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# Pushover Analysis

DEFINITION:
• Pushover is a static-nonlinear analysis method where a structure is
subjected to gravity loading and a monotonic displacement-controlled
lateral load pattern which continuously increases through elastic and
inelastic behavior until an ultimate condition is reached. Lateral load
may represent the range of base shear induced by earthquake
loading, and its configuration may be proportional to the distribution
of mass along building height, mode shapes, or another practical
means.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PUSHOVER ANALYSIS AND
RESPONSE SPECTRUM METHOD
PUSHOVER ANALYSIS RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

## 1. Simplified nonlinear static 1. Dynamic linear analysis.

analysis.
2. Suitable for assessing the 2. Suitable for problems
seismic vulnerability of existing involving the structural design
structures. Can be used also in of new structures.
new structural design to see
the nonlinear Static effect.
types:
• Presently, there are two non-linear static analysis procedures available, one termed
as the Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM), documented FEMA-356 and other
the Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) documented in ATC-40(Applied Technology
Council) . Both methods depend on lateral load-deformation variation obtained by
non-linear static analysis under the gravity loading and idealized lateral loading due
to the seismic action.
1. Capacity Spectrum Method is a non-linear static analysis procedure which provides
a graphical representation of the expected seismic performance of the structure by
intersecting the structure’s capacity spectrum with the response spectrum
(demand spectrum) of the earthquake. The intersection point is called as the
performance point, and the displacement coordinate dp of the performance point
is the estimated displacement demand on the structure for the specified level of
seismic hazard.
2. Displacement Coefficient Method is a non-linear static analysis procedure which
provides a numerical process for estimating the displacement demand on the
structure, by using a bilinear representation of the capacity curve and a series of
modification factors or coefficients to calculate a target displacement. The point on
the capacity curve at the target displacement is the equivalent of the performance
point in the capacity spectrum method.
BUILDING PERFORMANCE LEVEL:
• Operational level (OL):
As per this performance level building are expected to sustain no permanent damages. Structure
retains original strength and stiffness. Major cracking is seen in partition walls and ceilings as well as in
the structural elements.
• Immediate occupancy level (IO):
Buildings meeting this performance level are expected to sustain no drift and structure retains original
strength and stiffness. Minor cracking in partition walls and structural elements is observed. Elevators
can be restarted. Fire protection is operable
• Life Safety Level (LS):
This level is indicated when some residual strength and stiffness is left available in the structure.
Gravity load bearing elements function, no out of plane failure of walls and tripping of parapet is seen.
Some drift can be observed with some failure to the partition walls and the building is beyond
economical repair. Among the non-structural elements failing hazard mitigates but many architectural
and mechanical and mechanical systems get damaged.
• Collapse Prevention Level (CP):
Buildings meeting this performance level are expected to have little residual strength and stiffness, but
the load bearing structural elements function such as load bearing walls and columns. Building is
expected to sustain large permanent drifts, failure of partitions infill and parapets and extensive
damage to non-structural elements. At this level the building remains in collapse level.
BUILDING PERFORMANCE LEVEL:
 Point A is the original state(OL) of
Structure.
 Point B represents yielding. No
deformation occurs in the hinge up to
point B.
 Point C represents the ultimate
capacity/Limit for pushover analysis.
 Point D represents a residual strength
limit in the structure. After this limit
Structure initialize collapsing.
 Point E represent total failure of the
structure. After this point hinges break
Force - Displacement curve of a Hinge. down.
hinge:
• Point of Inelastic action of the structural member is called as Plastic hinge. In
this state structural member starts loosing strength to come back in previous
position(As we know elasticity helps members to come back in it’s
identical/safe/previous position, Plasticity starts after crossing elastic limit). We
assign hinges to Model for observing the structural behavior of sequential lose
of strength in different performance level of the structure due to seismic effect.
• A hinge property is a set of non linear properties that can be assigned to points
along the length of one or more Frame elements. Assigning Hinge starts from
0(Starting point) of Member to 1(End Point) of that member. Relative distance
of Hinge ‘0.1’ means if the member length 1 meter, then the location of the
hinge at 0.1meter (10% of the length) from starting point of the member.
ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS
1. Finalize/Design the Structural Members.
2. Then we will decide to push displacement value upto which we want to observe the
behavior of structure. For example we will use here 300mm as our push Displacement.
Consider the corner joint label of top floor for that displacement.
3. Define Load Case: Convert Dead load to Nonlinear Static Load Case so that program can
use this case as the starting point for the Pushover.
4. Define>LoadCase>Add New>Name-PAx>Type-NS>MassSource-MsSrc1 (as we defined
before)>Initial Condition-Continue from State-Dead>Loads Applied-Add-Ltype-Acceleration
Ux-Factor1>Load Application>Displacement Control>Use Monitored Displacement>300mm
at Joint 1>DOF>U1> ResultsSaved>Modify>Multiple Stage>
5. Same way Define PAy using Acceleration Uy direction
6. Assign Hinge Properties- Select All Beams>Assign>Frame>Hinges>AutoM3>Distance .1 to
0.9 >Table Concrete Beam, V Value from PAx
ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS
7. Similar way Assign Hinge for Columns & Walls
8. Then select all beams & columns. Assign Hinge OverWrights> This will
discretize the members & can give better result.
9. Then Set the Load Cases to Run analysis. Linear Analysis is used to design the
section sizes of the members & Nonlinear Analysis used to observe the
Designed Structure’s behavior. So, Here we will run only Nonlinear Static
analysis to observe proper structural behavior for defined Push Displacement.
10. After running analysis see deformed shape for Push along X direction & Y
Direction and observe what hinges are forming>OL>IO>LS>CP>C>D>E
11. Display Pushover Curve- 1st Base Shear vs Displacement,(See how the base
shear drops as the hinges forms & reach different stage)
ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS
The demand curve is plotted here for Seismic Co-efficient 0.28 & 0.4, We can
modify the co-efficients to see how the demand curve changes without doing
another analysis.
The point where the Capacity & Demand curve intersects, that is Performance
point.

Upto CP level the structure will not collapse locally for this level of Earthquake.
ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS
12. Display Hinge Result>Select Hinge>.
At the end the program has soften the drop in order to get convergence.
13. Lastly we can display h Member force Diagram(SFD/BMD) for Pushover
Analysis.
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