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Niranjan Sahoo

Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

A 2.5

Rh = = = 0.59

P 4.24

2

R 2 3 S 1 2 ( 0.59 ) 3 ( 1 625 )

0.5

V= h 0 = = 0.95m/s

n 0.03

Discharge, Q = A �V = 2.375m 3 /s

Average shear stress at the channel boundary,

t = r gRh S0 = 1000 �9.81�0.59 �( 1/ 625 ) = 9.26 N m 2

Example 3

Water flows in channel (cross-section of the shape of isosceles triangle) of bed width a

and sides making an angle 450 with the bed. Determine the relation between depth of flow

d and the bed width a for the condition of: (i) maximum velocity; (ii) maximum

discharge. Use Manning’s formula.

Solution

Water flow in a channel of isosceles triangular cross-section is shown in the following

figure for which depth of flow and bed width are d and a , respectively.

H J (a/2)

45 deg. 45 deg.

E F

d a d

Rh2 3 S01 2

(i) By Manning equation, V=

n

The area of the flow and wetted perimeter for the above cross-section is given by,

1

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

�EF + JH � � ( a - 2d ) + a �d = a - d d ; � d �A �= a - 2d

A=� �d =� � ( ) � �

� 2 � � 2 � d �d �

d �P �

P = EF + FJ + EH = a + 2 2d ; � �= 2 2

d �d �

For a given bed slope, the velocity will be maximum when,

d �Rh � d ( A P) d �A � d �P �

�= 0; � dd = 0; � P d �d �- A d �d �= 0

d��d � ��

Thus by substitution, 2.83d 2 + 2ad - a 2 = 0

Solving the above quadratic equation, d = 0.34a

1

ARh2 3 S01 2 1 �A5 �

1

3

(ii) Discharge, Q = AV

. = = � 2 �S0

2

n n �P �

(

d A5 P 2 ) = 0; � 5P d �A �- 2 A d �A �= 0

�� ��

dd d ��

d d d

d �P � d �A �

Substituting � �and � �, we get,

d �d � d �d �

22.63d 2 + 1.5ad - 5a 2 = 0

Solving the above quadratic equation, d = 0.44a

Example 4

A rectangular channel of 5m width and 1.2m deep has a slope of 1 in 1000 and is lined

with rubber for which the Manning’s coefficient is 0.017. It is desired to increase the

discharge to a maximum by changing the section so that the channel has same amount of

lining. Find the new dimensions and probable increase in discharge.

Solution

Using Manning’s formula, the discharge through the channel is given by,

ARh2 3 S01 2

Q1 = AV

. =

n

1 A

Here, S0 = ; A = 5 �1.2 = 6m 2 ; P = 5 + ( 2 �1.2 ) = 7.4m; � Rh = = 0.81

1000 P

2

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

3

Let b and y be the width and depth of the flow for the new section of the channel. In

order to have the same amount of lining,

P = b + 2 y = 7.4

For the discharge to be maximum in a rectangular channel, it can be proved that

b = 2y

So, the area of cross-section and hydraulic radius for new channel cross-section becomes,

A

A = 6.845m 2 ; Rh = = 0.925m

P

ARh2 3 S01 2

By Manning’s formula, new discharge, Q2 = AV

. = = 12.1m3 s

n

Q2 - Q 1

Percentage increase in discharge = �100 = 24.45%

Q1

EXERCISES

1. Design a concrete lined channel (trapezoidal cross section) to carry a discharge of

480m3/s at a velocity of 2.3m/s. The bed slope and the side slope of the channel are

1:4000 and 1:1 respectively. Take Manning’s roughness coefficient for lining as 0.015.

2. A canal of trapezoidal cross-section has a bed width of 8m and bed slope of 1:4000. If

the depth of flow is 2.4m and side slopes are 1:3, then determine the average flow

velocity and discharge in the channel. Also, compute the average shear stress at the

channel boundary.

3. A trapezoidal canal is to carry 50m3/s of water with a mean velocity of 0.6m/s. One

side of the canal is vertical where as the other side has a slope of 1:3. Find the minimum

hydraulic slope if the Manning’s coefficient is 0.015.

4. Water flows in a channel as shown in the following figure. Find the discharge if

Chezys constant is 60 and bed slope is 1 in 1000.

3

NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo

Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

1.4m

0.7m

0.7m

5. Water flows in canal with bed slope of 1:2300. The cross-section of the canal is shown

in the following figure. Estimate the discharge when the depth of water is 2.5m. Assume

Chezy’s constant as 40.

0.6m

2.5m

140m

15m

Side slope = 1 vertical to 2 horizontal

6. A concrete lined circular channel of 0.6m diameter has a bed slope of 1: 500. Find the

depth of flow when the discharge is 0.3m 3/s. Also, determine the velocity and flow rate

for conditions of: (i) maximum velocity; (ii) maximum discharge. Assume Chezy’s

constant as 40.

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