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You are on page 1of 27

PST201F

Semester 2

about your module.

BARCODE

PART B

Activity 1.1 Write a short paragraph on your experiences as a learner in a Mathematics class

when you were at school. Write at least one good experience and one bad experience.

Picture 3: It looks like the old or traditional classroom set-up with many learners listening to

the teacher with fear.

Picture 4: This is a small group activity with manipulatives; learners are explaining to the

teacher.

Activity 1.3 No 2 Choose any three words and use each in a sentence to relate them to the

doing of Mathematics.

Examples:

Activity 1.6

Explain the following:

Assimilation: It occurs when new concepts fit into an existing network of ideas. The

new information expands the pre-existing network. It refers to the use of an existing

schema to give meaning to new experiences. Assimilation is based on learners'

abilities to notice similarities among objects and match new ideas to those they

already possess.

Accommodation: It takes place when new concepts do not fit into an existing network

of ideas. The brain has to revamp or re-organise the network to accommodate the

new concepts. It is also a process of altering existing ways of seeing things or ideas

that do not fit into an existing schemata.

Disequilibrium: When new knowledge and pre-existing knowledge do not match and

there is a need to modify the rearrangement of concepts and connections so as to

accommodate the new knowledge.

Reflective thought: A sift through the pre-existing ideas in order to find those that

seem related to the new knowledge and how they are related.

2

PST201F/201/2/2018

1. Four children had three boxes of Smarties. They decided to open all three boxes, to share

the Smarties fairly. There were 52 Smarties in each box. How many Smarties did each child

get?

Now look at two attempts from Grade 4 learners to solve this problem.

a. Explain in your own words how the two learners solved the problem.

b. What is an algorithm?

Michael: Got a total of 156 Smarties. Uses repeated subtraction as well as the division

to arrive to 39 Smarties each.

Romy: Got a total of 156 Smarties, then uses grouping and sharing to arrive to

39 Smarties. This implies that each learner will get 39 Smarties.

Read the section above about “rote learning”. Seven weaknesses are given at the end. Write

your own interpretation about each of these weaknesses (do not just repeat what is said here).

4. The facilitator pays little attention to the needs, interests and development of learners.

The teacher who uses this method is more concerned about getting through the work done,

and is not concerned about how students learn and if they are really learning.

5. Knowledge learned by rote learning is hardly connected to the learners’ existing ideas.

Learners using this method of learning are not encourage to link the new knowledge learned

to the pre-existing knowledge.

Learners using this method of learning do not really build a useful network of ideas.

Activity 1.11 No 3

Explain what it means that understanding exists on a continuum from relational to instrumental

understanding. Give an example of a mathematical concept and explain how it might be

understood at different places along a continuum.

This question does not only require the definition of instrumental and relational

understandings, but also to explain what a continuum is in relation to these concepts.

Instrumental understanding is knowing how to use rules and procedures without

reference to previously learnt information, and not linking to explanations of why these

3

rules exist. In relational understanding, there are logically explained links and reasons

between the concepts, rules and procedures. The more those links are defined and

associated to many concepts, the more one approaches relational understanding. Very

few links mean you are close to instrumental understanding and many links mean you

are closer to relational understanding.

connected network. When a learner wants to recall a concept, all other related

concepts are understood and can easily be recalled.

It is called “doing without understanding”. Ideas are isolated and cannot be connected.

Activity 1.13 No 3

List at least five models (apparatus/manipulative) that you will use in your mathematics

teaching. Indicate in each case how you will use the particular model mentioned.

Activity 1.14 No 1

Define each of the five behaviours and the disposition mentioned.

relations

flexible, accurately and efficiently

4

PST201F/201/2/2018

Activity 2.1

On page 54 and 58 to 61 of your prescribed textbook, three types of approaches to teaching

related to problem solving are discussed.

Teaching for problem solving – teaching the skills that students can use later to solve

problems

Teaching about problem solving – teaching students how to solve problems giving them

general strategies

problems

Activity 2.6 No 2

Write down any mathematical task for intermediate phase learners where you can use at least

two entry points.

Example:

2. use algorithm

Activity 2.7 No 2

2. Use your own words to describe the teacher’s actions in the before, during and after phases

of a problem solving lesson. USE YOUR OWN WORDS.

Before: Getting ready, activate prior knowledge, be sure the problem is understood, and

establish a clear understanding

provides support and guidance; provides worthwhile opportunity extensions

After: Class discussion; the teacher promotes Mathematics learning communities; listens

actively; and summarises main ideas

5

PART C

These questions relate to chapters 11 to 13 of the prescribed book:

1 Name the three ways in which one can count a set of objects, and explain how

these methods of counting can be used to combine concepts and written names

for numbers.

Counting by one: Count each piece on the items given.

Counting by groups of tens and ones: Count a group of ten as single item.

Non-standard base ten: Group the pieces flexibly, including tens and ones.

2 Use the number 78 to explain “face value” as one of the distinct levels of the

understanding of place value and discuss how you could deal with the challenge at

this level to ensure that learners gain a full understanding of place value.

"Place value" is the value of the location of a digit in a number. The place value is

determined by how many places the digit lies to the right or the left of the decimal

point. The numeral 78 have two place values, which are tens and units, that is, 7

tens and 8 units. Face value is the number we see, for example78: 7, which is in

the place value of tens and its value is 70, but it is seen as seven. Therefore, the

face value of a digit in a numeral is simply the number you see.

3 Test the number 102 582 557 for divisibility by 8, 9 and 11. (Do not factorise or

divide – no calculator may be used.)

The number 102 582 557 tests for divisibility of 8: A number is divisible by 8 if it is

divisible by both 4 and 2. The number 102 582 557 is not divisible by 8 because

the last digit is an odd number which will obviously not be divided by 2.

A number is divisible by 9 if the sum of all the digits is a multiple of 9.

1+0+2+5+8+2+5+5+7=35. The sum is not multiple of 9. Therefore, 102 582 557 is

not divisible by 9.

A number is divisible by 11 if the following condition holds: Add every second

digit, and also add the others, then subtract the two sums. If the answer is 0 or

multiple 11, then the number is divisible by 11.

Other digits: 1+2+8+5+7=23

Every second digit: 0+5+2+5=12

23-12=11; therefore, 102 582 557 is divisible by 11.

6

PST201F/201/2/2018

4.1 Use the method given alongside the chart to find all the prime numbers

between 1 and 100.

Sieve of Eratosthenes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

4.2 Describe two ways in which the hundreds chart can be used to illustrate

place value.

As you move diagonally from left to right, the last digit numbers are increasing

by 1 and from right to left, the last digit numbers are decreasing by 1.

The unit digits in a column all end with the same number, which is the same as

the number at the top of chart. The tens digits are in ascending order.

4.3 Use the factor tree to determine the prime factors of 240 and express it as a

product of its prime factors.

Factor tree Ladder method

2 240

240 2 120

2 60

2 12 2 30

0 3 15

5 5

2 60 1

2 30

2 15 2 2 2 2 3 5 24 3 5

3 5

7

5 Draw Dienes blocks to show how to find the solution to:

a) 107 + 19

b) 158 109

Exchange 10 tinies into 1 long

126

8

PST201F/201/2/2018

49

6 Use the vertical and horizontal algorithms to find the sum or difference of the

following. (Explain the "borrow" and "carry" concepts.)

a) 601 + 935 + 370

b) 458 – 263

Horizontal algorithm

600+0+1+900+30+5+300+70+0

=(600+900+300)+(0+30+70)+(1+5+0)

=1800+100+6

=1906

Group the hundreds, tens and the units together.

400+50+8-(200+60+3)

=(400-200)+(50-60)+(8-3)

=200+(50-60)+5

=(100+100)+(50-60)+5

=100+(100+50)-60+5

= 100+150-60+5= 100+90+5

=195

We have 5 tens and we should subtract 6 tens. For this to be possible, we then

borrow 10 tens from 200 to make a total of 15 tens. We can then subtract 6 tens

from 15 tens and we remain with 9 tens. The final answer is 1 hundreds, 9 tens

and 5 units.

9

Vertical algorithm:

Th H T U

1

6 0 1

+ 9 3 5

+ 3 7 0

1 9 0 6

3 tens plus 7 tens makes 1 hundred so it should be carried to the hundred

column and 19 hundreds 10 hundreds is the same as 1 thousand.

H T U

4 3 1

5 8

2 6 3

1 9 5

Borrow 10 tens from hundreds to make 15 tens. You then remain with 3 tens.

Subtract 6 tens from 15 tens and you remain with 9 tens.

100 100 100

72

500-100-100-100-100-72=28

8 Use the method of compensation to show how you can make the multiplication of

198 x 25 easier.

198 25

Add two to 198 to make it 200.

(198 2 2) 25 (200 - 2) x 25

= 200 20 200 5 50 or = (200 x 25) - (2 x 25)

4000 1000 50 = 5000 - 50

5000 50 = 4 950

4950

mathematics'.” Discuss this statement by giving two valid points.

Students are involved in the process of sense making and building confidence.

Learners’ valuable view of doing Mathematics is revealed.

10

PST201F/201/2/2018

approximation for an exact number, given the particular context. In view of this

statement, briefly discuss each of the following ideas and, for each, provide an

appropriate example:

Measurement estimation: Determining an approximate measure without

making an exact measurement; for example, estimate the length of a room or

weigth of bag of tomatoes.

Quantity estimation: Approxiamating the number of items in a collection; for

example, estimate the number of students in a hall.

Computational estimation: Determining a number that is an approximation that

we cannot or do not need to determine precisely; for example, approximate the

amount we can pay for groceries in a shop without adding the cost prices of

items.

11

PART D

1. Give examples of each of three categories of fractions. [Illustrate it using diagrams.]

1

The shaded part represents

3

9

Nine of the fifteen counters are purple or are purple.

15

1 2 3 4

2 2 2 2

0 1 2

2 In the context of choosing a “whole”, explain when a “quarter” is not always equal

to a “quarter”. Illustrate it using an example.

A quarter of container A is not equal to a quarter of container B since the containers are not equal in

size.

A quarter A quarter

1 1

OR of 20 is not the same as of 100

4 4

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PST201F/201/2/2018

A half

Two thirds

Five sixths

4 If 24 counters are a whole set, how many are there in five sixths of the set?

Illustrate it using an example.

5 If 9 counters

are

a whole, how many

are there

in seven

thirds of the set? Illustrate

it using an example.

Thereare 21 counters in seven

thirds of the set.

13

6 Mavis ate of her birthday cake. She decided to give her brother of what is left

of the cake. What fraction of the cake was eaten by the brother?

10 3

What is left is

10 10

7

10

2 7

Her brother ate of

3 10

2 7

3 10

14 7

30 15

7 If this trapezium was 50% of the whole, what would the whole look like?

(four fifths of 15).

Learner B

Learner A

8.1 What is the whole in each case?

The whole for learner A is 20 counters.

14

PST201F/201/2/2018

8.2 Into how many parts did learner A divide the whole?

Learner A divided the whole into five parts.

8.3 Into how many parts did learner B divide the whole?

Learner B divided the whole into five parts.

8.4 Explain in detail which one of the learners showed an understanding of the

concept four fifths of 15.

Learner B divided the whole into five groups of three. The learner then shaded four of

them. This is correct because the denominator will always indicate the number of parts

or groups into which the whole is divided. After grouping, the learner still have 15

counters and this shows an understanding of the concept.

Learner A divided the whole into five groups of four and shaded four groups. The whole

in this case is 20 instead of 15. It implies the learner does not have an understanding of

the concept.

groups of which 3 groups coloured

6 counters of 8 are coloured

green, that is 6 green gives you 3

8 4

Same number of

counters

Same length

3

4

6

8

15

3 6 The fractions occupy the

10.3 A number line: 𝑎𝑛𝑑 : same position

4 8

Equivalent fractions

3 6

4 8

1 2 3 4 Quarters

4 4 4 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 Eighths

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

should be able to arrange the fractions from small to big.) Make sure that

you choose the whole correctly, and make accurate drawings.

12 What is the difference between standard algorithms and student-invented strategies? Give

at least two valid points.

Standard algorithm is a rule that can be used, a procedure that is carried out which is

usually learned by rote, with little understanding.

Invented strategies are methods which learners produce themselves. It is usually built

on the concepts, which learners know already. One often finds that learners invent their

own strategies in a way that they understand, and not necessarily the way in which the

teacher explains.

16

PST201F/201/2/2018

2 1 2 1

6 LCD = 6 6

3 6 3 6

36 4 1

OR =

6

Same denominator

31 36 4 1

=

6 6 6 6

1 31 1

5 or 5

6 6 6

reach the third-way mark.

14.1 How many kilometres does he still have to travel to reach the destination?

[Use a diagram to help you.]

1.1 How many kilometres does he still have to travel to reach the destination? [Use a diagram to

help you.]

One quarter of

destination 24 km km still to be travelled

2 3 4

1

4 4 4

4

0 1 2 3

Start 3 3 3

Destination (x)

1 1 1

3 4 12

1

24 km is of the total journey.

12

2

The distance still to be travelled = 24 + of total journey

3

2

= 24 + 288

3

= 216 km

17

14.2 Identify mathematical concepts and skills (background information) that

learners need to master to be able to answer this question.

Learners should have understanding of concepts like multiples, equivalent

fractions, calibrating the number line and so forth.

15 Use “stage 3 of teaching subtraction of fractions” to explain and illustrate how you

will solve the following:

(Refer to unit 4 of Tutorial Letter 501.)

Diagram

4 12

3 12

Subtract: 3 1 5

4 3 12

Algorithm:

3 1 9 4

Make denominators the same

4 3 12 12

5

12

18

PST201F/201/2/2018

16 Develop an activity for Grade 5 learners to assist them in understanding that the

numerator and the denominator are not separate values but a single number. Use

a number line to demonstrate your answer.

2

ACTIVITY: What does the fraction mean?

3

The bottom part of the fraction tells us into how

many parts the whole is divided. The bottom part

is called the denominator. The numerator counts.

The top part of the fraction tells us how many of The denominator tells what

the parts we shade/consider. The top part is is being counted.

called the numerator.

Example: Look at the number line from 0 to 1. (This is one unit or a whole.) The way

in which we demarcate the number line will tell us into what fraction parts

the unit is divided.

two thirds

0 1 2 1

3 3

equal parts called thirds

2

The considered part is written as .

3

We read it: two thirds

The 2 shows how many parts many parts the whole

of the whole is considered is divided

The fraction will always be written as a unit and as it expresses the parts of a whole.

Examples of tasks

1. Show three quarters on the number line?

1 2 3

4 4 4

0 1 2 3 4

19

1 7 10

2. Show the following on the number line: , ,

3 3 3

1 7 10

3 3 3

0 1 2 3 4 5

1 4 8

3. Draw a number line and show , , on it.

5 5 5

1 4 8

5 5 5

0 1 2 3

_________________________________________________________________________

20

PST201F/201/2/2018

PART E

These questions relate to chapter 20 of the prescribed book:

1 Describe in your own words the first three Van Hiele levels of geometric thought

(levels 0, 1 and 2). How will the activities that you will give learners on these three

levels differ?

LEVEL 0 : VISUALISATION

Level zero deals with “what shapes look like”. Learners recognise and name figures on

their visual characteristics. Learners identify and reason about shapes and other

geometric configurations based on shapes as visual wholes rather than on geometry

properties. Some properties of the shapes are included in this level, such as right angles

parallel sides etc., but only in an informal manner.

LEVEL 1: LEVEL 1 DESCRIPTIVE/ANALYSIS:

Learners recognise and characterise shapes by their properties. For example, they can

identify a rectangle as a shape with opposite sides parallel and four right angles. When

learners investigate a certain shape, they come to know the specific properties of that

figure. For example, they will realise that the sides of a square are equal and that the

diagonals are equal. Students discover the properties of a figure but see them in isolation

and as having no connection with each other. Learners at this level still do not see

relationships between classes of shapes (e.g., all rectangles are parallelograms), and they

tend to name all properties they know to describe a class, instead of a sufficient set.

LEVEL 2: ABSTRACT/RELATIONAL/INFORMAL DEDUCTION

Learners are able to form abstract definitions and distinguish between necessary and

sufficient sets of conditions for a class of shapes, recognising that some properties imply

others. When learners reason about and compare the properties of a figure, they realise

that there are relationships between them.

The relationships being perceived:

• exist between the properties of a specific figure, and

• exist between the properties of different figures.

21

2 One of the main differences between the reasoning at the visual level and that at

the descriptive level lies in the difference in judgement that the child makes.

Learning at the visual level relies mainly on an intuitive understanding of the object

or situation. That is why the child does not see the need to reason about what is

experienced. The child will not see the need to reason about the relationships

between a rhombus and a square. The child is so strongly bound by the intuitive

knowledge that (s)he will argue that a square is also a rhombus.

3 Draw the triangles described by the following properties. Do your sketches using a

ruler and ensure they are very neatly drawn. (You may also do it on a computer.)

3. 1 Equilateral triangle

C

B

22

PST201F/201/2/2018

Make a neat drawing of each. Do not assume properties that are not given.

No. It is not a square because none of its interior angles is equal to 900 but all sides are

equal in length as in the case of a square.

Yes, a parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of opposite sides equal and

parallel, while a rectangle is a quadrilateral with two pairs of opposite sides equal

and parallel but also forming 900 angles between the adjacent sides.

23

7 Complete the following table to classify and describe the 3D objects. Name each

of the objects (a mathematical name).

3D objects Mathematical Polyhedron No of No No

name or non- faces of of

polyhedron edges vertices

Ellipsoid Non- 1 0 0

a polyhedron

Non-

b Cylinder polyhedron 3 0 0

c Tetrahedron Polyhedron 4 6 4

d Sphere Non-

1 0 0

polyhedron

Octahedron Polyhedron 8 12 6

8.1 Polyhedron made up of

a) Four triangular faces

Tetrahedron

Octagonal pyramid

24

PST201F/201/2/2018

9.1 Octahedron

25

9.2 Hexahedron

10 Draw the front, top and side view of the following structure:

Top view

To

p

vie

w

Side

Sid View

e

Fro vie

nt w

Frontvie

view

w

26

PST201F/201/2/2018

27

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