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HIGH WAY SAFETY
ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION

HIGH WAY SAFETY
ACCIDENTS RECONSTRUCTION

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Course code:CE480

Instructor:

Dr. Arpan Mehar

Assistant professor

NIT Warangal

Accident Reconstruction

• Accident reconstruction deals with representing the

accidents occurred in schematic diagram which helps

in regulating or enforcing rules

• Reconstructionist: “A person build up from remaining part and other

evidence, an image of what some thing was in its original and complete

form “

Determine pre-collision speed

The following data are required to determine

the pre-collision speed:

point

Collinear and Angular Impact

–Rear end collision

–Head-on collision

• Angular Impact

–Lateral collision

Rear end collision

Head-on collision

Collinear Collision

2. Energy Theory

Applying principle of conservation of energy or conservation

Poisson impact theory

• Compression and Restitution

Compression

• The compression phase is cited by the deformation of

the cars

• Rear vehicle pushes the vehicle ahead with force F

• The vehicle ahead will also push the rear vehicle with

same magnitude of force but has different direction.

• The compression phase terminates when the cars have

equal velocity.

• Poisson’s hypothesis restitution impulse

is proportional to compression impulse

Post-impact velocities

• Two vehicles travelling in the same lane have

masses 3000 kg and 2500 kg. The velocity of

rear vehicles after striking the leader vehicle is

25 kmph and the velocity of leader vehicle is

56 kmph. The coefficient of restitution of the

two vehicle system is assumed to be 0.6.

Determine the pre-collision speed of the two

vehicles.

Energy consideration in crush

Energy consideration

• It is based on the concept that there is

reduction in kinetic energy with the work done

against the skid resistance

• if the vehicle of weight W slow down from

speed v1 to v2, then the loss in kinetic energy

will be equal to the work done against skid

resistance

• At car impact the kinetic energy is dissipated

• Applying the principle of conservation of

energy one obtains, (after compression)

energy (overall impact process)

• Since, by the law of thermodynamics, ΔE ≥ 0

(total energy lost)

• Mutual restitution coefficient

Example:

• A vehicle of 2000 kg skids a distance of 36 m

before colliding with a stationary vehicle of

1500 kg weight. After collision both vehicle

skid a distance of 14 m. Assuming coefficient

of friction 0.5, Determine the initial speed of

the vehicle.

Case study

Information Vehicle 1 Vehicle 2

Highway 120 making a left turn

Damage Right rear passenger’ Damage to front bumper,

door panel crushed hood, and turn signal.

approximately 5

inches.

Injury No physical injuries Nophysical injuries

end velocity 5 mph

Other evidence Broken glass found at the point of impact

Time and location Approximately 9:20 A.M. And Highway 120 and Local

Street to Post Office, Asphalt Street

Speed limit Speed limit on Highway 120, is 45 MPH

Collision diagram

said that the driver of Vehicle 2 was speeding. What

was the speed of Vehicle 2 at the time of impact ?

Collision example

stopped in the lane of traffic when it was struck in

the rear by a second eastbound vehicle. The second

vehicle was blue and weighted 3,000 pounds. The

driver of the blue vehicle applied the vehicle brakes

at the moment of impact. After impact, both vehicles

slide as a unit for 66 feet to rest on a roadway with a

drag factor of 0.65. Each vehicle left four skid marks

from impact to rest.

• The pre-collision speed of the red vehicle was 0.

What was the pre-collision speed of the blue vehicle?

Estimating the Speed of a Vehicle by trail runs

Lateral collision

• Lateral impact collision occur when one vehicle

strikes the side of other vehicle

• In this type of impacts, the occupant is

potentially exposed to greater amounts of

force than in any other impact types

• The direction of the vehicles after collision in

this case depends on the initial speeds of the

two vehicles and their weights

Collision angle and Direction

Mechanics of collision and Momentum

• Find pre-collision impact velocity of both

vehicles using general momentum equation

• A 1000 kg car is moving eastward at 20 m/s. It

collides inelastically with a 1500 kg van

traveling northward at 30 m/s. What is the

velocity of the two vehicles immediately after

the collision?

• Vehicle A is approaching from west and vehicle B

from south. After collision A skids 60 degree

north of east and B skids 30 degree south of east.

Skid distance before collision for A is 18 m and B

is 26 m. The skid distances after collision are 30m

and 15 m respectively. Weight of A and B are

4500 and 6000 respectively. Skid resistance of

pavement is 0.55 m.

• Determine the pre-collision speed.

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