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ebla and its landscape early state Formation in the ancient near east

ebla and its landscape early state Formation in the ancient near east

ebla and its landscape early state Formation in the ancient near east

Edited by Paolo Matthiae and Nicolò Marchetti

ebla and its landscape early state Formation in the ancient near east Edited by Paolo Matthiae

Walnut creek, california

leFt cOast pRess, inc. 1630 north Main street, #400 Walnut creek, ca 94596 http://www.lcoastpress.com

copyright © 2013 by left coast press, inc.

editorial staff

Frances pinnock (head), Marta d'andrea, Maria Gabriella Micale, sara pizzimenti, agnese Vacca

leFt cOast pRess, inc. 1630 north Main street, #400 Walnut creek, ca 94596 http://www.lcoastpress.com copyright ©

The research leading to these results has received funding from the european Union seventh Framework programme, ideas, under grant agreement no. 249394, project "ebla cHORa - The early state and its chora. towns, villages and landscape at ebla in syria during the 3rd Millennium b.c."

all rights reserved. no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. illustrations, if not otherwise credited, are copyrighted to the ebla chora project and require due credit as such if reproduced in any form.

isbn 978-1-61132-228-6 hardcover isbn 978-1-61132-230-9 institutional ebook isbn 978-1-61132-674-1 consumer ebook

library of congress cataloging-in-publication data

ebla and its landscape : early state formation in the ancient near east / edited by paolo Matthiae and nicolò Marchetti. pages cm includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 978-1-61132-228-6 (hardcover : alk. paper) — isbn 978-1-61132-230-9 (institutional ebook) — isbn 978-1-61132-674-1 (consumer ebook)

1. ebla (extinct city)—antiquities. 2. ebla (extinct city))—politics and government. 3. landscape archaeology)— syria-ebla (extinct city) 4. social archaeology)—syria-ebla (extinct city) 5. city and town life)—syria-ebla (extinct city) 6. excavations (archaeology))—syria-ebla (extinct city) 7. Material culture )— syria-ebla (extinct city) 8. Geomorphology)—syria-ebla (extinct city) 9. plant remains (archaeology))—syria-ebla (extinct city) 10. animal remains (archaeology)—syria-ebla (extinct city) i. Matthiae, paolo. ii. Marchetti, nicolò, 1968-

ds99.e25e27 2013

939.4'33—dc23

2013000596

printed in the United states of america

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of american national standard for information sciences-permanence of paper for printed library

Materials, ansi/nisO Z39.48-1992.

cO ntents

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intROdUctiOn. Representing the Chora of ebla

 
 

P.

Matthiae and N.

 

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part 1. town archaeology

 

cHapteR 1. a long Journey. Fifty Years of Research on the bronze age at tell Mardikh/ebla

 
 

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cHapteR 2. The Royal palace. Functions of the Quarters and the Government of the Chora

 
 

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cHapteR 3. palace vs. common Glyptic in early syrian ebla and its territory

 
 

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cHapteR 4. popular iconographies in a courtly environment. clay Figurines from Royal palace G and the coroplastic of inner syria during eb iVa

 

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cHapteR 5. centralization and Redistribution. The pottery assemblage of Royal palace G

 
 

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cHapteR 6. Form and c ontent. a preliminary Functional interpretation of the storage Jars from Royal palace G

 

M.

D'Andrea and A.

 

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cHapteR 7. Working for the elites. The pottery assemblage of building p4

 
 

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131

part 2. regional archaeology

 

cHapteR 8. exploiting diversity. The archaeological landscape of the eblaite Chora

 
 

S.

Mantellini, M.G. Micale, and L.

 

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cHapteR 9. trends in Village life. The early bronze age phases at tell tuqan

 
 

F.

Baffi and L. Peyronel

 

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cHapteR 10. assembling the evidence. excavated sites dating from the early bronze age in and around the Chora of ebla

 
 

E.

Ascalone and M. D'Andrea.

 

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cHapteR 11. Regional approach and archaeological surveys in northern syria. an Over view

S. Mantellini . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S.
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part 3. textual evidence
cHapteR 12. defining the Chora of ebla. a textual perspective
M.G. Biga .
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cHapteR 13. distribution and exchange of Goods in the Chora of ebla
G.
Ferrero
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cHapteR 14. Of plants and trees. crops and Vegetable Resources at ebla
G.
Marchesi
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part 4. geomorphology and remote sensing
cHapteR 15. a land in its setting. Remote sensing satellite imagery for the characterization of
the eblaite Chora
G.
Bitelli, E. Mandanici and L. Vittuari
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cHapteR 16. analysis of cOROna imagery of the ebla Region
N.
Galiatsatos and S.
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cHapteR 17. From Wetland to desert. a Geomorphologic approach to the eblaite Chora
V.
Cantelli, V.M.L. Martina and L. Picotti
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cHapteR 18. a Thin basis. The soil landscape of ebla and tell tuqan
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cHapteR 19. Modern agriculture in the ebla Region
P.
Rossi Pisa, F. Ventura and M. Vignudelli
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part 5. archaeometry and bioarchaeology
cHapteR 20. archaeometrical analysis of Metal Objects from Royal palace G
A.C. Felici and M. Vendittelli
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cHapteR 21. archaeometrical analysis of pottery production at eb iii-iVa ebla and tell tuqan
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cHapteR 22. archaeometrical analysis of architectural components of Royal palace G
M.L. Santarelli and G. Spreafico
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cHapteR 23. consuming plants. archaeobotanical samples from Royal palace G and building p4
C.
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cHapteR 24. Forests near and Far. an anthracological perspective on ebla

 

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Caracuta and G. Fiorentino

 

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cHapteR 25. exploiting animals. The Zooarchaeological evidence through the early bronze age at ebla

 

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Minniti

 

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cHapteR 26. natural Resources, technology and Manufacture processes at ebla. a preliminary assessment

 

L. Peyronel

 

and A. Vacca .

 

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cHapteR 27. Just at that time. 14 c determinations and analysis from eb iVa layers

 
 

L. Calcagnile, G. Quarta, and M.

 

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cOnclUsiOns. in search of an explanatory Model for the early syrian state of ebla

 
 

P. Matthiae and N. Marchetti

 

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abbReViatiOns

 

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ReFeRences

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abOUt tHe

aUtHORs

 

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cOlOUR

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list OF i llU st R ati O ns

Figure 0.1

detail of tell Mardikh in a 1:50,000 topographical map originally drawn in 1943 by the services

 

Géographiques de l’armée du levant (repr. with arabic captions in

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Figure 0.2

detail of tell

aerial photo

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Force

 

(taken

 

on

 

1st

Figure 0.3

October

Mardikh in a 1:18,000 .

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the syrian air .

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detail of tell Mardikh in a cOROna satellite image (frame id ds1107-1122da057, taken on

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31st July 1969); resolution 2

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Figure 0.4

detail of tell Mardikh in a panchromatic cartosat-1 satellite image (taken on 27th september

2009); resolution 2.5

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Figure 0.5

topographical map of tell Mardikh drawn in 1968; contour interval 1 m. excavated areas up to

that

year indicated in black

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Figure 0.6

topographical map of tell Mardikh drawn in 2000–2001; contour inter val 0.5 m. schematic plans of excavated eb iVa monuments up to 2010 are indicated inside relevant excavation areas. . . . . . . .

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Figure

1.1

ebla, general view of the tell, from the

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Figure 1.2

topographical map of tell Mardikh with schematic plans of excavated Mb ii monuments up to 2010 indicated inside relevant excavation areas . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Figure 1.3

ebla, inscribed torso of the archaic Old syrian basalt votive statue of king ibbit-lim, tM.68.G.61, from the acropolis south-western sector, ca. 2000

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Figure 1.4

ebla, the central complex of Royal palace G, eb iVa, ca. 2400–2300 b.c., and the temple of

ishtar, Mba, ca. 2000–1600 b.c., in the background, from the

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Figure 1.5

ebla, Royal palace G, tablets in place along the northern and eastern walls of the Great archive l.2769 in the administrative Quarter, from the south-west, eb iVa, ca. 2300 b.c. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Figure 1.6

Figure 1.7

ebla, Royal palace G, tablets in place along the northern and eastern walls of the Great archive l.2769 in the administrative Quarter, from the south-west (detail), eb iVa, ca. 2300 b.c . . . . . . . .

ebla, area p north, the remains of the archaic palace, eb iVb-Mb ia, ca. 2100–1900 b.c., and of the northern palace, Mb ii, ca. 1800–1600 b.c. from the north; the acropolis is in the background.

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Figure 1.8

. ebla, area FF, the southern palace, from the north-west, Mb ii, ca. 1800–1600

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Figure 1.9

ebla, Royal palace G, alabaster lid bearing the titles of pharaoh pepi i, tM.77.G.600, 6th dynasty, ca. 2300 b.c . . . .

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Figure 1.10 Karnak, temple of amon-Ra, detail of the cartouche with the toponym of ebla, carved in hieroglyphic writing on the seventh pillar, among the cities conquered by pharaoh Thutmosis iii, ca.

 

15th century

 

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Figure 1.11

ebla, north West Rampart (area aa), mud-brick city wall from the north-east, eb iVa, ca.

2300

b.c.

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46

Figure 1.12

ebla, area HH, temple of the Rock in the lower city south-east, from the south, eb iVa ca.

2400–2300

 

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Figure 1.13

ebla, area HH, temple of the Rock in the lower city south-east, detail of the cella l.9190 with the

elliptical cavity and the three wells, from the south, eb iVa, ca. 2400–2300

 

47

Figure 1.14

ebla, area HH, temples HH4 and HH5, general view of the two cultic buildings from the north-

east, eb

iVb, ca.

2050

 

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47

Figure 1.15 ebla, area d, the temple of ishtar on the acropolis, Mb i-ii, ca. 2000–1600 b.c., and the remains of the temples of eb iVa, ca. 2400–2300 b.c., and eb iVb, ca. 2300–2000 b.c., from

 

the

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Figure 1.16

ebla, superimposition of the temples in a rea d , isometric view, eb i Va -M b ii , ca. 2400 –

1600

b.c.

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48

Figure 2.1

ebla, area G, the Monumental stairway of Royal palace G, from the west, eb iVa, ca. 2400–

2300

b.c.

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Figure 2.2

ebla, general plan of Royal palace G, eb iVa, ca. 2400–2300

 

.56

Figure 2.3

ebla, Royal palace G, isometric view of the court of audience, and administrative Quarter, eb iVa,

ca. 2400–2300

 

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Figure 2.4

ebla, area FF, plan of the Hall with painted plaster FF2, eb iVa, ca. 2400–2300

 

.57

Figure 2.5

ebla, Royal palace G, wooden inlays from l.2601 (tM.74.G.1000, tM.74.G.1016, and

 

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