is used to inject fuel sequentially.semi lean. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The TPS voltage is used by the microcontroller improve the throttle response. the output voltage changes in 1 volt incrememnts. It is understood from the circuit diagram that between R1/2 is 5V. semi-rich. The TPS is a potentiometer. which is used by the microcontroller to make corrections or adjustments to fuel volume. R2/3 is 4V. a device that changes resistance with air temperature. The microcontroller will also use the outputs of a comparator circuit to detect which cylinder is in a compression stroke. This voltage is then sent to the microcontroller to determine how much to increase or decrease the fuel. stoichometric.70 alternates between each step. R4/5 is 2V. These five steps will be mapped to rich. a device that changes resistance when its center terminal changes position. R3/4 is 3V. The AAS is a thermistor. and to fire only the appropriate ignition coil depending on which cylinder is on a compression stroke. Driver Circuits The outputs from the microcontroller for ignition and fuel injection control are interfaced to the engine using driver circuits. During a hard acceleration.

t = θspk 360 * 60 sec s rpm 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Pull down resistors were added to this circuit to prevent floating inputs from allowing the injectors to turn on if there is no control signal to the driver circuit. the microcontroller will supply the signal to the ignition driver circuit and adjust the timing as needed. The spark angle indicates how many degrees before top center for spark activation. Ignition System Using the information from the crankshaft position sensor.71 Fuel Injector Driver Circuit Figure 44 – Fuel Injector Driver Circuit The Fuel Injection Driver (FID) circuit is needed between the microcontroller and the injector solenoids to source enough current to turn the fuel injectors on. The following equation is used by the microcontroller to determine the time it takes to reach top dead center.

Self-inductance is used to fire the spark plugs in an internal combustion engine. or steps down the primary voltage based on the turns ratio of the inductors. it causes the  magnetic field developed in the primary side to collapse V = L di   as the high  dt  secondary voltage arcs across the spark gap. The ignition coils are actually transformers that step 12V up to as much as 50kV. This effect is known as self-inductance. it induces a voltage in the other inductor. and the induced voltage at the primary side of the ignition coil caused by the secondary discharge is in the 150V to 200V range (depending 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The resultant secondary current in turn induces a voltage in the primary windings. The induced voltage is given by  di  V = L   dt  where L is the inductance in Henrys. Pairs of inductors that are in close proximity form a transformer. When the voltage supply is interrupted at the primary side. given by n= Ns Np .1A as the primary side charges.72 Ignition Coil Driver Circuit Driving the ignition coils presents a distinct design problem due to the high current and voltage levels present at the ignition coils. The current drawn by the Honda F4 ignition coils we will use is 7. where Ns and Np are the number of turns in the primary and secondary windings. The voltages and currents in a transformer are proportional to the ratio of turns. The transformer steps up. n= Ip Ns = Np Is When the current changes in one inductor.

The primary ignition time to saturation (full charge) was found by first measuring the inductance and resistance of the ignition coils. This is accomplished by working backwards from the necessary time for ignition spark. This device can source large amounts of current. This requires a driver circuit between the microcontroller and the ignition coils. Since the interruption of the primary voltage triggers the secondary discharge. One important control variable is the charge time for the primary ignition coil. the coil should be fully charged when the spark is needed. This is a combination of a bipolar transistor and a field effect transistor (FET). The time must be at least sufficient to fully charge the ignition coil for the control system to maximize engine performance. The time to fully charge the ignition coil must be known in order to deliver the spark at the right time. This specialized transistor has been used extensively as an automotive ignition coil driver. Then the charging of the ignition coil primary was simulated as an inductor in series with a resistor using MicroSim Pspice software. IRGS14C40L’s were selected for our ignition coil drivers since they are specifically designed for coil-on-plug ignition systems. The time to saturation for our ignition coils is approximately 6ms. and it can handle the high voltage transients found at the primary side of the ignition coil during secondary discharge.73 on the compression level of the cylinder). 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . These are both orders of magnitude too high for the microcontroller to handle. The microcontroller will turn on the ignition driver circuit at a time just before the spark is actually needed. The device that best handles these conditions is an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

It is designed to convert the transient pulses found at the primary ignition coils during spark plug firing into a TTL signal that will correspond to the compression stoke of number four and number one cylinders. The Cylinder Compression Detector is essentially a comparator circuit. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . This signal will allow the microcontroller to supply fuel sequentially without the use of a camshaft sensor. it is necessary to compare the transient voltage spikes at the companion ignition coils for cylinder compression detection.74 Figure 45 – Ignition Driver Circuit (Including Microcontroller) Cylinder Compression Detector In order to perform sequential fuel injection with out a camshaft sensor.

The equation is fc = 1 2πRth C The cutoff frequency is determined to be 175 kHz.  R2  VR2 =   R + R  * Vcyl . 46. Using 1nF capacitors in parallel with R2 and R4. This results in a TTL signal corresponding to the compression cycles of number one and four cylinders. then the comparator output is 0V. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . which is well above our limit. An example of the logic of the Op Amp output is: If V cylinder 4 > V cylinder 1. If V cylinder 4 < V cylinder 1. we added two low-pass filters (LPF) to the circuit to spread the voltage spikes out in time for easier comparison. The schematic is shown on the next page as Fig. then the comparator output is 5V.) This signal is then sampled at the same time as the firing of the ignition coils one and four in order to determine where the engine is in regards to power and exhaust stroke on either cylinder. The cut off frequency of the LPF must be set above 166 Hz.   2 1  the transient voltages at the primary ignition coils are lowered from 150V to 15V and 200V to 20V using R2 = 10R1 and R4 = 10R3. (See Appendix J for the circuit simulation.75 The ignition coil primaries of number one and four cylinders are connected to two voltage dividers to reduce the voltage to acceptable levels for the Op Amp.000 RPM when both coils are being fired simultaneously. Using the voltage divider rule for two series resistors. which is the frequency of the spark events at 10.

It outputs four signals with each corresponding to an injector driver for each cylinder. and manifold pressure. Manifold Pressure sensor. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . and the Rich/Lean Adjustment. It must be able to establish the engine position. It receives three inputs from the Crankshaft Position sensor.76 Figure 46 – Cylinder Compression Detector Microcontroller The microcontroller is used to determine the correct time to fire each injector and how long to leave them open. speed.

When the third tooth is found 5 volts is sent to the corresponding pins of the driver circuits for cylinder 2 and 3 for a 3ms fuel supply. The subroutine then performs an A/D conversion of the MAP sensor voltage. This equation was obtained from the injector calibration tests mentioned earlier. a subroutine. The mass of fuel (mg) is then calculated using the Ideal Gas Law equation:  η PV   RT    M ass= 1 14. where x is the calculated fuel mass (mg) and y is the pulse width (in microseconds). the position of the cylinders are known. The capture command gives the period of the signal. For the first 50 revolutions of the engine. After the 50th revolution. At cranking speed.5 ( ) The pulse width is determined from the linear equation y = 486x + 400. FUELMASS calculates the mass of fuel and determines the fuel supply pulse width depending on the manifold pressure. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The linear relationship between manifold pressure and MAP sensor voltage is y = -111x + 135200. FUEL_SPARK. The subroutine then counts three teeth on the crankshaft wheel.77 The microcontroller first starts out by calling the subroutine FIND_14. FUEL_SPARK is now called whenever this interrupt is generated. When the captured time reaches this value. This subroutine is a capture of the crankshaft signal. FUEL_SPARK first sends five volts to appropriate output pins connected to the driver circuits of cylinders 1 and 4 for the 3ms fuel supply. After the position of the engine is determined. the pulse width of the fuel supply is a constant 3ms. is called. This is because the engine needs extra fuel on startup and the MAP sensor is not used yet. the duration of the open tooth region is approximately 25ms. The subroutine FUELMASS is called after the 50th revolution. where x is the MAP voltage and y is the manifold pressure. To determine the position of cylinders 1 and 4 again. the subroutine is set up to count three more teeth and generate an interrupt after the third count. the duration of fuel supply is determined based on the manifold pressure. which corresponds to the position of cylinders 2 and 3.

1 atm to 1 atm. Once the correct table for rpm is called then the pressure is used to determine the volumetric efficiency. RPM performs a capture of the crank sensor signal to determine the frequency of the engine. This is done the same way in which the rpm table was determined.78 The volumetric efficiency η from the ideal gas law equation is determined by implementing a look up table. The table with the rpm value closest to the actual rpm is chosen. To obtain this value. The volumetric efficiency is a correction factor to change the amount of fuel at different times. The lookup table gives different volumetric efficiency values for different manifold pressures and different engine speeds. The linear relationship between driver control voltage and adjusting factor is y = . Each speed and pressure has corresponding volumetric efficiency values.401.0009x + 0.6 for the lean end. A perfect engine would have an efficiency of one. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . The subroutine calculates the adjusting factor using this equation. For the rich end the fuel mass is adjusted by a factor of 1. where x is the driver control voltage and y is the adjusting factor. The manifold pressure is obtained from the stored value in the FUELMASS subroutine. RPMCHECK obtains the rpm value determined in the RPM subroutine and finds what table is to be called. the subroutine RPM is called. manifold pressure and engine speed are needed. The microcontroller finds which pressure in the table is the closest to the actual pressure. To determine the appropriate volumetric efficiency the subroutine RPMCHECK is called. A subroutine called RICHLEAN adjusts the fuel mass based on the driver’s settings. When it finds the correct pressure the volumetric efficiency is found. The RICHLEAN subroutine performs an A/D conversion on the voltage from the five-position switch. which gives engine speed. These tables are for engine speeds from 1000rpm to 10000rpm and for manifold pressure from 0. The mass of fuel calculated in the FUELMASS subroutine is multiplied by this factor to determine the adjusted fuel mass. To determine engine rpm.4 and by a factor of 0.

79 Figure 47 – Complete Engine Control System 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

This lead to a lack of time for testing the ignition system on the vehicle. The microcontroller was then tested on a protoboard with a signal generator to emulate the crankshaft sensor. The ignition system we designed was not implemented for the competition. The justification for these changes follows. The implementation was done incrementally to effectively test each system. The throttle position sensor was not used because we decided that the added benefit would not be worth the required time to implement it. and LED’s representing the outputs of the microcontroller. The testing and tuning of the fuel injection system was much more time consuming than expected. lead us to believe that we would not increase the performance or reliability of the engine by the addition of our ignition system. The durability of our system was a concern since there was not ample time to test it. This combined with not having accurate dynamometer data to tune the ignition system. We would only need to diagnose one system in the event of a problem. This input would only affect hard accelerations when the throttle is opened quickly. The reason for this was that the Honda F1 engine was already equipped with a working ignition system. Two sensors were eliminated from the final system as well. so this would eliminate one variable from our initial testing. instead our ignition driver circuit was only tested on the bench. We opted to use the Honda ignition system for the competition. the complete fuel injection system was tested on the engine using the Honda ignition system instead of our own ignition system. This 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . There were concerns about implementing an ignition system at the last minute. when a reliable system was already present. The engine we used was a Honda F1 instead of a Honda F4. Each interface circuit was built and tested on a proto-board before the total system was assembled. The throttle position sensor and the ambient air temperature sensor were both omitted. Following the bench testing.80 Implementation The actual engine control system we implemented differs from the original design in a number of ways. and therefore the cylinder compression detector was not implemented either.

so the change in MAP sensor voltage should be sufficient to characterize the changes in load. The MAP sensor response time is 1 ms. one revolution is 6 ms. and disregard small changes. The microcontroller team was not able to implement a throttle position algorithm since they were busy fixing other problems. and for an engine speed of 10. Instead.000 RPM. the microcontroller team compensated for this by sampling the MAP sensor once every revolution.81 would require an algorithm for the microcontroller to recognize large changes in the throttle position reference voltage. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

311 and US# 5. The comparator can be set up such that it’s output will be 5V for cylinder A on compression.82 Patent Opportunities After completing a patent search it was apparent that there were not any current patents on a system for performing sequential fuel injection without the use of a camshaft sensor. and fire the ignition coils only when they are needed (every second revolution for each cylinder). is for a waste spark system that uses one ignition coil for two cylinders. like the previously patented systems.493. if the pair of companion cylinders A and B is fired simultaneously.668. The description of their system mentions that it could possibly be adapted to coil on plug systems. So. Delphi Automotive Systems has a system that they produce called Compression Sense Ignition that provides this particular feature. and 0V for cylinder B on compression. then the two primary waveforms can be compared through the use of a comparator circuit.496) for determining which of two companion cylinders is under compression for systems using waste spark. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . This system. This information can then be used by the microcontroller to send fuel sequentially. The idea being that the primary ignition waveform will be different for a cylinder firing under compression than it will be for a cylinder firing when there is no compression present. but it does not indicate that they have already accomplished this. There were two earlier patents from 1996 and 1997 (US # 5. It seemed apparent that this type of system would be fairly straightforward to implement on a coil-on-plug application like the F4 Honda engine we were originally scheduled to receive. See appendix J for simulations and circuit diagram.

00 32.00 40.00 $180.00 $24.40 14. Essentially it is a compilation of existing parts and those that have been manufactured by the team.50 Quantity 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 32 2 2 55 2 2 2 Total 215.20 20.00 512.40 $14.40 $14. Fortunately.90 32.00 7.00 16.00 32.00 90.00 90.00 14.90 $0.00 41.20 7.00 80.00 24.00 $0.00 28.00 $180.18 16.00 $80.00 180. and reduced the time spent manufacturing many components by April.40 14.83 Budget Suspension Listed below in Figure 48 is the suspension budget. there were several sponsors that helped reduce the price of components by selling specifically to Formula SAE groups at reduced costs.00 18.00 80.00 20.00 40.00 $41.40 $40.00 36.00 28.00 $9.00 50. This considerably lowered the total cost of the suspension budget.00 $0.40 $38. Parts that were reused have been inspected by the group members and determined to be safe and compatible with the new vehicle.00 Total Needed $0.00 24.20 19.00 12.40 40.00 $80.00 $512.00 $42.00 21.00 9.00 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .00 $14.00 $24.00 $0.20 7.00 12.00 $0.00 0.00 42.00 50.00 180.40 38. Part Steering Rack Tie Rods Steering Shaft Steering Wheel Steering Wheel Quick Release Fasteners Front Dampers Rear Dampers Front Springs Rear Springs Front Upper Control Arms Rear Upper Control Arms Front Lower Control Arms Rear Lower Control Arms Push Rods Rod Ends Front Rockers Rear Rockers Fasteners Front Uprights Rear Uprights Front Axle Re-used TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE Cost 215.

00 50.00 $10.00 30.00 80.828.00 $0. Below is the portion of the budget that is for mechanical aspects of the engine.00 $0.00 10.00 $100.20 $76.00 50.00 $1.744.35 32.00 $40.00 $1.00 5.84 Front Hub Rear Hub Total Cost Total Cost Needed 38.00 $0.00 40.00 40.00 $0.00 50.00 50.00 Total Needed $0.00 50.50 50.00 $20.00 50.00 20.00 95.00 Quantity 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 8 16 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 6 1 1 Total 500. Total Cost Total Cost Needed Re-used TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE Cost 250.00 2.00 $15.00 $0.00 $0.00 40.00 $419.00 $10.00 15.00 $0.00 $1.00 20.00 200.00 40.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 20.00 $0.00 30.00 $10.00 $12.70 $64.00 30.00 5.00 $50.00 $0.00 12. Part Engine Exhaust Manifold Exhaust Tubing Fire Wall Mufflers Intake Manifold Restrictor Air Filter Throttle Body Injectors Wiring Harness Oil Filter Spark Plugs Engine Oil Fuel Tank Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Regulator Fuel Rail Fuel Filter Fuel Lines Radiator Thermostat Housing Thermostat Water Hose Hose Clamps Oil Cooler Misc.00 40.00 $40.00 $0.00 15.00 $50.50 2.70 64.00 50.00 2 2 76.00 50.00 $30.00 $0.00 15. the cost of the intake system for fuel injection was minimized.00 Figure 49 – Engine Budget 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .50 Figure 48 – Suspension & Steering Budget Engine Intake Again.00 15.00 35.00 12.00 30.00 10.00 100.00 $20.00 10.00 30.253.00 $0.00 40.00 15.00 95.00 35. through the reuse of parts and those that have been paid for by sponsors.00 100.00 5.00 1.00 $12.00 20.

22 16.88 5.2V POS REGULATOR TO-92 3.50 5.28 1.98 1.20 13. Black 25' Wire 18 Ga.94 0.31 166.00 86.00 0.65 5.35 27.00 2.50 LM78L62ACZ-ND IC 6.76 2.5A 5V STM VOLTAGE REGULATOR Ign.00 2.04 1.1A DO41 HEXFET (N) 55V 47A SMD-220 IC 8V 1. Catalog Number PIC16F877-20P A152-ND 526-NTE5205A 520-ZTT400MG 511-LM324N 511-L7805CV N/A N/A KC006E-ND 23J10K-ND P300W-2BK-ND 2EZ10D5MSCTND PX241-15NG5V 0280150715 78560 78550 785305 785309 905501 11DQ04-ND IRLZ44NS-ND LM7808CT-ND F1015-ND F1086-ND 563-AU1028MG 563-CU622A 520-ZTT400MG IRLZ44-NS-ND GH5601-ND Description IC MCU 8K 20MHz Flash 40-DIP MICROCONTROLLER 0 INSERTION FORCE SOCKET 40 PI DO-4 39V 10W Zener NTE DIODE/RECTIFIER SIP-3 CER RES 4MHz ECS CERAMIC RESONATOR DIP-14 QUAD OP AMP STM OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER TO-220 +VRG 1.50 91.00 2.12 15.00.32 0. all the components necessary were ordered.26 29.00 38.88 0.16 10.00 2.85 Engine Control Listed below in Figure X is the final engine control budget.00 75.49 1.35 347.88 3. Although the ignition system we designed was not implemented.34 15.00 2.50 3.60 9.00 7. Black 15' Wire 14 Ga.00 2. controller) for 99' GSXR600 THERMISTOR 10K OHM TEMP MEASUR RESISTOR WIREWOUND 10K OHM RES 300 OHM 2W 5% METAL OXIDE ZENER DIODE 10V 5% 2W DO-41 PRESSURE TRANSDUCER (MAP SENSOR) BOSCH INJECTOR Wire 12 Ga.00 2.36 60.60 1. Green 45' Wire 12 Ga.0 A V REG TO-220 ATO FUSE 10A 32 VOLTS IN-LINE ATO FUSE HLDR 20A RATED ENCLOSURE ENCLOSURE CERAMIC RESONATORS HEXFET (N) 55V 47A Rotary Switch 1 pole 12 pos 200 Quantity Unit Price Shipping Amount 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 4 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 2 2 5 4 1 1 4 12 1 9. so we did an excellent job of estimating. coil & wire assembly for 99' GSXR600 CDI (Ign. White 45' In Circuit Debugger Module (ICD) SCHOTTKY RECT 40V 1.00 80.61 is very close to the projected of $1132.00 2.02 0.32 1.81 7.22 19.50 12.29 0.00 25.51 2.68 2.94 14.90 8.26 3.00 75.46 0.88 1. the final engine control budget of $1220.99 0.55 10.84 0.75 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .63 7.53 15.00 2. As seen below.75 159.68 4.57 18.22 0.57 18.75 12.

00 12.50 21.50 8.86 170036 8170 8171 8173 8174 Accel Crimpers MSD weather-pack connector MSD weather-pack connector MSD weather-pack connector MSD weather-pack connector 1 3 2 1 1 106 60.61 Figure 50 – Engine Control Budget 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .50 8.63 86.50 8.00 8.00 37.50 10.13 60.50 16.73 1220.

The main bulk of the components were ordered early in and during the spring semester of 2001. The original proposed completion date of April 26. which delayed experimental results needed to finalize electronic fuel injection design and coding. Considerable time was spent on this project to ensure that we would finish on time. It was originally broken down into two teams (microcontroller and circuitry. This timeline has been included in appendix B. 2001 could not be attained due to monthly delays in getting the F1 engine. respectively) and the main tasks that were needed to complete the project. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .87 Timeline A timeline for the spring semester was created at the end of the fall semester and updated throughout the spring semester.

88 Conclusion This project was a combination of two smaller design projects involving interdisciplanary teamwork. The system runs on an electronically controlled fuel injection system. The suspension had to maintain the maximum accelerations in the lateral. Sequential fuel injection was incorporated in the optimum design to increase performance. the engine is controlled by the electronic fuel injection system. and negative during the Formula SAE challenge. The major restriction was the reuse of many parts due to budget constraints. In the design. both driving conditions and different drivers were accounted for in creating a versitle car. However. All of the mechanical and electrical systems are interrelated. The finished projects were incorporated into the racecar built by the Formula SAE Chapter at the University of Connecticut. we were able to implement a multiport electronic fuel injection. As a result of the design process. The system was designed to be competitive with both the cost and performance of the current fuel injection systems available on the market. The suspension portion of the project was designed specifically as a mechanical engineering senior design project. The goal of the suspension team was to incorporate a system that is both reliable and adjustable. The overall goal of the project was to create and intergrate two components into a highly competitive vehicle. and the engine was completed through the interdisciplinary teamwork of Mechanical. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . we have learned a great deal about different engineering disciplines. Electrical. The goal of the engine team was to produce a high performance engine control system for the racecar. The overall goals of our project were met by producing a working vehicle. and Computer Engineers. and the engine’s power is transmitted via the drivetrain and the suspension system. positive. but in the practical design could not be implemented due to time constraints. Feedback from the engine was combined with preprogrammed information to deliver the correct amount of fuel to the cylinders at the correct time for peak engine performance.

89 We think the University of Connecticut will be well represented at this year’s SAE student design competition. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

MA. Peatman. New York. Prentice Hall PTR. 1999. Staniforth. Electronics Pocket Handbook. Albert J. 1998. 1997. The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits. Stone. 1998. 3rd ED. Upper Saddle River. Warrendale. 1999. WI. 1996. 1996. Thomas. Wiley & Sons. Allan. Microchip Technology. Metzger. PIC16F87X Data Sheet. Richard. Upper Saddle River. PWS Publishing Company. NY. Bosch.13. Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines. MI. Society of Automotive Engineers. Moran. 1998. Racecar Chassis Design. Boston. Version 1. 4th ED. Rashid. 1995. Microelectronic Circuits: Analysis and Design. 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Prentice Hall. Troy. and Rosa. NJ. William and Douglas. PA. Muhammad H. PA. Race Car Vehicle Dynamics. 1999. Altair Computing Inc. 3rd ED Prentice Hall PTR. Daniel L. Milliken. Altair SuspensionGen User’s Manual. Upper Saddle River. M. Society of Automotive Engineers..90 References Bosch. Motorbooks International Publisher. 1998. Fundamentals at Engineering Thermodynamics. Stuttgart. Warrendale. Germany. Design with PIC Microcontrollers. Roland E. M and Shaprio. 3rd ED. John B. NJ. NJ. Automotive Handbook. Robert. Osceola.

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Jim Cowart for guidance and technical support and answers to questions concerning automotive theory UConn Engineering Machine Shop personnel Tom. technical and non-technical support Dr. University of Connecticut Chapter Dr. Rich. and Serge for their help and support with the project Mr. John Ayers for continuous help.91 Acknowledgements • • • • • • Society of Automotive Engineers. Marty Wood for his help getting us started with Formula SAE and support throughout the project. Peter Boardman for his advice and facilities support Mr.

.......................................................................................................................................................36 Figure 30 – Engine Speed vs.............................51 Figure 35 – Intake manifold for a 4-cylinder engine.............................................................23 Figure 12 – Diagram of Ackerman’s Principle..........................................................................................18 Figure 6 – Demonstration of Negative and Positive Camber............................................................................31 Figure 24 – Front Uprights.......65 Figure 41 – Variable Reluctance Sensor (VRS) Interface Circuit................15 Figure 4 – Roll Center Location..........................................................................................68 Figure 43 – Rich/Lean Adjustment Circuit.....................................................................................................28 Figures 22a & 22b – Force Schematic & Truss Design..................................................................................................................................... Wheel Displacement..................................................27 Figure 19 – Maximum Achievable Loads.......79 Figure 48 – Suspension & Steering Budget....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 Figure 7 – Graph of Camber vs..................................................................................................................................................................... Wheel Displacement.................... Wheel Displacement..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20 Figure 8 – Scrub Radius...................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Figure 2 – Various Commercially Available Fuel Injection/Ignition Systems........................................................21 Figure 10 – Graph of Caster Angle vs................................27 Figure 20 – Schematic of tire with axes..........57 Figure 38 – Intake Manifold and Fuel Rail (Side View).....................................................................35 Figure 28 – Steering Arms.25 Figure 14 – Graph of Relevant Forces...............................................................................................................................47 Figure 31 – Fuel volumes compared to stoichiometric ratios...................................................................................................................74 Figure 47 – Complete Engine Control System............................................................................................................................................................................33 Figure 26 – Rockers...............................50 Figure 34 – Injector differential pressure layout.......................................................84 Figure 50 – Engine Control Budget...................................................................................................................................................................................................48 Figure 32 – Fuel Injector Test Rig............................................................26 Figure 18 – Longitudinal Weight Transfer...................................................................................69 Figure 44 – Fuel Injector Driver Circuit......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28 Figure 21 – Horizontal Tire Force...................................................................................................................................................................................................21 Figure 9 – Toe-In/Out vs............................................................................................................................................49 Figure 33 – Fuel Volume vs....................................................................................................................................30 Figure 23 – Material Properities for a 14 inch pin-pin beam.............................................................................................................................................23 Figure 13 – Acceleration Data used for Calculations..... Volumetric Efficiency................................................................................32 Figure 25 – Rear Uprights......................................71 Figure 45 – Ignition Driver Circuit (Including Microcontroller).................................................................................................................................................................53 Figure 36 – Pipe length benefits at particular engine speeds....................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 Figure 40 – Control Variables................................................ Pulse Width....................13 Figure 3 – Suspension Setup Types.........92 Appendix Appendix A – Figure List Figure 1 – Vehicle Coordinates........................................................................34 Figure 27 – Push Rods...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................84 Figure 49 – Engine Budget..................................................................................26 Figure 16 – Lateral Acceleration Loads...................... Wheel Displacement............................................................................................58 Figure 39 – Intake Manifold and Fuel Rail (Front View)...............................................................................................................................66 Figure 42 – Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Circuit................................................................ Wheel Displacement............................................................................................................................................................................16 Figure 5 – Graph of Roll Center Height vs.....................................26 Figure 15 – Vertical Tire Force Calculation................................................................................86 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar ...................................55 Figure 37 – Runner Shapes at the Mouth........22 Figure 11 – Graph of Kingpin Angle vs..............................................

93 Appendix B – Timeline 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

94 Appendix C – Tire Data 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

95 Appendix D – Valve Timing 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

96 Appendix E – String Model 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

97 Appendix F – Microcontroller Port Schema Port MCLR/VPP/THV VDD VDD VSS VSS OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT RA0/AN0 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC2/CCP1 RE0/RD/AN5 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREFRA3/AN3/VREF+ RD0/PSP0 RD5/PSP5 RD6/PSP6 RD7/PSP7 RD1/PSP1 RD2/PSP2 RD3/PSP3 RD4/PSP4 I/O I I I I I I I I I I I I I I O O O O O O O O Name 5V Regulator Circuit 5V Regulator Circuit 5V Regulator Circuit GND GND Resonator (RES) Circuit Resonator (RES) Circuit Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) Circuit Variable Reluctance Sensor (VRS) Circuit Variable Reluctance Sensor (VRS) Circuit Cylinder Compression Detector (CCD) Circuit Rich/Lean Sensor (R/LS) Circuit Ambient Air Sensor (AAS) Circuit Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) Circuit Fuel Injector Driver (FID) Circuit 1 Fuel Injector Driver (FID) Circuit 2 Fuel Injector Driver (FID) Circuit 3 Fuel Injector Driver (FID) Circuit 4 Ignition Driver (IGD) Circuit 1 Ignition Driver (IGD) Circuit 2 Ignition Driver (IGD) Circuit 3 Ignition Driver (IGD) Circuit 4 Pin 1 11 32 12 31 13 14 2 15 17 8 3 4 5 19 28 29 30 20 21 22 27 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

........... cblock Bank0RAM SCALER RTIMEH RTIMEL FTIMEH FTIMEL TIMEH TIMEL RPMREGH RPMREGL SECH SECL W_TEMP STATUS_TEMP CONTROL FALLTIMEH FALLTIMEL RISETIMEH RISETIMEL MAXH MAXL Y1INT1 Y1INT2 Y1INT3 Y2INT0 Y2INT1 MAPREGH MAPREGL CHARGETIME REVCOUNT RLREGH RLREGL Y3INT1 Y3INT0 HIGHH HIGHL TIMERH TIMERL TRANSCHECK ADDH .. ST=OFF....... . register associated with looptime captured rise time of crank signal (high byte) captured rise time of crank signal (low byte) captured fall time of crank signal (high byte) captured fall time of crank signal (low byte) calculated pulse width (high byte) calculated pulse width (low byte) .......... F=INHX8M..... . Engine control system .......Number of loops in half a second .........................inc __config(_CP_OFF & _PWRTE_ON & _XT_OSC & _WDT_OFF & _BODEN_OFF) .......... rpm register (low byte) 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar ...... rpm register (high byte) .......98 Microcontroller Code .................. R=DEC......... list P=PIC16F877..................... C=160........................... MM=OFF........................................................ .... .... ..FORMULA SAE RACE CAR ... ............. ................................................................ Equates .................................. X=OFF #include P16F877. .......... N=77......Start of Bank 0 RAM area ....................... ... .......... .......... ............. ........... Bank0RAM equ H'20' MaxCount equ 50 .......... .... . UCONN .......Ignition System and Fuel Injection System ........ VARIABLES ..........This program controls the fuel supply and spark to the engine of the Formula SAE race car .........

....... 4...dest movf source..................................... right justified set I/O for PORTA set I/O for PORTE ............... output declare bit 0 of RB0/INT (pin 33) as an input make PORTD pins output pins back to bank 0 enable global............dest movlw literal movwf dest endm MOVFF macro source..... Initial MOVLF MOVLF MOVLF bcf MOVLF bsf clrf bsf bsf MOVLF MOVLF MOVLF MOVLF MOVLF an MOVLF clrf bcf MOVLF return B'11110001'....... INITIAL SUBROUTINE .................. Using timer1 here...................... set register access to bank 0 set up timer2 to use 4MHz clock Timer2 set up (pg.......... For debug Mainline.......TRISA B'00000100'....... Branch to interrupt service routine ........... . Make RC2/CCP1 an input (pin 17) and RC1/CCP2 (pin 16) ...................ADCON1 B'00001011'.. ........ Interrupt vector IntService ..... .......PR2 B'00000101'..... Reset vector ..... ..W movwf dest endm ... ...............TRISC . .. 60) select PORTA/E pins...... crank signal goes to RC2/CCP1 pin 17 .......SCALER 0..........RP0 B'11000000'.TMR2IE B'10000000'..... ........ Capture subroutine for cranksensor signal pulse width ... MOVLF macro literal..... call to initial all registers .......REVCOUNT STATUS.... MACRO DEFINITIONS . VECTORS ....... . 60) clear portd set register access to bank 1 Timer2 set up (pg........ . 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .... find engine position MainLoop ......RP0 B'00001101'.........RP0 PIE1.......... org nop goto org goto H'000' ......... ....99 ADDL FMASS endc include math....... Mainline Program .T2CON INTCON... peripheral interrupts..... go back up (loop) . Branch past tables H'004' ..inc ....... set up timer2 to use 4MHz clock ..... .........PEIE PORTD STATUS..TRISE B'11111001'.. Mainline call call MainLoop nop nop goto Initial FIND_14 ........ ...INTCON .............CONTROL 50...TRISB TRISD STATUS........

.FTIMEH CCPR1L.. . .0 CCPR1H.BARGB0 B'11101000'. ...F RTIMEL.RPMREGH AARGB1..RTIMEH CCPR1L. This subroutine calculates the rpm of the engine ...RTIMEL CCP1CON.RPMREGL FTIMEH.AARGB0 60.. putting 1000 in low byte. RPM MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVLF MOVLF call MOVLF MOVLF call (16bit) MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF MOVFF MOVFF call MOVFF MOVFF return AARGB2. high byte..W FTIMEL. .BARGB1 FXD3216U .. putting 1000 in low byte..... max # obtainable is 4295 FXM1616U CLRF ACCB2 CLRF ACCB3 MOVF AARGB0.BARGB1 FXM1616U B'00000011'.AARGB1 SECH. ..BARGB0 16.. .W MOVWF TEMPB0 MOVF AARGB1...W MOVWF TEMPB1 UMUL1616L RETLW 0x00 FXD3216U CLRF REMB0 CLRF REMB1 UDIV3216L RETLW 0x00 FXD1616U CLRF REMB0 CLRF REMB1 UDIV1616L RETLW 0x00 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar ..BARGB0 B'11101000'.. .. putting 1000 in converting from usecs to secs. clear to set up for falling edge set to set up for falling edge move captured time to defined register (high byte) move captured time to defined register (low byte) clear bit 0 to capture falling edge move captured time to defined register (high byte) move captured time to defined register (low byte) Clear all times after pulse width is found Clear all times after pulse width is found move rise time (high) to W register subtract high bytes and store in F register move rise time to W register subtract low bytes and store in F register if a borrow occured then decrement decrement if borrow occured . . .... putting 1000 in converting from usecs to secs high byte.. ...F RPM . .100 CRANKPULSE bcf bsf MOVFF MOVFF bcf MOVFF MOVFF clrf clrf movf subwf movf subwf btfss decf call return PIR1.AARGB0 FTIMEL.BARGB1 FXD3216U B'00000011'.. .AARGB1 0. ...BARGB0 SECL.BARGB1 FXD1616U AARGB0. .. . . ..CCP1IE CCPR1H.FTIMEL CCPR1H CCPR1L RTIMEH..CCP1IF PIE1....W FTIMEH..F STATUS..C FTIMEH. .SECH AARGB3. ...SECL 0.

.. repeat ............. clear Timer1 (High Byte) .PORTD clrf TMR1H clrf TMR1L MOVLF B'10011100'....TMR1ON PIR1. clear peripheral interrupt flag ....TMR1IF check1 T1CON PORTD PIR1... Start clocking TMR1 again . repeat ... ............. external clock set up .... remove signal from PORTD..... stop sending fuel only after interrupt has occured ... skip next command if 3rd tooth has not been counted bcf PIR1.... Send spark when missing teeth show up (falling edge) ..TMR1ON PIR1............ Stop timer 1 .7 PWVALUE PIR1 T1CON.. Call CRANKPULSE here... .TMR1L MOVLF B'11111111'.. Keep charging coil until 100us are up ... skip next instruction if interrupt has occured .....7 load3ms REVCOUNT...... Set up timer to generate overflow after 3rd count (rising edge) .... Send fuel to cylinder 1 and 4 (pins 0 and 7 of PORTD) . Clipped signal goes to RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI ......... Send spark to cylinder 1 and 4 (pins 1 and 4 of PORTD) ... want to find rpm only after missing teeth have passed ...PORTD clrf clrf clrf btfss call btfsc call clrf bsf btfsc nop btfss goto nop clrf clrf T1CON TMR1H TMR1L REVCOUNT.... .............. Rectified and clipped crank signal goes into RB0/INT (pin 33) ... To generate 100us delay between on off time for coils .. ...... Timer1 is set up as timer initially ...............TMR1H and clrf bsf check1 btfsc nop btfss goto nop clrf clrf bcf clrf clrf MOVLF PIR1 T1CON..... Set up timer to generate overflow after 3rd count (rising edge) ... start clocking timer .TMR1IF MOVLF B'00010010'. external clock set up .. sparks explode . new clear timer 1 .... new clear timer 1 .TMR1ON PIR1.. clear peripheral interrupt flag .TMR1IF PIR1......... keep sending fuel as long as time is not up (no interrupt) .......TMR1H clrf movlw movwf bsf check2 btfsc PIR1 0x0E T1CON T1CON..TMR1IF PIR1..101 .........TMR1IF check T1CON PORTD check ........ proceed to send spark if interrupt has occured ......... To generate 100us delay between on off time for coils . .... clear Timer1 (Low Byte) FUEL_SPARK clrf INTCON MOVLF B'10000001'.......TMR1IF TMR1L TMR1H B'11111110'.. .TMR1IF 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar ..TMR1L and MOVLF B'11111111'......... stop timer 1 .. Using Timer1 here also .. disable all interrupts .

Do not repeat if interrupt has occured ... Keep charging coil until 100us are up .102 nop btfss goto nop clrf call bcf clrf clrf btfss call btfsc call clrf bsf check3 btfsc nop btfss goto nop clrf clrf MOVLF bcf clrf clrf MOVLF and MOVLF B'11111111'....INTCON off time for coils ....TMR1IF PIR1.. remove fuel supply ....load_23.TMR1H and clrf bsf check4 btfsc nop btfss goto nop clrf clrf bcf MOVLF call btfss decf nop MOVLF return .. stop timer1 ....... keep sending fuel until .TMR1ON PIR1. stop timer1 .. clear timer1 . clear timer ... send spark to cylinder 2 and 3 (pins 2 and 3 of PORTD) ....TMR1IF check3 T1CON PORTD B'00001100'. load3ms clrf TMR1L clrf TMR1H MOVLF B'01001000'..TMR1IF check2 T1CON LOAD_23 PIR1.TMR1IF PIR1...03s are up ... To generate 100us delay between on .PORTD PIR1. start timer ...TMR1IF check4 T1CON PORTD PIR1....F B'11000000'.TMR1L ..TMR1L PIR1 T1CON. RB0 interrupt is disabled permanently .TMR1ON PIR1.... re-enable global and peripheral interrupts.......7 load3ms REVCOUNT....... clear peripheral interrupt flag ....... disable peripheral interrupt flag .TMR1IF B'00000001'. repeat ....... start timer1 ...CONTROL CHECK_7 REVCOUNT. clear timer .. decrement REVCOUNT . generate 3ms 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .... skip if interrupt has occured .. sparks explode . clear timer1 interrupt off time for coils ........TMR1IF TMR1L TMR1H B'10011100'......... remove signal from PORTD..7 PWVALUE PIR1 T1CON. stop timer ...... To generate 100us delay between on PIR1. repeat .PORTD return ....load3ms... clear timer1 ... repeat ...load 3ms into timer1 ......7 REVCOUNT.TMR1IF TMR1L TMR1H REVCOUNT.. LOAD_23 MOVLF B'01100000'..

.TMR1H .RISETIMEL PIR1....... ... ....103 MOVLF B'11110100'. . . ......... stop timer1 . .CCP1IF H'05'.CCP1IF PIR1...TMR1IE STATUS..... stop timer1 . ...RP0 T1CON TMR1H TMR1L B'11111111'. FIND_14 start btfsc goto clrf clrf clrf clrf clrf clrf bsf clrf bcf MOVLF bsf btfss goto MOVFF MOVFF bcf MOVLF bcf btfss goto MOVFF MOVFF bcf clrf clrf movf subwf movf subwf btfss decf CONTROL..W RISETIMEH... . ...F .RP0 PIE1 STATUS. This subroutine is called to find engine position .. ...... .F STATUS.. avoid false interrupt cap cap1 ..CCP1CON PIR1...FALLTIMEL PIR1.W RISETIMEL. if a borrow occured then decrement ...TMR1H return .. . .. move rise time (high) to W register ..CCP1IF cap1 CCPR1H. Signal in CCP1 pin .....RP0 T1CON... .. ... ..... .... ...... ....CCP1CON T1CON.RISETIMEH CCPR1L... bank 0 Stop timer 1 new clear timer 1 new clear timer 1 Set up timer to generate overflow after 4th count (rising edge) Set up timer to generate overflow after 4th count (rising edge) enter bank 1 disable peripheral interrupt bank 0 clear peripheral interrupt flag external clock set up external clock set up enter bank 1 enable timer1 interrupt bank 0 start clocking TMR1 (counter) MOVLF B'11111110'.CCP1IF cap CCPR1H.TMR1ON . subtract high bytes and store in F register ....... . decrement if borrow occured 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar ..TMR1L bsf clrf bcf clrf movlw movwf bsf bsf bcf bsf return STATUS..RP0 PIE1.. timer1 is running after FUEL_SPARK is exited ....F FALLTIMEL.... subtract low bytes and store in F register ..FALLTIMEH CCPR1L. ... ...RP0 H'04'..... generate 3ms ...TMR1ON PIR1... .. CCP module is off . move rise time to W register ... . .CCP1IF CCP1CON T1CON FALLTIMEH..0 last T1CON CCP1CON TMR1H TMR1L INTCON PIR1 STATUS..........RP0 PIE1 STATUS..C RISETIMEH..... clear peripheral interrupt flags enter bank 1 disable peripheral interrupts bank 0 capture falling edge start timer move captured time (high byte) move captured time (low byte) clear flag capture rising edge safety clear. Subroutine to count 7th tooth.. ..RP0 PIR1 0x0E T1CON STATUS... CHECK_7 bcf clrf clrf clrf MOVLF STATUS.. CCP module is off .....

104
nop nop btfsc call btfss goto nop return ; cushion ; cushion RISETIMEH,6 FUEL_SPARK RISETIMEH,6 start

last

;;;;;;;;;;;;; This subroutine calculates pulse width ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; FUELMASS clrf MOVLF MOVLF keep decfsz goto bsf DELAY btfsc i.e goto bsf movf bcf movwf movf movwf MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVLF MOVLF MOVLF movf subwf movf subwf btfss decf bsf movf subwf btfss decf MOVLF MOVFF MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVLF MOVLF call MOVFF MOVFF INTCON B'01000001',ADCON0 15,CHARGETIME CHARGETIME,F keep ADCON0,GO_DONE ADCON0,GO_DONE DELAY STATUS,RP0 ADRESL,W STATUS,RP0 MAPREGL ADRESH,W MAPREGH MAPREGL,AARGB1 MAPREGH,AARGB0 B'01101111',BARGB1 0,BARGB0 FXM1616U B'00100000',Y1INT3 B'00010000',Y1INT2 B'00000010',Y1INT1 AARGB1,W Y1INT1,F AARGB2,W Y1INT2,F STATUS,C Y1INT1,F STATUS,C AARGB3,W Y1INT3,F STATUS,C Y1INT2,F 0,AARGB0 Y1INT1,AARGB1 Y1INT2,AARGB2 Y1INT3,AARGB3 B'00000001',BARGB0 B'00101100',BARGB1 FXD3216U AARGB3,AARGB1 AARGB2,AARGB0 150,BARGB1 0,BARGB0 FXM1616U B'00011111',BARGB1 B'00000001',BARGB0 FXD3216U AARGB3,AARGB1 AARGB2,AARGB0 ;disable interupts ; select analog input on PORTA, bit 0 ; ; stored in ADRESL and ADRESH ; tests if conversion is complete GO_DONE (O or 1?) ; repeat above test if GO_DONE = 1 ; bank 1 ;load adresl into mapregl ;load adresh into mapregh ; move ; move store 111 for slope store 111 for slope 32 bit output, AARGB0 is empty move 135200 move 135200 move 135200 subract (straight line equation) result stored in Y1INT1

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

; fix

; move 300 ; move 300 ; call math, 16 bit output

; ; ; ;

32 bit output store 287 store 287 8 bit out put

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar

105
MOVLF MOVLF call MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call remainder MOVLF MOVLF call AARGB2, MOVFF MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVFF MOVFF call MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call mass MOVLF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVLF 0,AARGB0 B'11100110',BARGB1 B'00000001',BARGB0 FXM1616U B'10010000',Y2INT1 ; ; ; ; store 486 for slope store 486 for slope 32 bit output store 400 (y-intercept) gives 2.6ms idle ; store 400 (y-intercept) gives 2.6ms idle 0,BARGB0 14,BARGB1 FXD1616U AARGB1,FMASS REMB1,AARGB1 0,AARGB0 10,BARGB1 0,BARGB0 FXM1616U AARGB3,AARGB1 AARGB2,AARGB0 14,BARGB1 0,BARGB0 FXD1616U 50,BARGB1 0,BARGB0 FXM1616U AARGB3,ADDL AARGB2,ADDH FMASS,AARGB1 0,AARGB0 Y3INT1,BARGB1 Y3INT0,BARGB0 FXM1616U AARGB3,AARGB1 AARGB2,AARGB0 B'00000011',BARGB0 B'11101000',BARGB1 FXD1616U

; 32 bit output ; maximum is 13*10 = 130 ; 0 here always ; 16 bit output, whole number value for

; 32 bit output, max value is 450 in AARGB3 ; to be added to timer ; to be added to timer ; rich/lean value ; rich/lean value ; 32 bit output, AARGB2, AARGB3 ; store 1000 ; store 1000 ; 16 bit output, rich/lean adjusted fuel

MOVLF B'00000001',Y2INT0 movf addwf movf btfsc incfsz addwf movf addwf movf btfsc incfsz addwf nop return AARGB3,W Y2INT1,F AARGB2,W STATUS,C AARGB2,W Y2INT0,F ADDL,W Y2INT1,F ADDH,W STATUS,C ADDH,W Y2INT0,F

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Find value for timer 1 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; PWVALUE MOVLF MOVLF movf subwf movf 255,TIMERH 255,TIMERL Y2INT0,W TIMERH,F Y2INT1,W ;calculating of values

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar

106
subwf btfss decf clrf clrf MOVFF MOVFF return TIMERL,F STATUS,C TIMERH,F TMR1H TMR1L TIMERH,TMR1H TIMERL,TMR1L

;loading of values

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; This subroutine determines fuel amount correction from driver controls ;;;;;;;;;; RICHLEAN clrf MOVLF MOVLF keep1 decfsz goto bsf DELAY1 btfsc i.e goto bsf movf bcf movwf movf movwf MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVFF MOVFF MOVLF MOVLF call MOVLF MOVLF movf addwf movf btfsc incfsz addwf return INTCON B'01001001',ADCON0 15,CHARGETIME CHARGETIME,F keep1 ADCON0,GO_DONE ADCON0,GO_DONE DELAY1 STATUS,RP0 ADRESL,W STATUS,RP0 RLREGL ADRESH,W RLREGH RLREGH,AARGB0 RLREGL,AARGB1 0,BARGB0 5,BARGB1 FXM1616U AARGB3,AARGB1 AARGB2,AARGB0 10,BARGB1 0,BARGB0 FXD1616U B'10111101',Y3INT1 B'00000010',Y3INT0 AARGB1,W Y3INT1,F AARGB0,W STATUS,C AARGB0,W Y3INT0,F ; disable global interrupts ; select bit 1 of PORTA ; capacitor chargetime ; stored in ADRESL and ADRESH ; tests if conversion is complete GO_DONE (O or 1?) ; repeat above test if GO_DONE = 1 ; bank 1

; 16 bit output AARGB0 and AARGB1 ; move 701 (y-intercept) ; move 701 (y-intercept)

;;;;;;;;;;;;; Interrupt Service - Change from 00000000 to 11111111 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; IntService movwf swapf movwf Poll btfsc bcf W_TEMP STATUS,W STATUS_TEMP PIR1,TMR2IF PIR1,TMR2IF ; Copy W to RAM, set aside W and STATUS ; Move STATUS to W without affecting Z bit ; Copy to RAM (with nibbles swapped) ; Don't call Timer2 if interrupt hasn't occured, call ; Timer2 if interrupt has occured (i.e clear interrupt flag)

2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar

. .107 btfsc call btfsc call btfsc call swapf movwf swapf swapf retfie end PIR1.TMR1IF FUELMASS PIR1. always clear until 7th tooth .TMR1IF RICHLEAN PIR1. always clear until 7th tooth . call FUEL_SPARK . .F W_TEMP.W STATUS W_TEMP. reenable interrupts 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar . Restore STATUS bits (unswapping nibbles) without affecting Z bit Swap W_TEMP and swap again into W without affecting Z bit Return from mainline code.W . .TMR1IF FUEL_SPARK STATUS_TEMP.

108 Appendix G – PCBoards Circuit Layout 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

109 Appendix H – RC Compression Damping 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

110 Appendix I – RC Rebound Damping 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

111 Appendix J – Simulations of Cylinder Compression Detector 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

112 Appendix K – Thank you to all of our Sponsors Project Sponsors Yard Apes Landscaping Parker Medical CFR Welding 2000-2001 Formula SAE Racecar .

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