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NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr.

Niranjan Sahoo
Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

A 2.5
Rh = = = 0.59
P 4.24
2
R 2 3 S 1 2 ( 0.59 ) 3 ( 1 625 )
0.5

V= h 0 = = 0.95m/s
n 0.03
Discharge, Q = A �V = 2.375m 3 /s
Average shear stress at the channel boundary,
t = r gRh S0 = 1000 �9.81�0.59 �( 1/ 625 ) = 9.26 N m 2

Example 3
Water flows in channel (cross-section of the shape of isosceles triangle) of bed width a
and sides making an angle 450 with the bed. Determine the relation between depth of flow
d and the bed width a for the condition of: (i) maximum velocity; (ii) maximum
discharge. Use Manning’s formula.
Solution
Water flow in a channel of isosceles triangular cross-section is shown in the following
figure for which depth of flow and bed width are d and a , respectively.

H J (a/2)

45 deg. 45 deg.

E F
d a d

Rh2 3 S01 2
(i) By Manning equation, V=
n
The area of the flow and wetted perimeter for the above cross-section is given by,

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NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo
Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

�EF + JH � � ( a - 2d ) + a �d = a - d d ; � d �A �= a - 2d
A=� �d =� � ( ) � �
� 2 � � 2 � d �d �
d �P �
P = EF + FJ + EH = a + 2 2d ; � �= 2 2
d �d �
For a given bed slope, the velocity will be maximum when,
d �Rh � d ( A P) d �A � d �P �
�= 0; � dd = 0; � P d �d �- A d �d �= 0
d��d � ��
Thus by substitution, 2.83d 2 + 2ad - a 2 = 0
Solving the above quadratic equation, d = 0.34a

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ARh2 3 S01 2 1 �A5 �
1
3
(ii) Discharge, Q = AV
. = = � 2 �S0
2

n n �P �

For a given bed slope, the discharge will be maximum when,

(
d A5 P 2 ) = 0; � 5P d �A �- 2 A d �A �= 0
�� ��
dd d ��
d d d
d �P � d �A �
Substituting � �and � �, we get,
d �d � d �d �

22.63d 2 + 1.5ad - 5a 2 = 0
Solving the above quadratic equation, d = 0.44a

Example 4
A rectangular channel of 5m width and 1.2m deep has a slope of 1 in 1000 and is lined
with rubber for which the Manning’s coefficient is 0.017. It is desired to increase the
discharge to a maximum by changing the section so that the channel has same amount of
lining. Find the new dimensions and probable increase in discharge.
Solution
Using Manning’s formula, the discharge through the channel is given by,
ARh2 3 S01 2
Q1 = AV
. =
n
1 A
Here, S0 = ; A = 5 �1.2 = 6m 2 ; P = 5 + ( 2 �1.2 ) = 7.4m; � Rh = = 0.81
1000 P

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NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo
Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

Substituting the values, Q1 = 9.7 m s


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Let b and y be the width and depth of the flow for the new section of the channel. In
order to have the same amount of lining,
P = b + 2 y = 7.4
For the discharge to be maximum in a rectangular channel, it can be proved that
b = 2y

Solving above two equation, y = 1.85m; b = 3.7m


So, the area of cross-section and hydraulic radius for new channel cross-section becomes,
A
A = 6.845m 2 ; Rh = = 0.925m
P

ARh2 3 S01 2
By Manning’s formula, new discharge, Q2 = AV
. = = 12.1m3 s
n
Q2 - Q 1
Percentage increase in discharge = �100 = 24.45%
Q1

EXERCISES
1. Design a concrete lined channel (trapezoidal cross section) to carry a discharge of
480m3/s at a velocity of 2.3m/s. The bed slope and the side slope of the channel are
1:4000 and 1:1 respectively. Take Manning’s roughness coefficient for lining as 0.015.
2. A canal of trapezoidal cross-section has a bed width of 8m and bed slope of 1:4000. If
the depth of flow is 2.4m and side slopes are 1:3, then determine the average flow
velocity and discharge in the channel. Also, compute the average shear stress at the
channel boundary.
3. A trapezoidal canal is to carry 50m3/s of water with a mean velocity of 0.6m/s. One
side of the canal is vertical where as the other side has a slope of 1:3. Find the minimum
hydraulic slope if the Manning’s coefficient is 0.015.
4. Water flows in a channel as shown in the following figure. Find the discharge if
Chezys constant is 60 and bed slope is 1 in 1000.

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NPTEL Course Developer for Fluid Mechanics Dr. Niranjan Sahoo
Module 04; Lecture 33 IIT-Guwahati

1.4m

0.7m

0.7m

5. Water flows in canal with bed slope of 1:2300. The cross-section of the canal is shown
in the following figure. Estimate the discharge when the depth of water is 2.5m. Assume
Chezy’s constant as 40.

0.6m
2.5m

140m
15m
Side slope = 1 vertical to 2 horizontal

6. A concrete lined circular channel of 0.6m diameter has a bed slope of 1: 500. Find the
depth of flow when the discharge is 0.3m 3/s. Also, determine the velocity and flow rate
for conditions of: (i) maximum velocity; (ii) maximum discharge. Assume Chezy’s
constant as 40.