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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 1 of 32

HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1)


Due: 10:30am on Sunday, February 26, 2017
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Exercise 22.6

The cube in the figure has sides of length L = 10.0 cm .


The electric field is uniform, has a magnitude
E = 4.00 × 103 N/C , and is parallel to the xy-plane at
an angle of 36.9 measured from the +x axis toward
the +y axis .

Part A
What is the electric flux through the cube face S1 ?
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 2 of 32

Part B
What is the electric flux through the cube face S2 ?
ANSWER:

1 = m2 /C

Part C
What is the electric flux through the cube face S3 ?
ANSWER:

2 = m2 /C

Part D
What is the electric flux through the cube face S4 ?
ANSWER:

3 = m2 /C

Part E
What is the electric flux through the cube face S5 ?
ANSWER:

4 = m2 /C

Part F
What is the electric flux through the cube face S6 ?
ANSWER:

5 = m2 /C

Part G
What is the total electric flux through all faces of the cube?
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 3 of 32

6 = m2 /C

Exercise 22.2

A flat sheet is in the shape of a rectangle with sides of lengths 0.400 m and 0.600 m . The sheet is
immersed in a uniform electric field of magnitude 65.0 N/C that is directed at 20 from the plane of the
sheet .

Part A
Find the magnitude of the electric flux through the sheet.
Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

total = m2 /C

Flux through a Cube

A cube has one corner at the origin and the


opposite corner at the point (L, L, L) . The sides
of the cube are parallel to the coordinate planes.
The electric field in and around the cube is given
by E = (a + bx)^
i + c^j .

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 4 of 32

Part A
Find the total electric flux E through the surface of the cube.
Express your answer in terms of a , b , c , and L .

Hint 1. Definition of flux

The net electric flux E of a field E through a closed surface S is given by

E = E dA ,
where the differential vector dA has magnitude proportional to the differential area and is
oriented outward and normal (perpendicular) to the surface. In some cases with simple geometry
(like this one), you can break up the integral into manageable pieces. Consider separately the
flux coming out of each of the six faces of the cube, and then add the results to obtain the net
flux.

Hint 2. Flux through the +x face


Consider the face of the cube whose outward normal points in the positive x direction. What is
the flux +x through this face?

Express your answer in terms of a , b , c , and L .

Hint 1. Simplifying the integral

The field E depends only on the spatial variable x . On the +x face of the cube, x = L ,
so E is constant. Since E is constant over this entire surface, it can be pulled out of the
integral:

E dA E A.

Hint 2. Evaluate the scalar product


The scalar (dot) product yields the component of the field that is in the direction of the
normal (i.e., perpendicular to the surface). Evaluate the dot product E A .
Express your answer in terms of a , b , c , x , and A .
ANSWER:

=
Hint 3. Find the area of the face of the cube
This +x face of the cube is a square with sides of length . What is the area of this face?

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 5 of 32

ANSWER:

E A=
ANSWER:

A=
Hint 3. Flux through the +y face
Consider the face of the cube whose outward normal points in the positive y direction. What is the flux +y
through this face?
Express your answer in terms of a , b , c , and L .
ANSWER:

+x =
Hint 4. Flux through the +z face
Consider the face of the cube whose outward normal points in the positive z direction. What is the flux +z
through this face?

Hint 1. Consider the orientation of the field

The electric field has no z component (the field vector E lies entirely in the xy plane. What is the dot
product of a vector in the xy plane and a vector normal to the +z face of the cube?

ANSWER:

+y =
Hint 5. Flux through the x face
Consider the face of the cube whose outward normal points in the negative x direction. What is the flux x
through this face?
Express your answer in terms of a , b , c , and L .

Hint 1. What is the electric field?


The face of the cube whose outward normal points in the negative x direction lies in the yz plane (i.e.,
x = 0 ). Find the x component Ex of the electric field across this surface.
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 6 of 32

+z =
Hint 2. Direction of flux
Remember to take note of whether the electric field is going into the surface or out of the surface. Flux is
defined as positive when the field is coming out of the surface and negative when the field is going into the
surface.

ANSWER:

Ex =
Hint 6. Putting it together
Using similar calculations to those above, you should be able to find the flux through each of the six faces.
Add the six quantities to obtain the net flux.

ANSWER:

x =

Part B
Notice that the flux through the cube does not depend on a or c . Equivalently, if we were to set b = 0 ,
so that the electric field becomes

E = a^i + c^j ,
then the flux through the cube would be zero. Why?
ANSWER:

E =

Part C
What is the net charge q inside the cube?

Express your answer in terms of a , b , c , L , and 0 .

Hint 1. Gauss's law


Gauss's law states that the net flux of an electric field through a surface is proportional to the net
charge inside that surface:
qencl
E = 0 .

ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 7 of 32

does not generate any flux across any of the surfaces.


E
The flux into one side of the cube is exactly canceled by the flux out of the opposite side.

Both of the above statements are true.

± Calculating Flux for Hemispheres of Different Radii

Learning Goal:
To understand the definition of electric flux, and how to calculate it.
Flux is the amount of a vector field that "flows" through a surface. We now discuss the electric flux through a
surface (a quantity needed in Gauss's law): E = E dA , where E is the flux through a surface with
differential area element dA , and E is the electric field in which the surface lies. There are several
important points to consider in this expression:

1. It is an integral over a surface, involving the electric field at the surface.


2. dA is a vector with magnitude equal to the area of an infinitesmal surface element and pointing
in a direction normal (and usually outward) to the infinitesmal surface element.
3. The scalar (dot) product E dA implies that only the component of E normal to the surface
contributes to the integral. That is, E dA = E dA cos( ) , where is the angle between

E and dA .
When you compute flux, try to pick a surface that is either parallel or perpendicular to E , so that the dot
product is easy to compute.

Two hemispherical surfaces, 1 and 2, of


respective radii r1 and r2 , are centered at a point
charge and are facing each other so that their
edges define an annular ring (surface 3), as
shown. The field at position r due to the point
charge is:

C ^
E(r) = r2
r
where C is a constant proportional to the charge,
r = r , and r^ = r /r is the unit vector in the
radial direction.

Part A
What is the electric flux 3 through the annular ring, surface 3?
Express your answer in terms of C , r1 , r2 , and any constants.

You did not open hints for this part.

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 8 of 32

ANSWER:

q=

Part B
What is the electric flux 1 through surface 1?
Express 1 in terms of C , r1 , r2 , and any needed constants.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

3 =

Part C
What is the electric flux 2 passing outward through surface 2?
Express 2 in terms of r1 , r2 , C , and any constants or other known quantities.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

1 =

Exercise 22.8

The three small spheres shown in the figure carry


charges q1 = 4.15 nC , q2 = -8.00 nC , and q3 =
2.55 nC .

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 9 of 32

Part A
Find the net electric flux through the closed surface S1 shown in cross section in the figure.
ANSWER:

2 =

Part B
Find the net electric flux through the closed surface S2 shown in cross section in the figure.
ANSWER:

m2 /C

Part C
Find the net electric flux through the closed surface S3 shown in cross section in the figure.
ANSWER:

m2 /C

Part D
Find the net electric flux through the closed surface S4 shown in cross section in the figure.
ANSWER:

m2 /C

Part E
Find the net electric flux through the closed surface S5 shown in cross section in the figure.
ANSWER:

m2 /C

Part F
Do your answers to parts A through E depend on how the charge is distributed over each small sphere?
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 10 of 32

m2 /C

Part G
Why or why not?
ANSWER:

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3785 Character(s) remaining

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Gauss's Law

Learning Goal:
To understand the meaning of the variables in Gauss's law, and the conditions under which the law is
applicable.
Gauss's law is usually written

qencl
E = E dA = 0
,
12 2 2
where 0 = 8.85 × 10 C /(N m ) is the permittivity of vacuum.

Part A
How should the integral in Gauss's law be evaluated?
ANSWER:

depend

do not depend

Part B
In Gauss's law, to what does qencl refer?

ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 11 of 32

around the perimeter of a closed loop

over the surface bounded by a closed loop

over a closed surface

Alternative Exercise 22.67

A point charge of +4.00 C is located on the x-axis at x = 6.00 m , next to a spherical surface of radius
x = 4.00 m centered at the origin.

Part A
Calculate the magnitude of the electric field at x = 4.00 m .
ANSWER:

the net charge inside the closed surface

the charge residing on insulators inside the closed surface

all the charge in the physical system

any charge inside the closed surface that is arranged symmetrically

Part B
Calculate the magnitude of the electric field at x = -4.00 m .
ANSWER:

E= N/C

Part C
According to Gauss's law, the net flux through the sphere is zero because it contains no charge. Yet the
field due to the external charge is much stronger on the near side of the sphere (i.e., at x = 4.00 m )
than on the far side (at x = -4.00 m ). How, then, can the flux into the sphere (on the near side) equal
the flux out of it (on the far side)? Explain. A sketch will help.
ANSWER:

Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including spaces).
3785 Character(s) remaining

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 12 of 32

Gauss's Law in 3, 2, and 1 Dimension

Gauss's law relates the electric flux E through a closed surface to the total charge qencl enclosed by the
surface:

qencl
E = E dA = 0 .
You can use Gauss's law to determine the charge enclosed inside a closed surface on which the electric
field is known. However, Gauss's law is most frequently used to determine the electric field from a symmetric
charge distribution.

The simplest case in which Gauss's law can be used to determine the electric field is that in which the
charge is localized at a point, a line, or a plane. When the charge is localized at a point, so that the electric
field radiates in three-dimensional space, the Gaussian surface is a sphere, and computations can be done
in spherical coordinates. Now consider extending all elements of the problem (charge, Gaussian surface,
boundary conditions) infinitely along some direction, say along the z axis. In this case, the point has been
extended to a line, namely, the z axis, and the resulting electric field has cylindrical symmetry. Consequently,
the problem reduces to two dimensions, since the field varies only with x and y, or with r and in cylindrical
coordinates. A one-dimensional problem may be achieved by extending the problem uniformly in two
directions. In this case, the point is extended to a plane, and consequently, it has planar symmetry.

Three dimensions
Consider a point charge q in three-dimensional space. Symmetry requires the electric field to point directly
away from the charge in all directions. To find E(r) , the magnitude of the field at distance r from the
charge, the logical Gaussian surface is a sphere centered at the charge. The electric field is normal to this
surface, so the dot product of the electric field and an infinitesimal surface element involves cos(0) = 1 .
The flux integral is therefore reduced to E(r) dA = E(r)A(r) , where E(r) is the magnitude of the
electric field on the Gaussian surface, and A(r) is the area of the surface.

Part A
Determine the magnitude E(r) by applying Gauss's law.

Express E(r) in terms of some or all of the variables/constants q , r , and 0 .

You did not open hints for this part.

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 13 of 32

ANSWER:

E= N/C
Two dimensions
Now consider the case that the charge has been extended along the z axis. This is generally called a line
charge. The usual variable for a line charge density (charge per unit length) is , and it has units (in the SI
system) of coulombs per meter.

Part B
By symmetry, the electric field must point radially outward from the wire at each point; that is, the field
lines lie in planes perpendicular to the wire. In solving for the magnitude of the radial electric field E(r)
produced by a line charge with charge density , one should use a cylindrical Gaussian surface whose
axis is the line charge. The length of the cylindrical surface L should cancel out of the expression for
E(r) . Apply Gauss's law to this situation to find an expression for E(r) .
Express E(r) in terms of some or all of
the variables , r , and any needed
constants.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

E(r) =
One dimension
Now consider the case with one effective direction. In order to make a problem effectively one-dimensional, it
is necessary to extend a charge to infinity along two orthogonal axes, conventionally taken to be x and y.
When the charge is extended to infinity in the xy plane (so that by symmetry, the electric field will be directed
in the z direction and depend only on z), the charge distribution is sometimes called a sheet charge. The

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 14 of 32

symbol usually used for two-dimensional charge density is either , or . In this problem we will use .
has units of coulombs per meter squared.

Part C

In solving for the magnitude of the electric field E (z) produced by a sheet charge with charge density
, use the planar symmetry since the charge distribution doesn't change if you slide it in any direction of
xy plane parallel to the sheet. Therefore at each point, the electric field is perpendicular to the sheet and
must have the same magnitude at any given distance on either side of the sheet. To take advantage of
these symmetry properties, use a Gaussian surface in the shape of a cylinder with its axis perpendicular
to the sheet of charge, with ends of area A which will cancel out of the expression for E(z) in the end.
The result of applying Gauss's law to this situation then gives an expression for E(z) for both z > 0
and z < 0 .
Express E(z) for z > 0 in terms of some
or all of the variables/constants , z , and
0 .

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

E(r) =

Problem 22.36

In a region of space there is an electric field E that is in the z -direction and that has magnitude
E = (655N/(C m))x .

Part A
Find the flux for this field through a square in the xy -plane at z = 0 and with side length 0.460 m . One
side of the square is along the +x -axis and another side is along the +y -axis.

Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 15 of 32

E(z) =

Problem 22.37

The electric field E1 at one face of a parallelepiped is uniform over the entire face and is directed out of the
face. At the opposite face, the electric field E2 is also uniform over the entire face and is directed into that
face (the figure ). The two faces in question are
inclined at 30.0 from the horizontal, while E1
and E2 are both horizontal; E1 has a magnitude
of 2.90×104 N/C , and E2 has a magnitude of
6.30×104 N/C .

Part A
Assuming that no other electric field lines cross the surfaces of the parallelepiped, determine the net
charge contained within.
ANSWER:

E =

Part B
Is the electric field produced only by the charges within the parallelepiped, or is the field also due to
charges outside the parallelepiped? How can you tell?
ANSWER:

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3785 Character(s) remaining

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PSS 22.1: Gauss's Law

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 16 of 32

Learning Goal:
To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 22.1: Gauss's Law.
An infinite cylindrical rod has a uniform volume charge density (where > 0 ). The cross section of the
rod has radius r0 . Find the magnitude of the electric field E at a distance r from the axis of the rod. Assume
that r < r0 .

Problem-Solving Strategy 22.1: Gauss's Law

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts:


Gauss’s law is most useful in situations where the charge distribution has spherical or cylindrical symmetry
or is distributed uniformly over a plane. In these situations we determine the direction of E from the
symmetry of the charge distribution. If we are given the charge distribution, we can use Gauss’s law to find
the magnitude of E . Alternatively, if we are given the field, we can use Gauss’s law to determine the details
of the charge distribution. In either case, begin your analysis by asking the question: What is the symmetry?

SET UP the problem using the following steps:

1. Select the surface that you will use with Gauss’s law. We often call it a Gaussian surface. If you
are trying to find the field at a particular point, then that point must lie on your Gaussian
surface.
2. The Gaussian surface does not have to be a real physical surface. Often the appropriate
surface is an imaginary geometric surface.
3. If the charge distribution has cylindrical or spherical symmetry, choose the Gaussian surface to
be a coaxial cylinder or a concentric sphere, respectively.

EXECUTE the solution as follows:

1. Carry out the integral


Qencl
E = E cos dA = E dA = E dA = 0
The symmetry of the charge distribution and your careful choice of a Gaussian surface make
the integration straightforward.
2. Often you can think of the closed Gaussian surface as being made up of several separate
surfaces. The integral E dA over the entire closed surface is always equal to the sum of
the integrals over all the separate surfaces.
3. If E is perpendicular (normal) at every point to a surface with area A , if it points outward from
the interior of the surface, and if it also has the same magnitude at every point on the surface,
then E = E = constant , and E dA over that surface is equal to EA . If instead E
is perpendicular and inward, then E = E and E dA EA .
4. If E is tangent to a surface at every point, then E = 0 and the integral over that surface is
zero.
5. If E = 0 at every point on a surface, the integral is zero.
6. In E dA , E is always the perpendicular component of the total electric field at each
point on the closed Gaussian surface. In general, this field may be caused partly by charges
within the surface and partly by charges outside it. Even when there is no charge within the
surface, the field at points on the Gaussian surface is not necessarily zero. In that case,
however, the integral over the Gaussian surface—that is, the total electric flux through the
Gaussian surface—is always zero.
7. Once you have evaluated the integral, use the equation E = E dA = Qencl / 0 to solve
for your target variable.

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 17 of 32

EVALUATE your answer:


Often your result will be a function that describes how the magnitude of the electric field varies with position.
Examine this function with a critical eye to see whether it makes sense.

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts


The charge distribution described in this problem has cylindrical symmetry. The electric field must point away
from the positive charges distributed on the rod. Since you are given information on the charge distribution,
use Gauss’s law to determine the magnitude of E at the required position.

SET UP the problem using the following steps

Part A
Considering the symmetry of the charge distribution, choose one of the following options as the most
appropriate choice of Gaussian surface to use in this problem.
ANSWER:

q= C

Part B
In which direction is the electric field on the cylindrical Gaussian surface?
Check all that apply.
ANSWER:

a finite closed cylinder whose axis coincides with the axis of the rod and whose cross section has radius
r0
a finite closed cylinder whose axis coincides with the axis of the rod and whose cross section has radius
r1 < r
a sphere of radius r < r0 whose center lies on the axis of the rod

a finite closed cylinder whose axis coincides with the axis of the rod and whose cross section has radius
r < r0
an infinite cylinder whose axis coincides with the axis of the rod and whose cross section has radius
r < r0
EXECUTE the solution as follows

Part C
Find the magnitude E of the electric field at a distance r from the axis of the cylinder for r < r0 .

Remember that we've chosen the label to represent the length of the cylindrical Gaussian surface.

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 18 of 32

Express your answer in terms of some or all of variables , r , r0 , , and 0 .

l l
Hint 1. How to approach the problem
Apply Gauss's law: First calculate the net electric flux (as a function of the given variables)
through the cylindrical Gaussian surface described in Part A by evaluating E dA ; then make
the flux equal to the total charge enclosed by the Gaussian surface divided by 0 , and solve for
the electric field. Keep in mind that we've chosen the label l to represent the length of the
cylindrical Gaussian surface. Use this notation through the remainer of this problem, however,
note that your final answer should not depend on l .

Hint 2. Find the net electric flux by evaluating E dA over the Gaussian surface
Find the net electric flux e through the Gaussian cylinder of length l by evaluating the integral
E dA . The information found in Part B will make the integration straightforward.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables E , r , l , and appropriate
constants.

Hint 1. Evaluating surface integrals and fluxes


You can think of the closed Gaussian cylinder as being made up of three separate
surfaces: the curved wall and the two end caps. The integral E dA over the entire
closed cylindrical surface must, then, be equal to the sum of the integrals over the curved
wall and each end cap. To evaluate these integrals, make use of the information found in
Part B and review points 3 and 4 in the strategy above.

Hint 2. Evaluate E dA over the curved cylindrical wall


As you found in Part B, the electric field is perpendicular to the curved wall of your
Gaussian surface and point outward. If the surface area of the curved wall is A , what is
E dA calculated over A ? Use E for the magnitude of the electric field.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables E and A .
ANSWER:

perpendicular to the curved wall of the cylindrical Gaussian surface

tangential to the curved wall of the cylindrical Gaussian surface

perpendicular to the flat end caps of the cylindrical Gaussian surface

tangential to the flat end caps of the cylindrical Gaussian surface


Hint 3. Find the surface area of the curved cylindrical wall
Find the surface area A of the curved wall of your cylindrical Gaussian surface.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables r and l and appropriate constants.
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 19 of 32

E dA =
Hint 4. Evaluate E dA over the end caps of the Gaussian cylinder
As you found in Part B, the electric field is tangent to the flat cap ends of your Gaussian surface. If the
surface area of each cap end is A , evaluate E dA over A .

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables E and A .


ANSWER:

A=
ANSWER:

E dA =
Hint 3. Find the charge enclosed
Considering that the rod has a uniform volume charge density , find the charge Qencl enclosed by the
Gaussian cylinder of length l .
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , r , l , and appropriate constants.

Hint 1. Find the volume enclosed


Find the volume V enclosed by the Gaussian surface.
Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables r , l , and appropriate constants.
ANSWER:

e = E dA = =
ANSWER:

V =
ANSWER:

Qencl =
EVALUATE your answer

Part D
If you repeated your calculation from Part C for r = r0 , you would find that the magnitude of the
electric field on the surface of the rod is

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 20 of 32

r
Now rewrite the expression for Esurface in terms of , the linear
Esurface = 2 0 charge density on the rod.
0
Express your answer in terms of , r0 , and 0 . Your answer should not contain the variable .

Hint 1. Find in terms of


Find the linear charge density on the rod in terms of the rod's volume charge density .

Express your answer in terms of and r0 .

Hint 1. Charge and charge density


Consider a segment of the rod of length l . The volume of that segment is r20 l , and
therefore the charge contained within the segment is Ql = r20 l . The charge Ql is also
equal to the linear charge density times the length of the segment: Ql = l . Combining
these two formulas for Ql will lead to the desired answer.

ANSWER:

E=
ANSWER:

A Conducting Shell around a Conducting Rod

An infinitely long conducting cylindrical rod with a


positive charge per unit length is surrounded by
a conducting cylindrical shell (which is also
infinitely long) with a charge per unit length of
2 and radius r1 , as shown in the figure.

Part A

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 21 of 32

What is , the radial component of the electric field between the rod and cylindrical shell as a
function of the distance r from the axis of the cylindrical rod?
E(r)
Express your answer in terms of , r , and 0 , the permittivity of free space.

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

Esurface =

Part B
What is inner , the surface charge density (charge per unit area) on the inner surface of the conducting
shell?

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

E(r) =

Part C
What is outer , the surface charge density on the outside of the conducting shell? (Recall from the
problem statement that the conducting shell has a total charge per unit length given by 2 .)

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

inner =

Part D
What is the radial component of the electric field, E(r) , outside the shell?

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 22 of 32

outer =

Exercise 22.17

A very long uniform line of charge has charge per unit length 4.66 C/m and lies along the x-axis. A second
long uniform line of charge has charge per unit length -2.40 C/m and is parallel to the x-axis at y1 = 0.418
m.

Part A
What is the magnitude of the net electric field at point y2 = 0.198 m on the y-axis?

ANSWER:

E(r) =

Part B
What is the direction of the net electric field at point y2 = 0.198 m on the y-axis?

ANSWER:

E= N/C

Part C
What is the magnitude of the net electric field at point y3 = 0.596 m on the y-axis?

ANSWER:

-y-axis

+y-axis

Part D
What is the direction of the net electric field at point y3 = 0.596 m on the y-axis?

ANSWER:

E= N/C

Alternative Exercise 22.68

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 23 of 32

An insulating sphere of radius 0.140 m has uniform charge density 8.30×10 9 . A small object that
can be treated as a point charge is released from rest just outside the surface of the3sphere. The small
C/m
object has positive charge 3.50×10 6 C .

Part A
How much work does the electric field of the sphere do on the object as the object moves to a point very
far from the sphere?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

-y-axis

+y-axis

The Charge Inside a Conductor

A spherical cavity is hollowed out of the interior of


a neutral conducting sphere. At the center of the
cavity is a point charge, of positive charge q .

Part A
What is the total surface charge qint on the interior surface of the conductor (i.e., on the wall of the
cavity)?

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

W=

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 24 of 32

Part B
What is the total surface charge qext on the exterior surface of the conductor?

Hint 1. Properties of the conductor


In the problem introduction you are told that the conducting sphere is neutral. Furthermore, recall
that the free charges within a conductor always accumulate on the conductor's surface (or
surfaces, in this case). You found the net charge on the conductor's interior surface in Part A. If
the conductor is to have zero net charge (as it must, since it is neutral), how much charge must
be present on its exterior surface?

ANSWER:

qint =

Part C
What is the magnitude Eint of the electric field inside the cavity as a function of the distance r from the
1
point charge? Let k , as usual, denote .
4 0

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

qext =

Part D
What is the electric field Eext outside the conductor?

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

kq/r2

2kq/r2
Now a second charge, q2 , is brought near the outside of the conductor. Which of the following quantities
would change?

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 25 of 32

Part E
The total surface charge on the wall of the cavity, qint :

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

zero

the same as the field produced by a point charge q located at the center of the sphere

the same as the field produced by a point charge located at the position of the charge in the cavity

Part F
The total surface charge on the exterior of the conductor, qext :

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

would change

would not change

Part G
The electric field within the cavity, Ecav :
ANSWER:

would change

would not change

Part H
The electric field outside the conductor, Eext :
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 26 of 32

would change

would not change

± The Charge on a Thundercloud

In a thunderstorm, charge builds up on the water droplets or ice crystals in a cloud. Thus, the charge can be
considered to be distributed uniformly throughout the cloud. For the purposes of this problem, take the cloud
to be a sphere of diameter 1.00 kilometer. The point of this problem is to estimate the maximum amount of
charge that this cloud can contain, assuming that the charge builds up until the electric field at the surface of
the cloud reaches the value at which the surrounding air breaks down. This breakdown means that the air
becomes highly ionized, enabling it to conduct the charge from the cloud to the ground or another nearby
cloud. The ionized air will then emit light due to the recombination of the electrons and atoms to form excited
molecules that radiate light. In addition, the large current will heat up the air, resulting in its rapid expansion.
These two phenomena account for the appearance of lightning and the sound of thunder. Take the
breakdown electric field of air to be Eb = 3.00 × 106 N/C .

Part A
Estimate the total charge q on the cloud when the breakdown of the surrounding air is reached.

Express your answer numerically, to three significant figures, using


0 = 8.85 × 10
12
C2 /(N m2 ) .

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

would change

would not change

Exercise 22.30

Two very large, nonconducting plastic sheets, each 10.0 cm thick, carry uniform charge densities
1 , 2 , 3 and 4 on their surfaces, as shown in the following figure. These surface charge densities have
the values 1 = -6.80 C/m2 ,
2 2
2 = 5.00 C/m , 3 = 3.00 C/m , and
2
4 = 4.00 C/m . Use Gauss's law to find the
magnitude and direction of the electric field at the
following points, far from the edges of these
sheets.

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 27 of 32

Part A
What is the magnitude of the electric field at point A , 5.00 cm from the left face of the left-hand sheet?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

q= Coulombs

Part B
What is the direction of the electric field at point A , 5.00 cm from the left face of the left-hand sheet?
ANSWER:

E=

Part C
What is the magnitude of the electric field at point B , 1.25 cm from the inner surface of the right-hand
sheet?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ANSWER:

to the left.

to the right.

upwards.

downwards.

Part D
What is the direction of the electric field atpoint B , 1.25 cm from the inner surface of the right-hand
sheet?
ANSWER:

E=

Part E

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 28 of 32

What is the magnitude of the electric field at point , in the middle of the right-hand sheet?

C and include the appropriate units.


Express your answer to three significant figures
ANSWER:

to the left.

to the right.

upwards.

downwards.

Part F
What is the direction of the electric field at point C , in the middle of the right-hand sheet?
ANSWER:

E=

Problem 22.52

Part A
How many excess electrons must be distributed uniformly within the volume of an isolated plastic
sphere 20.0 cm in diameter to produce an electric field of 1200 N/C just outside the surface of the
sphere?
ANSWER:

to the left.

to the right.

upwards.

downwards.

Part B
What is the electric field at a point 13.5 cm outside the surface of the sphere?
ANSWER:

N= electrons

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 29 of 32

Problem 22.33

A small sphere with a mass of 3.00×10 3


g and carrying a charge of 4.80×10 8 C hangs from a thread near a
9
very large, charged insulating sheet, as shown in the figure . The charge density on the sheet is 2.70×10
C/m2 .

Part A
Find the angle of the thread.
ANSWER:

E= N/C

A Charged Sphere with a Cavity

An insulating sphere of radius a , centered at the origin, has a uniform volume charge density .

Part A

Find the electric field E(r ) inside the sphere (for r < a ) in terms of the position vector r .

Express your answer in terms of r , (Greek letter rho), and 0 .

You did not open hints for this part.

ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 30 of 32

Part B
A spherical cavity is excised from the inside
a
of the sphere. The cavity has radius and is
4
3
centered at position h , where |h| < a ,
4
so that the entire cavity is contained within
the larger sphere. Find the electric field inside
the cavity.
Express your answer as a vector in terms
of any or all of (Greek letter rho), 0 , r ,
and h .

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


Use the principle of superposition. A region of zero charge behaves just like a region with equal
amounts of positive and negative charge. Consider the field produced by an imaginary sphere
the size of the cavity, with charge density opposite that of the larger sphere. If you add the field
from the imaginary sphere to the field produced by the original, intact, sphere, you will obtain the
field produced by the sphere with the cavity.

Hint 2. Find the field due to the imaginary sphere


a
Consider an imaginary sphere with charge density and radius centered at h . Ignoring the
4
actual sphere, what is the field Eimag (r ) inside the imaginary sphere?

Express your answer as a vector in terms of r , h , (Greek letter rho) and 0 .

Hint 1. Use the result for a uniformly charged sphere


The imaginary sphere is just like the uniformly charged sphere studied in Part A of this
problem, except that it has a different charge density and different position. Therefore,
you can use the result you already obtained from the uniformly charged sphere if you use
the new charge density and if you replace r with a new vector s that represents the
displacement from the center of the imaginary sphere to r .

What is s in terms of r and h ?


ANSWER:

E(r ) =
ANSWER:

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 31 of 32

s=
ANSWER:

Eimag (r ) =

The Electric Field and Surface Charge at a Conductor

Learning Goal:
To understand the behavior of the electric field at the surface of a conductor, and its relationship to surface
charge on the conductor.
A conductor is placed in an external electrostatic field. The external field is uniform before the conductor is
placed within it. The conductor is completely isolated from any source of current or charge.

Part A
Which of the following describes the electric field inside this conductor?
ANSWER:

E(r ) =

Part B
The charge density inside the conductor is:
ANSWER:

It is in the same direction as the original external field.

It is in the opposite direction from that of the original external field.

It has a direction determined entirely by the charge on its surface.

It is always zero.

Part C
Assume that at some point just outside the surface of the conductor, the electric field has magnitude E
and is directed toward the surface of the conductor. What is the charge density on the surface of the
conductor at that point?
Express your answer in terms of E and 0 .

You did not open hints for this part.

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HW02: Chapter 22 (part 1) Page 32 of 32

ANSWER:

non-zero; but uniform

non-zero; non-uniform

infinite
Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 0.0%.
You received 0 out of a possible total of 11 points.

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