_____________________________________________________________________________ UNIT 5: PHYSICAL CONDITIONING CONCEPT

5.1

SCOPE OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONING 5.1.1 Introduction Significant advances have been made in the process of physical conditioning for sport over the past years. To be in optimum physical condition for competitions, an athlete has to go through an extensive program of physical fitness training, which consists of regimes of various exercise methods, and systems based on the integration of various sports science sub-disciplines. A comprehensive program, which addresses each aspect of the athlete’s physical and mental capabilities, is imperative for total success. As such developing sports-fitness base is important for both the performance and the health of the athlete in attaining total conditioning. A needs analysis for any sports conditioning program evaluates the demands of the sport. Which include the range of metabolic requirements, the injury potential for different parts of the body, and the types of muscle actions or biomechanical characteristics involved in sport. 5.1.2 The WHAT, WHY and HOW of physical conditioning Physical conditioning refers to the development of physical fitness through the adaptation of the body and its various systems to an exercise program. The bottom line in physical conditioning and fitness training is stress, not mental stress, but adaptive body stress. Sportsmen and women must put their bodies under a certain amount of stress (overload) to increase physical capabilities. One of the misconceptions in the sports world is that a sports person gets in shape by just playing or taking part in his/her chosen sport. If a stationary level of performance, consistent ability in executing a few limited skills is your goal, then engaging only in your sport will keep you there. However, if you want the utmost efficiency, consistent improvement, and balanced abilities sportsmen and women must participate in year round physical conditioning programs. 5.1.3 Need Analysis The coach can evaluate and understand the physiological needs of his/her sport by the means of the Time, Motion, and Intensity Analysis (TMIA). TMIA is a useful method to quantify the physical demands of individual athlete during match play or competition. The main advantage of the method is the production of data concerning durations, frequencies and percentages of various modes of motion and distances covered by athletes or players. It also provides crude measurements of energy expenditure through determining exercise-to-rest ratios and intensities of play as well as direct match involvement. The analysis can also

4 Speed Speed is the quickness of movement of a limb.determine different physical. allowing activities that involve large muscle mass. the following: General speed – The capacity to perform any kind of movement (motor reaction) in a rapid manner. 5.1 Muscular strength The common definition is "the ability to exert a force against a resistance".. Understanding the specific components as related to the sport will assist coaches to select and utilize the precise training methods and exercises to develop these components in compliance to the principles of specificity to the physiological needs of the sport.2. physiological and bio-energetic requirements experienced by athletes or players of different position in a sport or of different sports.2. Another definition of strength is “the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate at a specific velocity” (Knuttgen H. The components of physical fitness are: Cardiovascular endurance (energy system interplay) The ability of the lungs and heart to take in and transport adequate amounts of oxygen to the working muscles. which is usually high.W.2. Speed is an integral part of every sport and can be expressed as any one of.3 Body composition (as required by the sport) The percentage ratio of muscle versus fat as required by the sport person specific to his/her sport requirement 5. or combination of. 5. and W.2. 1987 cited in Baechle T. Kraemer. Specific speed – The capacity to perform an exercise or skill at a given speed. 5.R and Earle R. 2000).2 Components of physical fitness There are various components of physical fitness required for sporting excellence.2 Flexibility Range of motion (ROM) available in a joint or group of joints that can be measured either angularly or linearly. whether this is the legs of a runner or the arm of the shot putter. 5. • • .

5. control) The ability to maintain equilibrium when stationary or moving (i.7 Balance (stability. Complex reaction – when an individual receives several stimuli and has to choose between them. flawlessness and precision that closely links to the sports specificity of motor skills. intuition) Represents the time between exposure to a stimulus and the first muscular reaction.2. ears and the proprioceptive organs in our joints) Static Balance . Specific co-ordination – The ability to perform various movements in the selected sport very quickly with ease. or the first movement performed. 5. changing direction and accelerating again while maintaining good body control. distance.ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support in a stationary position • Dynamic Balance . • • Simple reaction – The predetermined conscious response to a previously known signal performed unexpectedly. audio.2. 5.2.3 Principles of training .5. • • General co-ordination – The capacity to rationally perform various motor skills multilaterally.e. • 5. smell.8 Coordination The ability to perform movements of various degrees of difficulty very quickly.9 Kinesthetic awareness The spatial awareness of space.2.6 Reaction time – (visual.5 Agility Ability to change direction involving explosive breaking. and in accordance to the specific task.2. 5. poise. not to fall over) through the coordinated actions of our sensory functions (eyes. in relation to body position (awareness of body position). touch. speed. with great precision and efficiency.ability to maintain balance under changing conditions of body movement.

3.3. 5. 5.7 Duration The amount of time required to be spend on a specific exercise or phase of training to yield the necessary physiological changes and adaptation. It is dependent upon the type of training. strength or aerobic) or program type (e.3 Specificity It refers to the specific adaptation responses to the specific type of stimulus imposed. Each of these principles is defined within the construct of the exercise modality (e. 5.g.3.3.3. 5.3. 5.g. Applications of these principles are vital to achieve the desired sports performance and specific adaptations.2 Overload It is the gradual degree of stress place on the body doing exercise training. 5.4 Frequency It is the optimal number of training sessions to be performed in a week to yield optimum physiological improvements. 5.5 Intensity It is the degree of stress imposed on the body system(s) to yield the necessary acute physiological changes that would lead towards positive chronic adaptations. It is dependent upon principles of reversibility and rest.3.1 Progression It is the act of moving forward or advancing towards a specific goal step by step. 5.There are many principles governing physical conditioning program.3.6 Volume The amount of work performed in a training session. local muscular endurance weight-training program versus strength weight training program). In reality the adaptive responses will only respond if continually required to exert the greater magnitude of challenges to meet higher physiological demands. The variables for intensity are dependent upon the type of exercise used and to meet the specific training objectives. These specific principles reflect the particularities of fulfilling important training goals. namely injury prevention.8 Rest . The variables for overload are dependent upon the type of exercise used and to meet the specific training objectives. Wellconstructed physical conditioning programs are based on the application of sound training principles. increasing skill and performance level.

Regardless of which method or system that a coach chooses to adopt. muscle type. It is dependent on the type of training. power. and speed besides playing a significant role in the prevention of injuries to a sportsman. agility.13 5. 5. It can also be translated in terms of specific training/exercise based on the different phases of training. balance. understanding of the 5. training goals.12 Sequence The sequencing of exercises/ methods of exercise/ muscles groups during a workout will affect the acute expression of the physiological stress. Balance It is to attain a balanced ratio of development for all the necessary components of physical fitness required for the sports and the human body (the concept of multilateral development). age.3. Timing It is to train what and when.3.15 . variation of training method. 5. intensity.10 Individualization It is the specific training consideration and prescription to individual differences. objective of training.g. fitness level. fitness level. training experience and etc. It exerts great influence on other physical fitness components such as. The scope of strength training is broad with various methods.4 Strength training Strength is a very important component of physical fitness for high performance sport.3. volume. 5.14 5.3.9 Reversibility It is the onset of detraining effect following no training continuation after exceeding the appropriate rest period. energy system utilization and etc. meaningful and enjoyable through the consideration of various factors such as.11 Variation Its main purposes is to prevent stagnation from happening either physiological or psychologically due to saturation and/or boredom 5. e. Fun Is to make training sessions and experience more challenging.3. to suit to individual differences and needs.The time spends to allow for the body to recuperate and regenerate. as to take advantage of the body’s chronobiological changes.3. gender.3. 5. systems and exercises to choose from.

2 Strength training exercise classifications • • • • 5.4. Muscular endurance – the muscle’s ability to sustain work for a prolonged time.1 Objective of strength training • • Prevention of injuries particularly to soft tissues Optimize performance potential What are the classifications of strength? • • • • • • • Specific Strength – The strength of muscles (prime mover) that are particular to movement involve in sport. and the ability to perform maximum force in the shortest time.3 Core exercises Assistance exercise Structural Power Biomechanical principles in strength training • • • • • • • Safe / effective range of motion (ROM) Natural path of movement To lock the working joints To contract (tense) the target muscle(s) only Lumbar stability factor Proper body alignment (subject to. 5.4. This therefore implies that there are different types of strength.fundamentals will assure the safety and effectiveness of the strength-training program. The strength needed for a sprinter to explode from the blocks is different to the strength needed by a weight lifter to lift a 200kg barbell. line of resistance) Avoid locking out the hinge joints (elbow & knee) .4. Maximum Strength – The highest force the neuromuscular system can perform during a maximum voluntary contraction. Relative Strength (RS) – The ratio between an athlete’s absolute strength and his/her body weight (RS = AS/BW) Reserve Strength – The difference between maximal strength and the actual load or effort to perform a task 5. Power – the combination of strength and speed. Absolute Strength (AS) – The ability of an athlete to exert maximum force regardless of body weight involuntarily.

• Concentric contraction – Tension in muscle while muscle is shortening.4 Basic terminologies in strength training Isotonic contraction – Contraction in which the muscle shortens with varying tension while lifting a constant load. To perform any type of physical activity.5. Momentary Muscular Failure (MMF) – is characterized by the last repetition in a set whereby the targeted muscle fibers and motor units achieve 100% recruitment.3 Periodization model for strength training • • • • Anatomical adaptation Hypertrophy Muscular endurance / Maximal strength Conversion to power/ endurance/ speed 5. Isometric contraction – Tension in muscle but muscle length remains unchanged Isokinetic contraction – Constant speed contraction in muscle while shortening or lengthening. 5. • • • • • . High intensity effort performed for short period of time (below 10s) utilizes anaerobic alactic (ATP-PC) energy system.1 • • Concept of energy system It is dependent upon intensity and duration of the physical task being performed.4. Delayed Onset of Muscular Soreness (DOMS) – Pain and stiffness that occur 1 to 2 days after the performance of exercise that is of a type or intensity uncommon to the performer. 5.• Observe the line of pull of muscle(s) 5. The necessary energy is provided either anaerobically or aerobically.4.5 Training the energy system (aerobic energy system) There are three distinct yet closely integrated processes that operate together to satisfy the energy requirement of muscles. • Eccentric contraction – Tension in muscle while muscle is lengthening. energy must be provided to the muscles involved. It is of imperative importance for any sports that requires elements of endurance to have a sound aerobic fitness even when the predominant energy system is anaerobic.

. It also referred as the combustion of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. e. involving substantial portion of skeletal musculature utilizing the oxidative metabolism.g. • • Causes Adaptation in oxygen transport system and oxygen utilization system Aerobic fitness Aerobic capacity . Low to moderate intensity of effort performed over long extended period of time (beyond 2 min) uses aerobic energy system predominantly.ability to perform work of moderate intensity for long period of time Aerobic power . sports in which intense effort are interspersed with rest periods Enhances recovery and permits more high intensity work .5. anaerobic alactic and lactic (glycolysis) energy system.• • High intensity effort performed over an extended time (beyond 60s) is dependent upon both.2 Training the aerobic energy system   Definition Progressive exercise performed at medium intensity and over extended duration of time. events that require continuous effort at sub max levels Sports that feature intermittent exercise.ability to perform work of relatively high intensity for a moderate period of time 5.3 Benefits of aerobic training • Increase capacity to work at relatively high rate for prolonged period (over 30 min) • Improve ability to resist fatigue • Improved ability to work at high rates for short periods (5 to 15 min) • Improve ability to recover quickly from high work rates • Improve ability to expend high total amounts of energy Training aerobic system is important for: • • • Sports. 5.5.

70% of VO2max¨Increases ability to work at higher % of VO2max Reduces Lactic acid level & HR at sub max workloads Mode is not critical – large muscle involvement & variety Appropriate during off season & pre season Interval method Continuous method At intensity that stresses O2 transport & utilization system Improve central transport system by stimulating adaptive changes It is the series of repeated bouts of high intensity work interrupted by pause periods. size & activity of mitochondria (aerobic energy producing structures)  Increases capillarization  Increases enzymes activities  Mode – sport specific  Requires longer time c. up to 40% in 2-3 yrs at 50% . SV increases 10% . duration.5. frequency) Length – linear improvement for 10-11 weeks Mode of training Type of training . It enhances quality of training for events that are predominantly anaerobic 5.   in CV system     b.periods. Improve ability of muscle to extract & use O2 made available by CV system  Increase in myoglobin – greater storage of O2  Increase in number.5.4 Types of aerobic training a.15% in 2-3 months.5 • • • • • • • Continuous versus interval Similar gains in VO2max Types of adaptations are different Aerobic training program design variables Intensity ( 75%– 95% HRR) Duration (20-45 min) Frequency (3 to 5 days/week) Total volume (intensity. • • 5.

Able to identify and name the muscle(s) involved in the exercises.6 Practical session 5.1 Resistance training Objectives: • • • Apply the biomechanical principles of resistance training during the demonstration and practices of resistance exercises.5. Exercises: • • • • • • • • • • • Squat / back squat Walking lunges / leg curl Standing calf raise Over head press Chest press Lat pull down Biceps curl Triceps extension Abdominal curls 4 point bridge Sensory motor control exercise  Medicine ball push-up  Squat on exercise mat/ wobble board/ soft unstable surface Equipments: • • • • • • • • Exercise mat Barbells Weight plates Lat pull down machine Dumbbells Curl bars leg curl machine bench press station / standard flat bench with independent racks .6. Able to perform with proper technique the exercises introduced to them.

Exercise Procedures: Refer Table 1 TABLE 1: STRENGTH TRAINING – PRACTICAL (2 hr 30 min) Activity 1. Introduction to strength training equipments  Advantages/disadvantages FW vs Machine 2. Demonstration and practice  Machines o Leg press/ext o Chest press o Leg curl o Lat pull down o Overhead press  Free weights o BB/DB Squats o Bench press o Lunges o Biceps curl o Triceps extension  Core (abs and back) o Crunches o Plank/bridging  Sensory motor control exercise Mode T&P Time Allocated 15 min Remarks Based on equipment availability T&P 20 min T&P 15 min T&P 1 hr 40min Based on equipment availability . Exercise techniques  Hand grip o Pronated o Supinated o Alternated  Stable body and limb positioning o Athletic body positioning o Seated/supine position  Movement ROM and speed o Full/partial ROM o Tempo 3:1:3  Proper breathing technique o Sticking point – breath out 3. Proper warm up and stretch technique  Whole body static stretching 4.

.o o Medicine ball push-up Squat on exercise mat/ wobble board/ soft unstable surface T & P – theory and practice B) Aerobic training .(30 min) Objective: At the end of the session the participants will understand and able to apply the two aerobic training methods which are aerobic continuous method and aerobic interval method in the training for aerobic fitness development. Demonstration and practice • Aerobic continuous method • Aerobic interval method Advocating the different modes of aerobic training such as skipping. Introduction to aerobic training equipments 2. etc. Proper cool down and stretching Mode T&P Time Allocated 5 min Remarks 5 min 5 min 5 min Ensure participants monitor THR regularly . dance. running. Demonstration and practice  Continuous method o LSD  Interval o W:R 1:3 (15s:45s/2/1) o W:R 1:5 (10s:50s/2/1) 3. Equipments required: • Stop watch • Skipping rope • Stationary bikes (optional) Exercise procedures – refer Table 2 TABLE 2: AEROBIC TRAINING: PRACTICAL (30 min) Activity 1. cycling.

THR – training heart rate . Whole body basic passive stretching 10 min T & P – theory and practice. W:R/reps/sets. W:R – work:rest.

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