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BIO 30 - How individuals inherits its genetic make

up and pass it to the next generation


GENETICS
- The science of heredity and variation 2. MOLECULAR GENETICS
- Etymology(Greek): GEN – to become or - Focused on structure
grow into something (William - Chemical nature of the gene
Bateson;1905) - How genetic information is encoded,
- A branch of biology that studies heredity replicated and expressed
and variation - Replication – Transcription – Translation
– protein (encoded)
HEREDITY
- Transmission of traits from parents to 3. POPULATION GENETICS
offspring - Studies the genetic composition of
- Similarity of parents and offspring groups of individuals of the same
species (population)
VARIATION - Now composition changes over time
- Differences between parents and off - Study of evolution (genetic change)
springs BRANCHES OF GENETICS
- Differences among individuals in the
population 1. MOLECULAR
- The most INTERESTING and - Structure and functions of gene at the
FASCINATING molecular level
- Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
GENES - Replication (DNA) – Transcription
- Principal determinants of life processes (RNA) – Translation (protein;
polypetides)
CELL FUNCTION
- Dictated by the genes 2. CYTOGENETICS
- Example: RBC vs. Epidermal Celle - Behavior of the chromosomes
- Naka depende sa proteins na - Carries of the gene
nagseserve as signals - The line in the chromosome (divides p
and q arm) dictates the position of the
Others that are dictated by the genes centromere
ADAPTABILITY; ORGANISM APPEARANCE; - Example of disorder: Trisomy 21 –
BEHAVIOR; ARRANGEMENT of PETALS, Down syndrome- but there are other
INTELLIGENCE, REPRODUCTION. types since it is familial
- Mother at the age of 35 and above will
THREE KINDS OF GENETICS have the risk of having a child with
trisomy 21
1. TRANSMISSION
- Mendelian
3. DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS
- Gregor Mendel
- Gene regulation during development
- Encompasses the basic principles of
- Gene: it must be turn on/off at the right
genetics
place and time
- Traits are passed from 1 generation to
- Switching off and on of genes
the next
- Egg cells gives cytoplasm to the zygote
- Relationship between chromosomes
(carrier of genes) and heredity
4. EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS
- CHROMOSOME 1-23 are MAPPED
- Genetic change within or between
through MAPE
species
- P is the short arm and q is the long arm
- Results to variation Behavioral Psychology
Biochemistry
5. BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS
- Role of enzymes or proteins
Before Gregor mendel
- Product of genes
- Albinism – (malfunctioning of tyrosinase - heredity as a blending process
which is responsible for melanin - offspring are intermediate between the
production) parents
- not true if offspring resembles either one
6. BEHAVIORAL GENETICS parent
- Behavioral traits are inherited
Golden Age of Greek Culture
- Example: schizophrenia manic
depressive happiness alcoholism - attention was given to
psychosis and criminality o reproduction
o heredity
7. POPULATION GENETICS - Aristotle
- Fate of genes in the population o Theory of pangenesis
- Factors affecting gene frequencies o All structure and organs of the
- Example: migration may affect pop gen body contribute copies of
themselves to sex cells
8. QUANTITATIVE GENETICS
PANGENESIS
- role of genetics and environmental
factors - According to the pangenesis, genetic
- inheritance and expression of information from different parts of the
quantitative traits body
- controlled by genes highly affected by - Travels through reproduction
the environment
JEAN BAPTISE de LAMARCK
DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF GENETICS THAT
ARE DEPENDENT ON OTHER FILEDS - Theory of Inheritance of Acquired
Characteristic
Molecular Physical - Acquired body modifications are
Chemistry inherited
Biophysics
Biochemistry AUGUST WEISMANN
Cytogenetics Physics (optics)
- Germ plasm theory
Staining technology
acetocarmine (plant - Plans of entire body are contributed only
chromosomes) by the sex cells
fluorescent stains - All the thing we need are in the sex cells
Population Ecology KOLREUTER; GARDNER; NAYDIN; CHARLES
Math DARWIN; DZIENSON
Statistics
Quantitative Math - Uniformity in F1 (First filial offspring)
statistics o The same genotype -> same
Evolutionary Ecology genes
Math - Variations in F2
Statistics o F1 parent
Biochemistry o There will be segregation,
Developmental Physiology
different set of genes
Morphoanatomy
Biochemistry BEGINNING of CLASSICAL GENETICS
Biochemical Biochemistry
- 1865; Gregor Mendel (Father of regarding the intelligent genes of the
Genetics Africans being inferior to the ones of the
- Developed concept of genes Americans/ whites.
- Presence of discrete hereditary units
APPLICATION OF GENETICS
- Explains similarities; differences among
parents and offspring 1. Microbial, plants and animal
- Tawag niya sa gene before ay “factors” improvement
(hereditable) a. Triploid Bananas – cannot
- Responsible for two important principles produce seeds
of genetics b. Corn
- Principle of Segregation c. Cow production of milk
- Principe of Independent Assortment d. Pig – low fat content, higher
meat
CARL CONEN (Germany); ERICK VON
e. Chicken – egg varies
TSCHERMAK (Austria); HUGO DE VRIES
f. Green Revolution (50’s-60’s)
(Netherlands)
– developed traditional rice by
- Duplicated Mendel’s experiments on genetic techniques
other plants 2. Identification of diseases and
- Rediscoverers of the work of Mendel abnormalities
a. Metabolic disorders
WILLIAM BATESON, SAUNDERS, LUCIEN
i. Phenyl ketonuria;
CUENOT
Galactose mia
- Observed Mendel’s principles on b. Detection of genetic disorders
animals from NEWBORN
SCREENING
WALTER SUTTON (USA); THEODOR BOVERI 3. Genetic Counseling
(GERMANY) a. Inheritance of undesirable
- Chromosome Theory of Inheritance units
b. Pedigree analysis of
THOMAS HUNT MORGAN and CALVIN prospective traits
BRIDGES i. Trisomy 15 – lethal
- Association between specific gene and mutation in
specific chromosome chromosome (for
o Chromosome – behavior of women); short life span
chromosomes is same with of the new born baby
genes EUGENICS
o Ex: if chromosomes are in pairs
the genes are also in pares - Coined by FRANCIS GALTON in 1883
in England
OSWALD AVERY; COLIN MACLEOD; Maclyn - Application of genetic knowledge in the
McCarty improvement of human race
- DNA as hereditary material EUPHENICS
- “What is the transforming Principle”
- Radical/ genetic intervention designed
ELUCIDATION OF DNA STRUCTURE to reduce the impact of defective
- Double helix DNA aerotypes on individuals
- 1953 James D. Watson and Francis - Ex : insulin for diabetes; dietary control
Creek - Crispr – china; editing of the embryo of
- James D. Watson got his Prizes on the genes of the twins
auction because of his statement
o The genes that were edited were
the ones responsible for the
detection of HIV
o BRCA1 – genetic tests can point
the disorders but that doesn’t
mean cure will always be
provided
4. Legal Application
a. Blood type analysis
b. DNA fingerprinting
i. Paternity testing
ii. Disputed parentage
iii. Identify criminals
5. Genetic engineering or rDNA
technology
a. Genetically modified organism
b. BT corn, cotton, soybean
c. Transgenic papaya with
delayed ripened genes
d. Products of rDNA tech –
Human insulin
e. Transgenic tobacco with
LUCIFERASE gene
i. Responsible for the
glow or light of firefly
f. Golden Rice – rich in
provitamin A
i. Betacarotene from
daffodils
g. Transgenic papaya with gene
against ring spots
h. High in anthocyanin
(tomatoes)
i. High in betacarotene (vit A) –
Folate (folic acid) building
cells – Ascorbate (ascorbic
acid; vit C)
j. Transgenic mice – extra gene
of HGH
k. Drugs
i. Anticoagulants
ii. Colony – stimulating
l. Erythroprotein
m. genesurgery