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Engineering Geology 53 (1999) 311–325

Mechanism of creep movement caused by landslide activity and underground erosion in crystalline schist, Shikoku Island, southwestern Japan
G. Furuya a,*, K. Sassa a, H. Hiura b, H. Fukuoka a
a Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan b Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Nankoku, Kochi 783-0093, Japan Received 3 April 1998; accepted 30 November 1998

Abstract The mechanism of creep movement of the Zentoku landslide in crystalline schist has not been studied in detail because of the steepness of the slope, very slow movement, low population density and complex topographic and geologic characteristics. Sassa et al. (1980: Proc. INTERPRAEVENT 1, 85–106) and Sassa (1984: Proc. 4th International Symp. on Landslides, Toronto, vol. 2, pp. 179–184; 1985. Geotechnical classification of landslides, Proc. 4th International Conference and Field Workshop on Landslides, Tokyo, pp. 31–40; 1989: Landslide News, Japan Landslide Society, No. 3, pp. 21–24) monitored landslide movement and groundwater level at the Zentoku landslide on Shikoku Island, southwestern Japan, and suggested that the mechanism may be caused by underground erosion. To study the influence of underground erosion at this site, continual monitoring of suspended sediment and water discharge from a groundwater outlet (i.e. a spring) was implemented. The locations of groundwater flow paths were determined, as were the amounts of discharged sediment. Slope deformation was monitored by means of a borehole inclinometer. The conclusions were as follows: (1) the flow paths were found to be on or above the shear zones in which underground erosion has occurred; (2) in addition to being a result of precipitation and groundwater discharge, sediment discharge is affected by landslide activity; and (3) the mechanism of creep movement is an interrelated chain process that combines underground erosion caused by landslide activity with landslide activity caused by underground erosion. Thus, landslide activity increases erosion susceptibility and transportation of soils within the mass, and underground erosion causes instability of the landslide mass, in turn. This mechanism can explain the observed phenomenon that the Zentoku landslide not only moves actively during heavy rain, but also continues to creep throughout the year. © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Crystalline schist; Erosion; Landslide activity; Monitoring; Sediment discharge

* Corresponding author. Fax: +81-774-384300. E-mail address: furuya@landslide.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp (G. Furuya) 0013-7952/99/$ – see front matter © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S0 0 1 3 -7 9 5 2 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 08 4 - 2

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1. Introduction Many landslides occur in areas of crystalline schists distributed along orogenic zones in CircumPacific and European countries (e.g., Baumer, 1988; Riemer et al., 1988; Oyagi, 1989; Gillon and Hancox, 1992; Noverraz, 1996). Most studies in these areas have been carried out as geologic investigations (e.g., Zischinsky, 1966; Mahr and Nemcok, 1977; Chigira, 1984, 1985), laboratory ˇ tests ( Yagi et al., 1989), and monitoring (e.g.

Bonnard, 1983; Kronfellner-Kraus, 1980; Sassa et al., 1980; Sassa, 1984, 1985, 1989). However, the mechanism of movement, especially in the case of creep movement of landslides, is not yet well understood. This is partly because landslides in crystalline schists have more complex topographic and geologic features than those in sedimentary clays and shales. Many landslides in crystalline schists have occurred on Shikoku Island, southwestern Japan (Ando and Ohkubo, 1970; Kato and Hada, 1980; Fujita et al., 1973). The Zentoku landslide (Fig. 1), which has a large number of

Fig. 1. Location map and plan of the Zentoku landslide.

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homes on it, and is one of the largest crystalline schist landslides in Japan, was selected for this study. Since 1972, movement of the Zentoku landslide has been monitored by extensometers, and water levels have been monitored by borehole water gauges (Sassa et al., 1980; Sassa, 1984, 1985, 1989). From these monitorings, it was pointed out that when the peak borehole water level reached a certain critical level, large movement occurred, while when the peak borehole water level did not reach a certain critical level, small movement occurred (Fig. 2). Sassa (1985, 1989) pointed out that the large movement, residual-state sliding, occurred when the stress on the slip surface reached the residual-state failure envelope, while small movement, creep, occurred when the stress on the slip surface did not reach the failure envelope. Sassa (1985, 1989) explained that creep was caused by underground erosion and transportation of the soils in the surrounding groundwater flow paths. Hiura et al. (1991) and Matsunaga et al. (1993) suggested that two types of sediment discharge cause underground erosion:

(1) temporary discharge caused by heavy rain; and (2) continuous discharge throughout the year. Their studies were concerned only with the relationship between landslide activity and underground erosion. Thus, they did not adequately deal with quantitative considerations of the mechanism of creep movement. In this study, the authors have quantitatively correlated landslide displacement, precipitation, sediment and discharge at a groundwater outlet (i.e. a spring). The existence of eroded soils resulting from factors other than precipitation (groundwater discharge) also has been examined. On the basis of these analyses, a mechanism for creep movement of landslides in areas of crystalline schists has been proposed.

2. Brief view of monitoring site The Zentoku landslide is located in a crystalline schist area south of the Median Tectonic Line on Shikoku Island (Fig. 1). On the middle and lower parts of slope, the landslide occurs mainly in pelitic and partially green schist; on the upper slope, the slide may be in psammitic schist ( Fig. 3). Deeper shear zones (slip surfaces) have formed at depths of 30–60 m and shallower ones at 15–20 m. The shear zones are clayey, but include gravels and sands. In these zones, rocks have been progressively crushed and oxidized (they are almost brown in color). The dip of the bedding is nearly parallel to the slope; the crushed zones and the concave shape of the bedrock have been detected by seismic exploration. The mean slope is ca 28° the length of the landslide is approximately 1300 m; and the maximum landslide width is approximately 500 m. Landslides in crystalline schists on Shikoku Island are known to have a high frequency of occurrence where the schist is pelitic, the dip of bedding is nearly parallel to the slope, and the mean slope is from 25 to 30° (Fujita et al., 1973, 1976). The Zentoku landslide is one such as this. Sliding blocks (Block 1, 2, 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) are shown in Figs. 1 and 3. The dimensions of these blocks have been approximated by the following means of monitoring and investigation:

Fig. 2. Relationship between the peak borehole water level and landslide movement at the Zentoku landslide (Sassa, 1984).

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Fig. 3. Geologic cross-section through the Zentoku landslide along the line of extensometers.

(1) Installation of 29 long-span extensometers in uninterrupted sequence. (2) Installation of 100 three-dimensional shear displacement meters transversely across the Zentoku landslide to measure three-dimensional slope movement (Hiura et al., 1992). (3) Drilling of 11 boreholes for geologic investigation and six boreholes for installation of inclinometers. Blocks 1 and 2 have deeper shear zones, while Blocks 3-1, 3-2, 3-3 have shallower shear zones (Furuya et al., 1997). Sometimes these blocks have become independently active, sometimes dependently.

3. Monitoring of underground erosion and landslide movement 3.1. Monitoring method for groundwater and sediment discharge through groundwater outlets In the Zentoku landslide, sediment discharge caused by underground erosion has been moni-

tored at Springs 1 to 4 ( Fig. 1). In this paper, the results of measurements at only Spring 1 are presented for the following reasons: (1) because Spring 1 is located at the toe of Block 1, it seems that sediment can be transported along the slip surface (shear zone) of Block 1, which must be related to the landslide activity; and (2) because Spring 1 is located near the monitoring points of B2 (extensometer S14) and 4-25 (point of borehole inclinometer measurement), it is possible to compare landslide displacement and sediment discharge at Spring 1. Fig. 4 shows the apparatus for monitoring sediment discharge at Spring 1. The initial type apparatus used from April 1984 to June 1995 is shown in Fig. 4(a). In using this apparatus, the sediment transported by groundwater flow through the landslide is collected by a stainless steel pipe and accumulates in the bucket. The accumulated sediment is removed approximately monthly (except during the winter), and is weighed after being dried. Fig. 4(b) shows the improved apparatus,

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gauge located near the line of three-dimensional shear displacement meters shown by 6 in Fig. 1. 3.2. Monitoring methods for landslide displacement Displacement of the landslide was monitored by means of a bolehole inclinometer at bolehole 4-25 (70 m depth; strainer treated) and long-span extensometers. The extensometers had automatic, continually recording systems. However, there was no completely stable point along the line of extensometers ( Fig. 1). Thus, absolute displacement value could not be obtained. The left side of Fig. 5 shows the geologic column and the middle graphs present monitoring results from the borehole inclinometer in borehole 4-25. Displacement of borehole 4-25 occurred only at depths shallower than 29.5 m. Below 29.5 m, the mass was stable. The landslide mass included three shear zones (shear zones 1–3). Monitoring was not continuous, occurring at intervals of one to a few months. Therefore, continual landslide movement was calculated using a combination of information obtained from extensometers and inclinometers by means of the following procedure: (1) Search for the point of minimum movement along the line of extensometers (Fig. 1) from the results of cumulated records of 29 sets of extensometers. (2) Calculate the relative displacement at S14 near point B2 by using accumulated movement values between the point of minimum movement and point B2. (3) Calculate the composite displacement of shear zones 1–3 at borehole 4-25 by determining the square root of the A-axis and B-axis displacement for each monitoring day (see Fig. 5) by borehole inclinometer. (4) Calculate the displacement of borehole 4-25 by summing the composite displacements of these shear zones. (5) Because monitoring of borehole 4-25 inclinometer occurs only at intervals of one to a few months, the displacement value at borehole 4-25 was calculated by interpolation based on the assumption that movement of the inclinometer is always proportional to that of point B2 as measured by the extensometers.

Fig. 4. System for catching discharged sediment.

which has been used since 20 June 1995. Using this apparatus, sediment, with grain size >1 mm accumulates on the metal sieve and is automatically weighed by a load cell; finer sediment (<1 mm in size) accumulates in the bucket. Both parts of the sediment are then combined. To detect precise sediment data for periods of <1 month, automatic records from a load cell were used. Groundwater discharge is calculated by the following V-notch weir (h=30°) conversion equation: Q=0.233h2.5, (1)

in which Q is the groundwater discharge ( l min−1) and h is the depth of water (cm) measured on the V-notch weir. Precipitation is monitored by means of a rain

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Fig. 5. Shear zones and groundwater flow paths in borehole 4-25.

4. Relationship between underground erosion and displacement of the landslide mass 4.1. Estimation of groundwater flow paths Slope failures caused by underground erosion have been noted by Crozier (1986) and Selby (1993); however, these authors focused mainly on erosion of the surface soil layer. In a deep shear zone of a landslide mass, groundwater plays an important role in landslide movement and underground erosion. Hence, a study was conducted to detect the depth of groundwater flow using seismic detection. The method of investigation was to measure the vibration caused by groundwater flowing through the landslide mass by inserting a seismograph into a borehole (Sassa and Sakata, 1977). The vibration was converted into voltage by an amplifier with calibrated voltage. The output of the seismograph was calculated by comparing the obtained voltage with the calibrated voltage. The right-hand graph of Fig. 5 shows groundwater flow on 15 August 1996. The seismograph could not be inserted deeper than 40 m because of a bend in the borehole. On 15 August, the borehole

water level was at a depth of 63.69 m. The water level in the borehole was monitored at a constant depth of approximately 63–64 m all year. It seems that the borehole water level did not rise above a depth of 64 m because of leaking of the water into the bedrock fissures. The four peaks of seismic output that are shown as G.W.F. 1–4 in the righthand graph of Fig. 5 occurred in borehole 4-25. These zones of higher seismic output undoubtedly were due to groundwater flow paths G.W.F. 1, 3 and 4, which were located in or above shear zones 1, 2 and 3. G.W.F. 2 was located above the void (13.5–14.35 m). From the geological column, it was found that the lower part of the shear zones agreed with the depth of highly weathered rocks (clayey sediment is abundant); the middle or upper part of shear zones agreed with the depths of moderately weathered rocks (sands and gravels are abundant) caused by landslide movement. At G.W.F. 1, 3 and 4, the bases of the groundwater flow paths occurred at an impermeable layer of highly weathered rock, because the material of moderately rock is more permeable than the material of highly weathered rock. Thus, at the permeable layer, the groundwater concentrates and flows, and subsequently, erodes particles of rock material

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that had been crushed by the landslide activity. At G.W.F. 2, the groundwater flow was not found to occur above the voids. Upon the drilling of borehole 4-25 in 1992, the groundwater path was found to at the location of the voids because they were the result of underground erosion. However, the paths of such interconnected voids can be shifted upward. Because of the collapse of the void structure, the location of the groundwater path had likely moved between the time of drilling borehole 4-25 in 1992 and the time of measurement on 15 August 1996.

tional to P on the logarithmic diagram, in spite of some scattering. Filled circles represents the results from April to June 1995, the last part of the longest inactive period between C and D. The distribution of the filled circles data is nearly a straight line, forming the lower boundary of all plots. This suggests that sediment discharge in this period is affected only by precipitation after a long inactive period. Hence, the sediment discharge associated with precipitation can be estimated by the regression line in Eq. (2): W =10−0.83P1.43, (2) P in which W is sediment discharge estimated from P precipitation (g month−1) and P is the monitored monthly precipitation (mm month−1). If the sediment discharge in other periods is greater than the regression line, it is probable that the discharge includes effects other than precipitation. In order to express effects other than precipitation, a new parameter W/W [in which W is the P monthly sediment discharge (g month−1) and W P is the estimated sediment discharge according to Eq. (2)], termed ‘‘sediment discharge ratio’’ has been proposed. When W/W =1, the sediment P discharge is caused only by rainfall; when W/W >1, the sediment discharge is also affected P by factors other than rainfall; and when W/W <1, the discharge of eroded and transported P sediments caused by rainfall is not high enough. Fig. 8 shows the time series of W/W for the P same monitoring period, including some peak values of W/W >1. Examining the period of high P values of W/W , most of them were noted as P appearing after the period of peak displacement ratio in Fig. 6. The authors compared the displacements for the active periods (A–E in Fig. 6) with the values of W/W for the same periods, and for P 1, 2 and 3 months afterwards. The displacement in the active period, A, is the sum of 2-month displacements because activity continued for 2 months. The displacements in other active periods (B, C, D, E) are 1-month displacements. The W/W values that are plotted in Fig. 8 are P marked by arrows. The results of the comparison are plotted in Fig. 9. Fig. 9 indicates the relationship between the displacement during a period of a high level of

4.1.1. Ratio of monitored sediment discharge to that estimated from precipitation The infiltration of rainfall causes a reduction of shear strength of the landslide mass by raising the groundwater level (i.e. increasing pore-water pressure) and results in increased groundwater flow and underground erosion. Thus, rainfall is an important effective factor in both landslide movement and underground erosion. The authors examined the relationship between landslide displacement and amount of eroded sediment associated with precipitation by means of monthly monitoring from September 1993 to December 1995. Here, a parameter D/D (displacement ratio, in which D AV is the monthly displacement and D is the average AV monthly displacement from September 1993 to December 1995) is proposed to evaluate landslide activity. In this examination, monthly displacement, precipitation and sediment discharge are taken as the mean amount that occurs in 30 days. Fig. 6 shows the time series change of monthly displacement and D/D from September 1993 AV through December 1995. In this figure, D is AV 2.6 mm month−1, and there are five peak values of monthly displacement (A, B, C, D, E ), which correspond to the peaks of D/D >1. These peak AV periods indicate that the landslide was active. The other periods, when D/D <1, indicate that the AV landslide was inactive. Fig. 7 presents the relationship of monthly sediment discharge (W ) to monthly precipitation (P) on a logarithmic diagram. In this figure, open circles represents all monitoring results from September 1993 to December 1995. W is propor-

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Fig. 6. Change in value of monthly displacement and D/D with time (September 1993–December 1995). Capital letters A–E AV represent the most active periods.

landslide activity and the sediment discharge ratio (W/W ) in the following four periods: open P squares, for periods of a high level of landslide activity; filled circles, for a period of 1 month after a high level of landslide activity; crosses, for 2 months after a high level of landslide activity; and filled upside-down triangles, for periods of 3 months after great landslide activity. According to this figure, sediment discharge can be classified into two groups: $ Group A: the sediment discharge ratio is proportional to landslide displacement during an active period. $ Group B: the sediment discharge is almost independent of landslide displacement. A high level of landslide activity is commonly caused by heavy rain such as during a typhoon. When heavy rain occurred on the Zentoku landslide, a lot of sediment discharge was monitored, due to the high level of landslide activity. In the periods of this activity, the sediment discharge was more dependent on precipitation than on the landslide activity because these periods had more precipitation than normal periods. Hence, almost all W/W values for periods of high levels of landslide P activity occurred in group B. In the first month

after a high level of landslide activity, the sediment discharge affected by the precipitation considerably decreased because the heavy rain had stopped. However, sediment discharge caused by landslide activity continued at a somewhat consistent rate. The rate of sediment discharge caused by a high level of landslide activity was relatively higher than that caused by precipitation. Therefore, most values of W/W in the first month after high levels P of landslide activity fell into group A. In the periods of 2 and 3 months after a high level of landslide activity, the sediment discharge caused by landslide activity gradually decreased; thus, the rate of sediment discharge caused by precipitation increased relatively, and many W/W values are P plotted in group B. The intersection point of W/W =1 and the inclination line of group A are P shown in Fig. 9. This point is called ‘‘critical displacement’’ (D ). If the displacement is larger cr than D , the sediment discharge caused by landcr slide activity can be noted. 4.1.2. Ratio of monitored sediment discharge to that estimated from groundwater discharge The correlation shown in Fig. 9 indicates that landslide activity has an effect on sediment dis-

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Fig. 7. Relationship between monthly precipitation and sediment discharge for each period and assumed value of W . P, P Monthly precipitation (mm month−1); W, monthly sediment discharge (g month−1); W , sediment discharge estimated from P the above regression line (g month−1).

Fig. 9. Relationship between the displacement at high landslide activity and W/W . (A) Group affected by landslide activity P and precipitation; (B) group affected by precipitation; D , criticr cal displacement.

Fig. 8. Change in value of W/W with time (September 1993–December 1995). P

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Fig. 10. Change in value of weekly displacement and D/D with time (20 June 1995–3 September 1996). Capital letters A–F represent AV the most active periods.

charge. The monitoring of groundwater discharge has been carried out since 20 June 1995 to determine better the relationship between landslide activity and underground erosion. During this time, the monitoring system of sediment discharge shown in Fig. 4(b) was improved to a semi-automatic procedure. Semi-automatic monitoring of groundwater discharge was carried out at Springs 1 and 4 ( Fig. 1). The monitoring data from Spring 1 were used for analysis because Spring 1 is located close to the key borehole inclinometer 4-25 at the center of landslide. Data from 20 June 1995 to 3 September 1996 were used. Almost the same method of analysis to that described in Section 4.2 was employed substituting groundwater discharge for precipitation. However, the time unit was changed from months to weeks, that is, weekly sediment discharge W (g week−1), and weekly groundwater discharge Q ( l week−1). Fig. 10 shows the time series change of landslide displacement and displacement ratio, D/D (D is AV the weekly displacement and D is the weekly AV average displacement), from 20 June 1995 to 3 September 1996. This figure indicates that

D =0.7 mm week−1 and that two periods of high AV levels of landslide activity occurred: (1) from 20 June to 25 July 1995; and (2) on 26 September 1995. A lesser amount of high landslide activity (the value of D/D is nearly 2) occurred on 24 October AV 1995 and 16 July 1996. Slow movement took place during the other monitoring periods. Fig. 11 shows the relationship between weekly sediment discharge W (g week−1) ( logarithmic value) and weekly groundwater discharge Q ( l week−1) ( logarithmic value). Open circles represents all monitoring results from 20 June 1995 to 3 September 1996 in Fig. 10. Filled circles are the monitoring results for 28 May to 9 July 1996, which was the inactive period that occurred over a period of ca 8 months after the high level of landslide activity of 24 October 1996 and before the high level of landslide activity of 16 July 1996 shown in Fig. 10. The line in Fig. 11 presents the regression of the data shown by the filled circles. The sediment discharge correlates with groundwater discharge as expressed by: W =10−6.48Q2.00, Q (3)

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Fig. 11. Relationship between weekly discharge, sediment discharge, assumed values of W . Q, Weekly groundwater Q discharge (l week−1); W, weekly sediment discharge (g week−1); W , sediment discharge estimated from above Q regression line (g week−1).

in which W is the sediment discharge estimated Q from the groundwater discharge (g week−1) and Q is the groundwater discharge ( l week−1) monitored weekly. Thus, the effect of the landslide activity can be evaluated by W/W , as well as by Q W/W . P Fig. 12 shows the time series change of W/W Q ( logarithmic value). In this figure, large values of log (W/W ) occur in the left side of the figure for Q the first half of all monitoring periods (i.e. from 18 July to 19 December 1995). In the right half of the figure, the values of log(W/W ) occuring from Q 13 February to 3 September 1996. It seems that some unknown factor causes sediment discharge to a greater amount than groundwater discharge does in the first half of all monitoring periods. From 26 December 1995 to 9 January 1996 and from 23 January to 13 February 1996,

we could not calculate W/W because the bucket, Q the water tank and the V-notch weir were frozen. To check whether or not the unknown factor was a result of the landslide activity, a comparison was made between the displacement during active periods and the value of W/W . The high landslide Q activity periods in Fig. 10 occurred from 20 June to 25 July 1995 and on 26 September 1995. Activity from 20 June to 25 July 1995 was caused by heavy rain during the rainy season. Usually a period of landslide activity due to heavy rainfall terminated within 2 weeks after the rain ended. Each fortnight for A, B, C, D and E are regarded as one group of landslide activity. On 26 September 1995, F was caused by the typhoon No. 24 ( T9524). The arrow from A in Fig. 12 is an example of the comparison between the displacement of period A (see Fig. 10) and log(W/W ). The serial numbers (0–7) in this Q figure are the number of weeks after landslide activity ‘‘A’’ from 20 to 27 June 1995. Fig. 13 shows the distribution of log(W/W ) Q from 5 to 7 weeks after high landslide activity against its displacement. In this figure, the open circles are for 5 weeks, the filled diamonds are for 6 weeks and open upside-down triangles is for 7 weeks after high levels of landslide activity. When the displacement is larger than D and cr log(W/W )>0, the displacements of high levels of Q landslide activity (A–F ) are proportional to log(W/W ) from 5 to 7 weeks. Notably, the scatter Q of data for 6 weeks after high levels of landslide activity is very small. These results mean that, when the displacement exceeded a certain critical value, the sediment discharge was caused by landslide activity. These considerations correspond to the presumption presented in Section 4.2. Thus, it has been proved that the eroded and transported sediments are mainly the result of landslide activity.

5. Mechanism of landslide movement caused by landslide activity and underground erosion Sassa (1984, 1985, 1989) has proposed that creep movement at the Zentoku landslide is caused by underground erosion. It would be expected that if underground erosion were to continue for a long

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Fig. 12. Change in value of log(W/W ) with time (20 June 1995–3 September 1996). W/W , Sediment discharge ratio for groundQ Q water discharge.

Fig. 13. Relationship between displacement during periods of high levels of landslide activity and log(W/W ) for the period Q of 5–7 weeks after this activity. W/W , Sediment discharge ratio Q for groundwater discharge; D , critical displacement; r, correlacr tion coefficient.

period of time, the amount of erosion-prone material being removed would decrease and the creep movement would gradually terminate. However, it has been shown that creep has continued at the Zentoku landslide (Sassa, 1984; Furuya et al., 1997). It is insufficient to explain this movement alone as an effect of the underground erosion. Consequently, it can be hypothesized that the movement mechanism is not the only process of underground erosion that causes landslide activity, but also that there is some other process. Fig. 14 illustrates the overall mechanism of a landslide in crystalline schist as studied at the Zentoku landslide; this mechanism includes two interrelated processes. On the left of this figure the process of landslide activity caused by underground erosion is shown, which has been previously proposed by Sassa (1984, 1985, 1989). The soils and other fine materials surrounding the groundwater flow path are eroded and transported by groundwater flows. Thus, the voids tend to enlarge there, which makes the landslide mass unstable. Hence, landslide activity (creep movement) occurs. On the right in Fig. 14 is shown the process of underground erosion caused by the landslide activity, as indicated by the results of this study. The fine-grained materials are produced by disturbance and mechanical weathering of geologic materials in the shear zone due to the land-

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the sediment affected by high levels of landslide activity. Especially, the sediment discharge ratio in the period of 1–2 months (from 5 to 7 weeks) after a high level of landslide activity is proportional to the landslide displacement. Greater landslide activity caused greater sediment discharge. Therefore, creep movement of this landslide in crystalline schist has occurred over a long period of time as the result of two interactive processes: (1) landslide activity that produced fine-grained materials; and (2) underground erosion of these materials by groundwater, which in the landslide mass helped to cause the landslide activity.

6. Conclusions The mechanism of creep movement caused by landslide activity and underground erosion in crystalline schist is proposed; the Zentoku landslide, Shikoku Island, serves as an example. This mechanism is based on the results of: (1) measurements of sediment discharge from groundwater outlets (springs); (2) measurement of landslide activity; and (3) investigation of the groundwater flow (paths) within the landslide. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Groundwater flow exists in and above shear zones in the landslide because the bases of these zones are highly weathered, clayey and impermeable. Because of this groundwater flow, underground erosion occurs in and above the shear zones. (2) Erosion and transportation of sediments are caused not only by the effects of precipitation and resulting groundwater discharge, but also by the effects of landslide activity. In particular, there is a proportional relationship between landslide displacement during high levels of landslide activity and the sediment discharge ratio (W/W or W/W ) for periods P Q of 1–2 months (from 5 to 7 weeks) after high levels of landslide activity. This relationship indicates that erosion susceptibility is increased by landslide activity.

Fig. 14. Chain interrelationship of processes of erosion and landslide movement in the Zentoku landslide.

slide activity. Erosion susceptibility inside the landslide mass increases. The latter process is supported by the following facts: (1) Fukuoka (1991) carried out ring-shear tests on samples of material from the Zentoku landslide under a normal pressure of 294 kPa. These tests indicated that, as shear displacement increases, the degree of grain crushing also increases. The depth of the shear zone at the Zentoku landslide (Block 1) is >20 m. It is reasonable to believe that crushing of the rocks due to the weight of the landslide mass occurs in the shear zone. (2) Seismic investigation has revealed that groundwater flow paths exist in and above the shear zones. The rocks have been crushed into fine-grained particles due to the landslide activity and these particles were eroded from the mass along the groundwater paths. (3) Sediment discharge from an outlet of the groundwater path (i.e. at a spring) included

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G. Furuya et al. / Engineering Geology 53 (1999) 311–325 Fujita, T., Hirano, M., Hada, S., 1976. The structural control of landslides in the Kawai area, Tokushima Prefecture, Shikoku. J. Jap. Landslide Soc. 13 (1), 25–36 (in Japanese). Fukuoka, H., 1991. Variation of the friction angle of granular materials in the high-speed high-stress ring shear apparatus: influence of re-orientation, alignment and crushing of grains during shear. Bull. Disaster Prevention Res. Inst. Kyoto Univ. 41 (Part 4), 243–279. Furuya, G., Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H., Hiura, H., 1997. The relationship between underground erosion and landslide movement in a crystalline schist landslide, Zentoku, Tokushima, Japan. J. Jap. Landslide Soc. 34 (2), 9–16 (in Japanese). Gillon, M.D., Hancox, G.T., 1992. Cromwell Gorge landslides: a general overview. In: Bell, D. ( Ed.), Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Landslides, Christchurch, vol. 2, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 83–102. Hiura, H., Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H., 1991. On the mechanism of a crystalline schist landslide: landslide movement and the underground erosion. In: The Soviet-China-Japan Symp. and Field Workshop on Natural Disasters, Shanhai, Lanchzou, Urumgi, Alma-ata, Dushanbe and Kazselezashchita, U.S.S.R, pp. 21–30. Hiura, H., Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H., 1992. Monitoring system of a crystalline schist landslide—three dimensional displacement meters and underground erosion. In: Bell, D. ( Ed.), Proc. 6th International. Symp. on Landslides, Christchurch, vol. 2, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1141–1146. Kato, J., Hada, S., 1980. Landslide of the Yoshino-gawa water system and its geological aspects. Research Reports of Kochi University, Natural Science, 28, pp. 127—140 (in Japanese). Kronfellner-Kraus, G., 1980. Neue Untersuchungser gebnisse in Wildbachen: Der Talzuschub in Abhangigkeit von Niederschlagen. Proc. INTERPRAEVENT 1980, Bad Ischl, vol. 1, Forschungsgesellschaft fu vorbeugende Hochwasser ¨r bekampfung, Klagenfurt, pp. 179–192. ¨ Mahr, T., Nemcok, A., 1977. Deep-seated creep deformations ˇ in the crystalline cores of the Tatry Mts. Bull. Int. Assoc. Eng. Geol. 16, 104–106. Matsunaga, M., Hiura, H., Sassa, K., 1993. Observation of the movement of ‘‘Zentoku’’ landslide: fluctuation of the eroded and transported sediment. Bull. Kochi Univ. Forests 20, 21–31(in Japanese). Noverraz, F., 1996. Sagging or deep-seated creep: Fiction or reality? In: Senneset, K. (Ed.), Proc. 7th International Symp. on Landslides, Trondheim, vol. 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 821–828. Oyagi, N., 1989. Geological and economic extent of landslides in Japan and Korea. In: Brabb, E., Harrod, B. ( Eds.), Proc. of 28th International Geological Congress, Washington, DC. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 289–302. Riemer, W., Locher, T., Nunez, I., 1988. Mechanics of deep seated mass movements in metamorphic rocks of the Ecuadorian Andes. In: Bonnard, C. (Ed.), Proc. 5th International Symp. on Landslides, Lausanne, vol. 1, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 307–310. Sassa, K., 1984. Monitoring of a crystalline schist landslide: compressive creep affected by ‘‘underground erosion’’. In:

(3) Active landslide movement causes disturbance and crushing of rocks into erodible and transportable material in the shear zones. (4) The mechanism of creep movement in this landslide in crystalline schist is an interrelated chain process consisting of underground erosion caused by landslide activity and landslide activity caused by underground erosion. The interrelationship of these two processes is the reason why landslides of this type have continued to move for many years, and are not easily stabilized. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the Yoshino River Sabo Work Office of the Ministry of Construction Japan for its cooperation in monitoring the Zentoku landslide. The efforts of Mr Kin-ichiro Mukai and Mr Michifumi Mukai, who have been engaged in this monitoring and the maintenance of the monitoring apparatus for several years, are especially appreciated.

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