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- IBC_2006
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DEFINITION:

• Pushover is a static-nonlinear analysis method where a structure is

subjected to gravity loading and a monotonic displacement-controlled

lateral load pattern which continuously increases through elastic and

inelastic behavior until an ultimate condition is reached. Lateral load

may represent the range of base shear induced by earthquake

loading, and its configuration may be proportional to the distribution

of mass along building height, mode shapes, or another practical

means.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PUSHOVER ANALYSIS AND

RESPONSE SPECTRUM METHOD

PUSHOVER ANALYSIS RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

analysis.

2. Suitable for assessing the 2. Suitable for problems

seismic vulnerability of existing involving the structural design

structures. Can be used also in of new structures.

new structural design to see

the nonlinear Static effect.

types:

• Presently, there are two non-linear static analysis procedures available, one termed

as the Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM), documented FEMA-356 and other

the Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) documented in ATC-40(Applied Technology

Council) . Both methods depend on lateral load-deformation variation obtained by

non-linear static analysis under the gravity loading and idealized lateral loading due

to the seismic action.

1. Capacity Spectrum Method is a non-linear static analysis procedure which provides

a graphical representation of the expected seismic performance of the structure by

intersecting the structure’s capacity spectrum with the response spectrum

(demand spectrum) of the earthquake. The intersection point is called as the

performance point, and the displacement coordinate dp of the performance point

is the estimated displacement demand on the structure for the specified level of

seismic hazard.

2. Displacement Coefficient Method is a non-linear static analysis procedure which

provides a numerical process for estimating the displacement demand on the

structure, by using a bilinear representation of the capacity curve and a series of

modification factors or coefficients to calculate a target displacement. The point on

the capacity curve at the target displacement is the equivalent of the performance

point in the capacity spectrum method.

BUILDING PERFORMANCE LEVEL:

• Operational level (OL):

As per this performance level building are expected to sustain no permanent damages. Structure

retains original strength and stiffness. Major cracking is seen in partition walls and ceilings as well as in

the structural elements.

• Immediate occupancy level (IO):

Buildings meeting this performance level are expected to sustain no drift and structure retains original

strength and stiffness. Minor cracking in partition walls and structural elements is observed. Elevators

can be restarted. Fire protection is operable

• Life Safety Level (LS):

This level is indicated when some residual strength and stiffness is left available in the structure.

Gravity load bearing elements function, no out of plane failure of walls and tripping of parapet is seen.

Some drift can be observed with some failure to the partition walls and the building is beyond

economical repair. Among the non-structural elements failing hazard mitigates but many architectural

and mechanical and mechanical systems get damaged.

• Collapse Prevention Level (CP):

Buildings meeting this performance level are expected to have little residual strength and stiffness, but

the load bearing structural elements function such as load bearing walls and columns. Building is

expected to sustain large permanent drifts, failure of partitions infill and parapets and extensive

damage to non-structural elements. At this level the building remains in collapse level.

BUILDING PERFORMANCE LEVEL:

Point A is the original state(OL) of

Structure.

Point B represents yielding. No

deformation occurs in the hinge up to

point B.

Point C represents the ultimate

capacity/Limit for pushover analysis.

Point D represents a residual strength

limit in the structure. After this limit

Structure initialize collapsing.

Point E represent total failure of the

structure. After this point hinges break

Force - Displacement curve of a Hinge. down.

hinge:

• Point of Inelastic action of the structural member is called as Plastic hinge. In

this state structural member starts loosing strength to come back in previous

position(As we know elasticity helps members to come back in it’s

identical/safe/previous position, Plasticity starts after crossing elastic limit). We

assign hinges to Model for observing the structural behavior of sequential lose

of strength in different performance level of the structure due to seismic effect.

• A hinge property is a set of non linear properties that can be assigned to points

along the length of one or more Frame elements. Assigning Hinge starts from

0(Starting point) of Member to 1(End Point) of that member. Relative distance

of Hinge ‘0.1’ means if the member length 1 meter, then the location of the

hinge at 0.1meter (10% of the length) from starting point of the member.

ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS

1. Finalize/Design the Structural Members.

2. Then we will decide to push displacement value upto which we want to observe the

behavior of structure. For example we will use here 300mm as our push Displacement.

Consider the corner joint label of top floor for that displacement.

3. Define Load Case: Convert Dead load to Nonlinear Static Load Case so that program can

use this case as the starting point for the Pushover.

4. Define>LoadCase>Add New>Name-PAx>Type-NS>MassSource-MsSrc1 (as we defined

before)>Initial Condition-Continue from State-Dead>Loads Applied-Add-Ltype-Acceleration

Ux-Factor1>Load Application>Displacement Control>Use Monitored Displacement>300mm

at Joint 1>DOF>U1> ResultsSaved>Modify>Multiple Stage>

5. Same way Define PAy using Acceleration Uy direction

6. Assign Hinge Properties- Select All Beams>Assign>Frame>Hinges>AutoM3>Distance .1 to

0.9 >Table Concrete Beam, V Value from PAx

ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS

7. Similar way Assign Hinge for Columns & Walls

8. Then select all beams & columns. Assign Hinge OverWrights> This will

discretize the members & can give better result.

9. Then Set the Load Cases to Run analysis. Linear Analysis is used to design the

section sizes of the members & Nonlinear Analysis used to observe the

Designed Structure’s behavior. So, Here we will run only Nonlinear Static

analysis to observe proper structural behavior for defined Push Displacement.

10. After running analysis see deformed shape for Push along X direction & Y

Direction and observe what hinges are forming>OL>IO>LS>CP>C>D>E

11. Display Pushover Curve- 1st Base Shear vs Displacement,(See how the base

shear drops as the hinges forms & reach different stage)

ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS

The demand curve is plotted here for Seismic Co-efficient 0.28 & 0.4, We can

modify the co-efficients to see how the demand curve changes without doing

another analysis.

The point where the Capacity & Demand curve intersects, that is Performance

point.

Upto CP level the structure will not collapse locally for this level of Earthquake.

ANALYSIS STEPS IN ETABS

12. Display Hinge Result>Select Hinge>.

At the end the program has soften the drop in order to get convergence.

13. Lastly we can display h Member force Diagram(SFD/BMD) for Pushover

Analysis.

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