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Transportation Line Using a Flow Loop System

A. Shahrabadi1∗, M. Sadi1, S. S. Hendi1, B. Dabir2

1- Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran, Iran

2- Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

I D

The gelling of waxy crudes and the deposition of wax on the inner walls of pipelines

f S

present a costly problem in the production and transportation of oil. The object of the

present study is to investigate the factors that affect the deposition of the paraffin wax

on the pipe surface under different conditions using a flow loop system. A series of

experiments on wax deposition from a mixture of waxy oil have been performed in a

65cm by 1cm ID flow loop in both laminar and turbulent flow regime. These

e o

experiments were done to study the effect of some important factors on the amount of

deposited wax on the pipe wall. These factors consist of flow rate, residence time, wax

concentration and temperature difference between mixture and pipe wall. It was found

that the wax deposition increases with increasing temperature difference and residence

v

time, but the effect of flow rate depends on flow regime. The other goal is mathematical

modeling of wax deposition for a multi-component hydrocarbon mixture. The

h i

procedure for generating the model is described in detail. Finally, the results obtained

from the model were compared with experimental data. It was found that there is an

acceptable match between experimental and theoretical data and to some extent, this

confirms the validity of the model and also the ability of the developed model to predict

r c

the wax deposition on pipelines under different operational condition.

1. Introduction

A

Wax Deposition is a complex and very costly

problem for the petroleum industry, widely

hydrocarbons called n-alkanes, usually

ranging from C18 to C40. The presence of

paraffin can cause severe problems

reported and studied by researchers in throughout the working processes of these

decades past [1-2]. Many crude oils in the oils. It is well known that, in special

world contain significant quantities of wax conditions of pressure and temperature,

which will readily crystallize during the paraffin begins to crystallize and once the

production, transportation and storage of the crystals are formed they show a strong

oil. Waxy crude oils are characterized by a tendency to aggregate. The formed

high content of paraffin, a mixture of heavy agglomerates can result in an increase in oil

3

www.SID.ir

Modelling and Experimental Study of Wax Deposition in Transportation Line Using a Flow Loop System

viscosity by several orders of magnitude, oil predict the onset of wax precipitation and the

gelation and deposition on pipeline walls. deposition of wax along pipeline walls.

Since the temperatures at which paraffin However, accurately modeling deposition in

crystallize are not extreme, the problem of pipelines can be a complex and difficult

paraffin crystallization affects most parts of undertaking because, while precipitation is

the waxy crude oils that are found in nature. mainly a function of thermodynamic

The temperature at which paraffin starts to variables such as composition, pressure and

crystallize is commonly known as cloud temperature, deposition is also dependent on

point or Wax Appearance Point (WAP), flow hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer,

whereas the temperature at which crystals and solid–solid and surface–solid

begin to agglomerate is usually called pour interactions[5]. Deposition of wax from

D

point. Pour point is typically 10-15o C lower crude oil during transportation has been

I

than the cloud point. At temperature below studied by a number of investigators. Bern et

the cloud point paraffin starts to crystallize. al. reported the main mechanisms by which

Deposition of wax on the wall of

transportation pipe line is one of the serious

and longstanding problems in the petroleum S

the paraffin deposition occurs are molecular

diffusion, shear dispersion and Brownian

f

diffusion[6]. Burger et al. focused on the

o

industry and has attracted the attention of mechanisms of wax deposition in the Trans

many researchers. The factors known to Alaska pipeline system and they calculated

e

affect the deposition of paraffin waxes on the the thickness of deposit as a function of time

surface of the pipelines from the flowing and distance[7]. Deposition is believed to

concentration, temperature

i v

systems are: flow rates, residence time, wax

difference

occur as a result of lateral transport by

diffusion, shear dispersion and Brownian

c

surface and pipe wall roughness.

h

between solution cloud point and the pipe diffusion. They concluded that molecular

diffusion dominates at higher temperature

r

Deposition of wax in the production of and heat flux conditions, whereas shear

tubing and pipelines reduces operating dispersion is the dominant mechanism at the

A

efficiency and production, increases the cost lower temperature and low heat flux. Also,

of prevention and remediation, horsepower they reported the contribution of Brownian

requirement and manpower needs. These can motion is small compared with other

cause millions of dollars in losses every year. mechanisms. Hamouda and Revnoy [8]

To avoid waxing, thermal techniques are concluded that molecular diffusion is the

applied by keeping the flowing-fluid main mechanism. Brown et al.[9] showed

temperature higher than the wax appearance that increasing shear rate decreases the rate

temperature. of deposition. Svendsen[10] developed a

Some researchers have studied correlations mathematical model for prediction of wax

between the properties of crude oils and their deposition in both open and closed pipeline

flowing properties, including the systems. They combined phase equilibrium,

precipitation and deposition of wax during phase transition and fluid dynamics to model

flow [3-4]. Models have been developed to wax deposition in pipelines. They concluded

10, No. 1

Shahrabadi, Sadi, Hendi, Dabir

in large coefficient of thermal expansion critical rate leads to decreasing the amount of

some components may separate and move in deposit.

the opposite direction at temperature below

wax appearance temperature. Hsu and 2. Theory and model formulation

Brubaker[11] developed a wax deposition When transporting waxy oil through a cold

scale up model. They considered the effect of pipeline, wax will be deposited on the cold

molecular diffusion and shear dispersion to pipe wall through molecular diffusion, shear

scale up the experimental results for waxy dispersion, Brownian and settling

crude production lines. They concluded that mechanisms. Our data shows that shear

the flow turbulence effect has significant dispersion effect on wax deposition is not

impact on wax deposition and cannot be significant under laminar flow conditions.

D

neglected in wax deposition modeling. However, when flow velocity exceeds a

I

Hamouda and Davidson[12] investigated the certain value, shear effect becomes

effect of flow rate on wax deposition. Their significant and affects wax deposition rate,

study revealed a significant change in the

wax deposition rate when the flow shifts

from laminar to turbulent flow. Creek et al. S

especially under turbulent flow conditions.

Molecular diffusion on wax deposition is

f

discussed and a model is created. This

o

[13] concluded that the deposition rate mechanism is the driving force for the

decreases with increasing flow rate rather transportation of dissolved and precipitated

e

than increasing as suggested by a number of paraffin to the pipeline wall. The driving

authors. Fogler et al. investigated the effect force for the molecular diffusion at any time

iv

of pipe wall temperature on wax deposition is the concentration gradient (∂ρ x ∂r ) along

[14]. They reported that an increase in the the direction r, where ρ x is the mass density

c h

wall temperature results in a decrease in the

deposit thickness. An increase of flow rate

of the liquid phase at a certain location from

the pipeline wall at a lateral distance r.

r

also has a similar effect. Kok and Saracouglu

According to Fick’s law the flux of the

developed a mathematical model for

dissolved wax molecules is :

A

estimation of wax deposition in

pipelines[15]. They concluded as the ∂ρ x

J = −D m (1)

temperature of the fluid declines along the ∂r

pipelines, the wax mass fraction, solid-liquid

equilibrium constant and wax thickness where

increases. Soleymaninazar et al. [16] D m is the mass diffusion coefficient. ρ x can

developed a mathematical model both in be calculated from this equation:

laminar and turbulent flow regime. For ρ x = ρ m − ρs (2)

turbulent flow regime they used k − ε to

predict the velocity and temperature Where ρ m and ρs are the mass density of the

distribution. They reported in the turbulent

mixture and solid phase respectively. It

flow regime that there is critical flow rate for

should be remembered that ρ m , ρs are

any system. Increasing flow rate beyond the

5

Modelling and Experimental Study of Wax Deposition in Transportation Line Using a Flow Loop System

temperature. Equation (1) can be rewritten Ls

and θ is the ratio of

as: Lx

Erickson et al [17] and Won [18] presented

∂ρ ∂T

j = −D m x (3) the following model to calculate K-value:

∂T ∂r

Ki = = x i exp ⎢ ⎜1 − f ⎟⎥ ,

xi γ si ⎣ RT ⎝ T i ⎠⎦

⎡ ∂w s T ∂ρm ⎤ 1 ∂T (4) i = 1, 2,..., n c

J = −Dm ρm ⎢−T + (1 −w s )

⎣ ∂T ρm ∂T ⎥⎦ T ∂r (8)

crystals in the mixture. If w i and z i are

D

In derivation of the above equation, it is

I

assumed that the temperature and pressure

are in such a way that the amount of vapor

considered as the weight fraction and mole

fraction of each component in the feed, we

have :

f S

moles can be ignored normally. The weight

fraction of component i of solid phase which

is in the mixture w si can be written by the

wi = n

∑z

z i Mw i

i =1

i Mw i

(5)

e o

following relation:

wsi =

Ls Si M i

=

wi Ls Si M i

= wi wti

v n

(9)

∑z M

zi M i

h i

On the other hand, if the weight fraction of

i =1

i i

c

Combining Equations (7) and (9) we have:

be written:

LS M

w ti = s i i

ziMi

A r

L s is the number of moles of solid phase.

(6)

n

w s = ∑w si = ∑w i

i =1

Now we need

∂w s

n

i =1

θ

1+θ K i

to be substituted in

(10)

∂T

Equation (4) to calculate the flux of wax

solid phase. According to the definition of

∂w ti

solid liquid equilibrium K-value ⎛⎜ K i = s i ⎞⎟

crystals. So, at first is calculateed

∂T

⎝ xi ⎠

using Equations (7) and (8):

equation (6) is rewritten as follows:

⎡ 2 ∂ Lx ΔH i f ⎤

Ls − ⎢(1 + θ ) +θ ⎥ Ki

∂wti ∂T

= ⎣ ⎦

Ki RT

Lx θ (7) (11)

w ti = = ∂T (1 + θ K i )

2

1+ s K i 1+θ K i

L

Lx

10, No. 1

Shahrabadi, Sadi, Hendi, Dabir

needed to calculate the mass flux.

∂wsi ∂w Temperature distribution of the flowing oil

= wi si (12)

∂T ∂T sample is dependent upon the velocity

profile. It was assumed that the behavior of

At this point we define a dimensionless waxy fluid can be described by power law

parameter σ i as follows: model.

⎛ ∂V ⎞

n

⎡ 2 ∂L Δh f ⎤

wi ⎢T (1 + θ ) +θ i ⎥ Ki τ rz = K ⎜ z ⎟ (17)

∂w

σ i = −T si = ⎣

∂T RT ⎦ (13) ⎝ ∂r ⎠

∂T (1 + θK i )2

the result will be:

D

So, the velocity profile inside the pipe can be

I

expressed by the following equation:

nc

⎡ nc

J = ∑Ji =− Dmρm ⎢∑σi + ( wi − wsi )

⎣ i=1

T ∂ρm ⎤ 1 ∂T

ρm ∂T ⎥⎦ T ∂r

S ⎡

⎛

⎢ ⎝R⎠ ⎥

⎣

r ⎞

Vz ( r ) = Vmax ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

f

n

1+ n

⎤

⎦

(18)

o

i =1

Where

e

(14)

mentioned that the Wilke-Chang equation

i v

In the above Equation, if J ≤ 0 there is no ⎛ 3n + 1 ⎞

Vmax = V ⎜

⎝ n +1 ⎠

⎟ (19)

c h

was used to calculate diffusion coefficient. V is the average velocity. Neglecting the

axial conduction, frictional heating and heat

Dm =

μV 0.6

A r

Where φ is association factor and V is molar

volume of wax.

(15) source in energy balance equation the

simplified energy equation for fully

developed flow of fluid can be written as :

∂T ⎡ ∂ 2T 1 ∂T ⎤

The following equation was used for Vz ( r ) =α ⎢ 2 + ⎥ (20)

calculating the solution viscosity. ∂z ⎣ ∂r r ∂r ⎦

⎛B⎞

μ = A exp ⎜ ⎟ (16) Substituting the velocity profile in Equation

⎝T ⎠ (20) and solving that equation with

appropriate initial and boundary conditions,

A and B are constant coefficients and these temperature distribution inside the pipe can

were found for testing sample by doing some be obtained. The following initial and

particular experiments. boundary conditions were used:

7

Modelling and Experimental Study of Wax Deposition in Transportation Line Using a Flow Loop System

T ( R, z ) = T0 = cte 4

3.5

⎛ ∂T ⎞ 3 % wax

⎟ =0

3 4% wax

⎜ (21)

Viscosity (cP)

⎝ ∂r ⎠r =0

5% wax

2.5

10% wax

T ( r , 0 ) = Tin = cte

2

1.5

1

0.5

T 0 is the temperature of inlet fluid. The 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

above equation was solved numerically using Temperature (o C)

program based on the above formulation has different wax concentration.

been developed for deposition of wax in

After this work a flow loop was developed

D

transportation pipeline.

for wax depos ition research. Figure 2 shows

3. Experimental studies

In order to predict and calculate the amount I

the schematic flow diagram of this loop. This

S

flow loop includes a chilling circulator, steel

pipe, flow meter, circulation pump, oil

of wax precipitate in waxy crude oils, it is

necessary to solve the momentum, heat and

mass balance equations, simultaneously. The

viscosity of fluid is an important and key

o f

reservoir and a data acquisition system. Test

tube was 65 cm long with an inner diameter

of 1cm through which the waxy fluid flows.

The designed pipe was made from stainless

parameter that connects the momentum and

v

heat balance equations to each other. In order

e steel and it was divided into six sections with

the same length. So we were able to measure

to increase the accuracy of the proposed

model, a series of experiments using

capillary tube viscometer were performed

h i the wax deposited in each section. In other

words, we could have the amount of wax

deposit in different lengths. The procedure of

r c

and the viscosities of different waxy fluids in

different temperature were measured. So it

was possible to find a relation between

the experiments is as follows. First, the waxy

fluid is prepared by solving a specified

amount of paraffin wax into toluene solvent

A

viscosity and temperature. The results of

those tests is shown in Fig. 1. This figure

shows the effect of temperature on fluid

viscosity at different wax concentration. It

and then transferring it into the tank. Waxy

fluid is pumped inside the steel pipe at

constant flow rate. There is a coolant fluid (a

mixture of water and ethylenglycol) around

can be concluded that viscosity has an the pipe for cooling the pipe wall down to a

exponential relationship with temperature temperature below the WAP. The

and there is also a jumping point that is temperature of the heater and chiller and inlet

known as wax appearance point. These data flow rate of waxy fluid should be controlled.

were used to find the parameters A and B in Waxy fluid is cooled down when it passes

equation (15) and this equation was used in through the cold pipe and when the bulk

our model. temperature of waxy fluid reaches below

WAP, wax crystals start to form, and due to

10, No. 1

Shahrabadi, Sadi, Hendi, Dabir

different mechanisms move toward the pipe results of this key parameter has been

wall. The waxy fluid is recirculated through depicted in Fig. 3. As is clear with its trend,

the pipe following the same procedure. After increasing this temperature difference causes

a specified time the flow of waxy fluid is an increase in the amount of wax

stopped and the steel pipe is evacuated from precipitation, but it should be remembered

oil cut as the cold flow still exists. After that wax starts to precipitate in such a

complete evacuation pipe sections are condition that the temperature of the pipe

detached from each other and all the sections wall is lower than the solution temperature

are washed with hot toluene to gather the and WAP. Increasing the temperature

deposited wax on the pipe wall. The difference increases the heat transfer rate and

collected solution of each section is heated this factor increases the wax precipitation.

D

until the toluene is vaporized and solid wax One important point is that in the beginning,

I

remains. Thus the amount of wax deposited the rate of wax precipitation increases but by

in each section of the pipe, and as a result the passage of time the rate of wax

total deposit in the pipe can be measured

using a very accurate scale.

S

precipitation decreases because of increasing

the amount of wax precipitate. In other

f

words, after some time the thickness of the

o

wax layer increases, and this layer plays the

2 role of insulator and this factor therefore

e

decreases the rate of heat transfer.

1- oil reservoir

v

2- steel pipe

3 4 3- chilling circulator 1

i

4- flow meter

5- circulation pump

Total wax deposited (gr)

c h

A

4. Results and discussion

r

Figure 2. The schematic diagram of flow loop used in

this work.

In order to examine the effects of different Figure 3. The effect of temperature difference on total

parameters on wax precipitation, sensitivity wax deposition in different wax concentration.

analysis of different parameters was done by

changing just one parameters and keeping the 4-2. Flow rate

other parameters constant. The other parameter studied is the flow rate

of waxy fluid. The effect of this parameter in

4-1. Temperature difference laminar flow regime is shown in Fig. 4. More

The temperature difference between inlet solid particles exist in high flow rates and for

fluid and pipe wall plays a key role on wax this reason the heat transfer rate increases

precipitation phenomena. The experimental and so wax precipitation increases. But in

9

Modelling and Experimental Study of Wax Deposition in Transportation Line Using a Flow Loop System

decreases wax precipitation rate and it can be

resulted that there is another controlling

mechanism in turbulent flow regime that

controls the wax precipitation rate. Despite

the fact that many studies intuitively attribute

the reason to “shear removal”, Yingda Lu

[19] and his group indentified three effects

that give rise to an alternative explanation Flow rate (Lit/min)

that has been overlooked in previous studies.

Figure 5. The effect of flow rate on wax deposition in

They found that these three effects include turbulent flow regime.

D

the effect of the boundary layer thickness on

I

mass transfer (effect 1), the diffusivity at the 3. Residence time

interface on The effect of residence time on wax

S

deposition for different wax content has been

shown in Fig. 6. As expected, increasing time

f

causes an increase in the amount of

Total wax deposited (gr)

more heat loss and leads to a lower oil

temperature, which in turn leads to wax

v

precipitation and deposition.

h i

Total wax deposited (gr)

deposited in laminar flow regime.

r c

mass transfer (effect 2), and the interface

wax concentration on mass transfer (effect

3). Both effects 1 and 2 tend to increase the

growth rate of the wax deposit, while effect 3

A Residence time (min)

tends to have the opposite effect. The overall deposition.

growth behavior of the wax deposit is the

result of the competition between these three 4-4. Wax concentration in fluid

effects.The shear dispersion causes the wax The effect of wax content in the feed on the

deposit to detach from the pipe wall inside total deposition of wax is shown in Fig. 7,

the bulk flow. Some experiments in turbulent where the y-axis corresponds to the

flow regime were conducted and the results percentage of wax deposited. Increasing the

are depicted in Fig. 5. concentration of wax in feed increases wax

10, No. 1

Shahrabadi, Sadi, Hendi, Dabir

observed that the higher the paraffin content

(the supersaturation level), the more wax

deposit produced at any given time; the faster

the deposition rates; and the quicker it

reaches the 100% wax deposition. These

results are well expected: with the increase of

the paraffin wax content in solution, there are

Distance from inlet (cm)

more wax molecules available to produce

wax crystals. Figure 8. The amount of wax deposited along the

pipe.

I D

Total wax deposited (gr)

duplicated. The results of the duplicated

experiments and the

S

corresponding

f

calculated errors showed that the average

value of these errors is 2.24% . Table 1 and

wax deposition.

v

Total wax deposited (gr)

with respect to the length of pipe. Regarding

h i

this figure, increasing the length, the amount

of wax increases as the distance from the

inlet of the pipe leads to greater cooling on

r c

the fluid sample and then there is greater

potential to form wax precipitate.

A

Table 1. The results of three duplicated tests.

Figure 9. The results of three duplicated tests.

Test number

Test Temperature Wax Residence Flow Rate Wax Deposited (gr) Wax Deposited (gr) Error

No. Difference Content(%) Time(min) (Lit/min) first try second try (%)

11

Modelling and Experimental Study of Wax Deposition in Transportation Line Using a Flow Loop System

experimental data

In this section the results of the model are

compared with the measured experimental

data. The results of this part have been

depicted in Tables 2-4 quantitatively and in

Figs. 10-12. Experimental results are very

well predicted by the simulated wax

Temperature difference (°C)

deposition model that shows the molecular

Figure 10. Comparison of the model and

diffusion is a dominant mechanism in the experimental data. Effect of temperature difference.

laminar flow.

data. Effect of temperature difference.

Temp Absolute

Total wax deposited (gr)

I D

S

Experimental Model

difference error(%)

20 0.362 0.324 10.50

25

30

35

0.441

0.537

0.628

0.406

0.483

0.569

7.94

10.06

9.39

o f

e

Flow rate (Lit/min)

Table 3. Comparison of model and experi-mental

data. Effect of flow rate.

Flow Rate

i v

Absolute

data. Effect of flow rate.

h

Experimental Model

(Lit/min) Error(%)

Total wax deposited (gr)

c

0.4 0.306 0.285 6.86

r

0.6 0.326 0.311 4.60

0.8

1.4

0.364

0.429

A 0.333

0.387

Effect of residence time.

8.52

9.79

data. Effect of residence time.

Flow Rate Absolute

Experimental Model

(Lit/min) error(%)

20 0.159 0.159 0.00 As it can be observed in those Figures, the

40 0.313 0.27 13.74 proposed model predicts the amount of wax

60 0.464 0.412 11.21 deposition 6 to 13 percent less than real

100 0.811 0.734 9.49 amount of wax. In order to analyze the

120 0.918 0.871 5.12 accuracy of the experiments the following

test was done. Four different samples were

10, No. 1

Shahrabadi, Sadi, Hendi, Dabir

made by solving different percentage of wax experiments were done using a mixture of

in toluene which were then heated on a waxy oil. Then, using the available

heater in order to vaporize the toluene and thermodynamic model and transport

after weighting of the containers the amount equations, an attempt was made to develop a

of wax in any sample was measured. After computer program in order to predict the

that, the amount of initial added waxes were amount of wax precipitate. Finally, the

compared with the extracted waxes. The results of the model and the experimental

results have been shown in Fig. 13. In Fig. data were compared and good agreement

3-4 percent difference is observed. between them was observed. The main

conclusions of this work can be expressed as

1.4

follow:

D

1.2

1.2567 1.2152

‐ In laminar flow regime, increasing the

measured (gr)

I

WaxMeasured(gr)

0.8 0.7733

0.5905 rate and this causes more solid particles to

S

0.6 0.5644

0.3998 form. In other words, increasing the flow

Wax

0.4 0.3861

rate increases wax precipitation rate.

f

0.2

o

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Wax in Feed(gr)

Wax in feed (gr) between inlet fluid and pipe increases the

Figure 13. Comparison of the amount of wax in feed

amount of wax precipitate and this is

and wax measured.

e

because of increasing heat transfer.

‐ Increasing the residence time increases

So it can be said that 3-4 percent of

disagreement between the results of model

and experimental data is related to the

i v the amount of wax precipitate.

‐ Inlet fluid samples have greater potential

good capability for prediction of wax

amount of wax precipitation increases as

r

the concentration of inlet fluid sample

deposition in pipelines.

increases.

5. Conclusions

A detailed literature review on wax

deposition problems was done in this paper.

The main aim of this study was to investigate

A Nomenclature

A, B

Dm

hif

Constants in Equation (16)

Mass diffusion coefficient

Heat of fusion

some problems related to the precipitation of

the heavy organic material in oil pipelines. J Mass flux of wax

Noting that the main precipitates are waxes Ki Equilibrium constant

and asphaltenes, it was decided to focus on Number of moles in liquid phase

Lx

one of these namely, wax. Paraffin

Ls Number of moles in solid phase

deposition flow loop system was designed to

investigate the factors affecting wax Mw i Molecular weight of component i

deposition. Based on this target some r Radial distance

13

Modelling and Experimental Study of Wax Deposition in Transportation Line Using a Flow Loop System

si Mole fraction of component i in [1] Bilderback, C. A. and McDougall, L.

the solid phase A., "Complete paraffin control in

petroleum production", SPE J. Petrol.

Tif Freezing temperature of

component i Technol., 21, 1151–1156, (1963).

[2] Haq, M. A., Deposition of paraffin wax

To Initial temperature

from its solution with hydrocarbons

T in Inlet temperature (USMS 10541), Society of Petroleum

V Molar volume Engineers, (1978).

[3] Carmen García, M., Orea, M.,

Vz Velocity distribution

Carbognani, L. and Urbina, A., "The

V max Maximum velocity effect of paraffinic fractions on crude

V

ws

Average velocity

Weight fraction of total wax in the

[4] Carmen García,

I D

oil wax crystallization", Petrol. Sci.

Technol., 19, 189–196, (2001).

M., "Paraffin

w ti

mixture

Weight fraction of component i in

the solid phase

f S

deposition in oil production", SPE

International Symposium on Oilfield

Chemistry, Houston, Society of

wi

xi

Weight fraction of component i

Mole fraction of component i in

liquid phase

[5] Hammami, A., Ratulowski, J. and

Coutinho, J. A. P., "Cloud points: can

v

we measure or model them?", Petrol.

zi Mole fraction of component i in

i

Sci. Technol., 21, 345–358, (2003).

feed

[6] Bern, P. A., Winthers, V. R., and

Greek Letters

γ xi

c h

Activity coefficient of component i

Cairns, J. R., "Wax deposition in crude

oil pipelines", Presented at European

Offshore Petroleum Conference and

γ si

θ

in liquid phase

in solid phase

A

(1 − L x ) / L x

r

Activity coefficient of component i

Exhibition, London, October 21-24,

(1980).

[7] Burger, E. D., Perkins, T. K. and

Striegler, J. H., "Studies of wax

deposition in the trans Alaska pipeline",

ρx Mass density of liquid phase JPT, 1075, (1981).

[8] Hamouda, A. A., and Ravnoy, J. M.,

ρm Mass density of the mixture

"Prediction of wax deposition in

ρs Mass density of solid phase pipelines and field experience on the

μ Viscosity influence of wax on drag reducer

performance", Offshore Tech.

σi −T

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15

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