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Multiplexing/Modulation:

OFDM

CADWCS

Spring 2010

Introduction to OFDM

Basic idea

z Using a large number of parallel narrow-band sub-

carriers instead of a single wide-band carrier to

transport information

Advantages

z Very easy and efficient in dealing with multi-path

z Robust against narrow-band interference

Disadvantages

z Sensitive to frequency offset and phase noise

z Peak-to-average problem reduces the power

efficiency of RF amplifier at the transmitter

Adopted for various wireless standards

802.11a, 802.16a, DAB, DVB (+DSL)

Multicarrier Modulation

• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

– Based on the fast Fourier transform

– Standardized for DAB, DVB-T, IEEE 802.11a, 802.16a,

HyperLAN II

– Considered for fourth-generation mobile communication

systems

channel

magnitude

carrier

subchannel

frequency

Multipath Propagation –

Simple Model

| α0 | | α1 | | α2 |

∆1

α1 ∆2

α0

α2

where k = 0, …, K-1

αk : path gain (complex)

τ0 = 0 normalize relative delay of first path

∆k = τk - τ0 difference in time-of-flight

Equivalent Propagation

Channel

convolution

transmit filters receive filters

multipath

channel

– Propagation channel

– Transmit / receive filters

• hc(t) typically random & changes with time

Must estimate and re-estimate channel

Spread & ISI

1

0.5

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

t/Ts

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.8

0.2

0.6

0

0.4

-0.2

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0.2

t/Ts

-0.2

Ts -6 -4 -2 0

t/T

s

2 4 6 8

Requires equalization to remove resulting ISI

Effective Delay Spread

Delay spread depends on difference in path lengths

Effective delay spread: function of the maximum difference

Sampling period Ts determines effect of delay spread

Pico cell 0.1 km 300 ns

Micro cell 5 km 15 us

Macro cell 20 km 40 us

Sampling Period Channel taps Application

802.11a 50 ns 6 WLAN

DVB-T 160 ns 90 Audio

DAB 600 ns 60 TV broadcast

Multicarrier Modulation

– No ISI in subchannels if constant gain in every subchannel and if

ideal sampling

channel

magnitude

carrier

subchannel

frequency

Monocarrier vs. Multicarrier modulation

Channel

Channelization N carriers

Similar to

Guard bands

FDM technique

B B

Pulse length ~1/B Pulse length ~ N/B

– Data are transmited over only one carrier – Data are shared among several carriers

and simultaneously transmitted

Drawbacks Advantages

Furthermore

– Selective Fading – Flat Fading per carrier

– It is easy to exploit

– Very short pulses – N long pulses Frequency diversity

– ISI is compartively long – ISI is comparatively short – It allows to deploy

2D coding techniques

– Equalizers are very long – N short Equalizers needed

– Dynamic signalling

– Poor spectral efficiency – Poor spectral efficiency

because of band guards because of band guards

Eliminate band guards between carriers

To use orthogonal carriers (allowing overlapping)

N carriers

Symbol: 2 periods of f0

Transmit

f

+

Symbol: 4 periods of f0

f

B

Symbol: 8 periods of f0

Channel frequency

Data coded in frequency domain Transformation to time domain: response

each frequency is a sine wave

in time, all added up.

bin separately

Receive

time f

OFDM uses multiple carriers

to modulate the data

Time-frequency grid Data

N carriers

Frequency

B Carrier

f0

B

One OFDM symbol

T=1/f 0

Features Time

– No intercarrier guard bands

– Controlled overlapping of bands Intercarrier Separation =

– Maximum spectral efficiency (Nyquist rate) 1/(symbol duration)

– Easy implementation using IFFTs

– Very sensitive to freq. synchronization

Modulation technique

A user utilizes all carriers to transmit its data as coded quantity at each

frequency carrier, which can be quadrature-amplitude modulated (QAM).

using FFTs

d0

b0

d1 P/S

b1 IFFT

d2 d0, d1, d2, …., dN-1

b2 Inverse fast d3 Parallel to

. Fourier transform . serial converter

.

f . . Transmit time-domain

. samples of one symbol

.

time .

bN-1

dN-1

Data coded in

frequency domain: Data in time domain:

one symbol at a time one symbol at a time

b0’

d0’, d1’, …., dN-1’

S/P d1’ FFT b1’

frequency bin

d2’ Fast Fourier independently

b2’

Serial to . transform .

Receive time-domain parallel converter . .

samples of one symbol . f .

. .

dN-1’ bN-1’

time

Frequency Domain Equalization

For the kth carrier:

xk = Hk sk + vk

Hk-1

|Hk|2

|Hk-1|2 bad

good

k k

To combat the time dispersion: including ‘special’ time guards in the symbol transitions

copy

Furthemore it converts Linear conv. = Cyclic conv.

CP

τ T (Method: overlap-save)

Tc

Symbol: 8 periods of fi

CP Symbol: 8 periods of fi

Passing the channel h(n)

Ψi(t)

Ψi(t)

≠Ψi(t)

remains within maintains the orthogonality remains within

Initial transient Loss of orthogonality Decaying transient

the CP the CP

Ψj(t) Ψj (t)

CP functions:

– It acomodates the decaying transient of the previous symbol

– It avoids the initial transient reachs the current symbol

An OFDM Modem

N subchannels N complex samples

quadrature

Bits amplitude add D/A +

S/P modulation N-IFFT cyclic P/S transmit

00110 (QAM) prefix filter

encoder

TRANSMITTER

multipath channel

RECEIVER

N subchannels N complex samples

invert

Receive

QAM channel remove filter

P/S = N-FFT S/P cyclic

frequency +

decoder prefix

domain A/D

equalizer

DMT (Discrete Multitone Transmission)

z Channel changes very slowly ~ 1 s

z Subchannel gains known at transmitter

z Bit-loading (sending more bits on good channels) increases throughput

OFDM

z Channel may change quickly ~ 10 ms

z Not enough time to convey gains to transmitter

z Forward error correction mitigates problems on bad channels

OFDM: Try to code so bad subchannels can be ignored

magnitude

frequency

DMT vs. OFDM

= I(t) cos(2π fc t) – Q(t) sin(2π fc t)

Error correction is necessary in OFDM systems

Forward error correction (FEC)

z Adds redundancy to data stream

z Examples: convolutional codes, block codes

z Mitigates the effects of bad channels

z Reduces overall throughput according to the coding rate k/n

Automatic repeat request (ARQ)

z Adds error detecting ability to data stream

z Examples: 16-bit cyclic redundancy code

z Used to detect errors in an OFDM symbol

z Bad packets are retransmitted (hopefully the channel changes)

z Usually used with FEC

z Minus: Ineffective in broadcast systems

Typical Coded OFDM

Encoder

• Reed-Solomon and/or convolutional code

FEC

Data bits Parity bits

Rate 1/2

Bitwise

Interleaving • Intersperse coded and uncoded bits

Symbol

• Map bits to symbols

Mapping

Decoder

Symbol demapping

Frequency-domain z Produce soft estimate of each bit

equalization z Improves decoding

Symbol

Demapping

Deinterleaving

Decoding

Frequency diversity using coding

Random errors: primarily introduced by thermal and circuit noise.

channel frequency response.

Data bits

Time-frequency grid

Frequency

B

Bad carriers

f0

f Time

Frequency response T=1/f0

the data bits so that standard error correcting codes can be applied.

Wireless channels change frequently ~ 10 ms

Require frequent channel estimation

Many systems use pilot tones – known symbols

z Given sk, for k = k1, k2, k3, … solve xk = ∑l=0L hl e-j2π k l/N sk for hl

z Find Hk = ∑l=0L hl e-j2π k l / N (significant computation)

More pilot tones

z Better noise resilience

z Lower throughput (pilots are not informative)

magnitude

Pilot tones

frequency

Channel Estimation Via

Interpolation

More efficient approach is interpolation

Algorithm

z For each pilot ki find Hki = xki / ski

z Interpolate unknown values using interpolation filter

z Hm = αm,1 Hk1 + αm,2 Hk2 + …

Comments

z Longer interpolation filter: more computation, timing sensitivity

z Typical 1dB loss in performance in practical implementation

magnitude

frequency

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems

z Use multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas

z Creates a matrix channel

OFDM Modulator

H(t) Joint

Demodulator

OFDM Modulator

xk = Hk sk + vk

Vector inputs and outputs

Why OFDM in Broadcast?

Enables Single Frequency Network (SFN)

z Multiple transmit antennas geographically separated

z Enables same radio/TV channel frequency throughout a country

z Creates artificially large delay spread – OFDM has no problems

20km

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Internet Access?

High-speed data transmission

z Large bandwidths -> high rate, many computations

z Small sampling periods -> delay spread becomes a serious

impairment

z Requires much lower BER than voice systems

OFDM pros

z Takes advantage of multipath through simple equalization

OFDM cons

z Synchronization requirements are much more strict

Requires more complex algorithms for time / frequency

synch

z Peak-to-average power ratio

Approximately 10 log N (in dB)

Large signal peaks require higher power amplifiers

Amplifier cost grows nonlinearly with required power

OFDM Systems and Applications

Standard Meaning Carrier Freq. Rate (Mbps) Applications

DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting FM radio 0.008-0.384 Audio broadcasting

DVB-T Digital Video Broadcasting UHF 3.7-32 Digital TV broadcasting

DVB-H Digital Video Broadcasting UHF 13.7 Digital broadcasting to

handheld

IEEE 802.11a Wireless LAN / WiFi 5.2 GHz 6 - 54 Wireless Internet

IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN / WiFi 2.4 GHz 6 – 54 Wireless Internet

IEEE 802.11n Wireless LAN (High Speed) 2.4 GHz - ?? 6 – 100 Wireless Internet

IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access 2.1 GHz & 0.5 – 20 Fixed / Mobile Wireless

others Internet

IEEE 802.20 Mobile Broad. Wireless Access 3.5 GHz ~1 Mobile Internet / Voice?

• Digital modulation scheme

• Wireless counterpart to discrete multitone transmission

• Used in a variety of applications

o Broadcast

o High-speed internet access

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