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8 views20 pagesThis document describes a Windows compatible Fortran computer program called flyby_ftn that can be used to design and optimize interplanetary trajectories that include a single gravity assist maneuver. The user specifies the launch, flyby and destination planets, and the desired flyby altitude. The algorithm also requires initial guesses for the launch, flyby and arrival calendar dates along with lower and upper search bounds about these dates. This script searches for a patched-conic gravity-assist trajectory that satisfies the flyby mission constraints (V-infinity matching and user-defined flyby altitude) and minimizes the launch, arrival or total impulsive delta-v for the mission. The type of delta-v optimization is specified by the user.

Feb 19, 2019

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This document describes a Windows compatible Fortran computer program called flyby_ftn that can be used to design and optimize interplanetary trajectories that include a single gravity assist maneuver. The user specifies the launch, flyby and destination planets, and the desired flyby altitude. The algorithm also requires initial guesses for the launch, flyby and arrival calendar dates along with lower and upper search bounds about these dates. This script searches for a patched-conic gravity-assist trajectory that satisfies the flyby mission constraints (V-infinity matching and user-defined flyby altitude) and minimizes the launch, arrival or total impulsive delta-v for the mission. The type of delta-v optimization is specified by the user.

© All Rights Reserved

8 views

This document describes a Windows compatible Fortran computer program called flyby_ftn that can be used to design and optimize interplanetary trajectories that include a single gravity assist maneuver. The user specifies the launch, flyby and destination planets, and the desired flyby altitude. The algorithm also requires initial guesses for the launch, flyby and arrival calendar dates along with lower and upper search bounds about these dates. This script searches for a patched-conic gravity-assist trajectory that satisfies the flyby mission constraints (V-infinity matching and user-defined flyby altitude) and minimizes the launch, arrival or total impulsive delta-v for the mission. The type of delta-v optimization is specified by the user.

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This document describes a Windows compatible Fortran computer program called flyby_ftn

that can be used to design and optimize interplanetary trajectories that include a single gravity

assist maneuver. The user specifies the launch, flyby and destination planets, and the desired

flyby altitude. The algorithm also requires initial guesses for the launch, flyby and arrival

calendar dates along with lower and upper search bounds about these dates. This script searches

for a patched-conic gravity-assist trajectory that satisfies the flyby mission constraints (V

matching and user-defined flyby altitude) and minimizes the launch, arrival or total impulsive

delta-v for the mission. The type of delta-v optimization is specified by the user.

The planet positions and velocities are modeled using the JPL DE 421 ephemeris. The trajectory

optimization is performed with a nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm.

Program execution

An input file created by the user can be run from the command line or a simple batch file with a

statement similar to the following:

flyby_ftn evm.in

If the software is executed without an input file on the command line, the computer program will

display the following prompt:

***********************************

* program flyby_ftn *

* *

* gravity-assist trajectory *

* design & optimization *

* *

* July 9, 2011 *

***********************************

At this point the user should input the name of a valid input file, including the filename

extension.

This section describes a typical input data file for the software. In the following discussion the

actual input file contents are in courier font and all explanations are in times italic font.

Each data item within an input file is preceded by one or more lines of annotation text. Do not

delete any of these annotation lines or increase or decrease the number of lines reserved for each

comment. However, you may change them to reflect your own explanation. The annotation line

also includes the correct units and when appropriate, the valid range of the input.

page 1

The time scale for all calculations is Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB). The heliocentric

trajectory characteristics and impulsive delta-v maneuvers are displayed in the Earth mean

equator and equinox of J2000 (EME2000) coordinate system.

The software allows the user to specify an initial guess for the launch, flyby and arrival calendar

dates, and lower and upper bounds on the actual launch, flyby and arrival calendar dates found

during the optimization process. For any guess for launch time tL and user-defined launch time

lower and upper bounds tl and tu , the launch time t is constrained as follows:

tL tl t tL tu

Likewise, for any guess for arrival time t A and user-defined arrival time bounds tl and tu , the

arrival time t is constrained as follows:

t A tl t t A tu

For fixed launch, flyby or arrival times, the lower and upper bounds should be set to 1.0d-4.

The first six lines of any input file are reserved for user comments. These lines are ignored by the

software. However the input file must begin with six and only six initial text lines.

*****************************************************

gravity-assist interplanetary trajectory optimization

patched-conic heliocentric motion

Earth-to-Venus-to-Mars - evm.in

July 7, 2011

*****************************************************

The first numeric input for the program is an integer that specifies the type of optimization.

*******************

* simulation type *

*******************

1 = minimize launch delta-v

2 = minimize arrival delta-v

3 = minimize total delta-v

4 = no optimization

--------------------

3

The next input is the user’s guess for the departure calendar date. Please be sure to include all

four digits of the calendar year.

launch calendar date initial guess (month, day, year)

2,1,2009

The next two inputs are the lower and upper bounds, in days, for the departure date search.

launch calendar date search boundary (days)

-30, +30

page 2

The next input is the user’s guess for the flyby calendar date. Please be sure to include all four

digits of the calendar year.

flyby calendar date initial guess (month, day, year)

6,1,2009

The next two inputs are the lower and upper bounds, in days, for the flyby date search.

flyby calendar date search boundary (days)

-30, +30

The next input is the user’s guess for the arrival calendar date. Please be sure to include all four

digits of the calendar year.

arrival calendar date initial guess (month, day, year)

2,1,2010

The next two inputs are the lower and upper bounds, in days, for the arrival date search.

arrival calendar date search boundary (days)

-30, +30

*****************

* launch planet *

*****************

1 = Mercury

2 = Venus

3 = Earth

4 = Mars

5 = Jupiter

6 = Saturn

7 = Uranus

8 = Neptune

9 = Pluto

----------

3

****************

* flyby planet *

****************

1 = Mercury

2 = Venus

3 = Earth

4 = Mars

5 = Jupiter

6 = Saturn

7 = Uranus

8 = Neptune

9 = Pluto

----------

2

page 3

The next input is an integer that specifies the arrival planet.

******************

* arrival planet *

******************

1 = Mercury

2 = Venus

3 = Earth

4 = Mars

5 = Jupiter

6 = Saturn

7 = Uranus

8 = Neptune

9 = Pluto

----------

4

The final input is the flyby altitude in kilometers relative to a spherical flyby planet.

flyby altitude (kilometers)

500.0

This section summarizes the program output for this example. The software provides the

heliocentric orbital elements of each leg of the transfer trajectory in the Earth mean equator and

equinox of J2000 (EME2000) coordinate system. These numerical results also include the

characteristics of the hyperbolic flyby trajectory with respect to the flyby planet. The time scale

is Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB).

program flyby_ftn - gravity assist mission design

-------------------------------------------------

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

y-component of delta-v 1526.93770964846 meters/second

z-component of delta-v -3792.12723773121 meters/second

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

y-component of delta-v 2400.80348125792 meters/second

z-component of delta-v 217.796931272767 meters/second

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

page 4

calendar date January 26, 2009

0.100089454405D+01 0.174899272415D-01 0.234394540774D+02 0.104236677690D+03

0.359996181294D+03 0.227664669431D+02 0.127003144633D+03 0.365747115494D+03

-.886527405221D+08 0.107940450542D+09 0.467957155825D+08 0.147310177049D+09

-.242850226911D+02 -.165579794390D+02 -.717952033578D+01 0.302568095222D+02

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

0.863336645113D+00 0.158375605757D+00 0.292823627828D+02 0.296004420616D+03

0.346082844316D+03 0.203493455602D+03 0.139497876218D+03 0.293000721553D+03

-.886527405221D+08 0.107940450542D+09 0.467957155825D+08 0.147310177049D+09

-.206867823395D+02 -.150310417294D+02 -.109716475735D+02 0.278253882185D+02

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

0.863336645113D+00 0.158375605757D+00 0.292823627828D+02 0.296004420616D+03

0.346082844316D+03 0.960346943306D+01 0.305607890049D+03 0.293000721553D+03

0.429730038403D+08 -.902137801931D+08 -.433080316325D+08 0.108907257791D+09

0.345439853068D+02 0.104516815351D+02 0.103480641331D+02 0.375447333070D+02

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

page 5

TDB time 08:16:39.211

0.118238783620D+01 0.390747964969D+00 0.258617861262D+02 0.309963453473D+03

0.358860016066D+03 0.344303310922D+03 0.294266764395D+03 0.469611103443D+03

0.429730038403D+08 -.902137801931D+08 -.433080316325D+08 0.108907257791D+09

0.363852838330D+02 0.170047690786D+02 0.859233580103D+01 0.410716360222D+02

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

0.723333437839D+00 0.679370756567D-02 0.244344598590D+02 0.124124181153D+03

0.800589473200D+01 0.161859809291D+03 0.285983990443D+03 0.224701638719D+03

0.429730038403D+08 -.902137801931D+08 -.433080316325D+08 0.108907257791D+09

0.319383638516D+02 0.132357551609D+02 0.393396928832D+01 0.347954079521D+02

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

0.118238783620D+01 0.390747964969D+00 0.258617861262D+02 0.309963453473D+03

0.358860016066D+03 0.173664986771D+03 0.123628440244D+03 0.469611103443D+03

-.132024581776D+09 0.186260911912D+09 0.889988305319D+08 0.245039607687D+09

-.160233550543D+02 -.779154356530D+01 -.393073497801D+01 0.182457319884D+02

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

page 6

TDB Julian date 2455210.64657182

0.152370504377D+01 0.933397005688D-01 0.246772651944D+02 0.333004380223D+03

0.337002063896D+01 0.146545017614D+03 0.119549397837D+03 0.686989002160D+03

-.132024581776D+09 0.186260911912D+09 0.889988305319D+08 0.245039607687D+09

-.194905080996D+02 -.101923470466D+02 -.414853190928D+01 0.223824520841D+02

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

0.152370504377D+01 0.933397005688D-01 0.246772651944D+02 0.333004380223D+03

0.337002063896D+01 0.146545017614D+03 0.119549397837D+03 0.686989002160D+03

-.132024581776D+09 0.186260911912D+09 0.889988305319D+08 0.245039607687D+09

-.194905080996D+02 -.101923470466D+02 -.414853190928D+01 0.223824520841D+02

FLYBY CONDITIONS

================

(Earth mean equator and equinox J2000)

--------------------------------------

-.583428694731D+04 0.212299927295D+01 0.613274298432D+02 0.165389846831D+02

0.246196707707D+03 0.000000000000D+00 0.165389846831D+02

-.171616100410D+04 -.610772948478D+04 0.163640629395D+04 0.655190000001D+04

0.666631791450D+01 0.931001281116D+00 0.104660919993D+02 0.124436987934D+02

page 7

actual turn angle 56.2025772021421 degrees

(Earth mean equator and equinox J2000)

--------------------------------------

b dot r 3759.97924690740

b dot t 8102.74963612562

theta 24.8930655123715 degrees

vinf 7461.96634943461 meters/second

r-periapsis 6551.90000000626 kilometers

decl-asy 59.2685235143245 degrees

rasc-asy 313.103636244553 degrees

The flyby_ftn computer program will also produce a comma-separated-variable (CSV) data

file named flyby.csv that contains important trajectory characteristics. An explanation of the

screen display and data file contents can be found in Appendix A.

The following graphs were produced using the contents of the flyby.csv data file for this

gravity assist example. The first plot is a north ecliptic view of the planetary orbits and the

heliocentric transfer trajectory in the EME2000 system.

page 8

This next plot illustrates the effect of the gravity assist on the heliocentric distance and orbital

inclination of the spacecraft’s trajectory.

This next plot illustrates the effect of the gravity assist on the heliocentric speed and semimajor

axis of the spacecraft’s trajectory.

page 9

Technical discussion

The computational steps used to create an initial guess for the spacecraft state, and the launch

and arrival delta-v characteristics are as follows:

(1) compute the state vector of the departure planet at the departure date initial guess

(2) compute the state vector of the flyby planet at the flyby date initial guess

(3) compute the state vector of the arrival planet at the arrival date initial guess

(4) solve Lambert's problem for the departure-to-flyby leg and determine the initial velocity

vector of this leg

(5) compute the launch delta-v vector from the launch planet’s velocity vector and the initial

velocity vector of the first leg of the transfer trajectory

(6) solve Lambert's problem for the second heliocentric leg and determine the initial and final

velocity vectors of the second leg

(7) compute the arrival delta-v vector from the arrival planet’s velocity vector and the final

velocity vector of the second leg of the transfer trajectory

(8) estimate the flyby incoming v-infinity vector from the flyby planet’s velocity vector and

the final velocity vector of the first leg of the transfer trajectory

Lambert’s Problem

Lambert’s problem is concerned with the determination of an orbit that passes between two

positions within a specified time-of-flight. This classic astrodynamic problem is also known as

the orbital two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP).

The time to traverse a trajectory depends only upon the length of the semimajor axis a of the

transfer trajectory, the sum ri rf of the distances of the initial and final positions relative to a

central body, and the length c of the chord joining these two positions. This relationship can be

stated as follows:

tof tof ri rf , c, a

a3

t t0 E e sin E

we can write

page 10

a3

t E E0 e sin E sin E0

where E is the eccentric anomaly associated with radius r, E0 is the eccentric anomaly at r0 , and

t 0 when r r0 .

At this point we need to introduce the following trigonometric sun and difference identities:

a

sin sin 2sin cos

2 2

a

cos cos 2sin sin

2 2

a

cos cos 2 cos cos

2 2

If we let E and E0 and substitute the first trig identity into the second equation above,

we have the following equation:

a3 E E0 E E0

t E E0 2sin e cos

2 2

E E0

e cos cos

2 2

E E0

sin sin

2 2

a3

t 2sin cos

2 2

r a 1 e cos E

x a cos E e

y a sin E 1 e 2

page 11

and some more manipulation, we have the following equations:

r r0 c r r0 c s

cos 1 1 1

2a 2a 2a a

r r0 c r r0 c sc

sin 1 1 1

2 a 2a 2a a

This part of the derivation makes use of the following three relationships:

r r0

cos cos 1

2 2 2

E E0 E E0

2

sin sin sin 1 e cos

2 2 2 2

x x0 y y0 c

2 2 2 2

sin sin

2 2 2a 2a 2a

s sc

sin sin

2 2a 2 2a

and several additional substitutions, we have the time-of-flight form of Lambert’s theorem

a3

t sin sin

A discussion about the angles and can be found in “Geometrical Interpretation of the

Angles and in Lambert’s Problem” by J. E. Prussing, AIAA Journal of Guidance and

Control, Volume 2, Number 5, Sept.-Oct. 1979, pages 442-443.

The algorithm used in this Fortran computer program is based on the method described in “A

Procedure for the Solution of Lambert’s Orbital Boundary-Value Problem” by R. H. Gooding,

Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 48: 145-165, 1990. This iterative solution is

valid for elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic transfer orbits which may be either posigrade or

retrograde, and involve one or more revolutions about the central body.

Keplerian motion. The equations of motion include only the point-mass gravity of the sun.

page 12

Gravity-assist flight mechanics

The vector relationships between the incoming v-infinity vector v , the outgoing v-infinity

vector v and the two legs of the heliocentric transfer orbit are as follows:

v v f b v to1

v v to2 v f b

where

v to1 heliocentric velocity vector of the first transfer orbit at the flyby date

v to2 heliocentric velocity vector of the second transfer orbit at the flyby date

The turn angle of the planet-centered trajectory during the flyby is determined from

1 1 v v

1

sin 2sin 1

1 rp v /

2 2 v v

2

where rp is the periapsis radius of the flyby hyperbola, v is the magnitude of the incoming (or

outgoing) v-infinity vector and is the gravitational constant of the flyby planet.

The maximum turn angle possible during a gravity assist flyby occurs when the spacecraft just

gazes the planet’s surface. It is given by

1

max 2sin 1

1 rs v /

2

where rs is the radius of the flyby planet. The semimajor axis and orbital eccentricity of the

flyby hyperbola are given by

a / v / v

2 2

rp rp v2

e 1/ cos 1 1

a

where is the true anomaly at infinity which is determined from the following expression:

page 13

1 1 v v

sin

2 2 v v

The periapsis radius of the flyby hyperbola is determined from the expression r a 1 e and

the flyby altitude is h r rp .

The heliocentric speed gained during the flyby and the heliocentric delta-v vector caused by the

close encounter can be determined from the following two equations:

v fb 2v / e

v fb v h v h

In the second equation v h is the heliocentric velocity vector of the spacecraft prior to the flyby

and v h is the heliocentric velocity vector after the flyby. For any planet it can be shown that the

maximum heliocentric delta-v possible is given by the expression

vmax

rs

This corresponds to a “grazing” flyby at the planet’s surface and is equal to the “local circular

velocity” for the flyby planet at the surface.

During the optimization analysis, the software enforces the following two nonlinear equality

point constraints:

v v 0

h f b ht 0

The first equation is the v-infinity matching constraint and the second equation is the (positive)

flyby altitude constraint. In the second expression h f b is the actual flyby altitude and ht is the

user-defined or “targeted” flyby altitude.

The B-plane

The derivation of B-plane coordinates is described in the classic JPL reports, “A Method of

Describing Miss Distances for Lunar and Interplanetary Trajectories” and “Some Orbital

Elements Useful in Space Trajectory Calculations”, both by William Kizner. The following

diagram illustrates the fundamental geometry of the B-plane coordinate system.

page 14

The arrival asymptote unit vector Ŝ is given by

cos cos

ˆS cos sin

sin

where and are the declination and right ascension of the asymptote of the incoming or

outgoing hyperbola.

The following computational steps summarize the calculation of the B-plane vector from a

planet-centered position vector r and velocity vector v at closest approach to the flyby planet.

h rv

radius rate

r v

r

r

semiparameter

h2

p

page 15

semimajor axis

r

a

r v2

2

orbital eccentricity

e 1 p a

true anomaly

pr r h

cos sin

er e

B-plane magnitude

B pa

fundamental vectors

r v r r

zˆ

h

pˆ cos rˆ sin zˆ

qˆ sin rˆ cos zˆ

S vector

a b

S pˆ qˆ

a 2 b2 a 2 b2

B vector

b2 ab

B pˆ qˆ

a b

2 2

a b2

2

T vector

S , S x2 ,0

2 T

T

y

S x2 S y2

R vector

R S T S zTy , S zTx , S xTy S yTx

T

page 16

References and bibliography

“Gravity-Assist Trajectory Design with MATLAB”, C. David Eagle, AAS 99-138, AAS/AIAA

Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, Breckenridge, CO, February 7-10, 1999.

“Optimal Interplanetary Orbit Transfers by Direct Transcription”, John T. Betts, The Journal of

the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 3, July-September 1994, pp. 247-268.

Sukhanov, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1998.

“Modern Astrodynamics”, Victor R. Bond and Mark C. Allman, Princeton University Press,

1996.

“Automated Design of Gravity-Assist Trajectories to Mars and the Outer Planets”, J.M.

Longuski and S.N. Williams, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 52: 207-220,

1991.

Physics, 71 (5), May 2003.

“Notes for the Gravitational Assisted Trajectories Lectures”, E. Barrabes, G. Gomez, and J.

Rodriquez-Canabal, Advanced Topics in Astrodynamics Summer Course, Barcelona, July 2004.

page 17

APPENDIX A

Contents of the Simulation Summary and CSV Data File

This appendix is a brief summary of the information contained in the simulation summary screen

displays and the comma-separated-variable (csv) data file produced by the flyby_ftn software.

TDB julian date = julian date of trajectory event on TDB time scale

the sum of true anomaly and argument of perigee.

second

second

second

kilometers per second

page 18

theta = orientation of the b-plane vector in degrees

astronomical units

astronomical units

astronomical units

vector in astronomical units per day

vector in astronomical units per day

per day

vector in astronomical units

vector in astronomical units

vector in astronomical units

vector in astronomical units per day

vector in astronomical units per day

vector in astronomical units per day

per day

rs2p2-x (au) = x-component of the flyby planet’s heliocentric position vector

in astronomical units

page 19

rs2p2-y (au) = y-component of the flyby planet’s heliocentric position vector

in astronomical units

in astronomical units

in astronomical units per day

in astronomical units per day

in astronomical units per day

vs2p2-mag (au) = flyby planet heliocentric speed in astronomical units per day

vector in astronomical units

vector in astronomical units

vector in astronomical units

vector in astronomical units per day

vector in astronomical units per day

vector in astronomical units per day

day

units

degrees

spacecraft in degrees

page 20

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