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HIGHWAY SAFETY 2

Course code:CE480

Instructor:
Dr. Arpan Mehar
Assistant professor
NIT Warangal
Accident Reconstruction
• Accident reconstruction deals with representing the
accidents occurred in schematic diagram which helps
in regulating or enforcing rules
• Reconstructionist: “A person build up from remaining part and other
evidence, an image of what some thing was in its original and complete
form “
Determine pre-collision speed
The following data are required to determine
the pre-collision speed:

1. Mass of the vehicle

2. Velocities after collision

3. Path of each vehicle as it approaches collision


point
Collinear and Angular Impact

• Collinear Divided into two


–Rear end collision
–Head-on collision

• Angular Impact
–Lateral collision
Rear end collision
Head-on collision
Collinear Collision

• Collinear Impact Theory

1. Poisson Impact Theory

2. Energy Theory
Applying principle of conservation of energy or conservation
Poisson impact theory
• Compression and Restitution
Compression
• The compression phase is cited by the deformation of
the cars
• Rear vehicle pushes the vehicle ahead with force F
• The vehicle ahead will also push the rear vehicle with
same magnitude of force but has different direction.
• The compression phase terminates when the cars have
equal velocity.
• Poisson’s hypothesis restitution impulse
is proportional to compression impulse
Post-impact velocities
• Two vehicles travelling in the same lane have
masses 3000 kg and 2500 kg. The velocity of
rear vehicles after striking the leader vehicle is
25 kmph and the velocity of leader vehicle is
56 kmph. The coefficient of restitution of the
two vehicle system is assumed to be 0.6.
Determine the pre-collision speed of the two
vehicles.
Energy consideration in crush
Energy consideration
• It is based on the concept that there is
reduction in kinetic energy with the work done
against the skid resistance
• if the vehicle of weight W slow down from
speed v1 to v2, then the loss in kinetic energy
will be equal to the work done against skid
resistance
• At car impact the kinetic energy is dissipated
• Applying the principle of conservation of
energy one obtains, (after compression)

• Applying the principle of conservation of


energy (overall impact process)
• Since, by the law of thermodynamics, ΔE ≥ 0
(total energy lost)
• Mutual restitution coefficient
Example:
• A vehicle of 2000 kg skids a distance of 36 m
before colliding with a stationary vehicle of
1500 kg weight. After collision both vehicle
skid a distance of 14 m. Assuming coefficient
of friction 0.5, Determine the initial speed of
the vehicle.
Case study
Information Vehicle 1 Vehicle 2

Model (year) Nissan Stanza (1992) Toyota Camry (1997)

Direction Traveling West on Traveling East and


Highway 120 making a left turn
Damage Right rear passenger’ Damage to front bumper,
door panel crushed hood, and turn signal.
approximately 5
inches.
Injury No physical injuries Nophysical injuries

Site Evidence Left no skid marks 60 feet of skid marks and


end velocity 5 mph
Other evidence Broken glass found at the point of impact

Time and location Approximately 9:20 A.M. And Highway 120 and Local
Street to Post Office, Asphalt Street
Speed limit Speed limit on Highway 120, is 45 MPH
Collision diagram

• From statements to the Police, the driver of Vehicle 1


said that the driver of Vehicle 2 was speeding. What
was the speed of Vehicle 2 at the time of impact ?
Collision example

• A red eastbound vehicle weighting 4,000 pounds was


stopped in the lane of traffic when it was struck in
the rear by a second eastbound vehicle. The second
vehicle was blue and weighted 3,000 pounds. The
driver of the blue vehicle applied the vehicle brakes
at the moment of impact. After impact, both vehicles
slide as a unit for 66 feet to rest on a roadway with a
drag factor of 0.65. Each vehicle left four skid marks
from impact to rest.
• The pre-collision speed of the red vehicle was 0.
What was the pre-collision speed of the blue vehicle?
Estimating the Speed of a Vehicle by trail runs
Lateral collision
• Lateral impact collision occur when one vehicle
strikes the side of other vehicle
• In this type of impacts, the occupant is
potentially exposed to greater amounts of
force than in any other impact types
• The direction of the vehicles after collision in
this case depends on the initial speeds of the
two vehicles and their weights
Collision angle and Direction
Mechanics of collision and Momentum
• Find pre-collision impact velocity of both
vehicles using general momentum equation

Right hand traffic regulation


• A 1000 kg car is moving eastward at 20 m/s. It
collides inelastically with a 1500 kg van
traveling northward at 30 m/s. What is the
velocity of the two vehicles immediately after
the collision?
• Vehicle A is approaching from west and vehicle B
from south. After collision A skids 60 degree
north of east and B skids 30 degree south of east.
Skid distance before collision for A is 18 m and B
is 26 m. The skid distances after collision are 30m
and 15 m respectively. Weight of A and B are
4500 and 6000 respectively. Skid resistance of
pavement is 0.55 m.
• Determine the pre-collision speed.