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Submitted by: Himanshu Sharma 0615340052
It is a matter of great pleasure and privilege for me to present the report on the practical training of 30 Days on the basis of practical knowledge gained by me during the practical training at BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICAL LIMITED,Haridwar from 14th JUNE to 14th July 2010 I would like to express my gratitude for the people who were part of this report, directly or indirectly. People who gave unending support right from the stage the Idea was conceived. I am also greatly thankfull to all the respondents for their patience and kindness to respond wisely to the Question.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Introduction BHEL at a GLANCE BHEL HARIDWAR ± Introduction STEAM TURBINE Description of Steam Turbine Overview of Bhel Haridwar TURBINE Shop (Block-3) - LATHE - HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE - MILLING MACHINE - SHAPER - BLANKING - PIERCING Conclusion
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energyrelated/infrastructure sector, today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India - a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. The company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77. BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing divisions, four Power Sector regional centres,over 100 project sites, eight service centres and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services -- efficiently and at competitive prices. The high level of quality & reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design, engineering andmanufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world, together with technologies developed in its own R&D centres BHEL is involved in the development design, engineering, marketing, production, installation, and maintenance and after-sales service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems. In the area of rolling stock, BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP, diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP, both for mainline and shunting duly applications. BHEL is also producing rolling stock for special applications viz., overhead equipment cars, Special well wagons, Rail-cum-road vehicleetc.,
Installed equipment for over 90.and Overseas Business.000 kms Railway network. Steel. defence etc. eight service centers and 14 regional offices enables the company to be closer to its customers and provide them with suitable products. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian economy viz. renewable energy. Industry . Aluminum. Cement plants. systems and services efficiently and at competitive prices. Supplied over 2. Refineries.000 MW of power generation -. power generation & transmission. BHEL's operations are organised around three business sectors. . industry. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer orientation. the major units of bhel have4 already acquired the ISO 14001 certification. namely Power.000 Motors with Drive Control System to Power projects. Transportation.000 MVA transformer capacity and other equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution network up to 400 kV (AC & DC). Having attained ISO 9000 certification.25. Supplied Traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12. Telecommunication & Renewable Energy . over 100 project sites. Petrochemicals. transportation. BHEL is now well on its journey towards total quality management (TQM). telecommunication.for Utilities. the wide network of BHEL s 14 manufacturing divisions. etc. to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market. Supplied over one million Valves to Power Plants and other Industries. four power sector regional centers. On the environmental management front. Fertilizer. Supplied over 25. Captive and Industrial users.including Transmission.
. infrastructure and other potential areas. OHS and environmental policy Corporate OHS and environmental policy is the principle guiding factor for BHEL hardwar s health. Health. SMIs and work instructions. transportation. The HSE manual is further support by 2nd and 3rd level documents like departmental manuals.Vision A world class. competitive and profitable engineering enterprise providing total business solutions. safety and environmental management systems. safety and environmental issues as a major thrust areas and has issued guidelines to its various units. safety and environmental management systems manual has been formulated in line with corporate guidelines on OHS and environmental management systems and OHSAS 18001:1999 & O 14001:1996 STANDARDS. This health. Mission To be the leading Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products systems and services in the field of energy. safety and environmental management systems BHEL corporate management has recognized health. innovative.
Haridwar (Uttarakhand)  Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh) Tiruchirapalli(Tamil Nadu) Ranipet (Tamil Nadu) Bangalore (Karnataka) Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh) Rudrapur (Uttrakhand) Goindwal (Punjab) Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels Limited (Vizag) Chandigarh varanasi Besides these manufacturing units there are four power sectors which undertake EPC contract from various customers. Ranipur.Varanasi and EMRP(Electric machines repair plant) Mumbai. .The FOURTEEN manufacturing Divisions are located at Bhopal(Madhya Pradesh) Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited. The Research and Development arm of BHEL is situated in Hyderabad and two repair shops are at HERP(Heavy Equipment Repair Plant).
Km About 40% of the area in HEEP and 10% in CFFP is covered area and rest is occupied by pathways.Hardwar complex consists of two manufacturing units. PRODUCT thermal sets Hydro Sets Electrics machines(AC/DC) Gas Turbines Super Rapid Guns INSTALLED CAPACITY(LICENSED) 5250MW 625 MW 450MW @ 3 no.BHEL. 3. The main administrative building is at a distance of about 6K.NO 1. hardwar complex is situated in the foothills of Shivalik range Hardwar district of Uttranchal state. Balance components for turbines from existing thermal sets facilities. Product Profile HEEP(Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant) S. @ capacity installed for manufacturing of gas turbines componenets like rotor equivalent to 600MW gas turbines. HARDWAR COMPLEX Location BHEL. . 4. roads and greenbelts. namely Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant(HEEP) and Central Foundry Forge Plant(CFFP).0 sq. 5.Km CFFP:1. THE APPROXIMATE TOTAL approximate area of these plants is as follows: HEEP:. Area BHEL. 2.845 sq.M from hardwar railway station.
5.CFFP(Central Foundry Forge Plant) S. 4.Medium Forgings 3. 2. Billets and Blooms CI Castings Non Ferrous Castings 2410MT 3000MT 4000MT 7180 MT 250MT INSTALLED CAPACITY(LICENCED) 6000MT Number of employees(Approx. of approximate contract workers : 1000 No. Heavy Forgings 2.) HEEP: 5200 CFFP: 780 No.NO. PRODUCT Castings Forgings 1. Year of Commisioning : 1967 . 1.
for V94.3A Gas Turbine being finalised . Germany for Gas Turbine 1991 Collaboration signed for Defence Project 2001 Technical Collaboration with Siemens for extended for 10 years 2004 Technical Collaboration with Siemens. USSR 1976 Technical Collaboration with KWU (Siemens). Germany for Thermal Sets upto 1000 MW 1989 Technical Collaboration with KWU (Siemens).Technical Collaboration (Milestones of the Unit) 1962 Technical Collaboration with Prommashexport.
Historical first (milestones of the unit) 1963 Construction begin with the collaboration of M/s Prommashexport. USSR 1967 First product (Electric motor) rolled out 1969 First 100 MW Steam Turbine manufactured 1971 First 100 MW Turbo Generator manufactured 1974 Unit s Breakeven achieved 1977 First 200 MW TG set was commissioned 1983 Commissioning of first set of 500 MW TG 1994 First 150 MW ISO rating Gas Turbine exported to Germany 1997 National Productivity Award 2001 First Top Management TQM Workshop .
EXCELLENCE INITIATIVES (Milestones of the Unit) 1976 Launched Suggestion Scheme 1982 Launched Productivity Movement 1983 Launched Quality Circle Concept 1997 TQM implementation in the entire HEEP 1999 Launched 5-S Implementation 2001 Launching of QTM & RCA at HEEP by CMD 2002 Evolved Business Policy and CSFs 2003 Reviewed Business Policy and CSFs 03-04 2003 Unified Reward Scheme for Suggestions & Improvement Projects 2004 2004 Three Inter Unit TQM Workshops Reviewed Business Policy and CSFs 04-05 .
BHEL Haridwar Contribution to National Power Generation 42% HARDWAR 36% BHEL OTHER THAN HARDWAR 22% OTHERS List of Certification during 2000-2004 y 1ISO-14001 Certification was awarded in May 2000. y Prime Minister s Shram Award for year 2000 to one employee Sri Satya Pal Singh. y INSAAN award from last ten consecutive years for Excellence in Suggestion Scheme. y NLC Trophy for best Public Sector undertaking in the field of QC for years 2000. y Vishwakarma Rashtriya Puruskar to 27 employees during last three years. y Best Productivity Performance Award in the category of Heavy Engineering Industry by National Productivity Council for the year1998. .
and converts it into rotary motion. Because the turbine generates rotary motion. it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator ± about 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines . Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.Products Steam turbine Gas turbine Hydro Turbines Steam Generators Oil field equipments Boiler drum Water wall panel Wind mill BHEL HARIDWAR mainly produces the steam TURBINE Steam turbine A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam.
 The invention of Parson's steam turbine made cheap and plentiful electricity possible and revolutionised marine transport and naval warfare.000 kW capacity. the classic Aeolipile.History The first device that may be classified as a reaction steam turbine was little more than a toy. Parsons had the satisfaction of seeing his invention adopted for all major world power stations. whose first model was connected to a dynamo that generated 7. and the size of generators had increased from his first 7.5 kW (10 hp) of electricity. George Westinghouse. .5 kW set up to units of 50. described in the 1st century by Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt. The Parson's turbine also turned out to be easy to scale up. The modern steam turbine was invented in 1884 by the Englishman Sir Charles Parsons. Spanish naval officer Blasco de Garay used a primitive steam machine to move a ship in the port of Barcelona. His patent was licensed and the turbine scaled-up shortly after by an American. More than a thousand years later. in 1543.
000 hp (1. steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added.000. noncondensing. Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. Noncondensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications. steam is released from various stages of the turbine. Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. extraction and induction. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure.Types Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small <1 hp (<0. compressors and other shaft driven equipment. These are commonly found at refineries.500. at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser. typically of a quality near 90%.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. pulp and paper plants. Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. reheat. to 2. . or left uncontrolled. district heating units. and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are available. In a reheat turbine. and used for industrial process needs or sent to boiler feedwater heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. These turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state. Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve. Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions These types include condensing.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. Induction turbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to produce additional power. In an extracting type turbine. The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion.
Principle of Operation and Design An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process. or constant entropy process. No steam turbine is truly ³isentropic´. Tandem compound are used where two or more casings are directly coupled together to drive a single generator. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades. A cross compound turbine is typically used for many large applications. in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft are coupled to a generator. or ³buckets´ as they are more commonly referred to. A cross compound turbine arrangement features two or more shafts not in line driving two or more generators that often operate at different speeds. with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances. with typical isentropic efficiencies ranging from 20%-90% based on the application of the turbine. however. tandem compound and cross compound turbines.Casing or Shaft Arrangements These arrangements include single casing. Turbine efficiency .
As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from inlet pressure to the exit pressure Due to this higher ratio of expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. in a number of stages. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades. Reaction turbines In the reaction turbine. with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor. with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature. generating work.To maximize turbine efficiency the steam is expanded. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type. which the rotor blades. These jets contain significant kinetic energy. Typically. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as either impulse or reaction turbines. The loss of energy due to this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving loss". convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle.. shaped like buckets. but the overall turbine uses both. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor. Impulse turbines An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. Most steam turbines use a mixture of the reaction and impulse designs: each stage behaves as either one or the other. .
. During normal operation in synchronization with the electricity net powerplants are governed with a five percent droop speed control . If this fails then the turbine may continue accelerating until it breaks apart. Normally the changes in speed are minor . This is required for the stable operation of the network without hunting and dropouts of powerplants. a turning gear is engaged when there is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even heating to prevent uneven expansion. which causes the nozzle valves that control the flow of steam to the turbine to close. Speed regulation The control of a turbine with a governor is essential.Operation and Maintenance When warming up a steam turbine for use. Generally this is a basic system requirement for all powerplants because the older and newer plants have to be compatible in response to the instantaneous changes in frequency without depending on outside communication. as turbines need to be run up slowly. After first rotating the turbine by the turning gear. Turbines are expensive to make. Adjustments in power output are made by slowly raising the droop curve by increasing the spring pressure on a centrifugal governor. This means the full load speed is 100% and the no load speed is 105%. the main steam stop valves (after the boiler) have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly bypass the valve . requiring precision manufacture and special quality materials. allowing time for the rotor to assume a straight plane (no bowing). first to the astern blades then to the ahead blades slowly rotating the turbine at 10 to 15 RPM to slowly warm the turbine. to prevent damage while some applications (such as the generation of alternating current electricity) require precise speed control Uncontrolled acceleration of the turbine rotor can lead to an overspeed trip. often spectacularly. then the turning gear is disengaged and steam is admitted to the turbine.
This condition monitoring can identify many potential problems and allows the repair of the turbine to be planned before the problems become serious. copper and antimony. This evens out the temperature distribution around the turbines and prevents bowing of the rotors. . The seal therefore does not prevent the steam from leaking. and Thrust bearings axially locate the turbine rotors. Specially designed centrifuges remove any water from the oil. High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication.Bearings and Lubrication Two types of bearings are used to support and locate the rotors of steam turbines: Journal bearings are used to support the weight of the turbine rotors. a metal alloy usually consisting of tin. The leaking steam is collected and returned to a low-pressure part of the steam circuit. A journal bearing consists of two half-cylinders that enclose the shaft and are internally lined with Babbitt. A thrust bearing is made up of a series of Babbitt lined pads that run against a locating disk attached to the turbine rotor. tortuous path for any steam leaking through the seal. The oil is carefully filtered to remove solid particles. Vibration The balancing of the large rotating steam turbines is a critical component in ensuring the reliable operation of the plant. Most large steam turbines have sensors installed to measure the movement of the shafts in their bearings. merely reduces the leakage to a minimum. Turning gear Large steam turbines are equipped with "turning gear" to slowly rotate the turbines after they have been shut down and while they are cooling. Shaft Seals The shaft seal on a turbine rotor consist of a series of ridges and groves around the rotor and its housing which present a long.
and four low pressure turbines. Between them idlers are situated. they produce enormously much electric current. which don't turn. different types of turbines are used in a series. which leads to a larger diameter of the impellers. two medium. The gas changes its direction passing an idler. but several being in a series. The principle was developed 1883 by Parsons. Coupled with a generator and fired by an atomic reactor. with the cooling gas expands.Multi-level steam turbines In modern steam turbines not only one impeller is propelled. Because of that. multi-level turbines are always conical. one high pressure -. Coupling of several turbines In power stations today.g. in order to perform optimally work again in the next impeller. This characteristic and the relatively favorable production make the steam turbine competitionless in power stations. Therefore it is to be paid attention when building steam turbines to a further problem: With the number of passed impellers also the volume increases. which is even better than the efficiency of large diesel engines. This coupling leads to an excellent efficiency (over 40%). The strongest steam turbines achieve today performances of more than 1000 megawatts. . e. As you know. Turbines with several impellers are called multi-level.
hospitals and community recreational centres was put into place. The old village of Ranipur still exists at the edge of the township. around the Ranipur plant of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) part of Nehruvian dream of "temples of modern India". In an important move in 1964. As the town developed. large AC/DC motors and so on. which till then survived mostly on tourism. is one of India's nine largest Public Sector Undertakings or PSUs.(BHEL) Haridwar has two manufacturing plants:Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) and Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP). the Ranipur plant. It was developed with Russian and Czech technological collaboration. and the main Haridwar town itself.658 crore for the year 2007-08. . reached a turnover of Rs 1100 crore. The HEEP plant along had over 7.500 employees. is one of the major manufacturing plants of BHEL. including roads. Uttarakhand Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. Overview The town was built in the early 60s.Ranipur. hydro turbines and generators. Today BHEL. turbo generators. led to economic development of the Jwalapur. just at the entrance of Rajaji National Park. 23 crores worth of equipment by Heavy Electrical Equipment Plants. which reached Rs 2. The Heavy Electricals Equipment Plant (HEEP) located in Haridwar. In 1999. In the subsequent years. hydro turbines and generators. schools eventually over 17 and basic infrastructure. Soon ancillaries came around the township in surrounding area. The core business of HEEP includes design and manufacture of large steam and gas turbines. Indian signed an agreement with the Soviet Union for the supply of Rs. Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP) is engaged in manufacture of Steel Castings: Upto 50 Tons Per Piece Wt & Steel Forgings: Upto 55 Tons Per Piece Wt. it tied up with Siemens AG of Germany for the production of high capacity steam turbines and generators. at peak of Indo-Soviet partnership. looking at the need for more advanced technology. known as the Navratnas or 'the nine jewels'.
saw new offices were set up near the township in areas surrounding Roshanabad. With Haridwar becoming a district headquarter in 1998. is well connected by road to National Highway 58. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. between Delhi and Manapass. The nearest airport is Jolly Grant Airport. with male literacy of 86% and female literacy of 75%. though Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi is preferred. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Ranipur had a population of 43. Dehradun. The Integrated Industrial Estate of SIDCUL was an attractive proposition promoted by the Uttarakhand government whereby various financial incentives such as Central Excise duty( 100% for 10 years). higher than the national average of 59. .BHEL Haridwar has a campus of 7000 acres. Demographics As of 2001 India census. especially after the formation of Uttarakhand state in 2000. Transport BHEL Ranipur. Nearest railway stations are at Jwalapur and Haridwar. is being granted. Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited Ranipur has an average literacy rate of 81%.252. BHEL Haridwar plant itself consists of two plants namely HEEP (Heavy Electricals Equipment Plant) & CFFP (Central Foundry & Forge Plant). ITC and many more in the nearby SIDCUL (State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarankhand) industrial area. CFFP has one of the heaviest forge machines in India. Maruti. now 2034 acres of which is inhabited by 200 companies like Hero Honda. 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. Income Tax(100% for 5 years) et al.5%.
The company manufactures wind electric generators of unit size upto 250 KW for wind farms. gas turbines. . to meet the growing demand for harnessing wind energy. fertilizer. waste heat recovery boilers. pumps. defence and other applications. centrifugal compressors. the range of systems and equipment supplied includes: captive power plants. paper etc. refineries. Telecommunication Bhel also caters to telecommunication sector by way of small. Renewable energy Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting non-conventional and renewable resources of energy include:wind electric generators. control systems for process industries. industrial boilers and auxillaries. and control and instrumentation systems for power plants.lighting and heating systems. medium.Industries BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries: cement. and large switching systems. valves. seamless steel tubes and process controls. high speed industrial drive turbines.solar power based water pumps. The company has commenced manufacture of large scale desalination plants to help augment the supply of drinking water to people. steel. heat exchangers and pressure vessels. petrochemicals. electrical machines. sugar. dg power plants.
The tailstock can be used to support the end of the workpiece with a center. or to hold tools for drilling. A toolpost T-slot that holds the toolpost. or cutting tapers. and centers can be held in the spindle. . The spindle is driven by an electric motor through a system of belt drives and/or gear trains. Various workholding attachments such as three jaw chucks. An apron that controls the feed mechanisms. It is useful for fabricating parts and/or features that have a circular cross section. threading. A cross slide that controls transverse motion of the tool (toward or away from the operator). reaming. Spindle speed is contolled by varying the geometry of the drive train. collets. The ram can be fed along the axis of rotation with the tailstock handwheel. A tool compound that adjusts to permit angular tool movement. The carriage controls and supports the cutting tool. The spindle is the part of the lathe that rotates. It consists of: y y y y y A saddle that mates with and slides along the ways. It can be adjusted in position along the ways to accomodate different length workpices.Lathe Description The purpose of a lathe is to rotate a part against a tool whose position it controls.
They have no back or side rake to permit cutting in either didection. . Aluminum is cut best by specially shaped cutting tools (not shown) that are used with the cutting edge slightly above center to reduce chatter. Round nose tools are for lighter turning. Roughing tools have a small side relief angle to leave more material to support the cutting edge during deep cuts. The standard cutting tool shapes are shown below. The actual geometry varies with the type of work to be done. Finishing tools have a more rounded nose to provide a finer finish. Left hand cutting tools are designed to cut best when traveling from left to right. y y y y y Facing tools are ground to provide clearance with a center.Choosing a Cutting Tool Cutting Tool Terminology The figure above shows a typical cutting tool and the terminology used to describe it.
you may use a dial indicator mounted to the saddle. The angle of the compound can be adjusted to allow tapers to be cut at any desired angle.Standard Cutting Tools Installing a Cutting Tool Lathe cutting tools are held by tool holders. Positioning the Tool In order to move the cutting tool. first clean the holder. A third axis of motion is provided by the compound. The cross slide and compound have a micrometer dial to allow accurate positioning. Then rotate the compound to the desired angle referencing the dial indicator at the base of the compound. the lathe saddle and cross slide can be moved by hand. The tool holder is secured to the tool post using a quick release lever. If a fine finish is required. but the saddle doesn't. To install a tool. use both hands to achieve a smoother feed rate. No power feed is available for the compound. Now the tool can be hand fed along the desired angle. To position the saddle accurately. Procedures vary from machine to machine. The dial indicator presses against a stop (often a micrometer as shown in the clip below). There are also power feeds for these axes. First. . then tighten the bolts The tool post is secured to the compound with a T-bolt. loosen the bolts securing the compound to the saddle. Retighten the bolts.
divide the desired cutting speed by the circumference of the work. power requirements.010 to . In the clip below. it's important to remember that for each thousandth depth of cut. on a roughing cut (. clamp the part securely in a lathe chuck (636kB). Remember that for each thousandth depth of cut. First. one should also consider material of the tool. However. then use the cross feed to set the desired depth of cut. the work diameter is reduced by two thousandths. and depth of cut. On a finishing cut (. For most Aluminum alloys.002 to . Cutting speed and feed determines the surface finish. Then install a roughing or finishing tool (whichever is appropriate). Turning The lathe can be used to reduce the diameter of a part to a desired dimension. size and condition of the lathe. Experiment with feed rates to achieve the desired finish. a finish cut is made using the power feed for a smoother finish. and Depth of Cut Cutting speed is defined as the speed at which the work moves with respect to the tool (usually measured in feet per minute). Speed. If you're feeding the saddle toward the headstock (as in the clip below) use a right-hand turning tool.020 inches depth of cut) run at 600 fpm. the work diameter is reduced by two thousandths. Move the tool off the part by backing the carriage up with the carriage handwheel. Feed rate is defined as the distance the tool travels during one revolution of the part.Feed. In considering depth of cut. rigidity of the workpiece. .010 depth of cut) run at 1000 fpm. The primary factor in choosing feed and speed is the material to be cut. The part should not extend more that three times its diameter. and material removal rate. To calculate the proper spindle speed.
A good way to do this is to hold the tool against the face of the part. there is a very sharp edge on the part. After facing. ensure that it hangs over the tool holder enough that the the holder will clear the workpiece (but no more than that). When a parting tool is installed. It is designed for making narrow grooves and for cutting off parts. When the cut is deep. Ensure that the parting tool is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and that the tip is the same height as the center of the part. Then. the side of the part can rub against sides of the groove. a part is cut off from a piece of stock. face very accurately perpendicular to the axis of a cylindrical part. so it's especially important to apply cutting fluid. install a facing tool. feed the tool across the face with the cross slide. They are very sharp. If a finer finish is required. Parting A parting tool is deeper and narrower than a turning tool. then lock the tool in place. take just a few thousandths on the final cut and use the power feed. Break the edge (205kB) with a file. This ensures that no parts interfere with the rotation of the spindle.Facing A lathe can be used to create a smooth. First. flat. lay it flat against the face of the part. about 50 thousandths are being removed in one pass. Always turn the spindle by hand (248kB) before turning it on. Set the height of the tool. Then. but slightly off of the part. In this clip. The following clip shows a roughing cut being made. Be careful clearing the ribbon-like chips. Bring the tool approximately into position. . Move the tool outside the part and adjust the saddle to take the desired depth of cut. Do not clear the chips while the spindle is turning. clamp the part securely in a lathe chuck (636kB).
. Because of the extension of the boring bar. You should use cutting fluid with the centerdrill. Always use a centerdrill to start the hole.Drilling A lathe can also be used to drill holes accurately concentric with the centerline of a cylindrical part. You've just moved the saddle forward. Move the saddle forward to make room for the tailstock. Make certain that the tang on the back of the drill chuck seats properly in the tail stock. aplly solvent more often. and lock the it in place (otherwise it will slide backward as you try to drill). It has shallow flutes (for added stiffness) and doesn't cut as easily as a drill bit. Before starting the machine. In this clip. and applying cutting fluid. turn the spindle by hand. Withdraw the jaws of the chuck and tap the chuck in place with a soft hammer. A boring bar is used to support the cutting tool as it extends into the hole. so it could interfere with the rotation of the lathe chuck. install a drill chuck into the tail stock. the tool is supported less rigidly and is more likely to chatter. a hole is drilled with a drill bit. Boring Boring is an operation in which a hole is enlarged with a single point cutting tool. A pin will press the chuck out of the collet. The drill chuck can be removed from the tail stock by drawing back the drill chuck as far as it will easily go. If the drill bit squeeks. clearing the chips. First. then about a quarter turn more. Always drill past the beginning of the taper to create a funnel to guide the bit in.Take at most one or two drill diameters of material before backing off. This can be corrected by using slower spindle speeds or by grinding a smaller radius on the nose of the tool. Move the tailstock into position.
A special cutting tool should be used. . no die or tap is available.Single Point Thread Turning External threads can be cut with a die and internal threads can be cut with a tap. To form threads with a specified number of threads per inch. But for some diameters. the spindle is mechanically coupled to the carriage lead screw. Procedures vary for different machines. In these cases. typically witha 60 degree nose angle. threads can be cut on a lathe.
Switching between manual and automated operation is not difficult so operators unfamiliar with automated turning can learn the system as they go and proceed at a pace commensurate with their skill level. Machine tool builders are now recognizing these shops as an important but overlooked market and are introducing products specifically designed to attract these first-time buyers. First. There are lingering misconceptions in the machine tool market that CNC equipment is difficult to operate. but also for how they are relatively easy to use. Between manual and automated operation A surprising (and some would say a disconcerting) number of shops in this country have no numerically controlled (NC) machine tools at all. and may even require highly trained. For a shop operating on a small margin. thanks to the CNC machine¶s user-friendly and compatible software infrastructure. and costly. there are the costs associated with new equipment. These machines work with a Windows environment. It is priced in the mid$30. Apparently. the machine will take care of the rest for you. whether made in programs like CorelDraw or manually created for a short production run. the decision to move up to CNC turning can be a difficult one for a shop owner. more of the operation can be . for what the company calls an operator-paced move into automated turning. faster deliveries. Yet customers are forcing the decision by demanding tighter tolerances. Your designs. computer programmers to develop turning programs. and lower costs. As turning skills grow. the idea is to overcome resistance to this technology and make entry into the world of CNC (computer numerical control) turning an easy one. particularly in a slow-moving economy.000 range. It won¶t matter whether your design depends on measurements by inches or in metric measures. the prospect of any major capital expenditure is not appealing. Another consideration is CNC technology. or in combination. so that means that almost any computer in any household can be used. So what has been causing some shops to stay away from CNC turning? Although the benefits of CNC turning for quality and throughput improvements are generally understood and accepted. The new lathe is even being called the EZ-Path.A CNC Lathe is Efficient and Easy to Use CNC lathe machines are known not only for their ability to get the job done. Can a shop stay in business today if the owner doesn't move to CNC? The new lathe lets users turn parts manually or automatically. or roughly half what many CNC turning centers would cost. will all come to life cleanly.
Because casting dimensions vary slightly. the inside of the workpiece might be turned using full automatic operation. automated sequences can be overridden at any time by the operator when manual turning is judged more appropriate to the application. headstock. a different workpiece. the H-bed design accommodates a workpiece up to twice as long as that expected on a traditional slant-bed. Using the same concept. To keep costs down. Cutting a chamfer or radius on the outside of a workpiece like this is more efficiently done manually. the company recognized that the acquisition cost of the EZ-Path had to be attractive for short-run production. Clearly. For fully automatic operation. then automatically thereafter. and tailstock support) that are bolted together. drilling. when machining a casting. automated turning may not be appropriate for the outside of the casting because of the set-up time required. the lathe is constructed using an H-bed design. Using the handwheels.automated. These handwheels connect to encoders and servomotors which move the tool. which are located on the lathe apron. grooving. or radius by hand. bed. and displays part shapes. and provides a graphic preview of stored operations for program verification. These castings are less costly to produce separately and assemble than a single large casting typically used for a slant-bed lathe. Key features are the dual electronic handwheels. chamfer. For example. facing. stores. the user can turn. the machine's position is stored in the lathe's two-axis microprocessor-based digital readout (DRO) controller. Each casting is. and boring without the need to enter each cutting pass. A fill-in-the-blank format simplifies the entering of part dimensions and machining data. The control system has a number of built-in routines for automatic turning. the lathe's programmability facilitates advancement. . even in the same lot. The H-bed construction consists of four castings (base. bore. as well as cut a taper. This controller calculates. in effect. By hitting one of two dedicated keys for a feed move or rapid move after each cut. which is characteristic of the shops this machine is aimed at. A teach mode allows the operator to first cut a workpiece manually. the operator answers screen prompts on a nine-inch monitor. face. As the operator moves up the learning curve at his own pace. In addition.
planer and floor. A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table. as it is the most versatile. The table type is the most common and. Modern machines use advanced CNC control systems and techniques. The process of cutting an internal channel or passageway into a . Charles DeVlieg entered the Machine Tool Hall of Fame for his work upon a highly precise model which he called a JIGMIL. it is also known as the universal type. its centre line is the B axis. if a rotary table is incorporated. Convention dictates that the main axis that drives the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis. Typically there are 3 linear axes in which the tool head and part move. The process of cutting internal threads in a workpiece with a multi- grooving drilled hole. tapping point tool. taper turning An operation performed on a lathe that feeds a tool at an angle to the length of the workpiece in order to create a conical shape. Horizontal boring machines are often heavy-duty industrial machines used for roughing out large components but there are high-precision models too.Horizontal boring machine A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a horizontal direction. with a cross-traversing X axis and a vertically-traversing Y axis. There are three main types ² table. The work spindle is referred to as the C axis and.
Milling machines exist in two basic forms: horizontal and vertical. Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut and to wash away the resulting swarf.Milling machine A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. planing. diesinking. which refers to the orientation of the cutting tool spindle. bench mounted devices to room-sized machines. milling machines also move the workpiece against the rotating cutter. Unlike a drill press. which holds the workpiece stationary as the drill moves vertically to penetrate the material. usually by means of precision ground slides and leadscrews or analogous technology. rebating. drilling. some very complex. routing. Workpiece and cutter movement are precisely controlled to less than 0.001 in (0. or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC). Milling machines may be manually operated. Both types range in size from small. etc. such as slot and keyway cutting. Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations. which cuts on its flanks as well as its tip. .025 mm). mechanically automated.
called side and face mills. due to its small size and lower price. Special cutters can also cut grooves.Comparing vertical with horizontal In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered. While endmills and the other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill. quite heavy cuts can be taken. enabling rapid material removal rates. however. radii. Simplex mills have one spindle. but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal arbor (see Arbor milling) across the table. are generally smaller than bedmills. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bedmill and the turret mill. Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. It is also easier to cut gears on a horizontal mill. which have a cross section rather like a circular saw. while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Also of note is a lighter machine. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. or indeed any section desired. giving the same effect). called a mill-drill. and are considered by some to be more versatile. A horizontal mill has the same sort of x±y table. These are used to mill grooves and slots. Turret mills. the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis. A majority of horizontal mills also feature a +15/-15 degree rotary table that allows milling at shallow angles. bevels. Several cutters may be ganged together on the arbor to mill a complex shape of slots and planes. their real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters. but are generally wider and smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor. like the ubiquitous Bridgeport. These specialty cutters tend to be expensive. In the bedmill. and duplex mills have two. These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines. It is quite popular with hobbyists. . In a turret mill the spindle remains stationary during cutting operations and the table is moved both perpendicular to and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. allowing plunge cuts and drilling. however.
providing a cost-efficient alternative to most flat-surface hand-engraving work. like horizontal mills. When installing or removing milling cutters.5D surfaces such as relief sculptures.Computer numerical control Most CNC milling machines (also called machining centers) are computer controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Zaxis. essentially allowing asymmetric and eccentric turning. Therefore. even organic geometries such as a human head can be made with relative ease with these machines. add two more axes in addition to the three normal axes (XYZ). Horizontal milling machines also have a C or Q axis. and 2. always hold them with a rag to prevent cutting your hands. The most advanced CNC milling-machines. Do not attempt to tighten arbor nuts using machine power. Cutting oil on the floor can cause a slippery condition that could result in operator injury . When all of these axes are used in conjunction with each other. it also significantly improves milling precision without impacting speed. the multiaxis machine. The fifth axis (B axis) controls the tilt of the tool itself. engraving applications. CNC machines can exist in virtually any of the forms of manual machinery. allowing the horizontally mounted workpiece to be rotated. Place a wooden pad or suitable cover over the table surface to protect it from possible damage. SAFETY RULES FOR MILLING MACHINES Milling machines require special safety precautions while being used. When combined with the use of conical tools or a ball nose cutter. Chips should be removed from the workpiece with an appropriate rake and a brush Shut the machine off before making any adjustments or measurements. Never adjust the workpiece or work mounting devices when the machine is operating. While setting up work. y y y y y y y y y y Do not make contact with the revolving cutter. This extra degree of freedom permits their use in diesinking. extremely complicated geometries. install the cutter last to avoid being cut. 5-axis milling machines are practically always programmed with CAM. When using cutting oil. Use the buddy system when moving heavy attachments. prevent splashing by using appropriate splash guards. But the skill to program such geometries is beyond that of most operators.
but smaller. rather than the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the workpiece. and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool. which is mounted on the ram. and keyways. dovetails. This adjustability. hydraulically actuated shapers also exist. box-shaped table in front of the machine. splines. Operation A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across the workpiece. cutting stroke. The ram is adjustable for stroke and. and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary workpiece. flat surface on the top of the workpiece.Shaper A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath. except that it is linear instead of helical. Table motion may be controlled manually. At the front end of the ram is a vertical tool slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane along the stroke axis. The workpiece mounts on a rigid. The height of the table can be adjusted to suit this workpiece. The tool-slide permits feeding the tool downwards to deepen a cut. The ram slides back and forth above the work. The ram is moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the column. but is usually advanced by an automatic feed mechanism acting on the feedscrew. from which the tool can be positioned to cut a straight. coupled with the use of specialized cutters and toolholders. This tool-slide holds the clapper box and toolpost. A shaper is analogous to a planer. reducing the cutting action to one direction only. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe. . due to the geometry of the linkage. it moves faster on the return (non-cutting) stroke than on the forward. enable the operator to cut internal and external gear tooth profiles.
This is achieved by compressing the whole part and then an upper and lower punch extract the blank. The guide plate is the first applied to the material. Tolerances between ±0. often in a single operation. Clearances between the die and punch are generally around 1% of the cut material thickness. and a guide plate of similar shape/size to the blanking die. Next a counter pressure is applied opposite the punch. Mechanical properties of the cut benefit similarly with a hardened layer at the cut edge from the cold working of the part. the material is cut in a manner more like extrusion than typical punching.5±13 mm (0.0003±0. The blank is workpiece ejected from the starting stock. in which multiple operations are performed at the same pressing station. With standard compound fine blanking processes. but they have a few critical additional parts. offset (up to 75°). A typical compound fine blanking press includes a hardened die punch (male). brass. or coined. embossed.051 mm) are possible based on material thickness & tensile strength. Currently parts as thick as 19 mm (0.0076±0. distortion is nearly eliminated. The process and machinery are usually the same as that used in piercing. Fine blanking Fine blanking is a specialized form of blanking where there is no fracture zone when shearing. multiple parts can often be completed in a single operation. partially pierced.Blanking Blanking is a shearing process where a punch and die are used to create a blank from sheet metal or a plate. the hardened blanking die (female). except that the piece being punched out in the piercing process is scrap. and carbon. alloy and stainless steels. which typically varies between 0. and since the counter pressure is applied. Materials that can be fine blanked include aluminium.75 in) can be cut using fine blanking.002 in (0. and finally the die punch forces the material through the die opening.51 in). Some combinations may require progressive fine blanking operations. Fine blanking presses are similar to other metal stamping presses. Because the material is so tightly held and controlled in this setup. part flatness remains very true.020±0. and edge burr is minimal. and part layout. This allows the process to hold very tight tolerances. copper. Parts can be pierced. and perhaps eliminate secondary operations. Since the guide plate holds the material so tightly. . impinging the material with a sharp protrusion or stinger around the perimeter of the die opening.
accuracy. superior finished edges to other metal stamping processes. depending on secondary machining operations) The disadvantages are: y y slightly higher tooling cost when compared to traditional punching operations. more economical for large production runs than traditional operations when additional machining cost and time are factored in (1000 20000 parts minimum. . multiple features can be added simultaneously in 1 operation. and repeatability through a production run. smaller holes possible relative to thickness of material. little need to machine details. straight. excellent part flatness is retained.Advantages & disadvantages The advantages of fine blanking are: y y y y y y y excellent dimensional control. slightly slower than traditional punching operations.
shaving. There are many specialized types of piercing: lancing. commonly known as point pressure. and dinking. cutoff. The punch-die clearance determines the load or pressure experienced at the cutting edge of the tool.Piercing Piercing is a shearing process where a punch and die are used to create a hole in sheet metal or a plate. The amount of clearance between a punch and die for piercing is governed by the thickness and strength of the work-piece material being pierced. Excessive point pressure can lead to accelerated wear and ultimately failure. 2. The material is only modified. There are three key characteristics to the process of lancing: 1. notching. Specialized types Lancing Lancing is the manufacturing process where a piece of material is sheared and bent in order to make tabs. nothing is removed. because it is easy to measure during production. nibbling. vents. commonly . with the remainder being bent to the necessary angle or curve. but a side is left connected to be bent sharply or in more of a rounded manner. Burr height is typically used as an index to measure tool wear. and louvers. only a modification in its geometry. Mechanical presses are used to perform lancing. The process and machinery are usually the same as that used in blanking. Ability to make a special feature in a part using only one cut in the material. The cut made in lancing is not a closed cut. 3. like in perforation even though a similar machine is used. except that the piece being punched out is scrap in the piercing process. A key part of this process is that there is not reduction of material. For simple piercing operations a pancake die is used. One or more cuts are made. perforating.
lancing requires the use of punches and dies to be used. Notching The notching process removes material from the edge of the workpiece Nibbling The nibbling process cuts a contour by producing a series of overlapping slits or notches. and louvers (where the piece is rounded or cupped). The dies and punches are needed to be made of tool steel to withstand the repetitious nature of the procedure. Normally lancing is done on a mechanical press. The nibbler is essentially a small punch and die that reciprocates quickly. The edge smoothness is determined by the shape of the cutting die and the amount the cuts overlap. Nibbling can occur on the exterior or interior of the material. Punches are available in various shape and sizes.Lancing can be used to make partial contours and free up material for other operations further down the production line. oblong and rectangular punches are common because they minimize waste and allow for greater distances between strokes. Along with these reasons lancing is also used to make tabs (where the material is bent at a 90 degree angle to the material). The different punches and dies determine the shape and angle (or curvature) of the newly made section of the material. however interior cuts require a hole to insert the tool. around 300±900 times per minute. naturally the more the cuts overlap the cleaner the edge. This allows for complex shapes to be formed in sheet metal up to 6 mm (0. as compared to a round punch. The process is often used on parts that do not have quantities that can justify a dedicated blanking die. For added accuracy and smoothness most shapes created by nibbling undergo filing or grinding processes after completion .25 in) thick using simple tools. vents (where the bend is around 45 degrees).
CONCLUSION The vocational training at BHEL. Here I came to know about the technology and material used in manufacturing of steam turbine. At least I could say that the training at BHEL. haridwar is great Experience for me in making my knowledge about turbines . Besides this I also visualized the parts involved or equitment used in general. Here I learnt about how the turbines are being manufactured and how they tackle the various problem under different circumstances.Haridwar helped me in improving practical knowledge and awareness regarding STEAM TURBINE to a large extent.
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