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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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While, During Drilling

By

Abnormal Pressure

- Definition, Causes -

• Abnormal Pore Pressure Gradients

• Fracture Gradients

• Mud Weights

• Casing Seat Depths

• What Causes Abnormal Pressure?

Normal and Abnormal Pore Pressure

West Texas: 0.433 psi/ft

Gulf Coast: 0.465 psi/ft

Depth, ft

Abnormal

Pressure

Gradients

10,000’ ??

Pore Pressure, psig

Pore Pressure vs. Depth

0

0.433 psi/ft 8.33 lb/gal

0.465 psi/ft 9.0 lb/gal

5,000

Depth, ft

Normal

10,000

Abormal

15,000

20,000

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Pore Pressure Equivalent, lb/gal

{ Density of mud required to control this pore pressure }

Fracture Gradient

Pore Pressure

Gradient

* Pore

Pressure

Gradients

* Fracture

Gradients

* Casing

Setting

Depths

Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure

– Fluids in sediments have not

escaped and are still helping to

support the overburden.

2. Tectonic movements

4 Uplift

4 Faulting

Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure

– Aquifer recharge is at higher

elevation than drilling rig location.

nearby underground blowout.

5. Large structures...

• Abnormal Formations do not have the

freedom of pressure communications. If

they did, the high pressures would rapidly

dissipate revert to normal pressure.

• Assuming that a pressure seal is present, the

causes or origin of pressure depend on some

items as lithology, minerology, tectonic

action, and rate of sedimentation

1- Compaction of sediments.

Db

Normal Pressure

Abnormal Pressure

compacted region because the shale matrix

can’t support the overburden stress

P = 0.465 psi/ft * Db + 1.0 psi/ft *(Dt-Db)

HIGH PRESSURE

NORMAL PRESSURE

of water. Below such layers abnormal pressure may be found.

HIGH PRESSURE

NORMAL PRESSURE

When crossing faults it is possible to go from normal

pressure to abnormally high pressure in a short interval.

Well “A” found only Normal Pressure ...

σob

p σz

σOB = p + σZ

?

Indications of Abnormal Pore Pressures

Methods:

1. Seismic data

2. Drilling rate

3. Sloughing shale

4. Gas units in mud

5. Shale density

6. Chloride content

Indications of Abnormal Pore Pressures

Methods, cont’d:

8. Temperature of Mud Returns

9. Bentonite content in shale

10. Paleo information

11. Wire-line logs

12. MWD-LWD

Prediction and Detection of Abnormal

Pressure Zones

1. Before drilling

Prediction and Detection of Abnormal

Pressure Zones

2. While drilling

4 Drilling rate, gas in mud, etc. etc.

4 D - Exponent

4 DC - Exponent

4 MWD - LWD

4 Density of shale (cuttings)

Prediction and Detection of Abnormal

Pressure Zones

3. After drilling

4 Resistivity log

4 Conductivity log

4 Sonic log

4 Density log

−0.000085 DS

φ = 0..41 e – .

What is d-

exponent?

Decreasing ROP

D - Exponent

The Where

drilling rate R = drilling rate, ft/hr

equation: K = drillability constant

N = rotary speed, RPM

D

⎛W⎞ E = rotary speed expon.

R = K N ⎜⎜

E

⎟⎟

W = bit weight, lbs

⎝ DB ⎠

DB = bit diameter, in

D = bit wt. Exponent

or D - exponent

D

⎛W⎞

D - Exponent R = K N ⎜⎜

E

⎟⎟

⎝ DB ⎠

If we assume that K = 1

and E = 1

Then ⎛R⎞

log ⎜ ⎟

⎝ N⎠

D

R ⎛W⎞ D=

= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎛W⎞

N ⎝ DB ⎠ log ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ DB ⎠

D - Exponent

⎛ R ⎞

log ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

d= ⎝ 60 N ⎠

⎛ 12 W ⎞

log ⎜⎜ 6 ⎟⎟

⎝ 10 DB ⎠

Example

follows:

dc = d ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ actual mud weight in use(ppg) ⎠

⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎛ 9 ⎞

e.g., dc = d ⎜ ⎟ = 1.82 * ⎜ ⎟ = 1.37

⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠

Procedure for Determining Pore Pressure

From dc - Exponent

• Plot dc vs depth (use only date from

Clean shale sections)

• Determine the normal line for the dc

vs. depth plot.

• Establish where dc deviates from the

normal line to determine abnormal

pressure zone

Procedure for Determining Pore Pressure

From dc - Exponent

No

rm

al

Normal

Depth

Tre

d n Abnormal

dc - Exponent

Procedure for Determining Pore Pressure

From dc - Exponent

abnormal pore pressure using

overlays, or Ben Eaton’s Method

1 .2

P S ⎛S ⎛P ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ d c calculated ⎞

= − ⎜⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟

D D ⎝ D ⎝ D ⎠n ⎠ ⎜ d normal ⎟

⎝ c ⎠

Pore

Pressure Overburden Normal Pore

Grad. Stress Grad. Pressure Grad.

In normally pressured

shales, shale

compaction increases

with depth

Pore Pressure from

Resistivity

Depth

Shale resistivity plots

may be developed from

(i) logs or

(ii) cuttings

What is the pore 10,000’

pressure at the point

indicated on the plot?

[Assume Gulf Coast].

Depth=10,000 ft

0.2 0.5 1 2 3

From plot, Rn = 1.55 ohms EATON

Robs = 0.80 ohms

From Eaton:

Depth

1 .2

P S ⎛S ⎛P ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ R obs ⎞

= − ⎜⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

D D ⎝ D ⎝ D ⎠n ⎠ ⎝ Rn ⎠

1 .2

⎛ 0 . 80 ⎞

= 0 . 95 − (0 . 95 − 0 . 465 ) ⎜

P

⎟ 10,000’

D ⎝ 1 . 55 ⎠

0.2 0.5 1 2 3

Prediction of

Abnormal Pore Pressure

• Resistivity of Shale

• Temperature in the Return Mud

• Drilling Rate Increase

• dc - Exponent

• Sonic Travel Time

• Conductivity of Shale

EXAMPLE

Shale Resistivity

vs. Depth

1. Establish normal

trend line

2. Look for

deviations

(semi-log)

Pore Pressure

Shale Resistivity (lb/gal equivalent)

vs. Depth 16 14 12 10

1. Establish normal

trend line

9 ppg

2. Look for

(normal)

deviations

3. Use OVERLAY

to quantify

pore pressure

(use with caution)

Example

8.2 X

Why?

Determination of Abnormal Pore

Pressure Using the dc - exponent

1 .2

P S ⎡ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎤⎛ d c ⎞

= − ⎢ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

D D ⎣ D ⎝ D ⎠ n ⎦ ⎝ d cn ⎠

1 .2

P S ⎡ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎤⎛ d c ⎞

= − ⎢ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

D D ⎣ D ⎝ D ⎠ n ⎦ ⎝ d cn ⎠

P

Where = formation pressure gradient, psi/ft

D

⎛P⎞

⎜ ⎟ = normal water gradient in area

⎝ D ⎠n

e.g., 0.433 or 0.465, psi/ft

S

= overburden stress gradient, psi/ft

D

dc = actual d c − expon ent from plot

Example

Calculate the pore pressure

at depth X using the data in

this graph.

Assume:

West Texas location with

normal overburden of

X

1.0 psi/ft.

X = 12,000 ft. 1.2 1.5

dc

Example

1 .2

P S ⎡ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎤⎛ d c ⎞

= − ⎢ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

D D ⎣ D ⎝ D ⎠ n ⎦ ⎝ d cn ⎠

1 .2

⎛ 1 .2 ⎞

= 1 . 0 − [1 . 0 − 0 . 433 ]⎜ ⎟

⎝ 1 .5 ⎠

P

= 0 . 5662 psi/ft

D

Example

6794

EMW = = 10.9 lbm/gal

0.052 x 12,000

E.S. Pennebaker

detection of abnormal pressures.

velocity increases with depth. (i.e. Travel

time decreases with depth)

(why?)

E.S. Pennebaker

indication of possible abnormal

pressures.

abnormal pore pressures from the

difference between normal and actual

travel times.

Depth, ft

Ben Eaton

also found a way to determine pore pressure from

interval travel times.

Example:

In a Gulf Coast well, the speed of sound is 10,000

ft/sec at a depth of 13,500 ft. The normal speed of

sound at this depth, based on extrapolated trends,

would be 12,000 ft/sec. What is the pore pressure at

this depth?

Ben Eaton

P S ⎡ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ∆t n ⎞

3 .0

= − ⎢ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥⎜ ⎟

D D ⎣ D ⎝ D ⎠ n ⎦ ⎝ ∆t ⎠

3

⎛ 10,000 ⎞

= 1.0 - [1.0 - 0.465] ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 12,000 ⎠

= 0.6904 psi/ft

( ∆t α 1/v )

Ben Eaton

NOT 1.2!

Equations for Pore Pressure Determination

⎛ R ⎞

log ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ 60 N ⎠ ⎛ ρ NORMAL ⎞

d = * ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎛ ⎞ ⎝ ρ ACTUAL

C

log ⎜⎜

12 W

⎟⎟ ⎠

⎝ 10 6 D B ⎠

1 .2

P S ⎛ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ d c calculated ⎞

= − ⎜⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ D ⎠n ⎜ ⎟

D D ⎝ D ⎠ ⎝ d c normal ⎠

1 .2

P S ⎛ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ R obs ⎞

= − ⎜⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

D D ⎝ D ⎝ D ⎠ n ⎠ ⎝ R n ⎠

1 .2

P S ⎛ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ C ⎞

= − ⎜⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ n

⎟⎟

D D ⎝ D ⎝ D ⎠ n ⎠ ⎝ C o ⎠

3 .0

P S ⎛ S ⎛ P ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ∆ t ⎞

= − ⎜⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ n

⎟⎟

D D ⎝ D ⎝ D ⎠ n ⎠ ⎝ ∆ t o ⎠

Pore Pressure Determination

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