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Six Arrangements for Vocalist and Large Jazz


Ensemble Informed by Compositional Styles of
Selected Studio Orchestra and Big Band Arrangers
Jeremy S. Fox
University of Miami, Jeremy@JeremyFox.net

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UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI

SIX ARRANGEMENTS FOR VOCALIST


AND LARGE JAZZ ENSEMBLE INFORMED BY
COMPOSITIONAL STYLES OF SELECTED
STUDIO ORCHESTRA AND BIG BAND ARRANGERS

By

Jeremy S. Fox

A DOCTORAL ESSAY

Submitted to the Faculty


of the University of Miami
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts

Coral Gables, Florida

May 2013
©2013
Jeremy S. Fox
All Rights Reserved
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI

A doctoral essay submitted in partial fulfillment of


the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Musical Arts

SIX ARRANGEMENTS FOR VOCALIST


AND LARGE JAZZ ENSEMBLE INFORMED BY
COMPOSITIONAL STYLES OF SELECTED
STUDIO ORCHESTRA AND BIG BAND ARRANGERS

Jeremy S. Fox

Approved:

__________________ _________________
Gary Lindsay, M.M. M. Brian Blake, Ph.D.
Professor of Studio Music and Jazz Dean of the Graduate School

___________________ _________________
Charles Bergeron, M.M. Lawrence Lapin, M.M.
Professor of Studio Music and Jazz Professor of Studio Music
and Jazz

_________________
Raul Murciano, D.M.A.
Associate Dean of Administration
Professor of Professional Practice
Music Theory and Composition
FOX, JEREMY S. (D.M.A., Jazz Composition)
Six Arrangements for Vocalist (May 2013)
and Large Jazz Ensemble Informed by
Compositional Styles of Selected
Studio Orchestra and Big Band Arrangers

Abstract of a doctoral essay at the University of Miami

Doctoral Essay supervised by Professor Gary Lindsay.


Number of pages in text (314)

This study examines the compositional styles of six jazz orchestra and jazz band

writers who wrote for vocalists. Each arranger used techniques in order to create the

perfect accompaniment for a specific singer’s voice. Furthermore, the arrangers have

captured a mood, enhanced the emotion, and illustrated the message of the lyric in their

own unique ways. The six arrangers whose writing has been analyzed in this study are:

John Clayton, Marty Paich, Gordon Goodwin, Johnny Mandel, Jorge Calandrelli, and

Vince Mendoza. In uncovering each writer’s techniques, the author intended to gain

knowledge to further his own skills in writing large jazz ensemble pieces for jazz

vocalists. The culmination of these skills were realized in the author’s arrangements,

which explore various techniques of successfully framing the vocal line. Additionally, it

is the hope of the author that this project may serve as a reference for other jazz

composers who write for vocalists.


In honor of my father,

William Fox.

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am so grateful for the support of my mother, Linda Fox, my late father, William

Fox, my brother, Dan Fox, and my entire family for encouraging me throughout my

pursuit of an unconventional passion. Their constant support has meant the world to me.

Thanks also to my committee members, Professors Gary Lindsay, Larry Lapin,

Whit Sidener, Chuck Bergeron, and Raul Murciano for their interest, feedback and

valuable support throughout this study.

I would like to acknowledge the members of the University of Miami’s Concert

Jazz Band, Studio Jazz Band, and Henry Mancini Orchestra, who performed and

recorded my music so skillfully. I appreciate their time, their talent, and their positive

energies. Additionally, I wish to acknowledge the leaders of these ensembles for being

supportive on so many levels. I must also thank Stephania Martinez and Luis Gil for

their assistance in engineering, as well as Steve Pardo, Kelly Garner, Rafael de Lima,

Ben Cantlupe, Nii Akwei Adoteye, Tyler Dennis, Hyojung Lee, William Longo, and

Javier Nero for their assistance in production, engineering, and/or videography. My

gratitude to Ross Penniman for allowing me to secure twenty hours at the Weeks

recording studio on the campus of the University of Miami.

Special thanks to Professor Gary Lindsay for bestowing me with countless

opportunities for growth, and for trusting in my abilities. I am grateful for a superior

education in the truest and most pure sense of the word, and cannot express my respect

and appreciation enough.

Finally, thank you to Katie. You have stood by me, with patience and

encouragement. I love you.


iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Chapter

1. INTRODUCTION ………..……………………………………………..…… 1

Purpose of the Study …………………………………...………..…… 5

Research Questions …………………………………………………… 6

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE .………………………………………………… 7

John Clayton …………………....……………………………………… 7

Marty Paich ………………….…..…………………………………….... 8

Gordon Goodwin …...…………………………………………………... 9

Johnny Mandel ….……………………….…………………………… 10

Jorge Calandrelli ...........................………………………….………..… 12

Vince Mendoza ..………………….….…………………………...…… 12

3. METHOD .…………………………………………………………………… 14

Data Collection ………………………………………………...……… 14

Compositional Process ...…………………………….………………… 15

4. ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF JOHN CLAYTON .………….…….. 16

5. ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF MARTY PAICH .………...………... 30

6. ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF GORDON GOODWIN …………….. 50

7. ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF JOHNNY MANDEL …………….… 72

8. ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF JORGE CALANDRELLI …..…...… 92

9. ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF VINCE MENDOZA ….....…….… 121

v
10. THE SIX ARRANGEMENTS BY THE AUTHOR….………………….……..... 140

All My Tomorrows ………………………………………………......… 141

Friendship ……………..…………………………………………......… 164

I’m Glad There Is You ...…………………………………………......… 202

Three Little Words .………………………………………………......… 218

Moonray …………….……………………………………………......… 242

That Old Feeling …………………………………………………......… 277

11. APPENDIX A: PERSONNEL OF PERFORMERS.…………………………..… 310

12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ..…………………………………………………………....... 312

vi
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

There are a select number of studio orchestra and big band writers hired to write

for jazz singers today. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, there was constant demand for large

ensemble writing behind jazz singers. Virtually every big band during the “Swing Era”

featured one or more singers: Frank Sinatra with the Tommy Dorsey band, 1 Ella

Fitzgerald with the Chick Webb band, 2 Billie Holiday with the Artie Shaw band,3 Jimmy

Rushing with the Count Basie orchestra,4 Peggy Lee and Helen Forrest with Benny

Goodman band. 5

In the 1970’s and 1980’s, there was a surge in the demand for this form of

writing, as variety shows often appeared on television featuring singers and studio

bands.6 However, the demand has decreased in recent years; the use of a small ensemble

is much more prevalent for jazz singers. This is perhaps due in part to the ever-

diminishing number of symphony orchestras and working big bands.7 Also, it is due in

part to the desires (on the part of the singers or the record companies) to avoid the

1
Richard Cook, Richard Cook’s Jazz Encyclopedia, (New York: Penguin Books, 2005), 170.
2
Ibid., p.654.

3
Whit Sidener, interview by author, Miami, FL, April 11, 2012.
4
New Grove Encyclopedia of Jazz, 2nd ed., s.v. “Basie, Count.”
5
Cook, Richard Cook’s Jazz Encyclopedia, 236.
6
Gary Lindsay, interview by author, Miami, FL, November 18, 2011.

7
"Symphony Orchestras: Surviving and Even Thriving." International Musician 109, no. 8
(2011), http://search.proquest.com/docview/887527253 (accessed November 21, 2011).

1
2

costs involved with recording a live orchestra. 8 Some musicians are also opting to record

with MIDI, electronic or sampled sounds. These artificial sounds, often created with the

help of software or keyboard, can emulate the individual instruments one might hear in

the concert hall.

Not every studio orchestra and/or big band composer is adept in writing for

singers.9 The techniques utilized in writing a large-ensemble piece are only part of those

used to write for a jazz singer. Though many of the same skills are utilized, the writer

must focus their orchestration style on “framing” the lyric and vocal line with care.

A piece that successfully frames the singer’s line is one in which the vocalist is

allowed the freedom to sing the melody as he or she desires. Techniques for doing this

involve creating a bed of lush harmony, or writing musical lines only where the vocal

melody is not present, or writing lines that interweave with the vocal melody. When the

instrumental lines do intersect or even coincide with the vocal line, care must be given to

be certain the singer’s lyric will still remain the focus. In framing the lyric, a composer

may choose to instrumentally illustrate what is being sung – either musically painting a

specific word or two (for instance, writing an ascending instrumental line for the lyric

“rising”), or perhaps portraying the message or mood of the entire lyric.

In this study, the author selected, transcribed and analyzed musical passages of

three studio orchestra writers and three big band writers. In doing so, the author has

noted the techniques and elements they utilize in their works for jazz singers. Existing

8
Scherer, Barrymore Laurence, "Music: Masters of their Masters; Cost-Cutting by Record Labels
Hurts American Orchestras," The Wall Street Journal Asia (Jul 29, 2005),
http://search.proquest.com/docview/315458422 (accessed November 21, 2011).
9
The terms “writer,” “composer,” and “arranger” are used interchangeably in this study, as the
author considers an arranger to essentially be a composer/writer on any given day.
3

scores have also been incorporated into the study. After extensive analysis of all scores –

both transcribed and compiled – the author then composed a series of 6 arrangements

informed by the various writers’ compositional styles.

The author has selected to examine the orchestral writing of Johnny Mandel,

Vince Mendoza, and Jorge Calandrelli; as well as the big band writing of John Clayton,

Marty Paich, and Gordon Goodwin. Each composer selected for this study has written at

least one “significant album” for “significant jazz singers.”

Classifying a jazz singer as historically significant is neither an objective nor easy

task. It is the author’s opinion that no classification system will suffice to create a

definitive list of historically significant jazz singers. In addition, every source which may

claim to be “authoritative” is either incomplete or biased. Even the Smithsonian

Collection of Classic Jazz recordings and the update, the Smithsonian Anthology, has

omitted recordings by such famed jazz singers as Dinah Washington, Mel Torme, Peggy

Lee, and Mark Murphy.10

However, classifying an album as significant is a much more simple task. One

might consider which albums have been the recipient of awards or acclaim. Vocalist

Shirley Horn’s album entitled “Here’s To Life” stands out, having won a Grammy Award

in Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocals for orchestral arranger Johnny

Mandel. Joni Mitchell’s “Both Sides Now” album also earned orchestral arranger Vince

Mendoza a Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocals.

“Here’s To the Ladies,” a 1995 album featuring Tony Bennett, won a Grammy Award for

Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance. The album was arranged by Jorge Calandrelli

10
Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz, vol. 1-7, CBS Special Recordings A19478–A19482,
CD, 1987.
4

who, as of 2011, has been Grammy-nominated 22 times. The vocal ensemble Take 6, as

well as Johnny Mathis and Brian McKnight were featured on Gordon Goodwin’s “XXL”

album. Released in 2003, the album was nominated for three Grammy awards, including

one for Best Instrumental Arrangement with Vocals.

Although Mel Tormé’s 1956 “Tormé Touch” album (originally known as “Lulu’s

Back In Town”) never won any awards, it did succeed in forming a valuable partnership

between Tormé and arranger Marty Paich. Jazz biographer Richard Cook writes:

“[Paich’s] crisp, neat arrangements were a smart match for Tormé.”11 During the

partnership, Paich’s style was reminiscent of most “Cool Jazz” style arrangers: he wrote

for a smaller big band using 10 players rather than the 13-17 which is traditional in most

big bands. Paich also chose to not include piano, which can help to create a less

rhythmically dense sound. Finally, Paich used atypical instruments like the french horn

and tuba to make the small ensemble sound like an orchestra12. The album was given five

stars by All Music Guide to Jazz. Scott Yanow, the editor of the book writes: “this is one

of Mel Tormé’s finest records of the 1950s.”13

In preparing to study the selected writers, the author has observed14 that each

demonstrates a strength in a specific area. Among the selected orchestral writers, Johnny

Mandel is a master of orchestrational colors and subtle gestures. Vince Mendoza makes

extensive use of harmonic devices. Jorge Calandrelli writes strong melodic

11
Richard Cook, Richard Cook’s Jazz Encyclopedia, (New York: Penguin Books, 2005), 480.

12
Vladimir Bogdnov, Michael Erlewine, Chris Woodstra, and Scott Yanow, All Music Guide to
nd
Jazz, 2 ed. (San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 1996,) 730.

13
Ibid., p.730.
14
by means of aural research at first
5

counterlines, which can help to balance the main vocal line. Among the big band writers

selected for the study, John Clayton emphasizes rhythm extensively, while Marty Paich

frequently shifts the density within a piece. Finally, Gordon Goodwin makes great use of

melodic “hooks” to tie a piece together and keep the listeners’ attention.

The term compositional techniques includes anything that is created. However,

this study will also examine orchestrational techniques, a term which implies that the

material has already been created. In this case, the already existent notes are distributed

among the available instruments, in vertical structure voicings. A voicing describes what

note choices the composer has made related to a particular chord, and how those notes are

distributed from the lowest to the highest instrument. In doing so, a writer must also

consider details such as density, color, register, intensity and weight.

This study goes into depth on all the other attributes and techniques these

arrangers utilize. Each writer was selected because he was able to create the perfect

accompaniment for a specific singer’s voice. In each case, the arrangers have captured a

mood, enhanced the emotion, and illustrated the message of the lyric in their own unique

ways.

Purpose of the Study

Through examining other composer’s techniques, the author intends to gain

knowledge which will further his own skills in writing large jazz ensemble pieces for jazz

vocalists. The culmination of these skills are realized in the author’s arrangements, which

explore various techniques of successfully framing the vocal line. Additionally, it is the

hope of the author that this project may serve as a reference for other jazz composers who

write for vocalists.


6

Research Questions

Specific research questions addressed by this study include:

1) What aspects of each writer’s background helped shape the writers’ musical

choices?

2) Which jazz or classical influences were specific to each writer? Influences

could include composers, arrangers, mentors or teachers.

3) What elements of melody, harmony, rhythm and orchestration are utilized by

each writer to showcase the vocalist?

4) How might the author incorporate this research into 6 new pieces written

for singers with orchestra and big band?


Chapter 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter will review the literature available on the six selected writers.

Biographical background of each writer is discussed only when pertinent to the topic of

this dissertation. Preference will be given to sources which delve deeper into the

arranging/compositional style and writing techniques used by each writer. This does not

exclude a biographical source, inasmuch as it might offer such insights. Sources such as

scores and fakebooks will be studied, as well as personal websites belonging to the

writers themselves (provided that they are still living). When appropriate, scores will be

utilized for the main purpose of this study.

John Clayton

In a 1993 article in the Los Angeles Times,15 author Zan Stewart provides some

history regarding how John Clayton began arranging. The article also details some of

the composers who have influenced Clayton’s writing style. However, the article does

not provide insight into his biography, nor his writing for vocalists.

A review16 of the 1989 CD Dream of Life, featuring singer Carmen McRae, goes

into slightly more detail regarding Clayton’s work with the vocalist. The article succeeds

in giving an overview of the selections on the album. However, the review lacks depth

regarding Clayton’s arranging contributions.

15
Zan Stewart, "Jazz Bassist John Clayton Evolves as a Composer," Los Angeles Times (August 1,
1993), http://search.proquest.com/docview/282034785?accountid=14585 (accessed November 21, 2011).
16
Owen Cordle, “Carmen McRae: Dream of Life,” JazzTimes (January/February 1999),
http://jazztimes.com/articles/8145-dream-of-life-carmen-mcrae (accessed November 21, 2011).

7
8

The arranger’s own website17 provides more biographical information than the

previously mentioned articles. Also included is information regarding which of

Clayton’s albums won Grammy awards and nominations. The website however still

lacks insight regarding his arranging techniques.

Marty Paich

A Jazz Profiles online article provides extensive biographical and musical

background about Marty Paich,18 as well as other musicians’ opinions of the

composer/arranger. The article also provides a retrospective through Paich’s albums of

the 1950s It offers biographical and musical insight into his three collaborations with

Mel Tormé, shedding light on Paich’s arranging style and his choice of instrumentation

on the albums.

A website19 created by Paich’s estate is indeed a valuable source of information

regarding his biographical and musical roots. The site provides a list of Paich’s major

albums and singles. It offers a resumé highlighting his education and noteworthy

professional collaborations. Furthermore, it lists his activities as a musical director,

conductor and scorer for TV and film. A section on commentary offers a link to an

article written by Charles Barber, which further illuminates Paich’s choices in arranging.

17
John Clayton, http://www.johnclaytonjazz.com/media.php (accessed November 18, 2011).

18
Steve Cerra, “Marty Paich,” Jazz Profiles Online,
http://jazzprofiles.blogspot.com/2008/11/marty.html (accessed November 18, 2011).
19
Estate of Marty Paich, http://www.martypaich.com/index.html (accessed November 18, 2011).
9

This article offered as a link from Paich’s website,20 briefly describes his musical

training. Afterward, it discusses Paich’s views regarding his own arranging style. It

reminisces about 3-4 musical arrangements, illustrating some of Paich’s arranging

choices. Finally, the article admits that no books have yet been written about Paich;

however, it does list the books which have included Paich’s name.

Gordon Goodwin

A 2011 article21 in Downbeat magazine provides information regarding Gordon

Goodwin’s musical training, and examines his views regarding composition. A series of

articles22 23 24 25 Goodwin wrote for Downbeat are also invaluable, as they describe

arranging techniques that he utilizes.

The official website for Gordon Goodwin also is a valuable resource for

biographical information about the composer.26 The website also lists some of the

writer’s largest musical influences, and presents Goodwin’s other musical ventures.

Furthermore, the website also provides background regarding each album.

20
Barber, Charles, “Commentary: the Music of Marty Paich.”
http://www.martypaich.com/music.html (accessed November 18, 2011).
21
"Thinking Big on the Left Coast." Downbeat 78, no. 6 (June 2011): 36-39
22
Goodwin, Gordon. "Orchestration: A Composer's Secret Weapon, Part 1." Downbeat 72, no. 5
(May 2005): 78-79.
23
Goodwin, Gordon. "Orchestration: A Composer's Secret Weapon, Part 2." Downbeat 72, no. 6
(June 2005): 94-95.
24
Goodwin, Gordon. "Scoring Tips For The Saxophone Section." Downbeat 73, no. 10 (October
2006): 178.
25
Gordon Goodwin, “Arranging for Big Band Brass Section.” Downbeat 78, no. 4 (April 2011):
64-65.
26
Gordon Goodwin, http://www.gordongoodwin.com (accessed September 1, 2012).
10

Johnny Mandel

A journal article consisting of an interview between Linda Danly27 and Johnny

Mandel starts by offering a short biography of Mandel. In the interview, Danly asks

Mandel about the process he uses when he writes songs. She also asks him about the

“Mandel sound,” and how Mandel might characterize his own sound. His response is to

Danley’s question is succinct and perhaps elusive: “I have absolutely no idea,” he states.

“If I hear something I like and I’m writing, I write it.”

Another article by John Tumpak28 provides more thorough biographical

information about Mandel. For example, it reports that Mandel was reared mostly by a

mother who was trained extensively in opera. This might provide an important

connection in Mandel’s interest in writing for singers. The source also writes of

Mandel’s first years as a professional musician, stating that he spent two and a half years

on the road touring with one great big band after another. The article states that Mandel

played trombone with big bands that included: Boyd Raeburn’s band, Jimmy Dorsey’s

band, and Buddy Rich’s first band (which included Frank Sinatra on vocals). This

opportunity early in his career to accompany Frank Sinatra easily may have increased his

perception of musical devices that work well behind a jazz singer.

An interview with Mandel that he provided for the National Endowment for the

Arts offers important information regarding his writing for singers. In this in-depth and

27
Linda Danly, “Johnny Mandel: An Interview with Linda Danly,” Music Moving Images 4, no. 1
(March 2011): 2.

28
John Tumpak, "Upbeat: Johnny Mandel Finds Success from Big Bands to Box Office."
International Musician 23 (2004). http://search.proquest.com/docview/1078343?accountid=14585
(accessed November 21, 2011).
11

extensive interview with A. B. Spellman,29 Mandel answers questions about his musical

upbringing and education. He also offers information regarding his approach to writing

songs and arrangements, and his work with specific big bands. In addition, he discusses

certain projects with singers such as Shirley Horn and Natalie Cole.

These projects with Horn and Cole are explored in more depth in a NY Times

article by James Gavin.30 Information is presented about Mandel’s process for writing

music behind singers. Mandel is quoted as saying: “I like to leave singers alone, and go

where they’re not.” This points to his desire to frame the singer’s vocal melody and

punctuate it, rather than writing on top of the singer’s line.

Mandel’s work with Horn is highlighted in a 1993 article in the Orange County

Register.31 The article focuses mainly on the partnership between the orchestrator and

singer in producing her 1992 album with string orchestra.32 Although it is an interesting

portrayal of Horn and her affection for Mandel, it fails to significantly examine his

writing style or techniques.

29
Johnny Mandel, interview by A.B. Spellman, Sept 23, 2010, National Endowment for the Arts
Jazz Masters, http://www.nea.gov/honors/jazz/jmCMS/master.php?id=2011_04&type=int (accessed
November 21, 2011).
30
James Gavin, “At 67, Johnny Mandel Finds He’s Back in Style.” The New York Times 19
(August 16, 1992).

31
Steve Eddy, “Shirley Horn Sounds Off – and How Smoky Nightclub Voice Took Long Time to
be Heard,” Orange County Register (Feb 2, 1993),
http://search.proquest.com/docview/272677831?accountid=14585 (accessed November 21, 2011).
32
Shirley Horn, Shirley Horn with Strings: Here’s To Life, Polygram Records B000046KM, April
21, 1992.
12

Jorge Calandrelli

The arranger’s own website33 offers a list of performers by country for which he

has written. Also included on the website is a timeline of Calandrelli’s major writing and

production achievements. However, it lacks information regarding his background or

arranging style.

A website provided by Artistdata34 offers more in-depth information regarding

Calandrelli’s musical achievements. It also offers specifics about which albums and

arrangements were performed by singers. However, similarly to the artist’s own website,

this site also lacks information regarding Calandrelli’s background or arranging style.

Vince Mendoza

The Frans Absil article35 was based on a 2009 interview with Mendoza. The

interview delves into Mendoza’s views on arranging and composition. Among other

topics, Mendoza offers information on what skills he believes an arranger should possess;

his style of voicing harmonies; the practical process by which he arranges; his use of

counterpoint and voice leading; and his choices in instrumentation. In the interview, he

also discusses his collaborations with Björk, Sting, and Joni Mitchell.

In a 2007 interview conducted by the website All About Jazz, Mendoza also

discusses at length his collaborations with Björk and Joni Mitchell, offering how the two

33
Jorge Calandrelli, http://www.jorgecalandrelli.com (accessed November 14, 2011).
34
Artist Data, “About Jorge Calandrelli,” Artist Data by Sonic Bids,
http://artistdata.sonicbids.com/jorge-calandrelli/biography (accessed November 14, 2011).

35
Frans Absil, “Interviewing Vince Mendoza About Composing and Arranging,” Frans Absil
Music, http://www.fransabsil.nl/metropole/mendoza.htm (accessed November 14, 2011).
13

singers affected his vision for each project.36 He also reviews what he learned from these

and many other collaborations. When asked about his comfort to orchestrate with various

instruments, Mendoza outlines his early childhood experiences with trumpet, guitar, bass,

piano, and drums. Finally, the article offers a selected discography of Mendoza’s works.

The 2011 CD release Nights On Earth is the main focus of a 2011 interview with

Mendoza.37 He presents his intentions and background regarding each piece on the CD.

Though he also shares general information about his compositional style and influences,

the article does not explore his arranging techniques for vocalists.

36
Paul Olson, “Vince Mendoza: Color, Counterpoint, and Open Ears,” All About Jazz,
http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=26635 (accessed November 14, 2011).

37
Joseph Vella, “Interview: Vince Mendoza (Jazz Composer Extraordinaire),” Huffington Post
Online, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joseph-vella/interview-vince-mendoza-j_b_1106183.html
(accessed November 14, 2011).
Chapter 3

METHOD

The author has transcribed musical passages by each writer, noting the

compositional techniques. After providing an analysis for each transcription, the author

has then composed six pieces informed by those techniques.

Data Collection

The author has transcribed a minimum of 60 to 80 measures of excerpts from each

of the six vocal arranger’s orchestral and/or big band albums. Each passage is at least 4

measures in length, with no maximum length impermissible. These specifications were

suggested by advisor Gary Lindsay38 and agreed upon by the author. The passages

demonstrate a technique (at first, apparent only aurally) in one or more of the following

compositional areas: melody, harmony, voicing techniques, passing harmonies,

countermelodies, guidelines, foreshadowing, call and response, rhythm, orchestrational

colors, density, special effects, overall form, introductions and endings, and methods of

accompaniment. In choosing from which albums these passages derive, special

consideration has been given to those albums previously mentioned as being award- or

acclaim-worthy. However, it is the opinion of this author that many jazz arrangers’

arrangements or albums go “under the radar” when awards or acclaim are bestowed. For

this reason, the author has transcribed any passage by these six writers, provided it fits

the other qualifications for this study (i.e. that the music was written for big band or

studio jazz orchestra, and jazz singer or singers). Each passage of transcribed music has

afterward been analyzed in the compositional areas listed above.

38
Gary Lindsay: Program Director of Studio Jazz Writing at the University of Miami Frost School
of Music.

14
15

Compositional Process

After the transcription and analysis process, the author has written a series of six

arrangements informed by the discovered techniques. In creating each of the new pieces,

the author may emulate the techniques utilized by the six writers in the areas of: melody,

harmony, voicing techniques, passing harmonies, countermelodies, guide tones, call and

response, rhythm, orchestrational colors, density, special effects, introductions and

endings, and methods of accompaniment. Emulation of the writers’ techniques has

manifested itself either directly or indirectly. In the result of direct emulation, entire

passages of the transcribed harmony, for instance, have been used within the newly

written piece. A transcribed introduction acted as the foundation for a new introduction

written by the author. However, in the result of indirect emulation, the techniques have

influenced the author to a less obvious extent. For instance, the author may have utilized

a rhythmic pattern that is similar, but not exact to, a rhythmic pattern written by one of

the selected six writers.

Four of the arrangements will be written for studio jazz orchestra and two for big

band. Each piece has a duration of four to eight minutes, and has been recorded by a

different vocalist. All of the arrangements will be produced, recorded, and mixed using

the Weeks recording studio and the Foster Building recording studio at the Frost School

of Music.39

39
These recording studios are on the campus of the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida.
Chapter 4

ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF JOHN CLAYTON

Several examples for the purpose of this study were transcribed from John

Clayton’s arrangements for Carmen McRae on her 1989 album Dream of Life. For the

purpose of this study, the author chose to transcribe passages from Clayton’s

arrangements of In Walked Bud, Sunday, and I Didn’t Know What Time It Was. For the

ease of reading, the author has transcribed passages in three grand staffs. The top grand

staff represents the five saxes, while the second grand staff represents the brass –

trumpets on the top staff and trombones on the bottom staff. The lowest grand staff is

designated for the rhythm section instruments – the piano is on the top staff and the

upright bass on the bottom staff, unless otherwise stated. In addition, each example in

this study will have measures numbered only for the ease of analysis. In other words, the

measure numbers listed do not signify the actual measure number at that point in the

piece; rather, each example will begin with measure 1.

The author has found that Clayton utilized rhythm in significant manners. For

example, in the opening passage of his arrangement of In Walked Bud, Clayton writes a

response to each initial brass statement (see Example 4.1). For instance, measures 2 and

3 for the trumpets are an extension of the trumpets’ initial rhythm starting in the pickup

measure. Likewise, the rhythm written for the trombones and baritone sax in measure 3

is simply an answer to their initial rhythmic statement in measure 1. Furthermore,

together the trumpets’ and the trombones’ statements utilize a “call and response”

technique; in this case, the trumpets’ call followed by the trombones’ response.

16
17

Example 4.1. John Clayton, In Walked Bud, Introduction, mm. 1-3, in 4/4 time. Rhythmic

statements and responses in the brass.

Related to rhythm, one particular compositional technique that Clayton uses this

author calls the A then A’ then B (or A’’) technique. With this technique, a composer will

write an idea (A), then repeat it but alter it slightly (A’), then finally present either another

slightly altered idea (A’’) or a significantly different idea (B). This technique is not new,

and has been used for ages. It was the technique Beethoven utilized in the famous

opening of his Fifth Symphony. In the opening ‘A’ section of Sunday (See Example 4.2),

Clayton sets up a motive in measures 1 and 2 in the saxes and trombones (i.e. deemed the

A motive). From a rhythmic standpoint, the motive repeats verbatim in measures 3 and 4.

However, if one looks closely, Clayton has slightly altered the original idea, thus making

it A’. One difference lies in the saxophones in measure 3; they are now voiced with the

baritone sax playing low roots – a technique among composers commonly referred to as
18

spread voicing. Another difference in the A’ idea is apparent in measure 4; it is the

muted trumpets who finish this idea rather than the trombones. Finally, in measures 5

and 6, Clayton presents a similar phrase, yet different still (A’’). The trombones offer the

rhythmic surprise in measure 6, anticipating the brass’ previous rhythmic ideas.

Example 4.2. John Clayton, Sunday, First statement of ‘A’ section, mm. 1-6, in 4/4 time.

Use of A, A’, A’’or B technique among saxophone and brass sections.

This author also finds it interesting that the short offbeat brass pops in measures 2

and 4 of Example 4.2 take place while Carmen McRae is singing the most verbose parts

of the lyric. Clayton uses these simple rhythmic hits to accompany yet stay out of the

way of the lyric.


#
Carmen
& #˙ Ó

{
McRae

n œœœ ™™™
ùœ ™
# ˙ 19
& #‰ ˙˙˙
Saxes
?#
Clayton also demonstrates a technique this author∑ calls rhythmic extension of an
#

{
initial idea. In Example 4.3, the pickup into the first bridge offers the initial idea, a single
# œ œ
the# brass.
tutti
shot for& Ó Clayton’s response in the measure 1 is‰to write two œ brass.
J shots in the
Brass
œ 3 is three œ
œ shots. Since œ.
œ of the song
?#this,
Following tuttithe pickup into measure

the lyric

{
revolves around counting days, here Clayton seems to be counting shots – presenting the
##
& ∑
listener with one, then two, then three.
Rhythm Dº7/A

˙™
?##
œ œ
Example 4.3. John Clayton, Sunday, First statement of the bridge, mm. 1-4, in 4/4 time.

Rhythmic statements and responses in the brass.

# 1 2 3
Carmen
& # Œ ‰ j
œ œ œ œ œ Ó Ó
#œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ ˙

{
McRae
but then comes Thurs - day gee it's long it ne - ver goes by
# w
& # ww
w ∑ ∑ ∑
Saxes
?## ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
>œ.
# œ œ œ. œ œ œ #>œœœ > >
Œ ùùù#œœœœ #œœœœ Ó
>
‰ nnœœœœ
>œœ >œœ œœ Œ ‰ #œœœ
& # Ó Œ
ù
œ œœ œœ œ œJ
J
œ œ œ œœ>œœ œ# œ œœœ.
ùùœœœ # œœœ bn œœœœ
Brass
œ œ œ. œœœ b œœœœ # œœœ
?## Ó Œ Ó Œ ‰ J œ œ Œ ‰ #œ

{
J
œ™ ˙ ˙
# ™
& # ‰ œ ˙ ˙
pno
∑ ∑ Ó
C©‹…11 F©13 C9(#11) nœ œ
Rhythm
?## œ œ #œ nœ œ œ
˙ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ
Bass sounds 8av lower than written

Rhythmically, Clayton also uses repetition at key moments of an arrangement. In

Example 4.4, Clayton’s last ‘A’ section of Sunday offers a one-measure rhythmic motive

for the brass which simply repeats three times. This particular rhythm – one quarter note
2 bars before Last A Section - Sunday
9

# 20
bbb
3 3
& # Ó Œ œ œ œ

{
Carmen
McRae œ œ œ œ œ gliss.

followed bygontwo
- na die
eighth notes – also helps the overall groove But af - ter
by accenting part of the
## > bbb
3
& Ó ‰ >

œ nœ b œ œ œ j
b œ ˙
backbeat, beat two of each measure. At the same time,œ the saxophone section offers an
Saxes
?## Ó >j
‰ œ nœ b œ
inexact repetition of a two-measure rhythmicœ idea, œ anticipating
œ™ b ˙ measures 2 andbbb
œ 1 of

{
beat
3
4. These##repetitions of rhythm serve to provide predictable accent > points for the singer, b
& ∑ Œ ‰ bn œœœœ ˙˙˙˙ bb
J
>
n œœœœ ˙˙˙˙
allowing
Brass her to choose whether she wishes to sing close to or far from the original
?## b
∑ Œ ‰ J bbb
melody and rhythm.

{
# drums >
& # V V V V Œ ‰ VJ V V bbb
Example 4.4.
Rhythm John Clayton, Sunday, Final ‘A’ section,A7mm. 1-4, in 4/4 time. Exact
?## A7 b
B¨9(#5)
œ œ œ bbb
œ œ œ #œ œ œ
rhythmic repetition in the brass, and inexact rhythmic repetition in the saxophones.

1 2 3 4

ùœ™
b 3 j
&b b Ó œ œ bœ œ œ Ó ‰ j j œ

{
Carmen
McRae J œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ
¿
™ ùœ ˙ ™
Pay - day, that's my fun - day 'cause I get a groove on sun - day, that's
bbb ‰ b œj ˙ ™
œ œ™ œ™ ùb œJ ˙
& j œ ‰ j
œ
œ ˙™
œnœ

ùb œJ ˙ ™ ‰ b œJ ˙ ™ œù
Saxes ff
? bb j Ϫ Ϫ j
b œnœ œ ‰ œ

{
œœ^ œœ œœ ^ œœ^ b œœœ œœœ b œ^
& b bb Œ œœ œœ œœ Œ Œ œœœ bœ œ
n œœœ œœœ Œ Œ œœ œ œ Œ Œ nb œœœ bnb œœœœ œœœœ Œ

œœ^ b œœœ œœœ ^ œœœ^ b œœœ œœœ b œ^ œ œ
b œœœœ b œœ œœ n œœœ bn œœœ œœœ
ff
œœ
Brass
? bb Œ œ œ Œ Œ n œœ œœ Œ Œ œbœ œ Œ
n Œ Œ
b

{
E¨Ð A¨9(13) GŒ†7(b5) C7[åÁ] F9 A¨9 D¨7¸ G¨9(#11)

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b
&b b
Rhythm œ œ œ œ bœ œ nœ b œ œ
?b
bb œ œ nœ bœ œ bœ nœ

A special case of rhythmic repetition is a musical technique this author calls riff

recurrence. A riff is a short, non-improvised, repetitive melodic idea which easy for a
21

listener to remember.40 In Example 4.5, Clayton uses a well-known blues riff in the

saxophones, which largely takes place in between the singer’s vocal phrases. The

placement of the riff, as well as the familiar nature of the repetition, again allows McRae

to phrase the melody and rhythm any way she desires. As the unison riff continues, the

tension continually rises at each repetition. Clayton adds the trombones, then the

trumpets in upper octaves, to further add to the excitement.

Example 4.5. John Clayton, Sunday, Tag section, mm. 1-8, in 4/4 time. Rhythmic

repetition
10 through riff recurrence.
Tag - Sunday
(straight)
bb j j3 j
1 2 3 3 4
Carmen
& b b œ œ œj œ œ œ œ Ó Œ b œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ
œ œ œ Œ ‰b ¿ ‰ j œ œ œ
œ œ

{
McRae
groove on sun - day, that's the day you hear me say - in that that's the day now, I'm talk - in' bout
b ˙™ . - - - - . -- - -
&b b ‰ j ‰
œ œj ùœ bùœ ùœ Œ ‰ j ‰
œ œj ùœ œ bùœ ùœ
Œ ‰ j
˙™
œ œ œ œ
- -
ùb œ ùœ ùb œ ùœ
- - - -
‰ œj ‰ œ. œj ù-œ Œ ‰ œj ‰ œ. œj ù-œ œ ‰ œj
Saxes
? bb œ Œ
b

{
b b œœ^ b œ œœ Œ
& b b Œ nb œœ bn œœœ œœ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
b œœ^ n œœ œ
Brass
? b Œ n œœ b œ
œ œœœ œ
bb Œ ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó Œ ‰J

{
(piano voicing below lead notes)
b œj œj ”
b“œ
F7(b9)
B¨9(b13) E¨7(#9) G7 C7½
D¨7¸ G¨9(#11)
bœ ‰ ‰ œ Ó œ bœ œ bœ œ
& bV V
bb V V œ ‰‰œ Ó J‰ ‰ J Ó J‰‰J Ó J‰ ‰J Ó
n œJ œ
Rhythm b œ J œ nœ bœ œ bœ
? b bœ œ bœ nœ œ œ nœ œœ œ
bb bœ bœ œ

5 6 7 8
b
Carmen
&b b œ œ
Œ
œ œ
Œ
œ œ
Œ
œ œ
Œ bœ bœ œ nœ œ œ

{
McRae
Mon - day, tues - day, we'nds' - day, thurs - day, fri - day sat - ur - day but
b . - - - . - - -
&b b ‰ œ j œ - bœ Œ ‰ j ‰ j œ - bœ Œ Œ
œù œ ù ù œù œ ù ùœ
œ œ
œ
- b -œ - b œ-
ù ùœ of Music, œ ùKennedy,
ùœ Oxford
. TheœjOxford - jnd œ.rev. Ed.
j -
ù œ ùœ-Michael
Saxes
?40b "Riff."
bb ‰ œ œ- œ Dictionary Œ ‰ œ2 ed. ‰ Œ ŒMusic

{
Online, Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/opr/t237/e8537
b œ- œ-
œ. œ ùœ -œ ùb œ ùœ
-
œ
b
&b b ∑ Ó Œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ùœ œ ù ù Ó
- - J J - -
œ ùœ œ- ù ù œ ùœ œ- ù ù
.
œ - b œ œ œ. - b œ œ
Brass
?b ‰ œ
bb J Œ ‰ J ‰ J Ó

“”
F7(b9) B¨9(b13) E¨7(#9) G7 C7½

b bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ
{
bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ
V
b
&b b Ó Œ J ‰‰J Ó J‰ ‰ J Ó J‰‰J Ó J‰‰J Ó
b œ œ nœ b œ
Rhythm
?b Ó Œ nœ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ
bb bœ œ
n œ 22

(Example 4.5 continued)


5 6 7 8
b
Carmen
&b b œ œ
Œ
œ œ
Œ
œ œ
Œ
œ œ
Œ bœ bœ œ nœ œ œ

{
McRae
Mon - day, tues - day, we'nds' - day, thurs - day, fri - day sat - ur - day but

b . - - - - . - - - -
&b b ‰ œ j œ bùœ ùœ
Œ ‰ j ‰ j œ bùœ ùœ
Œ Œ
œù œ œ œ œù œ
- -
ùb œ ùœ ùb œ ùœ
j - - j j - -
œ ù-œ œ ù-œ
Saxes
? b ‰ œ. œ Œ ‰ œ ‰ œ. œ Œ Œ
bb

{
- -
œ œ. -
œ ùœ -œ ùbb œœ ùœœ
b
&b b ∑ Ó Œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ùœ œ ù ù Ó
J J
œ. - bùœ- -
ùœ œ. - ùb œ
-
ùœ
-
Brass œ ùœ -œ œ œ ùœ -œ
? bb ‰ J Œ ‰ J ‰ J Ó
b

{
F7(b9) B¨9(b13) E¨7(#9) G7 C7½
b bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ
&b b J ‰ ‰ J Ó J ‰ ‰ J Ó J ‰ ‰ J Ó J ‰ ‰ J Ó
Rhythm
?b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
bb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ

A quick line of sixteenth notes help to break the tension of the riff recurrence,

while driving the section to a break (See Example 4.6). Afterwards, starting in measure 3

of the example, Clayton utilizes rhythmic repetition once more, this time for the rhythm

section.
23

Example 4.6. John Clayton, Sunday, End of tag section, mm. 1-6, in 4/4 time. Rhythmic
punctuation following riff recurrence, rhythmic repetition in rhythm section.
11

‰ œJ ‰ œ œ ûœ ûœ œ
1 2 3 4
b 3
Carmen
&b b œ œ Ó J
Œ ‰ œj œ ‰ nœj Œ ‰ œj Œ

{
McRae
sun - day that's the day when I'm with
b
&b b Ó Ó ∑ ∑ ∑
?b
Saxes
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
bb
œ^
b œ œ nœ œ bb œœœ
&b b Ó œ œ œ œœ œ œn œ œ Œ Ó ∑ ∑
œœœ ^
œ
Brass
œ œ œ œœ n œœ œ n œœ œœ nbbb œœœœ
?b Ó Œ Ó ∑ ∑
bb

{
B¨7½
^ voice under lead note
F9
bœ œ œ
E¨‹…11 A¨9 D¨‹…11

G¨9
b w ‰ J Œ ˙
&b b nw
w bnb œœœ Œ Ó ‰ J Œ b˙
nww bœ
?b œ œ œ nœ œ
‰ œ Œ ˙
Rhythm
bb Œ Ó ‰ bœ Œ b˙
J J

5 6
b j j
&b b ‰ Œ ‰ Œ

{
Carmen
McRae
bœ œ œ bœ œ ¿
no - bo - dy else but you!
b >œ-
&b b ∑ Œ ‰ nœ
J
Ó
>-œ
Saxes
œœ
? bb ∑ Œ ‰ Ó

{
b J
>-œ
b œ
&b b ∑ Œ ‰ nœ
J
Ó
>-œ
œœœ
Brass
?b ∑ Œ ‰ Ó
bb J

{
B7
j B/E j E¨9(#11)
V V VJ nbnœœœ Ó
b Drum fill
œ
pno
& b b ‰ ## nœœœ Œ ˙ ‰
j
V
nœ ##˙˙ œœ
3
Rhythm
? bb ‰ j >-
b nœ Œ n˙ Œ ‰ bœ Ó
J
24

Clayton’s choices in instrumentation and voicing are also worth ample discussion.

In his writing, Clayton seems to think sectionally about the band. That is, his ideas tend

to be written for only one section – i.e. a passage for trombones, a saxophone soli, etc.

For example, in the last bridge section of Clayton’s arrangement of I Didn’t Know What

Time It Was, he writes a lower register unison idea for the baritone and tenor saxophones

(See Example 4.7). Though only three saxophones, the strength of their unison balances

with the brass section – which also acts together as a unit, playing harmonic voicings

largely in rhythmic stabs. In fact, if one refers to every previous example of Clayton’s

writing in this study, one will see further evidence that he is thinking sectionally about

the band.
25

Bridge - I Didn't know what time it was (2'13")


Example 4.7. John Clayton, I Didn’t Know What Time It Was, Last bridge, mm. 1-8, in
12
4/4 time. Section writing and “unison-to-voicing” writing.
q = 130 swing
b 1
‰ œj
2 3
&b Ó Œ œ œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ

{
Carmen
McRae œ œ œ œ œ œ
Gra - nd to be a - live, young, mad, your
b
&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Saxes
? bbTenors j œœœœ >œ ‰ œJ >œ >œ ‰ œ œ
Œ œœœ
and Bari
Ó œ ‰ œ œ œ œ Œ

{
J œ
3
œ ˙ œœ # œœ œœ œœ n# œœ nb œœ
b œ œœœ ˙˙˙ Œ œœ Œ œœ Œ œœ ‰ œœJ nœœ b œœ
&b ∑ Œ
œ ˙ œ # œœ
œ œœœ ˙˙˙ œ œ œœ œœ n œœ b œœ
Œ œœ Œ œœ ‰ œœ # œœ nnœœ
Brass
? bb ∑ Œ Œ œ
J

{
‰ >j ‰ >
> > > œj
bb V V V V V V V V V V V V
drums œ œ œ
& ∑
D13(#11) GΠ7
Rhythm
? bb Ó
B¨Ð
œ œ
AŒ†7(b5)/D œ D7(#11)œ œ AŒ†7(b5)/D œ
Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ

œ ‰ œ ™ Œ ‰ œj œ
j
4 5 6 7 8
b 3
&b ‰ j Œ ‰ j ‰ œ œÓ
ùœ œ œ œ™
Carmen
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
œ
McRae
your
ours a - lone. So grand to see face, feel your touch, hear your voice, say I'm all your own

&b
b ∑ Ó Œ ùœ œ ˙ ™ œ œ ˙™ Œ œœ œœ b œœ œœ
œ œ ˙™ œ œ ˙™
bb œœ œœ œ œ
Ν
Saxes
? bb œ bœ
Œ Ó Ó Œ œ œ

{
œ
b œœ œœ œ œgliss.
&b œœ œœ nœœœ œœœ ww ∑ ∑ ∑
w
Brass ˙˙ ˙˙ ww
w
w
?b ˙ ˙ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
b ˙

&b V V V V V VV V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b Piano Comps

GŒ†7 œ œ E¨‹…11
GŒ†7 E¨Ð
œ C13
œ œ F‹…11 F‹…11/B¨ E¨‹…11/A¨
? bb œ œ œ œ
Rhythm
œ œœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ

26

Another technique that Clayton demonstrates is that of unison-to-voicing or

octaves-to-voicing (See example 4.7). In measure 1, he writes octave B-flats for every

brass player. Directly following the B-flats, the trumpets and trombones each spread out,

forming a voicing. This technique is often used to provide interest, as a listener’s ear can

grow tired of a single texure. In addition, unison must be used when the melody note

appears in a lower register, when all possible voicings sound low and muddy. Another

example of Clayton’s octaves-to-voicing technique is shown in measure 7 of Clayton’s

introduction to “In Walked Bud (See example 4.8).” Here every saxophone and brass

player begins the phrase with D# then E in various octaves, which is then followed by an

E7#9#5 voicing. This dissonant dominant 7 voicing becomes that much more powerful

when the stark contrast of the octaves precedes it.

Example 4.8. John Clayton, In Walked Bud, Introduction, m. 7, in 4/4 time. Octave-to-
voicing technique.
27

Another technique that John Clayton makes use of in his writing is special effects.

A gliss, short for glissando, is an effect used to connect two notes that are at least a whole

step away from each other. The result is a “sliding through” many or all of the pitches in

between. In Example 4.9, Clayton utilizes glissandi in the saxophones to create a

smeared effect, finally arriving on the destination voicing. In addition to glissandi,

Clayton also makes extensive use of scoops, which are smeared approaches from below

the target note, produced entirely with the embouchure.41 The glissandi and scoops also

serve to paint the mood of the lyric. The aggressive nature of the special effects in the

saxophones match well with the lyrics: “Byas played a mean sax. Mister Max Roach

beat a mean ax. Monk was thumpin’.”

Clayton, like most arrangers of this style, typically does not write two separate

sections of the band (e.g. saxophones and trombones) to be playing voicings at the same

time. For instance, while the saxophones are playing a glissando into their voicings in

measures 1 and 2 of Example 4.9, Clayton is sure to write for the trombones a line in

octaves and unisons. When two sections of the band are both playing voicings at the

same time, the voicings from one section may easily smear with the voicing from another

section. For this reason, when Clayton voices more than one section of the band, the

sections will play at differing times. Otherwise, he writes notes that fit exactly, or at least

support, the other section’s harmony. In measure 4 of Example 4.9, the saxophones notes

are an exact replica of the trombone notes playing simultaneously.

41
"Appoggiatura." Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/J400300
{
VJ V V V V
light drm fill
& ∑ ‰
#œ ™
Rhythm C/E 7
? Ó Œ ‰ j œ ‰ 28
œ œ œ

Example 4.9. John Clayton, In Walked Bud, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-5, in 4/4 time.
Glissando and scoop effects in saxophones.
1 2 3 4 5
& œœ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ ‰ j j
b œ œ œ œj œj
Carmen
œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ
Ϫ
McRae

{
By-as played a mean sax, mis ter max roach beat a mean ax monk was thum - pin',

.j glissnœj
.
& Œ ‰# #œœœglisnsœœœœŒ Œ ‰#œœœ n# œœŒ ∑ Ó œœ Œ ##œœœglissn. œœœ bnœœ œ
#œ œ nœ bb œœ œœ b œœ ùù œ
œœgliss. œœùn b œœ œœ
ùù b œ œ
Saxes
? œœ b œ nœœ œœ #
∑ ∑ ∑ Ó œ Œ

{
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
œ ˙™ b œ œ. œn œ. b œœ b œœœ bnb œœœ n œœ
b œn
? ‰ œ ˙™
˙ œœœœ œ œ nœ œn œœ
Brass

J ‰J ‰ nœJ Ó ∑

{
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
(drums 2-feel) Pno comps more actively

œ #œ œ ™
AŒ†7 E7[áÆ] AŒ†7 D9(#11) G7[áÆ] CÐ
? œ œ j ˙ œ œ œ
Rhythm
‰ J œ™ #œ œ ‰ œ #˙ ˙ œ™ œ
J œ œ J
J
3

As a manner of reinforcing an idea, the rhythm section was an important tool for

Clayton as well. In Example 4.10, the rhythm section essentially reinforces the rhythm of

the saxophones in measure 1, then similarly holds a chord in measure 2. This suspension

of time allows the listener to focus on Carmen McRae’s final phrase: “and then the joint

started jumpin’.” Following this, in the first measure of the bridge, the rhythm section

also reinforces and strengthens the other ideas. The first two eighth note hits in the

rhythm section help to reinforce McRae’s first rhythm at the bridge, and the hit on beat

four solidifies the brass and saxophone hit in the same place. Finally, in the second

measure of the bridge, the bass and drums help to reinforce the rhythmic hits in the

saxophones.
29

Example 4.10. John Clayton, In Walked Bud, Second ‘A’ section into the bridge, mm. 1-
5, in 4/4 time. Rhythm section reinforcement of other musical ideas.
3

1 Bridge

œ™ œ
Carmen
& œ œ nœ ‰ j ‰ Œ
œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ
#œ œ œ œ
McRae

{
in walked bud and then the joint star-ted jump - in' ev-'ry hip-ster real-ly dug bud soon he hit town
^
& ˙ ™™ ùb œ œ b œ œ nœ œ ˙ ‰ œj
3
ùùœœ
Ó Ó
˙ b œœ œœ w
w œ œœ œ
? ˙˙˙ ™™™ ùb œ œ b œ œ nœ œ ˙ œ^ ùùœœ
3
‰ b œœ
Saxes
#b œœnnœœ w
w Ó œ œœ Ó
J

{
3 3
œ^
& ∑ ∑ Ó Œ œœœ ∑
œ ˙ œ ^

~
~~~ ~~
Brass œœœ
? ∑ ∑ Ó Œ œ ˙ œ œ ∑

{
& V V ‰ VJ V V + V V V V
^
V VΠΠV
drum fill HH keeps on 2 & 4 ride cym - 4 feel

œ Œ Œ ^
Rhythm C6 C6 AŒ†7 A‹…11 AŒ†7/G F9
œ
Ϫ
? ˙ œ œ #œ œ Ó j
œ œ w œ œ œ

In transcribing and studying the preceding excerpts written by John Clayton, this
2nd A of Trombone Solo

author has concluded that Clayton’s writing is heavily dependent on driving rhythms.
1 2 3 4 5
Carmen
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
McRae
After an original statement of a melody and countermelody, he often follows it with a
‰ b œj œoften
3
repetition&or a∑melodic or rhythmic
∑ answer. ∑ He also Œ makesj œ™
œ œ greatÓ use of riffs, ∑
œ for
œ œ œ™ j
Saxes
œ œ œJ ‰ b œœ œœ nœœ
? ∑
lengthy periods of time. All ∑ of this serves∑ to provide Œ œ a predictable Ó
‰ b œJand œ œsolidœ œ nfoundation
œ œ ∑

{
3
û
for the singer. œ œ. œœœœ œœœœ ˙˙˙˙ ûûœœœ œœœ ˙˙˙ ûûûœœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ ûûœœ œœ ˙˙ j
& Ó ‰J ûœ œ œ œ ûœ œ ˙ ‰bbb œœœ œœœb œœœ œœœ b œœœ œœœ n œœ ∑
b œ œ œ œ œ œn œœ
œ œ ˙ œ œ
. œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œb œ œ ˙ ˙
? Ó ‰ œ œ œœ œœ ˙˙ b œœ œœ ˙˙ n œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œb œœ œb œœ ˙b ˙˙ œ nœ œ
b b œœ nœœœb œœ œœœ b œœ œœœ nnœœœ
Brass

J ‰ b œJ n œ œ œb œ œ ∑

{
œ

& ∑ V VV V V V V V V V V V V V V V VŒ Ó
A‹…11
œ
B¨13
œ œ bœ bœ
AŒ†7 E¨13
bœ bœ
DΠ7 G7
œ
œ œ œ bœ
Rhythm
? ∑ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó
Chapter 5

ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF MARTY PAICH

Examples for this chapter of the study were transcribed from Marty Paich’s

arrangements for Mel Tormé’s 1960 album Swings Shubert Alley. For the purpose of this

study, the author chose to transcribe passages from Paich’s arrangements of Too Close

For Comfort and Sleepin’ Bee. Because of the unique instrumentation that Paich utilized,

the author has transcribed passages utilizing one staff per instrument. Directly below the

staff designated for Mel Tormé, the reader will find a staff for each of the following: alto

saxophone, tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone, horn in F, trumpet 1, trumpet 2,

trombone, tuba, double bass, and drums.

Paich’s choice to write for the tuba and the horn is interesting, since these are not

standard instruments in the typical jazz band. Their use became synonymous with “West

Coast jazz” style – of which Paich was certainly a proponent.42 Both the tuba and horn

lend warmth to the overall sound, and are useful for blending with and reinforcing other

instruments. In fact, though it is a brass instrument, the horn is even utilized in Classical

woodwind quintets for its capability to blend.

As was the case with John Clayton, Marty Paich also wrote parts for the rhythm

section that support and reinforce the horn figures (see Example 5.1). The lack of piano

in many of Paich’s arrangements is striking. Historically, a piano, guitar or banjo has

been utilized with large jazz ensembles to contribute an additional rhythmic, harmonic

and melodic component to the band. Paich’s choice not to include any of these

instruments provides his arrangements with a less complicated, more transparent

42
New Grove Encyclopedia of Jazz, 2nd ed., s.v. “West Coast Jazz.”

30
31

texture. In Example 5.1, Paich uses the bass in unison with the tuba to strengthen each

other’s part. The drummer, while continuing to keep time, also plays accented “kicks”

supporting many of the horn figures.


32

Example 5.1. Marty Paich, Too Close For Comfort, End of first ‘A’ section, mm. 1-5, in
4/42 time. Rhythm section reinforcement of horn figures.
1
? œœ œ˙ œ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ Ó Œœ œ
Mel Torme
J J
so close. Be soft,

° >j > j >


& Ó Œ ‰ >œJ Œ ‰ >œ Œ ‰b>œ Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ™ ˙ ™ Œ
Alto Sax.
J J
fp

œ bœ ™ ˙ ™
>œ b >œ >œ # >œ
? Ó J J J œ œ œ œ #œ
Ten. Sax. Œ ‰ Œ ‰ Œ ‰ Œ ‰ J Œ ‰J J Œ
fp

?
¢ ∑ ∑ Ó Œ ‰ j j Œ
Bari. Sax.
œ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ™ ˙ ™
fp

° ‰ >j
& ∑ ∑ Ó Œ j > Œ
œ œ™ ˙ ™
Hn.
œ œœ œ œ
fp

& Ó ‰ œj œ >œ ‰ œj œ >œ ‰ œj œ >œ ‰ œj œ >œ ‰ œj œ >œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ >œ™ ˙ ™ Œ


Tpt. J
fp

> > > > >


Tpt. & Ó Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ b œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj ‰ œj nœ >œ œ œ œœœ œ œ
J œ™ ˙ ™ Œ
fp

? Ó
>œ >œ >œ >
œ œ œ
>œ œœ œ œ >œ ™ ˙ ™
Tbn. Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J ‰J J Œ
fp

? Ó
¢ Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ jŒ ‰ j Œ ‰ jŒ ‰ j j Œ
Tba.
#œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ™ ˙ ™
œ œ
fp

œ œ nœ œF©Œ†7(b5) œ bœ ™ ˙ ™
CMa7 B13 EŒ†7(b5) A7[åÁ] DŒ†7 F©7¸ G7¸ D¨<7(#11)
? #œ Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ j Œ ‰œ œ œ œ #œ J Œ
Db. J œ J

¿™
kicks > > > > >
¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿œ ‰ œj œ ¿œ ‰ ¿œj ¿œ ¿œ ‰ ¿œj ¿œ ¿œ ‰ œj œ ¿œ j j
light
‰œ¿ œ œ VVVV
drum fill
/
Œ ¿ Œ ¿
Dr.
33

In Example 5.1, one may see that Paich’s harmony is not highly complex. Paich

largely uses the tuba and baritone sax to reinforce the low root of the chord. The pitch

order continues in some order: the 3rd, the 7th, a form of the 9th, and a form of the 5th.

Paich’s writing is also highly linear – meaning that at times he is concerned more

about the horizontal aspect than about the vertical chord structures43. In measures 1

through 3, the alto and tenor saxophones are traveling in downward half step motion, in

spite of the occasional dissonance with the lead trumpet melody. Paich’s linear writing is

also seen in measure 4, where the bass, tuba and baritone saxophone parts work in

contrary motion with the horn, and alto and tenor saxophone parts. In Example 5.2, he

writes two low flat-5 notes for the baritone sax at the start of measures 3 and 5. This is

typically lower than most arrangers would write this particular part of the chord.

However, Paich has undoubtedly done so to keep the integrity of the line. His linear

writing is also evident on beat 4 of measures 3 and 5, where Paich sacrifices a complete

voicing in order to have a lead alto saxophone part that connects the line chromatically.

Directly before the bridge of the opening chorus (See Example 5.3), Paich demonstrates

his linear writing once again. This time he writes a series of four short stabs for the

horns, each instrument maintaining its original direction. The linear writing also carries

to the bass part, and can be seen in Example 5.3, and in Example 5.7 – where Paich

simply writes a slowly descending G major scale for the bassist.

As we witnessed in John Clayton’s writing, Marty Paich also makes extensive use

of the A then A’ then B (or A’’) technique. In measure 1 of Example 5.2, Paich offers up

43
Julian Rushton. “Linear." Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/16700
(accessed April 1, 2013).
34

the A idea in the background horns: an eighth note on the “and of beat 1”, and a quarter

note on beat 3. In measure 2, he repeats the idea (A’), only altering some of the notes to

fit the new B7 chord. Finally, in measure 3, he adds to the original idea by extending the

rhythm (A’’). All three ideas stay out of the way of Tormé’s vocal line, taking place

almost entirely in the space when he does not sing, or while he is holding a long note.
35

Marty Paich
CD: "Mel For
Example 5.2. Marty Paich, Too Close Torme Comfort,
Swings Shubert Alley"
First ‘A’ section, mm. 1-6, in 4/4
time. Linear writing, and demonstration of A, A’, A’’ technique.

œ œ ˙™ œ œ Œ Œ œb œ ˙ ™ œ bœ ™ ‰ Œ œ œ œ b˙ œ œ™ ‰ Œ œ œ
1

Mel Torme
?
be wise, be smart, be have my heart, don't up - set your cart when she's

° . .
‰ œjŒ œŒ ‰ œjŒ œ Œ
. .
‰ œjŒ œ b œ œ™ œjÓ
. .
‰ œjŒ œ œ b œ ™ œjÓ
Alto Saxophone &
mf

œ œ. # œ œ. n œ œ. œ. # œ ™ œ n œ œ. œ. œ™ œ
? ‰ Œ Œ ‰JŒ Œ
J ‰JŒ JÓ ‰JŒ JÓ
Tenor Saxophone
mf

j . .
‰ œ Œ œŒ ‰ œjŒ œ Œ ‰b œjŒ œ. œ. œ™ œjÓ ‰b œjŒ œ. œ.
œ™ œ
?
¢
Baritone Saxophone

mf

° ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Horn in F &

Trumpet 1 in Bb & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

Trumpet 2 in Bb & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

?
œ œ. œ œ. b œ œ. œ. b œ ™ œ b œ œ. œ. b œ ™ œ
Trombone ‰J Œ Œ ‰ J Œ Œ ‰JŒ JÓ ‰JŒ JÓ
mf

?
Tuba ¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

CMa7 B7[áÆ] EŒ†7(b5) A7[áÆ] DŒ†7(b5) G7[áÆ]

Double Bass
? œ œ œœ œ #œ#œ œ œ b œœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ œbœ
b œnœ

ride ¿ ¿¿¿¿¿ 4
/ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘
Œ ¿ Œ¿
Drum Set
36

Example 5.3. Marty Paich, Too Close For Comfort, End of first ‘A’ section, mm. 1-3, in
4
4/4 time. Linear writing in each instrument part.
1
œ œ b œù œ
Œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ œ
3
? ‰ J Ó Œ ‰ J
Mel Torme J
she's too close for com - fort Too close, too

° ‰ j Œ ‰ œj Œ j
& j Œ ‰
œ
j Œ ‰
œ œ ‰ Œ Ó
Alto Sax.
œ

œ œ œ œ œ
Ten. Sax.
? ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ J ‰ Œ Ó

j
¢
? ‰ œ Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ j ‰ Œ Ó
Bari. Sax.
œ

° ‰ j Œ j ‰ Œ
& j Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ ‰
œ bœ
Ó
œ
Hn.
œ œ

j
Tpt. & ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œJ Œ œ ‰ Œ
J Ó

& ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ j
œ ‰ Œ Ó
Tpt.
œ œ

œ œ
Tbn.
? ‰ œJ Œ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ œJ Œ J ‰ Œ Ó

¢
? ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ j ‰ Œ Ó
Tba.
œ

? œ
C6
œ œCMa7/B œ C6/A
œ œ
C6/G
œ bœ
F7
œ œ
Db. œ œ

‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ
Dr. / V V V V V V V V V V V V
37

Rhythmic repetition, as it was in Clayton’s writing, is common in Paich’s

arrangements. In Example 5.4, Paich uses one rhythm as the horn section motive for

almost an entire ‘A’ section. The rhythm in this case happens to be imitating the rhythm

Tormé sings, simply delayed by two beats.


38

Example 5.4. Marty Paich, Too Close For Comfort, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-5, in 4/4
Too Close for Comfort - 2nd A section
time. Paich’s use of rhythmic repetition and imitation. 3

œ Œ Œ œb œ ˙ ™ b˙ ™ bœ œ
1
? Ó Œœ œ œ Œ Œœ œ œ #œ œ Œ Œœ œ
3
Mel Torme
Be soft, be sweet, but be dis creet Don't go off your feet

°
Alto Sax. & ˙™ Œ Œ œ œ œŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ
œœ œ
Œ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ œœ œ Œ

? <b> ˙ ™ Œ
œœ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ #œ œ œ œœ œ
Ten. Sax. Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ

?
Bari. Sax. ¢ <b> ˙ ™
Œ Œ Œ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ
œœ œ
Œ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ
œœ œ
Œ
œœ œ

°
& Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ
˙™ œœ œ
Hn.
œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ

Tpt. & ˙™ Œ Œ œ œ œŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ œ œ œŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ bœ œ œ Œ

Tpt. & ˙™ Œ Œ œ œ œŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ œ œ œŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ bœ œ œ Œ

˙™
Tbn.
? Œ Œ œ œ œŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ œ œ œŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ œœ œ Œ

?
Tba. ¢ <b> ˙ ™
Œ Œ Œ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ
œœ œ
Œ Œ œœ œ Œ Œ
œœ œ
Œ
œœ œ

? <b> ˙ ™ Œ
CMa7 B7[åÁ] C13/E A7[åÁ] B¨13/D
œ# œ bœ œ œœ œœ
Db. œœ œ nœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œbœ

light
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿ ¿
V VVV
drum fill 4
/ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘
Œ ¿ Œ¿
Dr.
39

Example 5.5. Marty Paich, Too Close For Comfort, End of first ‘B’ section, mm. 1-3, in
4/4
6 time. Another instance of Paich’s rhythmic repetition and imitation.

1 bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ
Mel Torme
? ‰ J ‰ J J ‰ ‰ J J ‰ ‰ b œJ œ œ ˙
J ‰ ‰ J
close to know just when to say when.

° ∑ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ j Œ
Alto Sax. & bœ

œ œ œ bœ
? ∑ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ
Ten. Sax.

? ‰ œj Œ
¢
∑ ‰ œ Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ
Bari. Sax. J œ œ

°
& ∑ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ
œ #œ nœ
Hn.
œ

œ
& ∑ ‰ œ Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ bœ Œ
Tpt. J J J

& ∑ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ bœ Œ
Tpt. J J J J

œ
Tbn.
? ∑ ‰ J Œ ‰ œJ Œ ‰ #œJ Œ ‰ nœJ Œ

?
¢
∑ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j Œ
Tba.
œ œ œ
œ
C6/E A7(b13) D7(#9) G7(#9)
? #œ œ
œ œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œj Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œJ Œ
Db. J J

/ V V V V ‰ V™ ‰ V™ ‰ V™ ‰ V™
kick each hit
Dr.
40

This same imitative rhythms appears many times throughout the chart. In

Example 5.5, the horns play the same offbeat rhythm that Tormé sings, but consistently

delayed by one beat. The effect acts to punctuate the lyric at this particular point in the

tune: “When…to… say…when.”

Paich occasionally offers a break from his horn writing, by paring down the

texture to simply the bass, the drums, and Tormé’s vocals (See Example 5.6). When the

horn section returns at measure 4, the listener’s palate is refreshed, adding more potency

to their entrance. Here, the horns are once again imitating the vocal melody and rhythm.

The imitation is so distinct that a listener might even be able to hear Paich thinking the

phrase “Oh no, not again” as he was writing the horns’ response to Tormé’s lyric.

Paich also offers a similar amount of silence after the horn-filled introduction of

Sleepin’ Bee. This also helps to provide space for the entrance of the vocals, allowing the

listener to focus on an unencumbered vocal melody and lyric (See Example 5.7). When

the horn section returns, it is once again a strong (albeit short) and surprising statement,

aided by the Forte-piano dynamic. The horns form a chord on the II of the tonal center,

a tritone away from the traditional V7 chord that typically appears here. This II chord

offers that much more of a surprise to the listener.


41

Example 5.6. Marty Paich, Too Close For Comfort, Beginning of first ‘B’ section, mm.
1-5, in 4/4 time. Use of silence, and imitation. 5

œ b œù œ b œ œ œ 3œ œ œ™ b œù œ
œ œ œ bœ ˙ ™
1
? Œ ‰J ‰ J ˙ Œ ‰ ‰J
Mel Torme
Too close, too close for com - fort, no! not a - gain! Too close, too

° j . >
Alto Sax. & œ‰ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ‰ j
œ b œ nœ œ # œ œ œû Œ Ó
(oh no, not a - gain)
> Ϟ
œ
? J‰Œ Ó b œ œ. œ # œ œ b œ
Ten. Sax. ∑ ∑ ‰J Œ Ó

? j‰ Œ Ó j >
‰ œ b œ. nœ b œ nœ œ œû Œ Ó
¢
∑ ∑
Bari. Sax.
œ

° >
& b œj ‰ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ‰ j . Œ Ó
œ œû
Hn.
œ b œ n œ b œ n œ
.
Tpt. & œJ ‰ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ‰ œj b œ nœ b œ nœ >œ œû Œ Ó

.
Tpt.
j
& œ‰ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ‰ œj b œ nœ b œ nœ >œ œû Œ Ó

. >œ œû
? œJ ‰ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ‰ œ œ #œ œ #œ Œ Ó
Tbn. J

? j‰ Œ Ó
¢
∑ ∑ ‰ j . > Œ Ó
Tba.
œ œ b œ nœ b œnœ œ œû

F7 F©º7
œ œ
C7/G
œ C7 D¨Ð D9 E9 F9
? œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ b œ nœ œ œ œ œ
Db. œ œ œ œ œ

‰ œj
Dr. / V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
42

Example 5.7. Marty Paich, Sleepin’ Bee, First ‘A’ section, mm. 1-4, in 4/4 time. Use of
silence, and strong
Sleepin' Bee -and
First 'A'surprising horn entrance.

10
1
?# Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ #œ œ
Mel Torme J Œ œ œ œ ˙ ∑
when a bee lies sleep - in' in the palm of your hand,

° # ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ
>
Alto Sax. & œ œ ˙
fp

?# ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ b>œ ˙
Ten. Sax.
fp

?# >
Bari. Sax. ¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ bœ ˙
fp

° # ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ >
Hn. & œ bœ ˙
fp

# >
Tpt. & ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ œ ˙
fp

# >
Tpt. & ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ bœ ˙
fp

>
?# œ œ ˙
Tbn. ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ
fp

?# >
Tba. ¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ bœ ˙
fp

GMa7 A¨%(#11)
?# ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ j
Db. œ™ bœ ˙

¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ ¿œ ¿œ ¿ ¿ ¿
Dr. / Œ ¿ Œ ¿ V V V V V V V V Œ ¿ Œ ¿
43

Though Paich inserts the occasional musical surprise, he often follows up his

initial musical idea with another exact replica or a slightly-altered version. The next four

measures (Example 5.8) of Sleepin’ Bee follow the same ideas as the previous measures:

Example 5.8. Marty Paich, Sleepin’ Bee, First ‘A’ section, mm. 5-8, in 4/4 time. Another
11
use of silence for horn section, then strong horn entrance.
5
˙ œ œ œ œ œ3 œ œ
?# Œ œ ˙
Mel Torme œ œ œ Œ J Ó
you're be - witched and deep in love's looked af - ter - land.

° # >
& ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ
Alto Sax. œ œ ˙
fp

œ >œ ˙
Ten. Sax.
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ
fp

?# >
¢
Bari. Sax. ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ œ ˙
fp

° # ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ >
Hn. & œ bœ ˙
fp

# >œ ˙
Tpt. & ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ
fp

# >
Tpt. & ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ bœ ˙
fp
>
?# œ œ ˙
Tbn. ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ
fp

?# >
¢
Tba. ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ œ œ ˙
fp

GMa7 BŒ†7 E7 AŒ†7 D7 AŒ†7 C‹…9


?# ˙ ˙ œ™ œ j
Db. ˙ J ˙ ˙ œ™ œ ˙

¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ ¿œ ¿œ ¿ ¿ ¿
Dr. / Œ ¿ Œ ¿ V V V V V V V V Œ ¿ Œ ¿
44

This surprising and colorful II chord was first used at the end of the introduction

(See Example 5.9) for Sleepin’ Bee. Adding to the surprise is the two-measure extension

of the form in measures 4 and 5. The length a listener expects for an introduction is

typically four or eight measures; ten measures is not common. Also yet another example

of Paich’s linear writing style appears in measure 2, demonstrated by the contrary lines

played by the alto saxophone and the bass.

On the second ‘A’ section of the arrangement, Paich introduces a new texture: a

solo trumpet with harmon mute, and saxophones playing guide tones (See Example 5.9).

Guide tones are the 3rds and 7ths of the chord, which define the chord quality. After two

measures, the saxes then spread out to form standard voicings repeatedly containing 3rds ,

7ths , and 9ths. Throughout this example, and through much of the arrangement, Paich

keeps the bass and drums simple. The bass implies a relaxed 2-feel, playing mainly half

notes, two per measure. The drums are playing a standard swing pattern with only the

occasional hit.
45

Example 5.9. Marty Paich, Sleepin’ Bee, End of introduction, mm. 1-5, in 4/4 time.
Contrary motion in outer parts and first use of colorful II chord.
10
1
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Mel Torme

° # >. j j Œ ‰ j ‰ ™
Alto Sax. & œ b œ œ Œ ‰ œ ‰ œj ‰ œj œ œ‰ œ Ó œ bœ ˙ w

bœ ™ ˙ w
Ten. Sax.
?# ∑ Ó Œ ‰ œJ Ó Œ ‰ œJ ‰

Bari. Sax. ¢
?# Œ ‰ œJ ‰ œJ Œ Ó Œ ‰ œJ Ó Œ ‰ œJ ‰b œ ™ ˙ w

° #
& ΠϪ
‰ j‰ jŒ Ó Œ ‰ j Ó Œ ‰ j ‰
Hn.
nœ œ œ œ ˙ w

Œ ‰ œ ‰ œ™
>. # j j Open
˙ w
& œ œ œ Œ ‰ œ ‰ j ‰ œj œ œ‰ œ Ó
b
J
œ
Tpt.

#
& Œ ‰ œj ‰ œj Œ ∑ Ó Œ ‰ œ ‰b œ ™ ˙ w
Tpt.
J

?# Œ #œ œ nœ œ bœ ™ ˙ w
Tbn. ‰J ‰J Œ Ó Œ ‰J Ó Œ ‰J ‰

j
Tba. ¢
?# Œ ‰ œ ‰b œJ Œ Ó Œ ‰ œj Ó Œ ‰ œj ‰b œ ™ ˙ w

C13
j
G¨7[åÁ] œ œ œ œ AŒ†7 AŒ†7
œ œ œ œœ j
A¨Ð œ bœ
‰ œ ‰b œJ Œ
J J œ œ bœ ™ ˙™
?# œ J
‰ ‰ J ‰J ‰ ‰ ‰
Db. ˙
3

¿j ¿j ¿¿ ¿¿¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ ¿
rim shot 1/2 open HH fill 3 3 3 3 3 3
¿ ¿¿¿ Œ j
/ œ ¿ Ó Œ ‰¿ Ó Œ ‰œ ‰ œ
Dr.
Œ ¿ Œ Œ
46

Example 5.10. Marty Paich, Sleepin’ Bee, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-8, in 4/4 time. Use
13
of solo muted trumpet alongside saxophone guide tones.

Ϫ
œ œ œJ œ #œ œ
1
3
Mel Torme
?# Œ
œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ ‰ œ™ ˙ Ó
Sleep on bee don't wa - ken can't be - lieve what just passed.

° # . . .
Tpt. ¢ & œ œ. œ. #œ œ
Harmon mute
∑ ∑ Ó œ œ
GMa7 AΠ7 D7
?# n˙ ˙ ˙ bœ
Db. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ

¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿œ ¿ ¿œ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ ¿ ¿
Dr. / Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿

?# Œ ‰ j œ
3 œ œ œ™ ˙ œ œ œ œ3 œ ˙™
Mel Torme œ œ œ J ‰ J Œ
she's mine for the tak - in' I'm so hap - py at last.

° #
Alto Sax. & n˙ ˙ b˙
˙ b˙ ˙ #˙ n˙
˙ b˙
?# ˙ b˙ ˙ #˙ n˙ b˙
Ten. Sax.

?# ˙ n˙
¢
Bari. Sax. ∑ ∑ Ó ˙

° # b œnœb œb œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ Œ nœ œ œ œ œ ˙ bœ œ ™
¢&
Ó nœ Ó
Tpt.
J
3

Ϫ
GMa7 F©7(#9) BŒ†7 E7 AŒ†7 D7(#9) D¨13 C7(#9)
?# ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙
Db. J ˙ ˙
¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿¿ ¿¿
/ Œ ¿ œ œ
Dr. Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿
47

The ‘B’ section begins with rhythmic pads from the saxophone section (See

Example 5.11). Pads are simply voiced-out chords, either highly rhythmic or more

sustained. In this case, the rhythm for the pads is based on the introduction (See Example

5.12). In measures 3 and 4 of Example 5.11, Paich shifted the original song harmony of

the song44 up a half-step to provide a ii – V cadence in A, before returning to the original

ii – V relationship in G major.

Example 5.11. Marty Paich, Sleepin’ Bee, First ‘B’ section, mm. 1-4, in 4/4 time. Use of
14
solo muted trumpet alongside saxophone pads.

œ™ œ œ œ™ œ bœ™ œ œ 3œ œ n ˙ ™
?# ‰ œJ œJ œ
1 3
Mel Torme J J Œ ‰ Œ
may - be I dreams, but she seems sweet, gol - den as a crown.

°
bœ ™ nœ ™
# j
Alto Sax. & ‰ #œ Œ n˙ Œ ‰ œj ‰ œj Œ j
nœ ˙
j
œ #˙
#œ ˙ nœ œ bw w
Ten. Sax.
?# ‰ J Œ Œ ‰ J ‰ J Œ

?# ‰ œJ Œ ˙ bœ ™ nœ ™
‰ #œJ ‰ œJ Œ nœ n˙ œ #˙
¢
ΠJ
Bari. Sax. J
Original Harmony: A7 D7
B13 B7(b13) E7(#9) Paich's Harmony: B¨Œ†7 E¨7 AŒ†7 D7
?# ™
3
j œ
3
Db. œ œ œ œ ˙ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œœ œ˙

¿œ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿œ ¿ œ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿j ‰ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ ¿ ¿
Dr. / Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿

44
The New Real Book, 322.
48

Example 5.12. Marty Paich, Sleepin’ Bee, Introduction, mm. 1-6, in 4/4 time. Original
8
rhythmic motive.
Intro - Sleepin' Bee

1
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Mel Torme

° # j j > . . j . . >.
& #œ œ. œ. œ™#œ œ œœJ ‰ Œ ‰œ œ œ œœ‰œ ˙ Œ ‰œ œ œ œ™ œj œ b œœ Œ ‰œj
Alto Sax.
J J

?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Ten. Sax.

œ ˙
?# Œ ‰#œJ ‰ œJ Œ ‰nœJ Œ ˙ Œ ‰ œJ ‰ œJ Œ ‰nœJ Œ ˙
¢
‰JŒ Œ ‰ œ‰œŒ
Bari. Sax. J J

° #
& ‰#œjŒ n˙ Œ ‰ œj‰ œjŒ ‰#œjŒ n˙ Œ ‰ œj‰ œjŒ ‰ œjŒ Œ ‰ j‰ jŒ
Hn.
#˙ nœ œ

Harmon Mute
# j j > . . j . . >.
Tpt. & #œ œ. œ. œ™#œ œ œœJ ‰ Œ ‰œJ œ œ œœ‰œJ ˙ Œ ‰œ œ œ œ™ œj œ b œœ Œ ‰œj

# j j
& ∑ Œ ‰ œ‰œŒ ∑ ‰ j œ‰œŒ ∑ Œ ‰ œ‰œŒ
Tpt. J J #œ œ J

#œ ˙ nœ œ #œ ˙ nœ œ œ ˙
Tbn.
?# ‰JŒ Œ ‰J ‰J Œ ‰ J Œ Œ ‰J ‰J Œ ‰J Œ Œ ‰#œJ ‰ œJ Œ

j
?# ‰ œjŒ ˙ Œ ‰ œ ‰b œjŒ ‰ œjŒ b ˙ Œ ‰ œ ‰b œjŒ Œ ‰ œ ‰b œJ Œ
¢
‰ jŒ b ˙
Tba. J J œ

B13 E7[åÁ] A13 E¨9 D13 G13 D¨7[áÆ] C13 G¨7[åÁ]


?# ˙ œœ œ bœ
œ Œ
b˙ œ Œ œ bœ œ Œ b˙ j bœ
œ ‰ œ‰J Œ
˙
Db.

rim shot
ride ¿ ¿¿¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿œ ¿ œ ¿¿ ¿ ¿¿¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿œ ¿ œ ¿¿ ¿ ¿¿¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿œ ¿ ¿ Œ
Dr. / Œ ¿ Œ¿ Œ ¿ ‰ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ ¿ Œ¿ Œ ¿ Œ Œ
49

After transcribing and analyzing the previous passages by Marty Paich, this

author is drawn to Paich’s repetition of simple yet effective motives. That these motives

may constitute the material for an entire section of music is remarkable. In addition, this

author finds it fascinating that Paich chose to include tuba and horn. The depth of the

instrumental sound is certainly affected by this choice. Similarly, the uncluttered nature

of Paich’s writing is due in part to the fact that the arrangements do not involve piano.

All of these decisions contribute to Tormé being in distinct focus throughout the

preceding arrangements.
Chapter 6

ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF GORDON GOODWIN

Some of the examples utilized for this chapter of the study were procured from

the Alfred published score of Goodwin’s arrangement of Too Close for Comfort.

Goodwin wrote the arrangement for singer Dianne Reeves, and for his Big Phat Band – a

jazz band with 4 trumpets, 4 trombones, 5 saxophones (and woodwind doubles), piano,

bass, guitar, and drums. The arrangement was recorded on Goodwin’s 2006 CD entitled

“The Phat Pack.” Another example was transcribed from his arrangement of Comes

Love, played by his Big Phat Band and sung by the vocal group Take 6, from the 2003

CD entitled “XXL.” Once again, the author has chosen to transcribe passages in three

grand staffs plus one staff for the lead singer. An extra grand staff has been included for

the example that includes Take 6.

Another staff of music was included for Goodwin’s music: this additional staff

makes note of his cross-section orchestration. This term applies to any musical figure

written for two or more instruments not of the same family – e.g., a melodic line for flute,

alto and tenor saxophones, guitar and trumpet (see Example 6.1). As most jazz band

arrangers make extensive use of intra-sectional orchestration, the aim of cross-section

orchestration is to create a color combination that is atypical. In this example, the use of

the flute (up the octave) in combination with the other instruments produces an edge to

the overall color of this melodic line, brightening the melody.

50
Gordon Goodwin

51
q = 160 swing eighth notes Too Close For Comfort - Dianne Reeves - Intro

& b 6.1. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for∑Comfort, Introduction, mm. 1-4, in 4/4
Example
time. Use of cross-section orchestration.

. .
1 Flute up 8av, alto/tenor sax, gtr, and trumpet with harmon mute
‰ œ nœ œ œ b œ #œ -œ nœ ‰ œj
&b Ó ù
Œ bœ œ ˙ œ bœ œ bœ ˙
mf
J

œ #œ ™ w
upper: flute as written
5 n œ œ# œ œ 1
w
& b Ó ‰ j ùb œ œ ˙ œb œ b œ ˙ ™ Œ ‰ nœJ œ #œ œ œ# œ ™ w
Dianne œ enhances the color
Reevesfurther
Goodwin J vocals to it (seew
œ of the melodic line by3 adding
Gordon Goodwin lower: trumpet in harmon
6.2).3Reeves sings 4 as if she8 were an instrumentalist,
Too Close For Comfort - Dianne Reeves - 3 bars before 2nd "A" section
1
Example 4 the line utilizing scatup 8av
trpt harmon mute + flute
j j j #œ œ

& b ∑ ∑ œ œ - Intro
syllables. q = 160 swing eighth notes œ - Dianne Reeves
Too Close For Comfort

&b ∑
. fluteœ #œ œ œ œ œ œ
11 1
œ œ # œ œ# œ œ œ œ
& b œ 6.2. Gordon
Example œ ‰ JGoodwin, Too Close
Œ Ó for Comfort,
Ó ŒIntroduction,
‰ J mm. 1-5, in 4/4œ
3
time. Addition to the melodic line of vocals with scat syllables.
-œ -œ œ
& b ‰ Œ b œJ œ J ˙ œ ™ œ b œ œ. b œ Œ˙ ‰ œ nœ œ œ b œ #œ 3œ nœ ‰ œj
1
1
b Ó
& mf œ Ó J
Dwee dah Ba doo ay Sha doo way Ba ba doo wee oo

8 2 8
Too Close For Comfort - lead into modulation unison ------->> voicing Too Close For Comfort - Alternating phrases with vocals

2
6
5 1# #
&bb Ó ‰ j b œ
œ ˙ ™ use of an arranging device known
& Œ Ó Œ
œ œGoodwin
In his writing, ˙ œmakes
b œ œ bextensive œ œ as
3 8
Sh Comfort
Too Close For wee ah- lead into tuttishasection
doo ay be wise
24
#
stop-time. When writing stop-time figures, an arranger allows for a cessation of groove
b bb
&
1 most or all rhythm section instruments.2ndInstead
Too Close For Comfort - Dianne Reeves - 3 bars before b "A" section
for the arranger will often then write
b Ó j Œ Ó Œ
Ϫ
&
œ2 œ œ œ
4 4 rhythmœ section.
Too Close For energized
Comfort - lead rhythms,
into LAST "A" section Too Close For Comfort - tag
stabs,
35 or short and to be played simultaneously by the
bb #
theb introduction
b when he's so close. Be
In& for Too Close for Comfort, Goodwin chooses to employ stop-time
4
figures played by the piano and bass (see Example 6.3), and joined by the brass
3 and the
&b Œ Œ Œ
œ
Œ b˙ Ó Œ
˙ œ œ
œ This same technique is employed throughout
baritone saxophone. œ œ (see
œ # œ the arrangement
soft, be sweet, but be dis - creet don't go
Examples 6.6 and 6.12). The space Goodwin creates allows the listener to focus more
8
intently on the linear melody.
& b b˙ ™ Œ j
œ™ œ ˙ ˙ ˙
œ œ œ œ œ
off your feet, he's too close for com fort

1
j j j
&b Œ œ bœ ‰ œ ‰ bœ ‰ œ œ ∑
52

When Goodwin chooses to alter, or otherwise compose harmonic progressions

into the arrangement, the harmony centers around a strong root motion (see Example

6.3). During the introduction, the roots of the chord progression descend by consecutive

whole-steps until reaching the D7 chord. At this point, the progression resolves to a

B/C chord or C7sus, the dominant or V7 of the F major key center. Before heading

there, however, Goodwin inserts in measure 3, ii mi7 and V7 chords (a standard jazz

progression) in the key of G, then in the key of F. He repeats this entire progression

again, but upon arriving at the final C7 chord, the harmony remains for two extra

measures. This allows the listener a chance to breathe, and sets up the beginning of the

first statement of the tune.

His brass voicings are stacked, so no notes are coupled, or overlapping. The

trombones playing closed voicings with the lowest note typically either the 3rd or the 7th.

Closed voicings are those in which the distance between the top and bottom notes is less

than an octave. Meanwhile, the three trumpets play almost entirely in major and minor

triads. Major triads (for instance, the F major triad on the E9#11 chord in measure 1) are

an especially strong sound due to their familiarity to the ear.


53

Example 6.3. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, Introduction, mm. 1-10, in 4/4
time. Melodic line accompanied by stopGordon time Goodwin
figures in piano, bass, brass and baritone
saxophone. Too Close For Comfort - Dianne Reeves - Intro

q = 160 swing eighth notes


œ
1
Dianne
Reeves &b ∑ Ó Œ bœ œ ˙ œ bœ œ bœ ˙
‰ œ nœ
J
mf
Dwee dah Ba doo ay Sha doo way

Flute up 8av, alto/tenor sax, gtr, and trumpet with harmon mute
ùb œ
&b ∑ Ó Œ ‰ œ nœ œ

{
group œ ˙ œ bœ œ bœ ˙ J
mf

&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Saxes
.j . >j
?b ∑ .
bari sax
‰ .j Ó b œ. ‰ œ Ó ‰ b œ. Œ ‰

{
œ bœ bœ J œ
mf
.j >j
œœ. œœ. .
b œœœ ‰ nœœœ
. .
bb œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ nnnœœœ
harmon mutes
&b ∑ œ ‰ œ
J
Ó
J
Ó Œ
mf . . . . .
Brass b œœœœ b œœœ nb œœœœ bn œœœ bbb œœœœ œœ. bn >œœ
?b ‰ œJ ‰ œJ ‰ b œœJ ‰ nœ
cup mutes
∑ Ó Ó Œ
n œJ

{
F13 E¨9(#11) D¨13 B¨/C A¨‹…9 D¨9 G‹…9
>
V VJ V VJ V VJ VJ
piano . . . . . .
&b ∑ ‰ Ó ‰ Ó ‰ Œ ‰
mf
Rhythm
>j
bV V
?
drum fill
. ‰ .j Ó
bass (sounds as written)
. ‰ .j Ó . ‰ .j Œ ‰
œ bœ bœ œ bœ œ

=
drums play swing pattern on Hi-hat

&b œ b œ #œ œ nœ ‰ j
˙™
Dianne
œ Ó ‰ j bœ œ ˙ œ bœ œ bœ Œ
Reeves œ
Ba ba doo wee oo Sh wee ah sha doo ay

. .j
b œ #œ -œ nœ ‰
&b œ œ ù œ ˙™
Ó ‰ j bœ Œ

{
group œ ˙ œ bœ œ bœ

&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Saxes
- . .j .
?b œ œ ‰
^j Œ ‰ .j Ó b œ. ‰ œ Ó ‰ b œ. Œ ‰ >j

{
˙ œ bœ bœ J œ
- . ^
& b ˙˙˙ n œœœ
b œœœ ‰ n œœj ∑ ∑ ∑
œ
. . . . œœ.
Brass ˙ -œœ œœ. ^ b œœœ nb œœœœ bn œœœœ bbb œœœœ n œ>œœ
? ˙˙ nnœœ œœ ‰ nn œœœ Œ ‰ œ Ó ‰ ‰ b œœJ Œ
b˙ J J Ó ‰ J

{
œJ

&b +
C13(#11) F6 E¨9(#11) D¨13 B¨/C A¨‹…9 D¨9 G‹…11
^ >
V V ‰ VJ VJ Ó V VJ Ó V VJ Œ VJ
- . Œ ‰ . . ‰ . . ‰ . ‰
Rhythm
? - . ‰ ^j Œ ‰ .j Ó . ‰ .j Ó . ‰ .j Œ ‰ >j
b˙ œ bœ
œ œ bœ œ bœ bœ
œ
54

2
(Example 6.3 continued.)
1
Dianne
&b ∑ ∑ Ó Œ
Reeves
œ œ
be wise

œ # œ œ œ #œ ™
upper: flute as written

nœ œ #œ œ œ # œ ™ w w
&b ‰

{
group J J w w
3
lower: trumpet in harmon
j 3

œ # œ œ nb œœœ b# œœœ ™™™


&b ‰ œ œ #œ œ j
œ b w˙ ˙ w
bw
Saxes
? bœ œ™ w w
b ˙

{
J

&b ∑ ∑ ∑

? ˙˙˙ nb bœœœœ nb œœœœ ™™™™ wẇ ˙ bbb ww


Brass
w w
w
b J

{
#œ ˙™
œ ˙™
3
œ #œ œ #œ n œ
&b + V™
D¨9 C7[åÅ]
j C9(#11) C7[âÅ]
VJ œ œ # œ
‰ œ # œ œ # œ nœ ‰ J ‰ J
œ
Rhythm
?b
Ϫ
j
˙ bœ w w

At the end of the introduction, Goodwin provides a rhythmic motive in the flute,

trumpet, and upper saxophones. The motive then gets passed on to the piano, which adds

a couple of extra notes to the original motive. The sound of the piano might be lost

among the horns here, but the shape of the line is strong and angular, and is voiced in

octaves. Two of the piano notes do not fit the C7 chord: the ‘F’ may have been derived

from the C blues scale, while the ‘B’ is acting as a melodic chromatic approach to the ‘C’

which follows. This colorful piano phrase also contains three tritone intervals, all

involving the F#, the #11 of the C7 chord.

It was shown previously that Goodwin writes root motions utilizing whole-steps

and cyclical ii to V movements. He also favors half-step movements. In Example 6.4,

the original harmony for this particular measure was simply C7 to B7, but Goodwin

chose to connect the two chords through a series of half-step root movements.
Brass

{ n œœ
.
? b b b œœ Œ Ó ∑ ∑

{
B¨9
œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ
&b V
. Œ Ó Ó
gtr + pno
Œ ‰ J œ œ
Gtr
55
Rhythm + + o + + o + + o +
.Hi-hat ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ bœ œ œ œ
?b bœ œ œ œ œ œ
Example 6.4. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort,
bass fourth measure of ‘B’ section, in

= time. Root motion descending by half-step.


4/4
1
j j
Dianne
&b ‰ œ œ b˙
Œ œ bœ ‰ œ
Reeves œ
not a - gain, too close too

œ- -œ
Ϫ
œ
J J œ.
&b ‰ Œ Ó

{
group

-œ -j .
œœj j
# œœœ ™™™
&b ‰ œœ œ Œ Œ ‰
b œœ œ n

œ
œ
œœœ
Saxes
-j .
nœ ™
? ‰ b œ- j Œ ‰ j
b œ œ bœ œ œ nœ

{
- .
b œœ œ-œ
#œœ ™™
&b ‰ œœ Œ Ó
J J nœœ
b œ- -œ
#œ ™
Brass
œ #nœœ
? ‰
b J J nœ. Œ Œ ‰ J

{
-
D¨13
œ -
C‹…9 B9(#11) B¨13
Ϫ
œ œ
J J œ j
&b ‰ Œ Œ ‰ nœ
n# œœœœ
Rhythm

nœ ™
? ‰ bœ j j Œ ‰ j
b œ œ bœ œ œ nœ

His voicings in Example 6.4 are spread voicings – that is, the baritone sax plays

the root, with the following pitch order the 7th and 3rd, then further pitch categories. The

7th in each voicing is played by all four muted trombones, while the muted trumpets play

one of two notes. The weight of the saxophones can hold up against multiple muted

brass. Though multiple instruments are playing the top melody, it is the strength of the

high-register alto saxophone that will prevail in the unison sound.

At the start of the second ‘A’ section, Goodwin continues the use of the stop-time

technique (see Example 6.6), with the trombones and baritone saxophone supplying

additional support to the figures. In measure 8, Goodwin adds the other saxophones to

provide rhythmic interplay with the piano and guitar.

The high bell tones in the guitar and piano in measures 8 and 9 of Example 6.6 are

noteworthy. This combination of instruments is among Goodwin’s palette of special


56

effects and colors. A denser and more complex color combination can be seen in

Example 6.6. In measure 3, Goodwin writes a unison line played by the flute, the alto

saxophones, a trumpet with a harmon mute, the piano and guitar. With its heavier

density, this offbeat line can offset the mostly downbeat-oriented line comprised of bass,

baritone saxophone, bass trombone, and vocals.

Goodwin likely has paid attention to Marty Paich’s arrangement of this tune for

Mel Tormé. As Paich did, Goodwin employs the band to rhythmically respond to the

vocal melody. (Paich’s use of call and response can be seen previously in Examples 5.5

and 5.6). In measure 4 of Example 6.6, the rhythmic stabs Goodwin wrote to reply to the

vocal line might cause the listener to hear the band as sort of echoing singer. The listener

might be able to hear the band ‘singing’ the responses marked in parentheses: “Be soft

(response: “soft”), be sweet (“sweet”), but be (“but be”) discreet (“be discreet”). In

Example 6.7, the contrast between the singer’s call and the band’s response could not be

more stark. In this example, the vocals are alone with the drums in measures 1 and 2.

The responding blues lick is then played in measure 3 by select instruments, while

another line moves in contrary motion. The spacing between the two lines consist of 3rds,

6ths, and 10ths – relatively consonant intervals.

Example 6.6. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, End of first ‘A’ section leading
into second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-11, in 4/4 time. Continued use of stop-time, followed by
more active rhythmic interplay.
57
Too Close For Comfort - Dianne Reeves - 3 bars before 2nd "A" section
3

&b Ó j Œ Ó Œ Œ
Ϫ
Dianne
œ œ œ ˙ œ œ

{
œ
Reeves
œ
when he's so close. Be soft, be sweet,

. . - - . Ó
&b ∑ Ó œ œœ

b
bœœ
œ nb œœ b œœ b œœ
3
.
Saxes
?b ∑ Ó . b œ nœ b œ œ œ Ó Œ ‰ .j Ó
œ bœ œ

{
- bœ œ
- .
&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
œ.
‰ œœœ
Brass
?b ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ Ó
J

{
B¨Œ†7
. E¨9
. A¨Œ†7
-
D¨7 C7 œ™ œ™ F(„ˆˆ9)

VJ
- . Ϫ Ϫ .
&b ∑ Ó œ œ bœ bœ œ
‰ Ó

Rhythm
. - - .
? ∑ Ó . bœ œ Ó Œ ‰ œ. Ó
b œ bœ J

5
3
&b œ b˙ ™
Dianne Œ Œ Œ b˙ Ó Œ
œ œ œ
œ #œ
Reeves
œ œ
but be dis - creet don't go off your feet,

&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
group

‰ >j
bb œœœ ˙˙˙ ™™™
&b ∑ ∑ ∑

>
Saxes
.j .
?b Œ ‰ .j Ó ‰ œ Œ ‰ j Ó Œ Œ ‰ nœj

{
œ b˙ œ bœ œ œ

&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
. . b ˙˙˙ b œœ bb œ-œœ n œœœ.
b œœ nb œœœœ >
Brass
.
?b Œ ‰ œœ Ó ‰ J Œ
˙ ‰ œ œ# œ Ó
J œ Œ Œ ‰ nœj
J

{
piano + gtr
bœ ˙
+
E7(#5) AŒ†7(b5) E¨9 A7(#5) E¨7 D7 GŒ†7(b5)

VJ Ó VJ Œ
. . j ‰ b œJ ˙
&b Œ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ bœ œ
Ó Œ

Rhythm
?b Œ ‰ œ. Ó ‰ œ. Œ b˙ ‰ j bœ œ Ó
.
Œ Œ
>
‰ nœj
J J œ œ

(Example 6.6 continued.)


58
4

&b Πj
Ϫ
Dianne
œ ˙ ˙ ˙
œ
Reeves
œ œ
he's too close for com fort

j j j œ œ ‰ #œ œ #œ œ
Ϫ
trpt harmon mute + flute up 8av
&b ∑

{
group œ œ #œ œ œ œ J
3

j j j œ œ ‰ #œ œ #œ œ
œœ ˙œ ™ b œ œ™
alto + 2 tenor saxes
&b ‰ j œ œ #œ nœ œ œ J
J ˙ 3
>j .
œ ˙™
‰ j j >
Saxes
?b œ bari
œ. ‰ œ b œ. ‰ œ œ ‰ œ nœ œ ™

{
Œ Ó J J
.
.j .j .j >œ ™
&b ∑ ‰ œœœ Œ b œœœ‰ Œ ‰ œœœ Œ ‰ ##œœ ™™

‰ # œœœ ™™™
.j . .j >
Brass . ‰ œœ Œ ‰ b œœj Œ ‰ b œœœ Œ
? œ
b Œ Ó œ œ ‰
œ bœ œ
J ‰
œ œ ‰ œ nœ œ ™

{
. . J . J J
>
œ ˙
V™
C7 F6 D¨Ma9 C‹…9 B9(#11)

VJ VJ VJ
œ ˙ . . .
&b Œ ‰
J
‰ Œ ‰ Œ ‰ Œ ‰

Rhythm
. . >
?b œ Œ Ó œ. ‰ œ b œ. ‰ œ œ ‰ œ nœj œ ™
j
J J

=
Example
4 6.7. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, Start of first ‘B’ section, mm. 1-
4, in 14/4 time. Call and response. j j j
Dianne
&1 b Œ œ bœ ‰ œ ‰ bœ ‰ œ œ œ

‰ too œj ‰closeb œj jcom - fort
Reeves
j
Dianne
Reeves &b Œ too œ closeb œ ‰ for œ œ œ
∑ ‰ œ œ œ
œ.
too close too close for com - fort
œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ
not a - gain
flute
œ œ
&b Œ Ó Ó Œ ‰

{
J
œ- -œ
group

œ. œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
flute
J
& bœ. Œ Ó Ó Œ 2 altos‰ J ‰

{
group j
&b œ Œ Ó Ó Œ ‰ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ
-j
. œ. œ œ œ -œ
Saxes
j
‰ ‰ œ œj œ #œ œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
2 tenors
?&
2 altos
b bbœ œ Œ Œ ÓÓ Ó Ó Œ Œ ‰ œœ
b œœ

{
œ œ
Saxes
. œ œ œ -j
? œ. j
‰ ‰ œj œ #œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ
2 tenors
& b nnbœœ b œ Œ Œ ÓÓ Ó Ó Œ Œ ‰ b -œ
1 trpt - harmon mute
œ œ
œ

{
.
Brass n œœ
?bœ . Œ Ó 1 trpt - harmon∑mute ∑ -
b b œ nœœ j b œœ œ-œ

{
&b n œ Œ Ó Ó Œ ‰ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

J
œ
B¨9n œ.
Brass
b œœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ b -œ -œ
& b bV b œ
? . Œ Œ ÓÓ Ó
gtr + pno

Œ ‰ J ∑ œ œ
Gtr
‰ J

{
Rhythm + + o + + o + + o +
.Hi-hat œ
? b b œ B¨9 ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ bœ œ œ -
D¨13
œ -
C‹…9
œ
œ
œ
#œ œ œœ œœ œ œ
œ
&b V
. Œ Ó Ó
gtr + pno
Œ bass ‰ J œ œ
Gtr
‰ J

Rhythm + + o + + o + + o +
.Hi-hat ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ œ œ j
? œ œ œ bœ œ œ ‰ bœ œ
b bœ
bass

=
59

Later in the arrangement, Goodwin uses call-and-response to literally replace the

vocals with the horn section (See Example 6.8). He alternates with Reeves’ vocals two

measures of melody by alto and tenor saxophones and trumpets. The listener gets a

much-needed break from hearing the phrase, “Too close for comfort,” sung yet again by

Reeves. It is interesting that two trumpets on the top octave in measures 1 and 2 are

powerful enough to balance out two trumpets plus four saxophones on the bottom octave.

In measures 3 and 4, Goodwin left out the trumpets from the saxophone countermelody–

likely not wanting to overshadow the re-entrance of the melody in measure 5.

Example 6.8. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, Second chorus, start of ‘B’
section, mm. 1-8, in 4/4 time. Call and response, alternating phrases between band and
vocals.
7
Too Close For Comfort - Alternating phrases with vocals
3 3
# ∑ ∑ Œ œ œ bœ Ó
Dianne
Reeves & œ œ œ nœ œ
please not a gain

# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
&

{
group

^ ^j >j
j -
2 altos + 2 tenors
# ^ œ œ œ j
& Œ œ b œ^ ‰ œ ‰ b œ^ ‰ œ œ œ Ó Œ ‰ œ œ œ #œ œ œ ‰ œû
J œ œ #œ œ œ œû
Saxes
?# bari œ > . .j
œ ˙ œ #œ ∑ ‰ Œ ‰ >j ‰ >j

{
œ œ œ ˙ bœ œ œ
œ^ b œ^ œ^ b œ^ œ -œ ^
# 2 trpts
œ
& Œ œ bœ ‰ œ ‰ bœ ‰ œ œ œ ∑ ∑
2 trpts J J J
>
# œœ n œœœ ˙˙˙ œ. œœ. œû
m >œœ >œ
‰ n œœûû
nbn œœœœ #nb œœœœ ˙˙˙ bnb œœœœ œœœœ
Brass
?# # œœ b œ ˙ m
∑ n œœœ ‰ œœJ Œ ‰ œœ ˙
J J

{
C9 C©º G13 D‹…9 D¨9 C9
#
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
Rhythm

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
?#

# ∑ Ó ‰ j j j Œ #
Dianne
& œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Reeves œ
just when do I say when?

# #
group & ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

# ^ ^j j ^ #
^ ^
60

(Example 6.8 continued.) 7

# j j #
Dianne
& ∑ Ó ‰ œ œ œ œ j Œ
Reeves œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
just when do I say when?
# #
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
group

# ^ ^j j ^ #
& Œ nœ b œ^ ‰ œ ‰ b œ^ ‰ œ œ m œ ∑ ∑
J
Saxes
?# Ó Œ ∑ ∑ ∑ #

{
œ #œ

# œ^ b œ^ œ^ b œ^ œ œ m œ^ #
& Œ œ bœ ‰ œ
J
‰ bœ ‰
J œ œ m œ
J
∑ ∑

bn œœœœ œœœœ # œœœœ ‰ œœœ ™™™


Brass
?# Ó ‰ ∑ b ˙˙˙ ˙˙˙ b ˙˙˙ #
J œ œ œ b˙ n˙ b˙

{
V™
C©º BŒ†7 B¨9 A‹…11 A¨9(#11)
# #
& V V V V V V V V V ‰ V V V V V V
Rhythm
œ œ œ b˙ ˙ b˙
V V V V V V V V
?# #

AtToo the
Close Forbeginning of the first ‘C’ section, Goodwin writes a unison line for the alto
Comfort - lead into tutti section

˙™
# b œ ‰ œJ œ j bbbb
Dianne
& ‰ J œ œ ‰ œ ∑
and tenor
Reeves saxophones
close
as for com
a- countermelody
fort now
to the vocals (seeoh! Example 6.9). The writing is
#
especially
group & ∑ to the strength of the instruments
effective due ∑ ∑
in unison, in a reasonably high bbbb

{
# for at least the >j line ^each bbbb
w ™
3
register
& Ó
2 altos tenor saxophones. Thebœcontours
œ œ œœ wœ ˙ he writes in the‰ unison
œ œ œ J bb œœ œœ nœœ nœœ
b# œœ n œœ
œto bthe
œœ contour
w b>œ œœ œœ nœœ^
Saxes
b œ syllablic
˙ stressnbof
œœ the
#œœ vocal
œ œ œ œ™ ‰ œ line.
ascend
?#then descend, similar and
bbbb
2 tenors + bari
Ó J

{
nœ œ b œJ œ œ œ
3

# >j > nœ^


& Ó Œ ‰ œ œ b œ b œ nœ b œ œ nœ
œ #œ bb œœœœ ‰bnnb œœœœ œœœœ n œœœœ bn œœœ bbbb
J
Brass
>œ œ # œ nb œœœ bb œ>œ œœ n œœ n œœ^
?# Ó œ b œ b œ nœ b œ œ nœ ‰ œ œ œ œ
Œ ‰ J nœ n œ b œJ œ œ œ bbbb

{
V™
b>œ œ nœ nœ^
E¨9 B¨‹…9/E¨
#
VJ VJ V V bbbb
#œ œ
& Ó Œ ‰ ‰ J
Rhythm
?# Ó œ œ ˙ œ nœ œ >œ œ œ^
Œ ‰ J ‰ J bbbb
61

Example 6.9. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, Start of first ‘C’ section, mm. 1-
Too Close For Comfort - lead into modulation
6,6 in 4/4 time. Unison countermelody in the alto and tenor saxophones.
1
j j
Dianne
Reeves
&b Œ œ bœ ‰ œ œ bœ œ œ œ
Œ œ bœ ‰ œ
one thing leads to an - oth - - er, too late to

&b ∑ ∑ ∑

{
group

2 altos + 2 tenors
3
j
&b ∑ Œ ‰ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ w
. >j
Saxes
?b Ó œ ‰ nœ w Ó . ‰ >j

{
œ œ

&b ∑ ∑ ∑
> >
.
b œœœ bn œœœœ ww
.
n œœœ b n œœœ
Brass
?b Ó w
w ‰ # œJ
open
œ ‰ J Ó œ

{
B¨9 Bº F/C D7[åÁ]

&b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
Rhythm B¨9 Bº F/C

bV V V V V V V V V V V V
? walking bass

4
j j
Dianne
Reeves
&b œ œ bœ œ œ œ
Œ œ bœ ‰ œ œ bœ ‰ œ œ œ œ
run for cov - er, He's much too close for com - fort now.

&b ∑ ∑ ∑

{
group

j b œ~~~ b œ .
&b Ó ‰ œ bœ œ œ œ ∑
œ nœ œ
.j
Ϫ
Saxes

bœ ™
? bœ œ ‰ >j
˙™
b

{
w J œ

&b ∑ ∑ ∑
Brass w
w bbb œœœœ ™™™™ œœ œœ œ >j
? b ww œ œ œ ‰ œ ˙™
J

{
A¨Œ†7 D¨7 >j
piano + gtr up 8av

&b V V V V V V V
- . ? ‰ œ ˙™
bœ œ œ ˙™
b œ- œ.
Rhythm
D7[åÁ] A¨Œ†7 D¨7 >j
?
b V V V V V V V ‰ œ ˙™
j
Dianne
Reeves
&b œ bœ ‰ œ œ œ œ
close for com - - - fort now.

&b ∑

{
group
62
&b ∑
Saxes At the end of the first chorus – the first time through the form of the song –
?b ‰ >j
˙™

{
œ
Goodwin modulates to a new tonal center. To do so, he utilizes a harmonic progression
&b ∑
similar to that of the introduction. However, instead of descending from the D7 into a
Brass >j
?b ‰ œ ˙™

{
C7 chord – the dominant of F major – he ascends from the D7 into a D chord (see
>j
™ the dominant chord of the new tonal center of G major,
piano + gtr up 8av
? ‰
b 6.10). Heœ treats this ˙as
˙™
Example œ
Rhythm
>
˙™
giving? bthe j
‰ arrangement a psychological lift for the second chorus.
œ

=
Example 6.10. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, End of first ‘C’ section, mm. 1-
4, in 4/4 time. Harmonic progression leading into the dominant of new tonal center.

Dianne
&b w ∑ ∑ ∑

{
Reeves

3 > unison ------->> voicing


^j ^j ^j >j
& b ‰ œj b œ œ œ œ œ nœ ‰ œj b œ b œ nœ œ œ nœ b œ #nœœœœ ‰ nnnœœœœ ‰ ##n#œœœœ ‰ #nœœœœû
2 altos
œ b œ n b œœœ b œœœ Œ ‰
n œ bœ œ b œ bœ nœ œ
Saxes add 2 tenors
? >j >j >j b œ œ ‰ >j ^j ^j ‰ >j
œ œ™ bœ œ™
‰ Ó ‰
b Ϫ Ϟ

{
œ œ™ n œ œ™ œ #œ

n n œœœûû
^ ^ ^ >
b œ bn œœœ b œœœ # n œœ n n œœœ ## œœœœ
& b ‰ œj b œ œ œ œ œ nœ ‰ œj b œ b œ nœ œ œ nœ b>œ œ bœ bœ nœ œ Œ ‰ n œœJ ‰ n œJ ‰ J ‰ # œJ û
œœ ™™ œ™
^j
œ™ b œœœœ œœœœ ™™™™ œœœ™™™ # œœ^ n # œœœûû
>œ >œ >
? b œœœ ™™™
3
b œ nœ œ n œœ^
‰## œœJ ‰ n œJ û
> œœ œ b œ b œ bn œœœ œœœ ‰ #n œœœ
b œœœ
Brass
œ
J
Ϫ
J J ‰ >œ œ™ ‰ n œœ
J J J

{
V™ VJ V ™ V™
FÐ E7[åÁ] E¨9 D7[åÁ] A¨Œ†7 E¨/D¨ D¨9 Dº AŒ†7/D F©9 GMa7
> > - ^ œ^ ‰ #œ^ ‰ >œ
VJ VJ V V V V V V V ‰ j j
?b > & nœ
^ ‰
J J J J
nœ œ
Rhythm
?b œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ b œ œ ‰ n>œ œ™ œ^ ‰ ^j ‰ >j
œ
J J #œ

There are several instances where Gordon Goodwin, like John Clayton, utilizes

the unison-to-voicing technique. At the start of measure 3 in Example 6.10, the

saxophones and brass are in unison, only to fan out to a voicing on beat 3. The effect the

listener perceives is an immediately denser, more colorful sound. It is especially

effective for the voicing to first happen on the E/D7 chord, as the lydian sound from the
63

triadic upper structure is bright. The voicings there incorporate the 3rd and 7th in the lowest

trombone parts, while the saxophones and trumpets have identical closed voicings, one

octave apart. In measure 4, the lead trombone is coupled with the second tenor

saxophone player, allowing the saxophones (still one octave lower than the trumpets) to

fill in the space between the two brass sections.

After the second time through the form of the song, Goodwin writes a tutti section

for the band, in which all the horns play together for an extended period of time (See

Example 6.11). When the melody allows as it does in measure 3, he writes spread

voicings, with the baritone sax and bass trombone in contrary motion against the top

melody. However, when the melody line is moving rapidly, Goodwin writes closed

voicings for the trumpets, with the same notes an octave lower for the trombones and alto

and tenor saxophones. The baritone saxophone occasionally reinforces the roots of the

chords (as in measures 5 and 6).

Following three measures of consecutive voicings, Goodwin chooses to finish the

phrase in unison. The change in texture prevents the listener from becoming over-

saturated with dense voicings. Additionally, he decides to omit the baritone saxophone

and bass trombone from playing the unison – which serves to further lighten the texture.
64

Example 6.11. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, Lead into tutti section, mm. 1-
7, in 4/4 time. Unison writing following extended period of voicings.
Too Close For Comfort - lead into tutti section
9

˙™
1
# j
Dianne
& ‰ b œJ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ ∑ bbbb
Reeves J

{
close for com - fort now oh!

# >j ^
wœ ™ bbbb
2 altos 3
& Ó œ œ œœœ w bœ ˙ ‰
œ œ J b# œœ n œœ bb œœ œœ nœœ nœœ
Saxes
bœ w b>œœ œœ nœœ^
?# Ó œ œ œ œ™ bœ ˙ nb œœ #œœ œœ
œ œ bbbb
2 tenors + bari
J ‰
nœ œ b œJ œ œ œ

{
3

# >j > ^
& Ó Œ ‰ œ œ b œ b œ nœ b œ nœ œ #œ bb œœœœ ‰bnnb œœœœ œœœœ n œœœœ bnnœœœœ bbbb
œ J
Brass
>œ œ # œ nb œœœ bb œ>œ œœ n œœ n œœ^
?# Ó œ b œ b œ nœ b œ œ nœ ‰ œ œ œ œ
Œ ‰ J nœ n œ b œJ œ œ œ bbbb

{
E¨13

V™
b>œ œ nœ nœ^
E¨9 B¨‹…9/E¨ D¨6/F E9 E¨7(b9) E¨9
#
VJ VJ V V bbbb
#œ œ
& Ó Œ ‰ ‰ J
Rhythm
?# Ó Œ ‰ œ œ ˙ œ nœ œ ‰ b>œ œ œ^ bbbb
J J

{
4
bb ‰ œj ‰ n œj ‰ b œœj
3
&b b œ œœ œœ œ nœ b œ Ó ‰ j œ
œœ œœœ #n œœœ n#n œœœ b œœœ nb œœœ n#b œœœ n œœœ œ
nn œœ n œœœ œœ b œœ œ œ œ b œ b œ nœ nœ œ
3
j œ
j œ œ n œb œ b œ b œ nœ
Saxes
j
? bb b œ œ nœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ ‰ œ ‰ nœ ‰ nœœ

{
b œJ ‰ œ œ ‰ Ó ∑
Œ Ó œ œ œJ œJ J J

bb œ œ nœ b œ b œ nœ b œ nœ œœj ‰b n œœœ ‰ œbœœœ œ œœ


œœœ œœœ œ nœ b œ b œ œ nœ Ó
j
‰ nœ œ œ
& b b œœœ œœœœ #nnœœœ #nn œœœbn œœœ bb œœœœ#nn œœœ#n œœœ nn œœœ œœœ ‰ œœ n œJ J n œ b œ b œ b œn œ nœ œ œ
3
œ b n œœ b œœœ œ œ3 bones
Brass
œœ œ œ n œ b œœ œ b œ n œ b œ n œ œ
? b b œ œœœ #nn œœœ #nn œœœ b œœ bb œœœ #nn œœœ œœœ nnn œœœ œœœ ‰ œœœ ‰ n œœJ ‰ œJ œœœ œœœ n œb œ b œ b œ nœ
bb œ J ∑

{
3

G7(#5) CΠ7(b5)
A¨6
b b piano
œ œ œ nœ œ œ b œ nœ œ nœ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ b œJ œ œ œ nœ b œ F7(b9)
b œ œ nœ Ó ‰ nœ œ œ
&b b J J J
3
Rhythm bass walks

bb V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
? b b A¨6 G7(#5) CŒ†7(b5) F7(b9)
65

In Example 6.12, Goodwin once again reinforces the roots of the chord with a low

baritone saxophone part. The trombones are voiced in closed position, while the alto and

tenor saxophones and trumpets are playing the melody in octaves. In measure 2, the

saxophones spread out, with the lead trombone coupling with either the first or second

tenor saxophone. The unison saxophones changed to voicings for two reasons: first, the

trumpets have increasing power as their line ascends, so the support of the melody is no

longer needed. Secondly, the additional density to the voicing helps to bring the energy

of the line to a climax.

At the highest point in the melody, Goodwin incorporated other components to

make it an effective emotional peak (See Example 6.13). First, the note is the longest in

duration of the entire phrase, allowing the listener to feel a point of arrival, if only for a

moment. While the saxophone and trombone voicings overlap each other, the trumpets

remain firmly in octaves. In conjunction with the lead alto saxophone who also plays the

melody, this provides for a very strong melody. The voicing itself includes the highly

dissonant minor 2nd interval in the between the 2nd and 3rd trombones. In conjunction

with the trombones’ E13 structure, the saxophones are voiced out as an F7 chord. This

strong upper structure sound is equivalent to II/I7. Finally, Goodwin not only expands

the top range of the voicing but the bottom as well, extending the baritone saxophone

player to the lowest note of the phrase.


{
& b b bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ
Saxes bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ
b ™
? bb b ˙ œ
66

{
1
bb
Dianne
Reeves &b b ∑ ∑ ∑
bbb b œ bœ œ œ œ œ
Example & bb6.12.b œ bœ
Gordon Goodwin, Too Closeœ for Comfort,œEnd of the firstœœ ‘A’ of tutti œ œ
b bb 1-3, in 4/4 time.
b ˙˙ ™™
∑ ∑ ∑

{
group & mm.

? b b ˙˙ ™™
section, Study of voicings. œ
œœœ
Brass

bb b >
b j œ œ bœ
2 altos + 2 ten
b œœ œœ b œ- œ
bb œœœ

{
& b b bœ bœ œ œ œ œ nœœ ‰ b œœ ‰ nnnœœœ œœ
œ nœ œ
œ ‰ j
n œ œ b œ nœœœ œœ
b œ œ œœ nœœœ
œ n# œœ J nnn œœœ bbn œœœ œœ J J

b œB¨Œ†7(b5) œ œ œ œ œ n œœ
œ bœ œ nœ œ b œ
Saxes

& b bb ™
? bbb bb b˙œ œ ‰œ j ‰ j œ Œ Œ œ ‰ nœ bœ œ œ J J
œ nœ bœ œ J

{

Rhythm 1 lead, 3 down 8av
B¨Œ†7(b5)
œ^ œ œ nœ
? bb bbbœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
& bb bb b œV b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰V œ ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ œV Œ Ó V
J J œ
b ˙˙ ™™
? b b ˙˙ ™™
œ œœ b œ b n œœœ œœœ
œœœ bn œœ œ nœ œ
Brass
œœ
bb ‰ # œJ ‰ n œJ œ œ Œ Ó

{
E9(#11) E¨13(#11) B¨‹…9 E9(#11) E
B¨Œ†7(b5)
œ
E¨13(b9)
œ œ œ œ œ nœ
A¨6
œ
=
b bœ bœ œ œ
VJ VJ V VJ
œ œ
& b bb œ ‰ J ‰ J Œ Œ ‰
Rhythm
B¨Œ†7(b5) A¨6

b V V V V V V V V
? bb b bœ j
œ œ
œ œ œ bœ œ
J

bb
Dianne
Reeves &b b ∑ ∑

b b Gordon Goodwin,
Exampleb6.13. ∑ Too Close for Comfort, End of the first
∑ ‘A’ of tutti
group & b

{
section, in 4/4 time. Voicing on peak melody note.
>
bb j b -œ
‰ nnnœœœœ œœœ j œ b œ nœœœ b œœœœ œœœ nœœœœ
2 altos + 2 ten
bœ œ bb œœœ
&b b ‰ œ
n#b œœœ œ nœ
œ

nœ bœ œ œJ
J nnn œœœ bbn œœœ œœ J
œ bœ œ nœ bœ
Saxes
? bb b ‰ j ‰ j Œ Œ ‰ nœ b œ œ J J
b nœ bœ œ J

{

1 lead, 3 down 8av
œ
œ^ œ nœ œ
b bbb ‰ œ ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ œ Œ Ó
& J J œ
Brass n œœ
b b n œœœ œœœœ œ œ
? b b ‰ b # œœ ‰ n œJ
nœ œ Œ Ó
bb J

{
E9(#11) E¨13(#11) B¨‹…9 E9(#11) E¨13(#
œ œ œ œ nœ
A¨6
œ
VJ VJ V VJ
b œ
& b bb ‰ J ‰ J Œ Œ ‰
Rhythm
A¨6

V V V V
?bb œ bœ œ j bœ œ
bb œ œ œ J
67

In Example 6.14, at another climax in the arrangement, Goodwin makes use of

numerous techniques previously mentioned in this study. In measure 1, he employs stop-

time figures for the rhythm section, brass, and baritone saxophone, which also supports

the rhythm of the vocal line. At the highest peak of the trumpet’s line in measure 2, he

brings the baritone saxophone to its lowest point, expanding the voicing at both ends.

Finally, the harmony he has inserted into these two measures is strongly based on root

movements of half-steps, whole-steps, and cyclical ii to V chord progressions.

Example 6.14. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, Last ‘A’ section before final
‘B’
10
sections, mm. 1-2, in 4/4 time. Use of multiple writing techniques.
Too Close For Comfort - lead into LAST "A" section

˙™
1
bb j j
Dianne
Reeves &b b œ ‰
œ
Œ œ ‰ œ
such temp - - - ta - - - tion

bb
&b b ∑ ∑

{
group

> >3 >


b b 2 altos + 2 tenors . >j
œ bn nœœœ b b œœœ
3
&b b ‰ nœ bœ ‰ œ œ
nœ œ œ #œ bœ nœ nœ œ nœ nœ nœ
Saxes
? bb b ^ ‰ ^j Œ ^ ‰
- -j - >j

{
b œ œ j
bari
œ œ œ œ nœ bœ
open ^ -œ b >œ
bb œ^ œœ^ n -œ b -œœœ œœœ nnœœœ nb œœœ
& b b œœœœ ‰ nbn œœœ
J
Œ bb œœ ‰ bb œœœ œ
J
œ
J J
- >œœ
Brass
^ ^ œœ^ n -œ œ-œ œœ n œœœ
? b b œœœœ n œœœœ b œœ b œœœ œœ œœ bœ bb œœ
J
bb ‰ J Œ ‰ J J

{
A¨6 F7[âÅ] E¨‹…9 A¨7(#5) E¨‹…11 D9(#11) D¨9(#11)
bb ^ œ^ œ^ - >
V VJ VJ V VJ
- -
&b b œ ‰ J Œ ‰

Rhythm
?bb ^ -œ D¨9(#11)

bb œ ‰ œ^
J Œ œ^ ‰ œ- œ n-œ b>œ
J J J

= His ending demonstrates at least two more compositional techniques (See

Example 6.15). First, while Reeves is singing a long note, Goodwin writes a series of

voicings
Dianne b b for the
&b b Œ œ alto
bœ and
‰ œ tenor
œ saxophones
bœ œ œ planing
œ Œ chromatically
œ bœ ‰ œ down
œ b œ by half
œ œsteps.œ
Reeves J J J J
one thing leads to a - noth - er, too late to run for cov - er

bb
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
group

ùb œ
b b ˙~ >œ~
& b b ˙˙ ~~~ œ j œ bœ œ
2 altos + 2 tenors
Ó Ó œ ~~ ∑ ‰ œ œ œ œ
˙
Saxes
? bb b Ó ∑ ∑ Ó Œ ^
b
68

With chromatic planing, each voicing is the same structure as the final destination, an

A7(13) voicing. However, the baritone sax has been written to ascend in half steps. The

contrary motion this creates against the descention of the other saxophones adds interest

to the passage.

In the closing measures, Goodwin intends to surprise the listener. In the key of

A, the chromatic planing to the A chord will feel like the arrangement has just arrived

home. However, in measure 3 of Example 6.15, Goodwin writes a C to C# to D in the

baritone saxophone, bass trombone, bass, piano, and guitar. Jazz often utilizes a VII to

VII to I as a cadence. Thus, Goodwin’s three notes lead the listener to hear D as the

tonal center, rather than the actual tonal center of A. Goodwin’s D7(9, #11, 13) voicing

that follows is then a surprise. The tonal centers of D and A are the distance of a tritone

(or augmented 4th or diminished 5th) away from each other. Jazz theory allows for this,

through a concept known as tritone substitution. With tritone substitution, one dominant

7 chord can substitute for another chord which is the distance of a tritone away. It is

successful because the chords’ 3rds and 7ths are the same notes; one chord’s 3rd becomes

the other chord’s 7th, and vice-versa. The chord voicing itself is intense, as all of the

saxophones and brass are in an intense register. Furthermore, the trombones and saxes

are coupled exactly with a half-step dissonance between the #9 and the 3rd. As they are

supporting the bottom structure of an A79, the upper structure played by the trumpets is

an E7 chord – a VI/I7 chord.


69

Example 6.15. Gordon Goodwin, Too Close for Comfort, Ending, mm. 1-4, in 4/4 time.
Chromatic
Too Closeplaning,
For Comfort - tag and surprise ending. 11

˙™
1
bb j #
Dianne
Reeves
& b b œ bœ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ~~~ ∑ ∑
too close for com - fort now!

bb #
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
group

j 3 3 ^j
b #
‰ nœœœ nbœœœ bbnœœœ n bœœœ bœœ n nœœ b bœœ nœœ bœœû
2 altos + 1 tenor
& b bb ∑
n œ bœ œ n œ nb œœ b n œœ n b œœ b œ œû
∑ ‰ #nœœœ Œ Ó
n œ b œûû sfz
Saxes
?bb 3
#
bb ∑ Ó œû Ó ‰ j - ^ ∑

{
nœ œ #œ œ œ #œ nœ
^
bb
>j # n œœœ #
‰ n œJ
&b b nœœûûû
∑ Ó Œ ‰ œ ∑ Œ Ó
n#n œœœ^
sfz

‰ b œœûû
œ>œ
Brass
?bb ‰ J #
j - ^

bb ∑ Ó Œ Ó ‰ Œ Ó

{
œ #œ nœ sfz

œ^
bb # n œœ #
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ‰## nœœœœ Œ Ó
J
sfz
Rhythm
?bb j - ^
bass + pno + gtr
#
bb ∑ ∑ Ó ‰ œ #œ nœ ∑

For contrast, this author chose to also transcribe a passage from Gordon

Goodwin’s arrangement of “Comes Love,” written for Brian McKnight and the vocal

group Take 6. Once again, Goodwin utilizes cross-section writing to achieve a different

color palette than traditional section writing would allow. Throughout this arrangement,

Goodwin utilizes Take 6 to sing pads (See Example 6.16). In fact, the top line of their

pads in measures 1 and 3 features a descending 3rd interval. This is opposite of the

ascending 3rds that the lead melody is largely built around.

The electric bass and clarinet are playing a highly rhythmic yet sparse line. This

rhythm of the line joins and supports the lead vocal melody in measure 1, as well as the

pickup to measure 3. Goodwin also creates a color using the flute, soprano saxophone,

harmon-muted trumpet and piano. These instruments are utilized to play a pedal note for
70

three and a half measures. A pedal note is any note which sustains while three or more

chords take place. In this case, the high pedal happens to be the dominant, or the fifth

degree of the tonal center. Following this, Goodwin writes more activity for these

instruments, finishing with a strong upward arpeggiation of the F#mi75 chord, followed

by a resolution to the #5 of the B7 chord. The flourish seems to set up the silence that
12

follows in measure 6, allowing for arguably the most important lyric from this song:

“nothing can be done.”

Example 6.16. Gordon Goodwin, Comes Love, Beginning of the second ‘A’ section, mm.
1-7, in 4/4 time. Color combinations created using cross section writing.
Comes Love - 2nd "A" section (00:57)

1
# q = 80 straight 8th notes
Brian
& Ó Œ
œ œ Œ Œ
œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ Œ Œ
McKnight œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
comes a fi - re and you know just what to do buy a ti - re you can
flute >œ ˙ w w
# + sop sax down 8av
J
group & ∑ Œ ‰
fp
œ ˙
œœœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœœœ ˙˙˙˙ n œœœ œœœ œœœ œ
Vocal
{
?# ∑ Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ # œ œ œ #œœ

{
Group J
doo doo doot ah doo doo doot
# trumpet with harmon mute

& ∑ Œ ‰ ˙ w w
J
Brass fp
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
EŒ†’ piano >œ ˙ w w
B7
# ∑ Œ ‰ œ ˙ w w
& J
Rhythm drums: HH on all 8ths, kick drum plays with bass

?# - . - .
∑ œ Œ Œ ‰ j ‰ j Œ ‰ j
œ œ #œ œ œ Œ Œ ‰ nœj
elec. bass œ œ œ
+ bass clarinet

# œ œ œ ˙™ j j
3
Brian
& #œ œ œ j ‰ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ
McKnight œ œ œ J J w
b œ- œ.
buy a - noth - er shoe, comes love noth - ing can be done.
œ œ bœ œ œ. -œ œ nœ
# œ™ œ
J
œ œ
group & ∑ ∑

b œœœœœ ˙˙˙˙˙ n# œœœœœ ™™™™ n#n œœœœœ
?# Œ œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœ
{
Vocal ‰ J Œ Œ J ∑ Œ ‰ J

{
Group
ah comes love doo doo doo doo
b -œ œ.
& Ϫ
# j œ œ bœ œ œ. œ nœ
œ œ œ œ- ∑ ∑
Brass
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
b -œ
B7[äÁ]
œ.
# œ™ œ œ bœ œ œ. F©Œ†7(b5)
œ nœ b œ
œ œ-
& Ϫ
œ œ bœ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œn œ ∑ ∑
J
Rhythm
.j . j - .
?# ‰ j œ
œ Œ ‰
œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ™ œ ∑ œ Œ Œ œ
œ
{
# ∑ Œ ‰ œ ˙ w w
& J
Rhythm drums: HH on all 8ths, kick drum plays with bass

?# - . - .
∑ œ Œ Œ ‰ j ‰ j Œ ‰ j
œ œ #œ œ œ Œ Œ ‰ nœj
elec. bass œ œ œ
+ bass clarinet 71
=
(Example 6.16 continued.)
# œ œ œ ˙™ j j
3
Brian
& #œ œ œ j ‰ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ
McKnight œ œ œ J J w
b -œ œ.
buy a - noth - er shoe, comes love noth - ing can be done.
œ œ bœ œ œ. -œ œ nœ
# œ™ œ
J
œ œ
∑ ∑
group &

b œœœœœ ˙˙˙˙˙ n# œœœœœ ™™™™ n#n œœœœœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœ
?# Œ ‰ œJ œ
{
Vocal ‰ J Œ Œ J ∑ Œ

{
Group
ah comes love doo doo doo doo
b œ- œ.
& Ϫ
# j œ œ bœ œ œ. œ nœ
œ œ œ œ- ∑ ∑
Brass
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
b -œ
B7[äÁ]
œ.
# œ™ œ œ œ bœ œ œ. F©Œ†7(b5)
-œ œ nœ b œ
& Ϫ
œ œ œ bœ œ œ n œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ ∑ ∑
J
Rhythm
.j . j - .
?# ‰ œ Œ ‰ j œ #œ œ œ ∑ œ Œ Œ œ œ
œ œ #œ œ™ œ

In studying these excerpts by Gordon Goodwin, this author has found his

combinations of instruments (including vocals) in small groups especially fascinating.

Also interesting to this author is his utilization of tightly packed voicings when the tempo

is fast, and note values are short. His expansion of the range at both ends during peak

points is noteworthy. Finally, his overall pacing of an arrangement is fascinating,

through modulations, simple stop-time, unison and duet countermelodies, tutti sections,

and rhythmic and harmonic surprises.


Chapter 7

ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF JOHNNY MANDEL

Examples for this chapter of the study were transcribed from Johnny Mandel’s

arrangements for Shirley Horn, Barbra Streisand, and Diana Krall. The arrangements for

Shirley Horn have been transcribed from her 1992 “Here’s to Life” album, for which

Mandel won a Grammy award. For this study, the author chose to transcribe passages

from Mandel’s arrangements of the title song Here’s to Life, from Where Do You Start,

and from Estate. In addition, a passage was selected from Mandel’s arrangement of

Smoke Gets In Your Eyes, written for Barbra Streisand’s 2009 album “Love is the

Answer.” Finally, a passage was chosen from I’ve Got You Under My Skin, written for

Diana Krall’s 1999 album “When I Look In Your Eyes.” To represent the orchestral

writing in an efficient yet comprehensible manner, this author has chosen to notate the

following: a staff for the singer plus grand staffs when necessary for the woodwind

section, the brass section, the string section, and the rhythm section. Indications are

included in the scores as to which instruments are playing at any given time.

At the start of Here’s to Life, Mandel writes a very soft high pedal ‘G’ in the

violins (See Example 7.1). He picks the ‘G’ because it is a note that works within each

chord from the ‘A’ section. The note starts as the 9th of Fmi7, then becomes the 13th of

B9, then the 3rd of EMa9, then the 7th of AMa9. In measure 7, Mandel moves the

violins down one whole-step to an ‘F’. Doing so allows for the minor 11, a more colorful

tone, to be on top of the final C minor chord. Because the pedal tone is in such a high

register and is fairly inactive, the focus on the vocal line remains unobscured.

72
73

The pulse in the introduction of the song in supplied only from the subtle

movements in the electric piano, which Shirley Horn herself is playing. When Mandel

adds to the orchestral texture in the last two measures of the ‘A’ section, he does so as a

means of punctuating the end of the vocal line. In writing for the harp, piano, and electric

piano, he allows for a gentle continuation of the pulse. All three instruments are

excellent at providing pulse when the orchestral texture is thin.

The arpeggiated harmony played by the piano is especially rich due to the minor

11th, as well as the minor 2nd interval created after the 9 and 3 played consecutively. The

G minor triad played by the electric keyboard in the final measure of Example 7.1

includes the 5th, 7th, 9th of the C minor 11 chord already sounding. The top note of this

triad is the “G”, several octaves above Shirley Horn’s vocal. This is a small yet

significant detail, as that chord sounds to subtly echo the melody.


74

Example 7.1. Johnny


Here's To LifeMandel,
- Intro
Johnny Mandel
Here’s to Life, Introduction and first ‘A’ section, mm. 1-
10, in 4/4 time. High pedal tone in violins, and examination of pulse.
Straight 8th notes

b 4
q = 60 3
&b b 4 ∑ ∑ Ó ‰ Œ ≈ ≈
œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ
Shirley Horn
no com - plaints and no re - grets, I still be

{
w w w w
b 4
&b b 4
ppp
Strings
?b 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
b b4
F‹…9 F‹…9 Bb9“ Bb9
bbb 4 œ œ™ j œœ œœ œœ ™™™ j
œœ œ œœœ œœœ ™™™ œ
& ˙˙˙ ˙˙˙
œœ œ œœ œœ ™ œ
4 œ œœ œœ œœ
œ œœ œ œœ œœ ˙ ˙
Rhythm œ
? bb 4 Ó
section Elec. piano
b4 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w
=
b 3
&b b œ œ œ œ nœ œ j ‰ Œ ‰ ≈ r
œ œ œ œ œj

œ œ œ œ
Shirley
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
lieve in cha - sing dreams and plac - ing bets, but I have learned that all you give is all you

{
w w w
b
&b b
Strings
?b ∑ ∑ ∑
bb

{
EbMa9 AbMa9 DΠ7(b5)
b
& b b œœ ˙˙˙ ™™™ w œœ ˙˙ ™™
˙˙ ™™
˙™
œœ w
ww œœ
Rhythm
˙™
?b
bb œ ˙™ œ
˙™ œ
=
b
&b b j ‰ Œ ‰ ≈ r ∑
˙™
Shirley
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
get so give it all you've got.
w w
w w
w
w w
& bbb
Strings
? bb ∑ ∑ ∑

{
b
w
elec. pno
w
G7[åÁ] C‹…11 w
w
bbb œ œ w
Harp
& ww nb œœ œ œ œ œ
#n w
w ‰ œJ
Rhythm piano

˙™
? bb ∑ ∑
b œ
w w
75

The pulse that Mandel continues to create is a product of the rhythm of both the

vocal line as well as the instruments. In Example 7.2, one can see that practically every

beat is accounted for. The one notable exception: there is nothing taking place on beat 3

of measures 3 and 7, directly before Horn sings the key phrase, “So here’s to life.”

The passage in Example 7.2 also demonstrates Mandel’s mastery of harmonic

techniques. In measures 2 and 3, Mandel creates a series of chords which continually

find their way back to the tonic C major chord. The progression does so using chromatic

approach chords. When using chromatic approach chords, the notes lead into a

destination voicing via a half step in the same direction. Mandel also restrains in writing

the root of the chord until after the passage reaches its destination – suspending the

feeling of finality until the last beat before the ‘B’ section begins. This is also effective in

setting up the title lyric for Horn.

The flute duets in Example 7.2, largely in intervals of 3rds, help to punctuate each

of Horn’s vocal phrases. They also often double notes that appear in the violins an

octave lower. Mandel is clearly using the strings as a bed for the flute duets. The top

note of the opening flute line in measure 4 begins where Horn’s vocal line ended – on a

“G”. Each of the flutes’ two-measure phrases has an upward and downward melodic arc

to it. The second phrase also starts on “G”, but the arc reaches higher. Finally, the third

and final phrase begins even higher, before the arc finally continues to begin on the same

“G” the section started with. This note happens to be reinfocing Horn’s vocal at the time.

In examining Mandel’s harmony, one can see his repeated use of the dominant 7

suspension chord. This particular chord is a dominant 7 chord in which the 11th scale

degree of the chord root substitutes for the 3rd degree. In Example 7.2 alone, there are
76

four instances where he uses this chord. In many of the cases, the dominant 7 suspension

includes a 9, a fairly standard alteration, especially when following a half-diminished

chord. In one instance (in measure 5) Mandel unconventionally includes a 9 and 13.

Here he is simply suspending the Fmi7 harmony from measure 4, while the bass plays the

new root, the ‘G’.


77

ExampleHere's
7.2. Johnny
To Life Mandel,
- 3 bars before Here’s to Life, Three measures before first ‘B’ section,
first 'B' section
2
mm. 1-11, in 4/4 time. High pedal tone in violins, and examination of pulse.
1
b
& b b Ó‰≈ r Ó ‰ j œ œ Œ Ó Œ ‰ j œ œ
œ œ ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ
Shirley
nœ œ œ œ

{
So here's to life
and do it all a - gain and ev -'ry joy it
n œ #œ nw œ œ n œ œœ œ w
b Œ nœ œ #œ nœ Œ œ œ #œ œ nw
flute flutes
&b b ∑
WW
? bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
b

{
Eb/G7 B6 C6 C„ˆˆ9 Db6/F C6 FŒ†7 G7“[áÆ]
b B„ˆˆ9 n D6/F#
œ bœ w
&b b w
w Œ #nœœ œœ n#œœ nœœnnnœœœ bbb œœœ w Œ œ
w nw
w œ œœ œœ w
w

? b nw # œ n œ nœ bb œœ
Œ ##œœnnœœ #œ n œ œ nœ nnw
w Œ b ˙˙˙ ™™
b ˙w n˙
Strings
w w ˙ ˙
bb w

Œ n˙ w w

{
FΠ7

bb œœ V V V V V V V

∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏
& b ∑ ∑ ∑ œ
nn œœ
CÐ piano
œœœ arpeggiation
œ V VV V V V V
Rhythm
? bb ∑
harp
nœœ Œ Ó ∑
harp
∏∏∏∏∏∏∏

b œ

b Œ ‰ ≈œr
&b b ™œ
Ó Ó ‰ j œ Œ Ó ‰ w ˙ Ó
˙ œ œ œ œ
œ œ
Shirley

{
œ œœ n œœ œœ w œœ b œœ n# œœ œœ œœ w
brings so here's to life to dream - ers and their dreams
b œ w nw n œb œ w
w ˙˙
&b b Œ Œ Ó
nœ bœ

WW
? bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
b

{
CŒ†7 G7“(b9)/C CŒ†7 F‹…9 G7“(b9) C7¸ C9
b
&b b Œ ˙˙ w w w w Ó
œœ w w w w n˙˙
˙˙ w w
? bb Œ b œ w w w w ˙
Strings
w w n˙˙ Ó
b w w w
w w

{
elec keyboard

b ˙b ˙˙˙
w/Leslie
+
CŒ†7 F‹…11
œœœ V VV V V V V V V VV
G7“(b9)
b C‹…11 G7“(b9)/C harp C7¸
&b b Œ œœ ˙ œ
Ó
œ
∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏

œœ
œœœœ
? b ‰w œ™ ˙ V VV V V VV V V V V V V VV +
Rhythm piano piano arpeggiation C9 Gb/C
bb Ó
78

Mandel demonstrates another harmonic technique in the final measure of

Example 7.2. After the progression of the ‘B’ section resolves to a C9 chord, via a

dominant 7 suspension chord, the listener might feel a sense of completion. However,

Mandel then inserts a G/C chord, adding interest to the last measure of the section, and

providing an effective segue into the next section (See Example 7.3). In addition to

including the dominant 7, the G triad also includes the 9 and the 5 of C7 – each

colorful tone having its own tendency to resolve. And the addition of the ‘C’ on top of

the voicing creates a major 2nd dissonance which adds to the effect. It is likely not a

coincidence that, at the same time, Shirley Horn is singing the lyric “dreams.”

Example 7.3. Johnny Mandel, Here’s to Life, Final two measures of first ‘B’ section, mm.
1-2, in 4/4 time. Use of G/C chord. Here's To Life - instrumental interlude 4:10
3

b
Shirley &b b w ˙ Ó Ó
œ œ

{
dreams Here's to

b nnœœ bbœœ w
w ˙˙
&b b Ó ∑
WW
? bb ∑ ∑ ∑
b

{
C7¸ C9
b
&b b w
w n˙˙ Ó ∑
Strings
?b w
w n˙˙˙
bb w Ó ∑

{
elec keyboard

b ˙b ˙˙˙
w/Leslie
b
V V V V +
C7¸
&b b ∑

V V V V +
Rhythm piano arpeggiation C9 Gb/C
? bb Ó ∑
b
79

The short instrumental interlude later in the arrangement is a key moment of the

arrangement (See Example 7.4). The interlude begins directly after Horn sings arguably

the most important lyric of the piece, “Here’s to you.” Throughout the section, Mandel

makes extensive use of counterlines, which are simple melodies working against the

main melody, typically in mostly step-wise motion. In measures 2 and 3 of Example 7.4,

the oboe and violas have a counterline which descends by half-step. When the line

reaches an E at the start of measure 4, Mandel engages that same note as the start of a

steadily rising line for the first violins and oboe. Simultaneously, the clarinet and middle

strings have an inner counterline which travels through the 9th, root, major 7, and minor 7

of the C minor chord, and onward through the 7th and 3rd degrees of the next two

proceeding chords. Whether an upward or downward slope, the addition of these slow

horizontal counterlines creates a sense of momentum – a sense of unfolding that is

important in this interlude. The piano and harp play arpeggiated parts at times which

help contribute rhythmically to the overall sense of momentum.

Integral to the conception of this interlude is the initial rise of the bassoon and

horn line, after which the solo horn continues the ascension. Mandel crafts the horn

melody to perfection (See Example 7.5): with two increasingly higher melodic peaks,

followed by a build-up into the highest peak. It is noteworthy that each climax also has a

short resolution immediately following. With an E79, he chooses a 13th as the chord

tone for the first peak. The 13th has tension due to its dissonant distance (either a minor

2nd or major 7th) from the dominant 7th. His contoured “build-up” in measure 4 – using a

Cmi add9 chord – is built from a Cmi7 arpeggio beginning on the 9th. The climax of the

phrase involves a 5th and 6th over a Bmi7 chord. The 6th, like the 13th before, creates

similar tension.
80

Example 7.4. Johnny Mandel, Here’s to Life, Instrumental interlude, mm. 1-8, in 4/4

time. Counterlines and solo for horn in F.


Here's To Life - instrumental interlude 4:10
1
b 4

˙™
&b b Ó Œ ∑ ∑

{
œ œ w
Shirley

Here's to you

bb ˙™
Oboe
& b ∑ ˙ bœ ˙ ˙
n˙ bw
WW
Bassoon j œœœ œ
? bb
b ∑ ‰ œœœœ Œ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ &

{
3

j ™œ
Ϫ
horn solo
b 3 j
&b b ∑ ∑
œ œ œ
œ œ œ~~ œ œ ˙ œ
œœœ œ
‰ œj œ œ œ
Brass Horns in F
?b ∑ Œ Ó ∑ ∑
bb

{
CΠ7 F7(b9) BbΠ7 Eb7(b9) bw
w AbÐ ẇ #˙
˙˙ ™™
b
&b b ∑ b œœ b ˙˙ n˙˙
˙™ w ˙˙ # ˙˙
˙™
Strings
?b nœ b˙ ˙ w
bb ∑ ˙

{
œ ˙
w ˙ ˙
Eb7(b9) AbÐ
b œœœœ Œ bnœœœœ b w
F/G
&b b ∑ Œ Ó Ó ‰ j
∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏
∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏

G7(#11)
n œ œn˙
œœ œ ˙
Rhythm
? bb œ b œœœ piano
œ œ œœœœ
b ∑ œ Œ Ó Ó Œ œœ œ w

=
b
&b b ∑ Ó Œ œ w

{
Shirley
may all

& bbb ˙™ œ ˙ n˙ w
WW
b Clarinet
&b b œ ?

{
œ nœ bœ ˙ ˙ w
œ
b
&b b œ œ œ ~~~~œ œ œ œ w
œ
Brass
3
p
œœ mf w
w
? bb ∑ Ó Œ
b

{
w
w
˙˙ nn ˙˙ bw
w
b
&b b
œ̇ nœ nœ̇ bœ
? bb b ˙˙ ˙˙ w
Strings
b w

{
n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ w
3

& b b ˙˙œ™™
Eb13
b CŒ†„ˆˆ9 C¦(Œ„Š7) CŒ†7
Ó
BbŒ†7 nœ b wAbÐ
bœ ™ œ œ
harp
œ
œ nœ b œœ œJ
œ˙
œ w
? b ˙™ b˙
Rhythm
bb œ b˙ b ˙˙ w
w
w
˙
Here's To Life - instrumental interlude 4:10
1
b
Brass &b b ∑ ∑ 81

Example 7.5. Johnny Mandel, Here’s to Life, Horn solo, mm. 1-6, in 4/4 time. Inspection
of melodic peak notes and resolutions.
F/G G7(#11)
™œ note
BbŒ†7 Eb7(b9) AbÐ

Ϫ
j peak j
bb
3 peak note resolution
œ ~~
resolution
& b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
˙
Chord Tone: 5 6 7 13 3 9 1 5 1 1 7 1

BbŒ†7 Eb13 AbÐ


CŒ†„ˆˆ9 C¦(Œ„Š7) CŒ†7
peak notesœ resolution
b ~~~~ œ œ œ œ
build up
&b b œ œ œ œ w
3
9 3 5 7 5 6 11 (1) 13 7

A horn solo also plays an important role in the introduction of Mandel’s


œ œ œ œ b œ ™ nœJ
## Horn Solo 3
œ nœ ˙
& Ó œ œDo You
Œ ∑ ∑
arrangement of œWhere Start. Ironically, many of the same musical elements

Mandel utilizes in the preceding interlude also appear here (See Example 7.6). The horn

solo and flute solo each aim for peak melody notes. Counterlines are abundant as well, in
Where do you start - Intro
rit.
the top# violin part (measures 1 through 3), and in the section horn parts (measures 1 and
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
2, and measures 4-7).

Since this introduction is set without rhythm section, the pulse and pacing must be
Estate - First "A" section 00:31
dictated
b bby the solo
q = 70 Bossa instruments. Thus, Mandel requires the strings to be fairly inactive,
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
moving in half notes and the occasional quarter note. When the flute solo finishes its

final phrase, the harp takes over in creating the pulse, with two measures of constant
bb
& b b nnw ww ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
ww
w
eighth notes. w
w
mf

As suggested in chapter one, Mandel is a master of orchestrational colors. In this


bb fr. horn
& b b Œintroduction,
particular ‰ j his use∑ of the contrabass
∑ ∑
clarinet ∑
is striking. In∑measures∑5 and 6
œ ˙
mp
of Example 7.6, the instrument plays roots using a glissando of an octave – a dramatic

sonic brush stroke.


82

Example 7.6. Johnny Mandel, Where Do You Start, Introduction, mm. 1-8, in 4/4 time.
Horn and flute solos, counterlines, and contrabass clarinet.
Where do you start - Intro
5

# Rubato Ballad 1
Shirley & # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
U
œ œ œ œ ùœ œ œ œ ù œ
œ
œ œ
Œ ù
# œ œ œ
‰ œJ nœ
Flute

{ & # ∑ ∑ Ó

{
WW

œ œ œ œ b œ ™ nœJ œ nœ ˙
## Horn
Ó
Solo 3
Œ ∑ ∑
& œ œ œ
Brass ˙ b˙ nw ˙ nœ œ
?## horns gliss.
∑ ∑

{
p

b œœ ™™
GŒ†7 C7[âÅ] FMa9 DŒ†7 DŒ†7/C BŒ†7 E7[åÅ] A9“ E7[åÅ]/A
# œ
& # nœœ b ˙˙
Ϫ
∑ ˙˙ ‰ Œ
n˙˙ b#˙˙ n˙˙ nn œ̇
œ ˙ ˙
#œ ™
b˙ ˙ Œ œ n˙
n˙˙ n˙˙
Strings
?## n˙˙ #˙ ‰ w nœ # ˙
Ϫ
∑ ˙˙

{
n˙ œ nœ ˙ w
#
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Rhythm
?## ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

=
rit.
#
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
Shirley

œ œ œ œ ˙™
‰ œ nœ ù ù
œ œ œ œ U w
To Cl.
#
& # J

Contrabass
?## Ó Clarinet

œ œ

{
w w
#
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

?## ˙ œ w bw
Brass
Œ ∑

{
## A13“ œ
Aº7 A13“ G‹…9/A ææ
& Œ nœœœbnb ˙˙˙ nw
w
w nw
w
w
Ó ˙˙
ppp ˙
?## Œ nœ ˙ w bw mp

æ
Strings
w w Ó ˙
œ#œ œ æ

{
rit. #œ œ œ œ ˙
# œ œ nœ œ œ b œ n œ # œ Piano œ#˙
& # œ
Harp
∑ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ
œ ˙
‰ œj œ
Rhythm DÐ
?## ∑ Ó ˙
Bass
w
pizz w
83

Mandel’s use of orchestrational colors are also apparent in his arrangement of

Estate. Through the first 9 measures of the first ‘A’ section (See Example 7.7), Mandel

illustrates the mood of the lyric, which talks of sensuality, love, and nature – specifically,

the flowers’ perfume, and the morning breeze. He demonstrates these ideas musically

through the use of: the harp run in measure 1, the vibraphone and wind chimes in

measure 2, the muted trumpet and trombones starting in measure 6, and the upward

keyboard glissando in measure 9.

In the second ‘A’ section, Mandel’s use of subtle colors continues: more instances

of the vibraphone roll, and a single horn note in measure 5 (See Example 7.8). However,

the main color and texture in this section is created by the strings. As Mandel did at the

start of Here’s to Life, he places the top violin part on a single note for the first six

measures. When the part moves, it does so slowly and with intention, starting a slow

upward climb. As the line elevates, it passes through very colorful chord tones: the 9th of

a minor chord, the 13th, 11th, and #11th of a dominant 7 chord, and the 9th of a Maj7

chord. Meanwhile, Mandel reinforces the roots of the chords with the low cello, while

the upper celli largely play the 3rds and 7ths of the chords – the tones which most define the

chord quality.
84

Example 7.7. Johnny Mandel, Estate, First ‘A’ section, mm. 1-9, in 4/4 time. Use of
orchestrational
Estate colors.
- First "A" section 00:31

œ ‰ œ œ™ œ
1
b
q = 70 Bossa
j
& b bb Œ ‰ j ∑ Ó Œ ‰ j
œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
Shirley

“‘

{
vocals Es - ta - te, you bathe me in the glow of your ca

& bbbb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
?bb
WW
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
bb
bb
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Brass
?bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
bb

{
bb
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
Strings
? bb b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
b

b b Harp 5 œ œ œ œR ≈ ‰ Œ +~~
windchimes
&b b œœ œ œ œ Ó ~~~ ∑ ∑
œœœ
œ ™™ œ ™ œj œj ™
ææ ‰ ‰ œœœ ™™ œœœ ™™™ œœ œœ œœœ ™™™ œœ ™™
6 Bb‹…9 C7½
#nb ˙˙ ‰ nb œœ
Pno. FΠ7
w (Drums: brushes and cross-stick) ˙˙
? bPnob w
VIBES
bb w œ™ œJ ˙
Ϫ
œ™ œJ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙

=
Bass

5
bb
bœ œ ™
& b b œ œŒ Ó ∑ Ó Œ œ ‰ œœ œ j Ó
Shirley
œ œ œœ nœ œ J
<“ >

{
res ses, you turn my tim id no's to ea ger yes - ses,

b ‰ œ™
& b bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó
Ϫ
‰ œœ ™™
b
p
?bb
WW
bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó

{
p

& bbbb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
trumpets and bones œ ™™ w
œ ™ ww
‰ ™
in bucket mutes œœ n ww
w b ww
w b w
Brass
? bb b ∑ Ó w w
b

{
p

bb
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
Strings
? bb b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
b
elec. piano 5
˙
Œ œœœ œjœ ™ œœœ œ
Bb‹…9 Eb7(b9)

& b œ œ œ œ ™™ œ œ œ ™ œ ˙œ œ ™™ œ œ œj œ ™
Ó
b b F‹…9 ˙ 5
œ
œœœ œœœœœœ ™™™
b j œ
œœœœ œ œ
œœœ œœœ œœœJ œœœ ™™ Œ ‰œœœ œœœœœœ ™™ œœ œœ œœ œœ ™™ œœœ b œ œœœ œœœ œœœœœœœœ œ nœ
J J
VIBES æ
æ ‰ Ó ˙ ˙
Pno. Ab9“
? bb b j
b œ™ œj˙ œ™
œ™ œJ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ™ œ ˙
85

Example 7.8. Johnny Mandel, Estate, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-9, in 4/4 time.
Continued use of colors, concentrated in string section.

1
bb 3 j
Shirley &b b ∑ ∑ Ó Œ ‰ j
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ

{
oh, how your gol - den sun - light bends
b
& b bb b w
w
w
w
w
ww
w
ww
p
? bb b ww ww ww nw

{
Strings
w w w
w
b w w w

œœœ œœœ ™™
b b pno j
œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ ™™™
j
& b b œ œ œj œ œj œ œ™
Ó n#œœœœ œœœ
nb œœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœœ œ œ œ œ™ œ
œœ ™™
œ
vibes œœ ™™
Bb‹…9

æ
Pno.
w C7½
ww
w
F‹…11
? bb b j
VIBES
œ™ ‰ ‰ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
b œ™ œ ˙ œ™ œJ ˙
=

b 3
& b bb œ œ Ó ∑ Ó Œ ‰ j

{
œ œ œ
Shirley
the wil - low your
b
& b bb Œ
horn
‰ j ∑ ∑
œ ˙
Brass mp
? bb b ∑ ∑ ∑

{
b
bb w
&b b w w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
? bb b w
w ww w
Strings

{
b w w w
j
‰ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œœ œœ ™™
b Ó Œ
& b bb b œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ
œœœ œœœ ™™™
j
œœJ œœ ™™
œœ œœœ
œœ œœ
Pno. F‹…9 Bb‹…9
?bb j j
b b œ™ œ ˙ œ™ œ ˙ ˙ ˙
=
8
b
& b bb œ œ œ œ œ œ
3 3
‰œœ œ Ó ∑ ∑

{
Shirley œ œ
blos - soms send their per - fume to my pil - low
b w
& b bb nw w
w
w
w
bw nnw
w
w bw
w bw bw w

{
Strings
? bb b w w w w
w
b w w w
>
œœ œœ ™™™ b œœœ œœœ nn#œœœ bbnœœœ œœœ Œ
b j
& b bb n œœœ œœœ œœœ ™™™
j b œœœ œœ œœ œœ œ nœ œœ nœœ
œ œ™ œœ œœ ™
œœœ œ œœœ
Pno.
œ œ b œœ œœ
? bb b Eb13(b9) Ab9“
j Ab13(b9) DbMa9
˙
b ˙ ˙ œ™ œ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
86

Mandel’s first violin part was often built around a specific shape. In his

arrangement for Barbra Streisand of Smoke Gets In Your Eyes, Mandel once again creates

a rising string line (See Example 7.9). After the line reaches a peak note in measure 4, it

begins to descend until the start of measure 6. In fact, with the exception of a repeated

note in measure 7, every top violin note adheres to either a downward or upward contour.

Also notable in Example 7.9 is Mandel’s use of dissonant notes and chords. In

this example, one might see that practically every other chord is dissonant. For instance,

the Aadd9/C# chord sounds consonant, but then is followed by a Cdim7 chord that

sounds quite dissonant (due to its inclusion of a G# and A). The Bmi7 chord that follows

is both a standard and consonant voicing, but then is followed with an E7alt chord that is

dissonant (due to its G and G#, and its E and F). The pattern continues through much of

the example. The effect on the listener is that of a feeling of resolution followed by

tension followed by resolution, and so forth.


87

Example 7.9. Johnny Mandel, Smoke Gets In Your Eyes, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-9, in
4/4 time. String line contour,
Barbra Streisand - and use of consonant and dissonant voicings.
Smoke gets in your eyes - Second "A" section 1:12

# # q = 60 Straight 8th ballad


˙™ œ œ œ ˙™
1 3
& # Œ ‰ j ≈ Œ œ œ nœ #œ
œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ

{
Barbra
œ œ
###
they said some - day you'll find all who love are blind when your heart's on
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
WW's
?### ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
##
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Brass
?### ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
## ˙˙ ˙˙
& # ˙ #n ˙˙˙ n#˙˙ n ˙˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙
˙ ˙
˙˙ ˙ ˙ # ˙˙
˙ n ˙˙ ˙˙ n˙˙
Strings
?### ˙ n˙
˙ ˙
˙

{
˙ n˙ n˙
˙ ˙
# # piano light comp/fills
& # V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
A„ˆˆ9/C# Cº7 BŒ†7 E7½ A9“ A7(#11) DŒ†6 G13
Rhythm
?### ˙ œ™ œ n˙
n˙ ˙ j ˙ œ ˙
œ
=
BRIDGE
## 3
5
3 3
Barbra & # œœœœ Œ œ œ ˙
Œ œ
œ
Œ Ó ‰ œ Œ œ nœnœ
#œ œ œœ w œ œ

{

fire you must re-a - lize smoke gets in your eyes. so I laughed, oh yes, I
##
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
nnn ˙˙˙ obfl ˙
cl #n ˙˙
WW's
?### ˙ cl n˙

{
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ b˙

## B. cl
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Brass
?### ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
## ˙ ˙ ˙˙
& # ˙˙ #˙˙ n˙˙˙ n˙˙˙ #˙˙ ˙˙ ˙
˙˙
˙ nn˙˙˙ Ó
˙ ˙ nb ˙˙
?### #˙˙ # ˙˙ n˙ ˙ n˙˙ #˙˙ n˙˙
Strings
˙ ˙ ˙ Ó
˙ b˙ n˙
˙ #˙ ˙ ˙
#˙ n˙

{
##
Pno fillœ
œ œ œ™ œ nœœ
& # V V VV VVVV ‰ œJ œ œ œ œ œ nœ nœœ#œœ œœ V œœ œ VVV
#œ ™
Rhythm C‹…11 F#7(b13) BŒ†7 E13(b9) AÐ 3 Ab7[åÁ] G13 3 FÐ GŒ†7(b5)/Bb
?### ˙ j ˙
F#7[åÁ]

œ ˙ ˙ b˙ n˙ ˙ n˙ b˙
88

At times, Mandel also applied the same contoured writing to other sections of the

orchestra as well. Example 7.10 shows the first ‘B’ section of his arrangement for Diana

Krall of I’ve Got You Under My Skin. Here, Mandel composes a top flute line that rises

to a peak note (in measure 4) before descending. When the string section enters, Mandel

does not make them the focus. Instead they play a supporting role to the top woodwind

lines, reinforcing the low and middle part of the voicing.

This relationship between the string section and the woodwind section is one to

which Mandel pays special attention. In the last half of the ‘B’ section, Mandel writes

the entrance of the woodwind section to overlap with the exit of the string section (See

Example 7.11). This compositional technique is known as dove-tailing. Though the top

counterlines are an octave apart, the notes are the same. Thus, the listener perceives the

top flute line to simply continue where the top violins’ previous line concluded.

At measure 9 of Example 7.11, Mandel writes the same notes for the strings and

the woodwinds. The additional support is helpful as the music crescendos to the stop-

time at the start of measure 11. There is no doubt that Mandel intentionally chose this

point in the music to insert the stop-time, in order to coincide with the lyric “stop”.
89

Example
Diana Krall7.10.
- Johnny Mandel, I’ve Got You Under My Skin, First ‘B’ section,
"I've Got You Under My Skin" - First Bridge 2:13
mm. 1-8, in 4/4 time. Woodwind line contour, and supporting role of string section.
Bossa - straight eighths
q = 91 1 3 3 3
&b Ó ‰ Œ ‰ ‰ j
3
j j
œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ
Diana

{
œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ

œœ™™
I would sac ri - fice a - ny - thing come what might for the sake of hav - ing you near, in spite of a
w ˙˙ #˙˙˙
&b ∑ w
w ‰# ˙˙˙ w
w ˙
WWs 3 Fl + 2 cl
ww
w œœœ™™™ b ˙˙ ww
w ˙˙ b ˙˙
?b ∑ ‰ ˙

{
+ bass cl.

&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Brass
?b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
&b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Strings
?b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
guitar comping
&b ∑
Rhythm G‹…11 C13(b9) FMa9 AŒ†7 D7(b9)
? ∑ j
Ϫ
b œ˙ ˙
˙ œ œ ˙ ˙
=
bass ˙
5

&b Œ ‰ j ‰ j Œ ‰ j œ œ
œ
œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ
Diana
œ œ œœ œ

{
œ œ œ
œœ ™™
warn - ing voice that comes in the night and re - peats in my ear: "don't you know
œ œ#œ ˙
fl + cl
n˙ ẇ ˙ Ó
& b ˙˙ œ™ ‰ œ œ #˙ n˙ Ó
˙ œœ™™ ˙˙ 3
b ˙˙ ẇ
w ˙˙˙
?b ˙ ˙
WWs
‰ Ó

{
&b ∑ ∑ ∑
solo clarinet
˙ Ó
Brass mf
?b

{
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

&b Ó ˙ ˙ ˙ ẇ #˙ n˙˙ Ó
Strings ˙˙ ˙˙ b ˙˙ ẇ ˙ ˙˙
?b Ó Ó

{
˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙
œœ
&b V ‰ œœ V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
vibes
J
Rhythm G‹…11 C9“ C7(b9) FMa9 C7(#5) FMa9

Ϫ
?b j j
Ϫ
œ ˙ j ˙ œ™ œ œ
œ œ œ ˙ œ
90

Example 7.11. Johnny Mandel, I’ve Got You Under My Skin, Last half of first ‘B’
section, mm. 1-12, in 4/4 time. Dove-tailing of strings and woodwinds, and drive to the
stop-time.
1
Œ ‰ œj œ œ
3
&b œ œ œ Ó œ œ™ œ
Œ Ó Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙

{
Diana

you fool, you nev - er can win, use your men - ta - li - ty,
œ ˙ ˙ ˙
&b Œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ Œ œ̇ #˙ b œ nn˙˙ #n˙˙ Œ œ̇ #˙ œ
œ˙ ™™ #˙
œœ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
# ˙˙ n ˙˙ #˙˙ œ ˙
Strings
? Œ
b œ ˙ n˙ Œ ˙™ ˙ Œ œ #˙
˙ ˙ œ ˙

{
“”
Ó ˙ #˙
& b V V V̇ V V V V V V V V V
‰ j‰ j ‰ j‰ j
V V V V V V V V V V
glock (Gtr)

gtr continues comping GΠ7


Rhythm BŒ†7(b5) E7[áÆ] AŒ†’ A¦(Œ„Š7) AŒ†7 D7 D6
? DŒ†’ DŒ†’/C
b j ˙
nϪ
˙
=
˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
6
3
&b Œ ‰ j Ó Ó ‰ Œ ‰ j

{
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ j œ œ nœ œ œ
œ œ #œ
Diana

nœ ™ b œ ˙
n œœ ™™ n œœJ ˙˙
wake up to re - al -
œœœi - ty" Œ œœ bbb œœœ
for each time
wI do just
&b ∑ œ nw
w
WWs œœ bb œœ b œœ ™™ œ ˙ w
? ∑
2 fl, 2 cl, bass cl
Ó œ ˙ w
b J

{
p f
w
w
& b n˙˙ b ˙˙ œœ Œ Ó ∑ w
˙ ˙˙ w
p f
? b n˙˙ œœ w
Strings

{
˙ Œ Ó ∑ w
w
& V V
b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
Rhythm C9“ C9(#5) FMa9 DŒ†7 Db‹…11 CŒ†7 F13(b9) BbÐ
?b j
= ˙ ˙ ˙ nœ b œ œ™ œ œ œ ˙
˙
10
3 3 3
&b œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ
Œ
œ
Œ ‰ j
œ #œ œ
œ œ
Diana

{
œ œ œ
w
the thought of you makes me
œ stop be - fore I be - gin. be - cause I
œ
&b w w œJ ‰ Œ Ó ∑
w œœ
?b # w
WWs
J ‰ Œ Ó ∑

{
f
œ
p
w œ
&b w
w œJ ‰ Œ Ó ∑
w
p f œœ
? #w
Strings

{
b ‰ Œ Ó ∑
w œJ
&b V V V V VJ ˙˙ ™™
˙˙ ™™
‰ Œ Ó Œ
Rhythm E7[åÁ] FÐ
?b j ‰ Œ Ó Œ D9“
˙ ˙ œ ˙™
91

In studying the preceeding excerpts, this author finds especially rewarding

Mandel’s use of a single sustained string note. His contour and control of dissonance in

string, flute and horn passages is a focal point in his arrangements. Not only is this

notable, but the often slow rate at which Mandel allows it to develop. His partnership

with Shirley Horn makes sense to the author, as she often has patience in singing a

performance. Finally, his subtle use of orchestrational color is remarkable, in painting

the mood of a song and lyric.


Chapter 8

ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF JORGE CALANDRELLI

Examples for this chapter of the study were procured from already existent scores

of Jorge Calandrelli. Included in this study are Calandrelli’s arrangement of Smile

written for Tony Bennett and Barbra Streisand, as well as his arrangement of The Best is

Yet To Come for Bennett and Diana Krall. Both arrangements were recorded on Tony

Bennett’s 2006 CD entitled “Duets – an American Classic.” The other arrangement

included in this study is Cry Me a River, from the 2007 Concord release “Love Letters

from Ella.” For this album, Calandrelli was given the late Ella Fitzgerald’s isolated vocal

tracks – outtakes from a performance during the 1970s. He then arranged the orchestra

and rhythm section parts around the set vocals.

For the score examples in this chapter, the author has once again chosen to

represent the orchestral writing by notating the following: a staff for the singer plus grand

staffs when necessary for the woodwind section, the brass section, harp, and rhythm

section. For most of the score examples, the string section has been notated one staff per

part. This allows for this study to provide additional analysis about the horizontal

movement of each part.

An exception to the layout is the score for The Best is Yet To Come, for which the

string section has been simply notated on one grand staff. This choice was made due to

the relative lack of individual horizontal lines written in the string parts. The string parts

act more homophonically, moving together in approximately the same rhythms.45

45
Brian Hyer. “Homophony." Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University
Press. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/13291
(accessed April 1, 2013).

92
93

Some of the compositional techniques observed in the excerpts of Johnny Mandel

are also apparent in those of Calandrelli. Similar to Mandel’s Where Do You Start (See

previous Example 7.6), Calandrelli starts his arrangement of Smile with pulse provided

by the harp and soloist (See Example 8.1). Over the first two measures, the descending

harp and the low cello parts are unison. The result is more awareness on this lower line

which, as it descends, changes the nature of the harmonic voicings from shallow to deep.

There is a strong sense of contour in Calandrelli’s string lines. During the first

two measures, every string section part descends. As the solo finishes its descent in

measure 3, the violin section captures the focus with a high, sweeping line. Had

Calandrelli written this energized line for the soloist, it may have seemed forced or

unnatural, as it was heading toward a respite. In addition, Calandrelli wrote the unison

line for all of the violins, knowing the lushness of the line increases with each added

violinist. The sweeping effect would be unsupported without the horns, bassoon, violas,

celli, and double basses providing the foundation of the chords.


94

Example 8.1. Jorge Calandrelli, Smile, Introduction, mm. 1-12, in 4/4 time.
Descending string and harp lines, Jorge Calandrelli
and sweeping violin section line with low to mid
Tony Bennett & Barbra Streisand: Smile - Intro
support.

{
1
bb 4
q = 56 Straight 8th notes
& b b bb 4 ∑ ∑ ∑
Woodwinds
? bb b b 4 ∑ ∑
bassoon
œ
bb 4 œ

{
œ œ

b
& b bbbb 44 œ
f. horns
∑ ∑ Ó
nn œœœ b b œœ

Brass
mp
? bb b b 4 ∑ ∑ ∑
bb 4

{
“œ”
bb 4 J ‰ Œ
& b b bb 4 œ
Db, Cb, Bb, Eb, F, Gb, Ab

œ ∑ Ó
nœ œ iss
.
gl
Harp
? bb b b 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
bb 4 ∑ œ Ó
œ
all strings con sord.
GbMa7 Gb6 BŒ†6 E13 GbMa9 Eb‹…9 EbŒ†7 Ab13(#11) Ab‹…9/Db Bb13(b9) Eb7[åÁ]
° œ œ œ œ œ nœ nœ b œ
3
b œ
Violin
solo & b bbbb 44 œ œ œ œ œ ˙
Ó
œ œ bœ œ
b
Violin I & b bbbb 44 ˙ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ nœ
Œ œ bœ œ
p mp 3

bœ œ bœ œ
bb 4
Violin II & b b bb 4 ˙ œ œ œ nœ bœ nœ
Œ œ bœ œ
p mp 3

B bbbbbb 44 ˙ œ nœ bœ œ ˙˙ nnœœ b œœ
Viola œ œ
p mp

œ œ n œœ œ
bn œœ b œœ œœ œ œœ œ œ ˙˙ n œœ n œœ
? b b b4
celli bbb 4 œ

? bb b b 4 œ
¢
Double
bb 4 ∑ Ó Œ ˙ œ œ
Bass
95

{
2
(Example 8.2 continued.)

4
bb Fl nn œœ œœ n œ n ˙
& b b bb ob ‰
cl

J
œ nn œœ n ˙˙ ∑

WW's
nœj œ œ #˙ -
bassoon
bœ ™
? bb b b e.horn ‰
nœ™ œ nœ b ˙ ™
bb bassoon ‰ n œJ œ œ ‰

{
mp p

bb
& b b bb nn n ẇ #˙ ∑
n ww
Brass mf
? bb b b ∑ ∑
bb

{
b bœ
& b bbbb
D, Cb, Bb, E, F, G, Ab
Œ Œ nœ Œ Ó

~~~
nn œœ œœ

~~~
Hp.

~~~
? bb b b nœ Œ nœ b œ Œ Ó b˙
bb nœ
mp

° b˙ ™
A‹…11 D9 6 Ab‹…9 Db13[âÅ]
b
Vln. solo & b bbbb Ó Œ ‰ nœ nœ nœ nœ #œ
nœ b œ
œ
mf mp

nœ™ n œ n˙
Vln. I
b
& b bbbb J bœ ˙™
mf mp p

nœ™ n œ n˙
n˙ ™
bb J
Vln. II & b b bb œ
mf mp p

n ˙˙ ™™
nnw
Vla. B bbbbbb w œœ
mf mp p

? bb b b nn ẇ #˙ œœ nœ Ó
Vc. bb bœ
mp
mf p

bœ b˙ ™
pizz
? bb b b
¢
Db. bb n˙ n˙
mp p
mf
96

The solo violin melody at the start of the introduction is derived from the song

itself. The contour is the same, as are most of the notes until the final two (See Example

8.2). In offering a recognizable theme from the song, Calandrelli helps to provide the

basis and mood for the remainder of the arrangement.

Example 8.2. Jorge Calandrelli, Smile, Introduction, in 4/4 time. Opening solo
violin melody in comparison with the opening measure of the song melody.

First measure of opening violin solo

b œ œ œ3 œ œ œ nœ
Violin
solo & b bbbb nœ

œ
First two measures of song melody
b œ œ œ œ nœ œ
Voice & b bbbb

The construction of the melody for the violin section in measure 3 is built around

appoggiaturas, a pair of notes whereby the first moves a step above the main melody

note46. After the initial B (the 9th) in measure 3, the line moves to the 3rd then the 9th ,

then leaps to an appoggiatura on the 9 proceeded by the root of the B139 (See

Example 8.3). It leaps to another appoggiatura on the 9 then the root of the E7#9,#5.

The melody in measure 4 is a descending 3-note grouping, followed by a 3-note answer

from the solo violin in measure 5. The melodic cells are mostly comprised of 9ths, 11ths,

and 13ths color tones.

46
"Appoggiatura." Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/01118
(accessed April 1, 2013).
Jorge Calandrelli
all strings con sord.
1 q = 56 Straight 8th notes 97
bb 4˙ œ œ
& b b bb 4 œ
nœ œ œ ˙
Example 8.3. Jorge Calandrelli, Smile, Introduction, mm. 3-5, in 4/4 time.
p mp
Analysis of melodic line for violin section, and for soloist.

Eb7[åÁ]

œ œ b œ œ nœ™ nœ
Bb13(b9) A‹…11 Re-entrance of solo
Ab‹…9/Db D9 Ab‹…9 Db13[âÅ]

nœ#œnœ b œ b ˙ ™
3 6
bb J nœ ‰ nœnœnœ bœ
& b b bb Œ œ b œ œ
3
9 3 9 9 rt 9 rt 11 9 9 5 11 13

appoggiatura appoggiatura 3 note melodic cell 3 note melodic answer

Smile - 2nd half of first chorus


6 1 5
b b b notable b w w w ˙ ˙ ofwfive measures.
& bAlso
b b Ó nœ about
nœ bCalandrelli’s
b w w is its˙ duration
wintroduction n˙ nœ œThe
div
pp
duration of an introduction to a jazz song might typically be either four or eight measures.
7 9 13
He is bbb bto˙˙ extend
&able œ œthen˙length w measures,
œ toœ five œ œharmonic
˙ in˙ part,b wdue tonhis œ ˙ ˙
œ progression.
unis div w ˙ ˙ unis
In measure 4, when most introductions might set up the tonal center with a ii mi7 to V7
14 1 Instrumental Interlude 4
b j the
& b b ˙in the
progression
œ œ w
tonic key – in
n˙˙ unis b w b ˙ œ œ n˙ œ œ œ™ œ n œ œ
˙ this case, Ami7 to D7 – Calandrelli instead shifts

div
harmony up one half-step, writing Ami7 topD7 (Seempprevious Example 8.1). With this

˙ ™ an additional
5 1 Smile - Last section of tune
b # ˙
˙™
3
& b b variation,
harmonic
˙ œ
the œ
listenerb œ
will consciously
˙ ˙˙
or unconsciously expect œ
mf
œ #œ œ ˙ Ami7
measure, to provide the anticipated div toœD7 progression. w ˙ nœ
2 œ #œ
#Throughout
Ó
& the arrangement, Calandrelli continues to return to the violin solo. In

œœ ™™
Ella Fitzgerald -3 Cry Me a River - Intro
doing so, he creates a signature sound for his arrangement. At the second
rall.‘A’ section of
q = 54 straight eighths Gb<7(#11) œ œ ˙˙
œ
1
bb œ œasœaœcounterline
œ œ solo acts j ˙ œ
& b b Ó the
the arrangement, Œ violin œ œ œJ to Barbra Streisand’s vocal melody

p
33 pp V.S.
mp when the vocal line breathes that
(See Example 8.4). It is mostly mfthe solo violin is active.

However, in measures 1-4, while Streisand is singing, a cello solo is also highly active.

A composer might be concerned that too much attention may be granted to the cello, at

the detriment of the vocal line. This is not the case though, since the line does not occupy

the same frequency range.


98

Throughout the sixteen measures of Example 8.4, Calandrelli offers subtle

gestures to complement the vocal, violin and cello lines. He writes a triplet

countermelody for the violas and celli in measure 5 that approximates the vocal melody.

In measure 6, a steadily rising first violin line using notes that hover a consonant 6th

interval above the vocal melody. He also inserts the subtle sound of stopped horns in

measure 8. To create the effect, the horn player must completely close off the bell of the

instrument, by inserting the right hand.47 In this particular measure, Calandrelli writes a

C13 voicing that includes dissonance of a half-step and a whole-step. Ironically, this

closed voicing is likely text-painting the lyric “near.” In measure 10, he offers the fresh

color of the woodwind section voiced largely in 4ths and 5ths, with the top flute doubled by

the glockenspiel. Finally, his unison horn line in measures 13-15 focuses around the 9th

and root of the mi7 chord, before traveling to the #11th and 5th of the dominant 7 chord

which follows.

Calandrelli also supports the vocal line in another subtle, yet significant manner.

In measures 7-9, the first violins play the melody of the song, in a simplified rhythm.

This style is reminiscent of musical theater accompaniments, where a singer’s melody is

often heard in the orchestra. The results of this technique are two-fold. First, the singer

feels support in their line, so that she might sing the original notes and rhythms more

confidently. Or, she may feel free to change the rhythms or notes, knowing that the

original melody is still being played by the orchestra. This arranging technique also

allows the audience to hear the familiar melody, in case the singer decides to alter it.

47
Philip Bate and Murray Campbell. “Stopped notes (ii)." Grove Music Online, Oxford Music
Online, Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/13291
(accessed April 1, 2013).
99

Example 8.4. Jorge Calandrelli, Smile, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-16, in 4/4 time.
Re-entrance of solo
Smile -violin
2nd half ofalternating
first chorus with cello lines.
3

j‰‰ ™ r
œ œ ‰ ™œr œ
1
bb b
& b b bb Ó ‰nœ œJ b b ˙ ™
3
‰ œj œ
3
Œ
œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ
barbra
streisand œœ
when you light upyour face with glad ness hide ev 'ry trace of sad ness

{
œ
bb ~ ~b~ J
& b b bb Ó ~
~~ b b ‰ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑
n ˙~~~
Hp.
?bbb
bbb ∑ bbb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

˙™
° b 3œ
œ
& b bbbb bbb ‰ œœ
Solo - espr.
Vln. solo ∑ ∑ Ó Œ ‰ Œ Ó Œ
p mp 3

b b ˙
Vln. I & b bbbb Ó nœ nœ b b w
w
w
w w
w ˙ ˙
pp

bb bbb w
Vln. II & b b bb Ó n˙ w bw ˙ œ bœ

bw n˙
Vla. B bbbbbb Ó ˙˙ bbb w
w
w
w w ˙ ˙˙

œ œ ˙™ nœ œnœ œ œ b˙ ™
?bbb œœ œJ ‰ œ œ bœ J J
Vc. bbb ∑ bb œ
b œ œœ J
3 3

?bbb
¢ bbb
Db. bbb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
F‹…11Bb13[âÅ] F‹…9/Bb Bb13 Bb7(#5)
w
guitar Eb„ˆˆ9 FŒ†7/Eb
b bbb w
EbºŒ„Š7
bnb ˙˙˙˙˙
& b bbbb n ˙˙˙ n ˙˙ w
ww
w
w
w nbnw
w
ww
w n˙˙œ b œ
∏∏∏∏∏

∏∏∏∏∏

˙ ˙˙
∏∏∏∏∏
∏∏∏∏∏
∏∏∏∏∏

Rhythm
˙ jœ ˙
?bbb
bbb ˙ œ
Œ
bbb w œ
˙ Œ œ Œ œ n˙ ‰ bœ
˙
œ Bass (in 2) w w ˙
100

(Example 8.4 continued.)


4

‰™ r œ œ™
5
b j j j 3
barbra
&b b Œ œ ˙
Œ
œ œ œ™ œ n˙ Œ ‰ œ œ
streisand œ œ™
Al - though a tear may be ev - er so near. That's the

{
b f. horns - stopped +
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑
n ˙
Ó
n ˙˙˙
Brass mf mp
? bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
b

° b
3 nœ nœ b œ ˙
œœœ J
Vln. solo &b b w Œ
œ J Œ ∑

b œ ˙
Vln. I &b b w n˙ nœ b˙ œ œ n˙ œ œ
div unis

b
Vln. II &b b w ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ nœ

3
˙
Vla. B bbb nœw œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙

œ œ œ b˙ n˙ ˙ œ œ n˙ œ œ
? b Œsection œ
Vc. bb
3

?b
¢
Db. bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
&b b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b

Rhythm Eb6/G Gbº7 F‹…9 C13 C7“(b9) C13(b9)

bb V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
?b
101

(Example 8.4 continued.)


5
9
b j
barbra
& b b œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ ‰ œnœb œ œ œ™ œ nœ b œ ‰ œ œj œ œ
j
streisand J
time you must keep on try - ing smile what's the use of cry - ing?

{
œ œœ bb ˙˙˙ œ̇ œ b ˙˙
nœœ œœ
& b bb ∑ Ó ‰ œœœ œœ ˙ bb ˙˙
˙
˙ Œ œ œ
J
˙™
3
WW's
? bb ∑ Ó ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ n˙ Ó
b J

° b
Vln. solo &b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

b
&b b w ˙˙ ˙˙ bw nœ œ œ œ
div w
Vln. I
unis

b
& b b bw ˙ ˙ ˙
bw bœ
Vln. II
œ

Vla. B bbb w ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ œ œ

? bb w ˙ ˙
Vc. b ˙ w
w b œœ b œœ

? bb
¢
Db. b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
&b b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b
F‹…9 F‹…9 Db13(#11) Db9 AbŒ†6/Cb
Rhythm Ab‹…9

bb V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
?b
102

6 (Example 8.4 continued.)

13
b
œ ˙™
3
barbra
&b b Ó œ œœœ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ j ‰ j ˙ ˙
streisand œ

{
you'll find that life, life is still worth- while if you just
œ
b n˙ œœ œœ
œ
œœ
œœœ. b n˙
& b b ˙˙˙ Ó ∑ ‰ œ œ œ œœ œœœ
œ n ẇ
J
WW's
? bb œ œ œ œ. n ˙˙ bn ˙˙
b ∑ ∑ ‰ J œ b œ œ™ b œ œ ˙

{
f. horns
b a4
&b b Œ œ œ nœ

œ bœ nœ œ w
Brass mp
?b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
bb

{
b
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

~~~~
Hp.
?b ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó
D C# B E F G Ab
Œ
bb œ~~~
mp
poco

° b
Vln. solo &b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

b
Vln. I &b b ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ w ˙ n˙˙
div

b
Vln. II &b b ˙ w b˙ n˙
n˙ b˙ n˙

Vla. B bbb ˙ œ œ ˙ n˙ bw n˙ n˙

? bb ˙˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ w ˙
b ˙ w b ˙˙ ˙
Vc.
˙

? bb
Db. ¢ b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
œ œ œ œ.
bbb V V V V V V V V
&
glock
‰ J œ b˙ n˙
G7[âÅ] C‹…9 F‹…9/Bb Bb9(#5) Bb13[âÅ]
bV V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
Rhythm Eb2/Bb F13
? bb
103

After the first chorus of the song, Calandrelli composes an instrumental interlude

(See Example 8.5). Since the final chord of the ‘A’ section is a V7 chord, the listener

expects to hear a tonic chord to follow. Instead, Calandrelli starts the interlude on a half-

diminished chord built upon the #iv scale degree. The harmony that follows uses a

combination of descending half- and whole-step root motions, and roots that moves up in

fourths. The roots are played not only by the jazz bass player, but reinforced in the

double basses and low celli as well.

With its ever-climbing melodic peaks, Calandrelli’s solo violin line is reminiscent

of Mandel’s highly-contoured melodic lines. Here, the solo violin line reaches its highest

peak – the ‘G’ in measure 5 – one measure before the modulation. This might be

perceived as too early to climax. However, Calandrelli utilizes a strong top violin and

horn line to steer into the new tonal center. He reserves the measure of the modulation to

allow the solo violin to have one final descending phrase.


104

Example 8.5. Jorge Calandrelli, Smile, Interlude, mm. 1-6, in 4/4 time. Deceptive
harmonic resolution at measure 1, and contoured violin solo. 7

Instrumental Interlude
bbb œ œ™ ˙ ™ ˙™
1
barbra
& ˙ ˙ Œ ∑
streisand

{
you just smile

b
& b b nb ẇ n˙ ∑ ∑ ∑
˙ n˙
? bb nb ˙œ œ™b œ œb ˙˙
WW's
b ∑ ∑ ∑

{
œ
~ ~
& b bb ∑ ~~~~~~~ J ‰ Œ Ó ∑ ∑
~~~
Hp.
? bb Ó D C# B E FŒG Ab ~~~~ ∑ ∑ ∑
b œ~
mp
poco

° b
Solo 3
œ œ œ bœ
œ œœœ œ œ œ
œ œnœ œnœ œnœ
bœ œ œ œ
Vln. solo &b b ∑ Ó ‰
œ œœ
mp
œ mf
3 3

b
Vln. I &b b ˙ n˙˙ bw b˙ œ œ n˙ œ œ
div unis mp
p

b
Vln. II & b b b˙ n˙ w b˙ œ œ œ œ ˙
p
mp

Vla. B bbb n˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ bœ ˙ n˙
p mp

? bb b ˙˙ ˙ w œ bœ ˙ ˙
Vc. b ˙ nw b œ̇ œ œ œb œ b œ ˙ ˙
p mp
3
3
? bb
¢ œ œ œ bœ bœ
arco
Db. b ∑ nw bœ ˙ ˙
p mp

{
AΠ7(b5)
jœ œ Ab‹…9 Db9 AbŒ†6/Cb Eb2/Bb G7[åÁ]
‰ œ
3
b
& b b b˙ n œœœ™™ œ œ ˙˙œ œ
n˙ Œ œ̇ œ j œ
n ww
w b˙ b œœœ œœœœ œœœœ
Bb13[âÅ]
bb V V V V
Rhythm Bb9(#5)
?b
n˙ b˙ œ
n˙ bœ bœ ˙ œ
105

(Example 8.5 continued.)


8

4
b #
barbra
streisand
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑

{
fl œ
ob b œœ #bToœœœœ Ob.
b # cl. ‰ œ
&b b ∑ ∑ Ó e.horn J
WW's mf
?b ∑ Œ
bassoon
# ˙
bb n˙
mp nœ œ œ

{
b 3 # w
&b b ∑ Ó œ œ œ
w˙˙ bb ˙˙
mp
Brass
? bb ∑ ∑ # ∑
b

Ϫ
° bb œ œ œ œ n œ ™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œnœnœ œ
œ œ œ # nœ œnœb œ œœœ
& b J J J
Vln. solo œ
3 3 3 3 7

b j
3 #
Vln. I & b b œ™ œ nœ œ ˙ œ œ bœ ˙˙ #˙˙
mf
div

b 3 #
Vln. II &b b œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ #˙
˙ nœ mf

B bbb œ ™ j œ ˙ # ˙ div
b ˙˙
Vla. œ n˙ b˙
3 mf
3
? bb ˙˙ ˙ œ̇ œ œ̇ ˙ # ˙™ œ
˙™
Vc. b ˙
mf
˙ ˙
?b ˙ # œ
¢ bb ˙
Db. œ œ œ
mf

{
C‹…9 F7(#11) F7 Bb13“ D13“ D13[âÅ]
b j
3
# ˙
&b b œœ ™™™ œœœ nn œ˙ œ ˙
b ˙˙˙
œœœ b œœœœ b œœœœ
œ
˙˙˙ b# ˙˙˙˙˙
œ
∏∏∏∏

˙™
Rhythm
? bb œ Œ # ˙
b ˙ œ œ
œ w
106

Example 8.6 shows another of Calandrelli’s orchestrational tools: the left-hand /

right-hand technique48. This string-writing technique employs the violins (and perhaps

the violas) as a separate unit from the lower string parts, either rhythmically or texturally.

In the following passage, the violins begin measure 2 with a high triplet figure, while the

violas, celli and basses form low- to mid-register chordal accompaniment. Occasionally,

the violas reinforce the violin notes two octaves below. When the violin part is high – in

this case, ‘E6’ or above – lower octaves can serve to stabilize the tuning.

Example 8.6. Jorge Calandrelli, Smile, Final ‘A’ section, mm. 1-5, in 4/4 time.
Left-hand / right-hand technique in strings.
Smile - Last section of tune 9

œ œ™ #œ œ ™
1
# j 3
j
barbra
streisand & Œ ‰ œj œ™ œ ˙ Œ œ œ œ™
J
œ
J œ Œ ∑
al - though a tear may be e - ver so near

œ #œ œ ˙ œ ˙ nœ w
° # ™
œ #œ
Vln. I & ˙˙ ™ œ Ó
3
œ #œ œ ˙ œ
œ ˙ nœ w

& ˙™
#
Ó
Vln. II
œ

B # n˙ ™
3
#œ œ œ ˙˙ ™
˙ œœ ## ˙˙ n˙˙ w
Vla. œ w

?# ˙ ™ ˙˙ ™™
3
œ bw œœ # ˙˙ ˙œ #œ nw
w w
Vc.

?# w
¢
Db. w bw w w

{
G2/B Bbº A‹…9 E13 BŒ†7(b5)/E E7(b9) A‹…9
#
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V Œ Ó

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V Œ Ó
Rhythm
?#

48
Gary Lindsay, orchestration class, Miami, FL, November 10, 2011.
107

In Calandrelli’s arrangement of Cry Me a River, he utilizes compositional

techniques to create the somber mood. The first measure of the piece outlines a Fmi7/C

voicing with a lowerd 6th scale degree – creating a very dark and unsettled sound (See

Example 8.7). The voicing develops from the bottom, as each new instrument enters at a

higher pitch level. In measure 2, the first violins play the famous descending melodic

motive from the song. In doing so, the second violins and violas are parallel to the top

violin melody. They play almost entirely in quartal intervals, i.e. voicings built on fourth

intervals. At the same time, the celli act in fourth intervals as well, though in a contrary

and jagged manner against the upper strings. Calandrelli finally settles on a GMa7#11

chord – a chord built on the II of the F minor key – which serves the purpose of either

resolving down to a tonic chord, or up to a ii chord. Here he opts for the latter, and writes

a II7 to V7 progression in measures 3 and 4, helping to solidify the tonal center.


108

Example 8.7. Jorge Calandrelli, Cry Me a River, Introduction, mm. 1-4, in 4/4
time. Ella Fitzgerald - Cry Me a River - Intro
10

1 q = 54 straight eighths
bbbb
rall.
Ella
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
fitzgerald

œ™ ‰
œ œ œ œœ j œœ
Oboe bb b Ó
{& b
Œ œ œ œ œ œ™ ‰ J œ n˙ b˙

{
3 mp 3 pp
p
œ mf
œ
b ~ ~~ G13(b9) ~ J C7[áÆ]
& b bb Œ œ Œ ~~ J ‰ Œ Ó Œ œ Œ ~~ ‰Œ Ó
~~ nœ œ ~~
œœ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~ œ œ œ ~~~nœ œ œ
? b b œ˙ ™ Œ Ó œ~œ œ œ
Hp. mp
œ ~ œŒ Œ ~
bb ∑ œ˙ ™ ~
œ~œ œb œ ∑
œœ ™™
p p
˙˙
° b œ œ œ œœ j Gb<7(#11)œ ˙ œ œ œ
Vln. I & b bb Ó Œ œ œ œ œ J ‰

œ™ ‰
p
3 3 pp
mp
œ œ œ œ3
mf
bb ‰ j œj œ™ j j œ nœ ˙
Vln. II &b b Œ
pœ œ œ œ™ Œ ‰ œ pp

œœ ™™
mp mf
œ œ œœ j n˙˙
B bbbb ‰ œj œ œ ˙˙ œ Œ n‰̇ ™œ ˙
div unis
œ œ™ ‰
Vla.
p J mp J div pp
3

Ϫ
mf
œœ b œœ œœ œb œunis
? bb b ‰w œ™ ˙ œ b œ nœJ œ ™ ‰ œ™ ˙
bœ ™
Vc. ¢
div
˙ ‰
Ϫ
b nw
3 ˙ pp
p mp mf

bb b
{& b
rall.
Rhythm ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

= Ella Fitzgerald - Cry Me a River - First "A" section


q = 64
1
˙ entrance
b the œ œ ofœElla œ œ œ of œthe œarrangement
& b bb ‰ œj œthe mood
Upon J œ Fitzgerald’s vocal track, œ Ó is
Ella
fitzgerald J œ œ œ œ Œ

° (See
now you say you're lone ly
subdued Example 8.8). Calandrelli paces himself,Youtaking cried the long
care notnighttothrough
offer too much
b bbb ∑ Ó Œ ˙ n œ Ó
Vln. I & œ œ ˙
orchestration. Texturally, he pares down the writing to simply the piano, with the viola
bb
Vln. II & b b ∑ Ó Œ œ ˙ œ bœ ˙ Ó
section playing in unison a signature line from this song. When Calandrelli brings in the
Vla. B b b Œ
bb œ ˙ n˙ œ bœ ˙ œ œ ˙ Ó
rest of the string section in measure 3, the section plays ˙ mid-register œ œ ˙ pads, without
Vc. ¢
?bb
bb ∑ Ó Œ nœ ˙ Ó

{
pushing high or low extremes. The celli, traditionally called upon to reinforce the roots
bbb œœj j j
piano FŒ†’ F‹(b6) FŒ†6 CŒ†7(b5)/F F7½ Bb‹…11 Eb13 A9(#5) AbMa7
b œ j
j œ œ œ nœœœ œ œ j œœ nœœ ˙˙ Ó
in the bass & part, œ œare not
œ œœ doing œ b œœ nb œœœœ isb ˙˙˙saving
so here. Calandrelli ˙ n œœœœdepth
this nœœ ˙˙ later in the
for
Rhythm ° ° ° 3
?bb ∑ Ó Œ bœ Ó
arrangement. bb œb œ ˙ œ nœ b ˙
bass
109

Ella Fitzgerald - Cry Me a River - First "A" section 11


Example 8.8. Jorge Calandrelli, Cry Me a River, First ‘A’ section, mm. 1-4, in 4/4
time. Unison viola line with piano, and mid-register pads.
q = 64
1
˙ œ œ
Ella bb
&b b J œ œ œ œ
œ œ Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó
fitzgerald J
now you say you're lone ly You cried the long night through

{
bb
Oboe { & b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
bb
&b b ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Hp.
?bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
bb

° bb
Vln. I &b b ∑ Ó Œ œ ˙ œ nœ ˙ Ó

bb
Vln. II &b b ∑ Ó Œ
œ ˙ œ bœ ˙
Ó

Vla. B bbbb Œ œ ˙ n˙ œ bœ ˙ œ œ ˙ Ó
nœ ˙ œ œ
?b ˙ ˙
¢ b bb ∑ Ó Œ Ó

{
Vc.

b j j j
piano FŒ†’ F‹(b6) FŒ†6 CŒ†7(b5)/F F7½ Bb‹…11 Eb13 A9(#5) AbMa7

& b bb œœœ j œœœœ œ j œœœ


œ nœ œ
j œœ
œ b œœ nb œœœœ b ˙˙˙ n œœœ nœœœ ˙˙
˙
Ó
œ œ ˙ œ nœ ˙
Rhythm ° ° ° 3
? bb b ∑ Ó Œ bœ Ó
b œb œ œ nœ b˙
bass ˙

In the second chorus, Calandrelli begins to create a more dynamic orchestrational

texture (See Example 8.9). The opening measure of the example features a peak note in

the top violins, lasting five beats in duration. With this high cry, it can be heard as an

echo of the mournful lyric “now”. After the cry, the first violins play a resigned sinking

countermelody before joining the rest of the lower string section. The section’s function

during this passage is to provide support for the expanded harmony that Calandrelli has

created. This harmony includes a IV7 chord and several substitutions (See Example

8.10).
110

At the same time, Calandrelli is careful not to try to compete with Fitzgerald’s

vocals. While she sings melismas and faster rhythms, Calandrelli writes mostly quarter

notes, half notes, and whole notes. These longer note durations serve to create a bed of

sound for Fitzgerald’s active singing.

Example 8.9. Jorge Calandrelli, Cry Me a River, Second time through the form,
first ‘A’ section, mm. 1-4, in 4/4 time. Unison viola line with piano, and mid-register
11
pads. Ella Fitzgerald - Cry Me a River - Second chorus, First "A" section

1
b j ‰ œj œ œ œœœœœœ
Ella
&b ‰ œ œ œ Œ
œœ œœœœœ œ œ
j‰ ≈ œ œ b œ œ œœœ b
fitzgerald œ œ œ˙ œ
Now you say you're lone - ly, you cried the long night through you can cry me a ri - ver
bb
{&
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
Oboe
œ
b
&b Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ b
~~
~~~

mp
~~~

Hp.
? bb œnœœ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
œœœœ b
~~~

˙™
° œ ˙
b œnœ b œ œ
Vln. I &b nœ ˙ œ ˙™ œ n˙ ™ bœ b
b
&b w ˙ nœ b œ œ œ œ œ b
w
Vln. II
nw
B bb ww œ bœ
unis
Vla. ˙˙ n˙ bœ œ ˙ œ #œ nw b
?b˙ ˙ œ bœ œ̇ œ œ ˙
¢ b ˙ n˙ œ nœ b˙ b
˙ œ œ œ œ w

{
Vc.
˙

&b V V V V VV V V V V V V V VV V V V VV b
b
Rhythm G‹…9 C13 G‹…9 G13 Db9 C‹…11 F13 B9(#11) BbMa9 A‹…11 D9 G13

œ™ j œ ™ jœ œ™
? bb j ‰
3
œ ™ œ œb œ œn œœ bœ œ
œ
j
œ œœ
b
œ œ œ nœ bœ
œ
First two measures of song melody
bbb b œ œ œ œ nœ œ b
b
& b b
111

Example 8.10. Jorge Calandrelli, Cry Me a River, Second time through the form,
First ‘A’ section, in 4/4 time. Calandrelli’s harmonic alterations.

Original harmony:

GŒ†’ G‹(b6) GŒ†6 GŒ†7 G7 CŒ†7 F7 B¨Ma7

&b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b

Changing mi7 Tri-tone Tri-tone

Ä Ä
to dominant 7 substitution substitution

Ä
Calandrelli's expanded harmony:
IV7 chord
G‹…9 C13 G‹…9 G13 D¨9 C‹…11 F13 B9(#11) B¨Ma9

&b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b

In the final ‘A’ section of the chart, Calandrelli brings back the signature line
13
from bthe beginning, now in the violas and top celli (See Example 8.11). In addition,
&b ∑
similar to his contoured string writing seen in Smile, here he also builds a steadily rising

first violin part in measures 2-5.


112

Example 8.11. Jorge Calandrelli, Cry Me a River, Second time through the form,
Last ‘A’ section and ending, mm. 1-14, in 4/4 time. Return of viola line from beginning,
and rising contour in first violins.
13

1 3
b 3 3
Ella
&b ˙ œ œ œ #œ œ œ
fitzgerald #œ œ œ #œ ˙

{
Now, now you say you love me
b
&b ∑ ∑
Hp.
? bb ∑ ∑
° b
Vln. I &b ∑ Ó Œ œ
p

b
Vln. II &b ∑ Ó Œ
œ
p

B bb Œ
p
œ ˙ n˙ œ nœ
Vla.
œ
p
p œ ˙ n˙ nœ
?bŒ
¢ b w ˙™

{
Vc.
p bœ

&b V V V V V V V V
b GŒ†’ G‹(b6) GŒ†6

Rhythm D9(#11)
? bb Ó Œ
w bœ
BASS

=
5
b j ≈ b œr œ œ ˙
3
Ella
fitzgerald
& b ‰ b œ œ œ nœ œ œ ˙
‰ œ nœ œ œ

° n˙˙ ™™
Well just to prove you do come on and cry me a ri - ver
b ˙ bœ n˙ œ̇ œ bœ
Vln. I &b œ
mp mf mp

Vln. II & bb œ bœ œ œ ˙ bœ œ ˙™ œ

˙™
mp mf mp

B bb œ nœ b˙ ˙ bœ œ œ
Vla.

n˙ ™
mp mf mp

? bb œ b˙ œ b˙ nœ #œœ œ
¢ bœ ˙ ˙ nœ w

{
Vc.
mp œ mf mp

b œœ
&b V V V V V V V V V V V
b bœ
Bb9
n œœ

Ϫ
Rhythm G7[åÁ]
? bb C‹…9 Gb9(#11) F9“ F7(#5) j A13 D7(#9) G913 3
∏∏∏∏∏

bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ œ
113

As mentioned in Examples 8.9 and 8.10, Calandrelli’s harmonic scheme is

paramount to his arranging style. For the ending of Cry Me a River, he decides to shift

the harmony atypically (See Example 8.12). The final chord following the F7sus chord

in measure 2 is usually either G minor or B major. Instead, he transforms Fitzgerald’s

B tonic note into the 9th degree of the AMa9 chord – a chord built on the VII degree of

the original major key center. After venturing down in whole steps for the following two

chords, Calandrelli resolves by half step to a substitute tonal center of E major. Since

the descending root motion is so strong, the listener may perceive the harmony as

unexpected, yet likely not bizarre.


114

Example 8.12. Jorge Calandrelli, Cry Me a River, Ending, mm. 1-7, in 4/4 time.
Harmonic scheme.
14
rall.
U
1 3
b 3 bœ rall.
&b ‰ ‰ J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ bœ œ œ œ ™ œ
Ella
fitzgerald œ w w
Cry me a ri - ver 'cause I cried a ri - ver o - ver you
U
w
bb
{&
∑ ∑ Ó œ œ

{
Oboe
œœœœœ p mp
œœ
& bb ∑ Ó Œ ~~~~ ∑ ∑
~~~~
≈ ™ ~~ œR
Hp.
?b ~
b ∑ Ó Œ ‰ ∑ ∑
Ô
° b˙
Vln. I &b #œ œ b˙ nœ ™ ‰ ˙ b˙ w
p mp
b
&b ˙ œ™
#œ œ ‰ #w
Vln. II ˙ ˙ ˙
p mp
Vla. B bb n˙ ˙ ˙ œ™ ‰ ˙ ˙ #w

nœ ™
p mp

Vc. ¢
? bb b w b˙ ˙ #w
n Ϫ
œ ‰ b˙ b˙ n w
œ b˙ b˙ nw

{
˙ p œ
# œ ## œœ # œ
mp
œ
b ˙˙
V V V V V V œ œ ™ œ #œ œ##œœ#œœ#œ # œ
œ œ œ™ J
piano fill
& b n˙˙ œ

œ
Rhythm C7(#11)/G C7 Gb13 F7¸ AbMa9 œ GbÐ
? bb ‰
E<9(#11)

Ϫ
j b˙
œ œ œ b˙ œ™ b˙ nw
=
12
b
Piu Lento U
œ œ œ œœ w œ
{&
Oboe b Œ Ó
3 3 ˙ U
œ
Œ œ œ
?b ‰ œ™ œ
{ b
∑ ˙ œ Œ Ó
w œ
Hp.

° b Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U
Vln. I &b w
w
w w
w œœ
Œ Ó
& Vln. II div p

Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U
Vla. B bb nw w œ Œ Ó
p
U
Vc. ¢
? bb bnw
w
w
w
œ
œ Œ Ó
w œ

{
˙™
p
nœ œ œ Œ U
nœ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ
& bb œ œ w œœ Œ Ó
nœnœ
3
w
U
œ ˙™
Rhythm EbÐ 3 Eb<7(#11)
?b w œ Œ Ó
b œ w œ
b œw w œ
115

This author feels obliged to study a couple of passages from Calandrelli’s

arrangement of The Best is Yet To Come, written for vocalists Tony Bennett and Diana

Krall. Unlike Calandrelli’s other arrangements analyzed in this study, this one is

concentrated instead on a big band, with the addition of strings. Thus the sonic palette is

significantly different from the other arrangements presented in this study.

Throughout the introduction to the arrangement, Calandrelli writes the baritone

saxophone and bass trombone in unison with the bass. This creates a thick and well-

supported bass line (See Example 8.13). For the first three measures, Calandrelli utilizes

the unison-to-voicing technique in the upper saxophones, aiming each time toward closed

voicings. When he adds the brass on the voiced hit in measure 4, the saxophone section’s

new role is to fill the gap between the trumpets and the trombones. On that voicing, the

trombones are playing a spread voicing – with the root followed in pitch order by the 7th

and 3rd. At the same time, the trumpets are playing a diminished 7 structure, which

includes the #9, #11, and 13 of the A7 chord. In measures 6 through 8, Calandrelli

solidly sets up the song’s C Major tonal center with three measures of G7, upon which he

writes a series of consecutive quartal saxophone voicings.

During this introduction, he utilizes the violins in a manner not seen in the

previous excerpts. The violins and violas play a unison bowed tremolo, mostly on the

high roots of the chords. This allows them to float above the activity of the band, and

gives the listener the perception of a high sheen.


116

Example 8.13. Jorge Calandrelli, The Best is Yet To Come, Introduction, mm.1-8,
in 4/4 time.
Tony Calandrelli’s
Bennett & Diana Krall: use of unison-to-voicing technique, and high violin bowed
The Best is Yet to Come - Intro
tremolos.

{
. >
Œ b b ˙˙ ™™™
. .
j ™
1q = 132 swing 8ths

œJ # œœœœ ™™™
& œ œœœ ‰ œj œœœ œ ‰ j œ œ
œ œœœœ œœœ œ œœœ œ # œœœ œJ œœœ œ
œ œœ b˙
˙˙ ™™
œ J œ œ œ
Saxes
œ > #>
œ
? J ‰ > œ œ œ j œ™ J ‰ ˙ œ œ Œ ˙™
˙ œ œ

{
˙ ™™ ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Œ b# ˙˙˙ ™™
>
1st. trpt shake

& ∑ ∑ ∑
# ˙˙ ™™
Brass
>
œ œ™ ˙™
?bassjbone‰ > j j > Œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ
˙ ˙
œ™ b>˙™
˙™ ææ
ææ ææ æ
œ
æ
w œ
Strings { & Œ Œ J Œ

{
> > >
¿ drums
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ Y ¿
& Œ œ Œ œ ‘ ‘
Rhythm G13(“) > > G7(#11) A13(“) A7½
? j >
œ ‰ œ œ
Œ
˙™
œ œ œ œ
bass (as written) ˙ ˙ ˙

{
. . .
j b b œœ œ. . . .
& nœ nœœœœ ‰ œ œœœœ œ œœœœ ‰ b œJ nœœ bb œœœ œœ b œœ œ b œ œ ∑
nœ œ n œœ bb œœ n œœ bb œœ
œ
> > > > >
Saxes
? Œ ∑
œ œ nœ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ

{
œ n œœœ
œ œ
œœ œ œœœ
& ‰ J J. ‰ ∑ ∑ ∑
œ j œœ œ
? œ n œœ ‰ œ œ œ œœ ∑ ∑
Brass

œ œ nœ œ œ Œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ
> > > > >
˙™ ˙™
˙™ ææ ææ
ææ
{&
Œ Œ Œ ∑

{
Strings

¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‰ ¿j ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
& ∑
D‹…11 Gpedal
Rhythm
? Π> > > > > j
bass solo

œ œ nœ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ
117

As Calandrelli continues to incorporate the big band with the strings, he is careful

to give each its own distinct role. During the second time through the form, Calandrelli

writes lengthy pads for the strings (See Example 8.14). At the same time, the brass have

short hits. The notes utilized for the brass voicings are either replicas of the notes in the

string voicings, or else incomplete versions. It seems that Calandrelli did not often write

notes for the big band that clashed in half- and whole-steps with notes from the string

voicing.

In Example 8.15, Calandrelli takes advantage of the strength of the unison violins

and violas, and creates a counterline. Much like his other string writing, it too is

contoured – reaching a peak in measure 4, before descending for two measures. With

this technique, the strings are an effective and robust texture, while staying out of the way

of the band’s voicings. In addition, the counterlines can float far above the vocal line;

though in many case, the violins’ note is the same as (or an octave higher than) the

vocalist’s melody note.


118

Example 8.14. Jorge Calandrelli, The Best is Yet To Come, Second time through
the form, ‘B’ section, mm.1-7, in 4/4 time. Study of simultaneous big band and string
Tony Bennett & Diana Krall:
voicings.The Best is Yet to Come - - 'B' section - 1:49
2
1
Diana Tony Diana
&b Ó
œ œ œ œ ‰ j
˙™
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Vocals
œ œ

{
Wait till you're locked in my em - brace, wait till I draw you near, wait
>
œœ ™™
j >œ œ
œœ ™™
‰ œœ Œ œœ œ
&b ∑ Ó
œœ
∑ œJ œ Œ
>œ ™
n œœœ b œœœ œ™
œ œœœ
# œœ
Brass

nœ ™
? ∑ Ó ‰ œœ Œ ‰ J Œ J ‰ Œ Œ
b J œJ œ

{
>j
˙™
>
˙™ œ™ œœ ˙˙
& b ẇ œ™
˙ ẇ œ
˙ œ œ ˙
˙˙ >œ ™
Ϫ
˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ >œ
Strings
? b ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ b ˙˙ ˙˙
nœ ™
˙ n˙ b˙ #œ
˙ ˙
œJ ˙

{
> œœ
œ
#n œœ n œ
pno fill

&b V V V V V V ‰ J V V V V V V V
Rhythm GŒ†7 AŒ†7 B¨Ma9 C9(“) G(„ˆˆ9)/B B¨9 F(„ˆˆ9)/A D7[åÁ]
? œ œ œ
bœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ

Tony
j j
Vocals & b œj œ j œ œ œ œ œ
Œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
œ
till you see that sun - shine place, ain't noth - in' like it here!

j j . . - j j
&b ‰ œ™
œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ nœ œœ œœ ‰ Œ Ó
Saxes
? ‰ œœ œœ œœ. œœ. œ-œ œœ. œ
œœ œ™ fj
œ
b œJ ‰ œJ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ ‰ Œ Ó
J œ

{
&b ∑ Ó ‰ œ™ ~~~~~~~~œœœœ ‰ Œ Ó
ppp ™
J
œ ~~~~~~~~ œœœœ
f
Brass
?b ∑ Ó ‰ J ‰ Œ Ó

{
j
& b ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙˙ œœ ‰ Œ Ó
˙ œ
˙ ˙ ˙
? b n˙˙ œœ
Strings f
˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ‰ Œ Ó
˙ ˙ J

{
&b V V V V V V V V VJ ‰ Œ Ó
Rhythm GŒ†7 F(„ˆˆ9)/A B¨Ma7 C9(“) FÐ
? œ œ œ ‰ Œ Ó
bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ J
119

Example 8.15. Jorge Calandrelli, The Best is Yet To Come, Second time through
the form, ‘B’Tony
section, mm.1-7,
Bennett & Diana Krall: in 4/4 time. Use of high string section as unison
counterline. The Best is Yet to Come - 'B' section - 2:47
3

1
b Diana j
& b bbbb œ
Tony
Œ œ œ œ j
Vocals
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
œ
Wait till you're locked in my em - brace, wait till I draw you near,
b j
& b bbbb ∑ Ó ‰ œœ
œœ Œ ∑
Brass
?bbb œœ n œœœ œ
n œœ
bbb ∑ Ó ‰ Œ ‰ J Œ J ‰ Œ
J

{
bb œ ™™ œj œ˙ œ ˙ ˙
& b b bb Œ œ œ œ J
Strings
? bb b b ∑ ∑ ∑
bb

{
& b bbbb V V V V V V V V V V V V
b
Rhythm A¨Œ†7 B¨Œ†7 C¨Ma9 D¨9(“) A¨(„ˆˆ9)/C B9
?bbb œ œ œ œ nœ œ
bbb œ œ œ œ nœ œ

bb Diana Tony
j j j
& b b bb ΠΠj
œ œ œ œ œ œ
˙™
Vocals
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
wait till you see that sun - shine place, ain't noth - in' like it here!
bb . . - . - - . >j
& b b bb ∑ ‰ œj ‰ œj ‰ Œ Ó
œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ nœœ œœ
œ. œ. -œ œ. -œ -œ f>
Saxes œœ œ nœœ. œ
?bbb
bbb ∑ ‰ œ ‰ œœ œ
œ
œ
œ
œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ ‰ Œ Ó
œJ

{
J J
>
bbb œ™ ‰ œ ™ ~~~~~~œœœ ‰ Œ
>œ œœ >œ
& b œœœ ™™™
b œœ Œ ∑ Ó Ó
b œ œ
J J
>œ ™ f >

? bb b b b œœ ™™
œ™~~~~~~ œœœœ
ppp
Brass œ œ œœœ
n œ Œ ∑ Ó ‰ J ‰ Œ Ó
bb œJ œ
>œ™ >œ ˙ ˙ ˙
bb J w œ ‰ Œ
{ & b b bb
Strings J Ó

{
& b b bb V V V V V V V V V V V V VJ ‰ Œ
bb Ó
Rhythm G¨(„ˆˆ9)/B¨ E¨7[åÁ] A¨Œ†7 G¨(„ˆˆ9)/B¨ C¨Ma7 D¨9(“) G¨Ð
?bbb œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ Ó
b b b bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J
120

In Example 8.16, Calandrelli demonstrates another method to effectively use the

string section in a swing big band arrangement. In a simple swing rhythm, he writes open

voicings for the strings alone. The strength of these spread voicings derives from the root

on the bottom of the voicing, followed respectively by the 3rd and 7th (in either order) of

each chord. Finally, the voicings are effective due to the lead note in the top violins. In

this example, the top chromatic descent in each two measures is paramount, as it creates a

counterline to the singers’ melodies.

Tony Bennett & Diana Krall:


4
Example
The Best is8.16. Jorge
Yet to Come - Vamp at Calandrelli,
end of song - 3:12 The Best is Yet To Come, Tag, mm.1-5, in 4/4
time. Open voicings in strings.
1
# diana j
‰ nœj œ ‰ nœj ‰ œj
tony diana
& # ‰ nœ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó j j Ó
œ œ
ûœ ˙
Vocals
œ œ œ œ

{
come the day you're
come the day you're mine come the day you're mine
#
& # ∑ ‰ œœ ™™ #n˙˙ n˙˙ b ˙˙ ‰ œœ ™™ #n˙˙ n˙˙ b ˙˙
œ ™ # ˙˙ œ™
‰ œœ ™™ ‰ œœ ™™
Strings mf n ˙˙ ˙˙ # ˙˙ n ˙˙ ˙˙
?## ∑ ˙ ˙
˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

{
>œ > œ >
# œ nœ œ œ œ
V V V V V V V V V V V V
pno fill
& # ∑ ‰ J
Rhythm piano DÐ B13(b9) EŒ†7 A13(b9) DÐ B13(b9) EŒ†7 A13(b9)
?## Ó
œ œ™ œ œ™
‰ œ™ Œ ‰ j j Œ ‰ j j
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
bass

In having researched the preceeding excerpts by Calandrelli, this author finds

especially compelling his use of solo instruments to bind together an arrangement. In

addition, his harmonization is striking – especially during introductions, interludes, and

endings. Finally, it is notable that Callandrelli helps support the singer by providing or

reinforcing the singer’s notes in the orchestra parts. However, he also supports the singer

by utilizing the orchestra as a bed for a singer singing rhythmically.


Chapter 9

ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNIQUES OF VINCE MENDOZA

Examples for this chapter of the study were transcribed from Vince Mendoza’s

arrangements for singer Joni Mitchell, from her 2001 album Both Sides Now. The author

chose to transcribe and analyze passages from five arrangements: “I Wish I Were In Love

Again,” “Answer Me, My Love,” “At Last,” “Comes Love” and “You’re My Thrill.”

For the purposes of this study, this author has chosen to include in the transcriptions the

following: a staff for the singer plus grand staffs when necessary for woodwind section,

brass section, string section, and rhythm section. Indications are again included in the

scores as to which instruments are playing at any given time.

Throughout many of the following excerpts, Vince Mendoza writes clusters in his

harmonic voicings. A cluster is a group of adjacent notes sounding simultaneously.49 In

the introduction to his arrangement “I Wish I Were In Love Again,” the first voicing

creates a CMa9/G chord, with a cluster created by the major 7th, the root, and the 9th (See

Examples 9.1 and 9.2). Meanwhile, a pedal ‘G’ in the strings creates a feeling of

suspension. The pair of voicings in Example 9.1 is especially effective due to the

contrary motion between its top and bottom notes. The bold, descending perfect 4th

interval in the top melody functions against the subtle minor 2nd interval in the lowest

part. This ostinato travels from one orchestra section to another, taking on a different

color each time.

49
"Cluster." Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/05992
(accessed April 1, 2013).

121
œ œ œ œœ œ

{
w
no more pain, no no mor

& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 122 ∑
WW's bassoon
>
? ∑ 9.1. Vince∑ Mendoza,∑ I ÓWish I‰Were
Ϫ In#Love

{
Example Again, Introduction, m. 1, in
4/4 time. Cluster voicing in brass. ˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙
>four f. horns
& œœ ™™ œj Ó ∑ ∑ Ó ‰ œœ ™™ ˙
œœ ™ œœ
˙˙
˙˙ ˙˙ b ˙˙ ˙˙
Ϫ
˙
Brass œ>œ ™™ ˙ ˙˙ #˙˙
? ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó ‰ #˙ nb ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙

{
& ∑ 9.2. Vince
Example ∑ Mendoza, ∑ I Wish ∑I Were In Love Again,
∑ Introduction,∑mm. 1- ∑
10, in 4/4 time.
I wish Cluster voicings
I were in Love Again - Intro over a pedal ‘G’.
Strings Vince Mendoza
? ∑Swing 8th notes
∑ ∑5 ∑ sing last time ∑ ∑ ∑
° 4 ™™ °ü ™™ ü
& ¢ ™™4 Œ ‰ j ™™ †

{
1 9
bbbbb
q = 120
Joni Mitchell ∑ ∑ ¢† ∑ Ó
œ
‰ j
œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Œ

{
>
V V ‰ V ™∑
drum fill the sleep less nights, the dai-ly fights,

° ™4
& & ∑ ™4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑™™ °ü ™™ ∑ ü eng.horn
V™™ clarV œœ ™™V
œœ
j
œœV™™ ‰ œœ ™™V œœ Vœœ ™™ V
j
V V
‰ bbbbb
V V V
clar œ ™ œœ ™™ ™ œœ œœ ™™ Eb13
? ™™4 ™™ ™™ ™™
œ œC„ˆˆ9/E
Woodwinds
œ™ œJ
¢ 4 ¢† † ‰ œ™ J ‰ bbbbb D‹…11
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ F#Œ†7(b5) FºŒ„Š7 G13(b9)

{
Rhythm
? ∑ ∑ ∑°ü CMa9/G G7¸ ∑
° four #‰ œ™™ ü œ nœ ∑ œ œ ∑œ b œ bœbbbb œ œ œ
Bassoon

& ™™4 œœœ ™™ œœj œœ ™ ‰ œœœ ™™ œœj œœ ™ ‰ ™™ ™™ œ ™ ‰ ™ j


f. horns + bone
œœœ ™™
œœœ œœœ ™™™ œœœœ ™™ œœœ œœœ ™™™ œ
4 j
œœ ™™ œ œ ™™ œœ ™™ œ œ ™™ œ™ œ™
? ™™4 ™™ ™™ ™™ †
Brass mp

¢ 4 ∑ ∑ ¢† ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ bbbbb

{
=
w w
° °™ ü ™ ™™ ü
& ™™44 w w ™ ™w w ∑ ∑ bbbbb
œj œ ™ œj œ ™
œ ™™ œ œ ™ ‰ œw œ ™™ œ œ ™ ‰ ™™
mp

? ™™4 ™™ ™™ œw
Strings

¢ 4 ∑ ∑ ¢† w † ∑ ∑ bbbbb

{
w
drums >
>
mf

° ™4 ¿ ¿¿ j¿ ¿¿ simile..... j ™ °ü ™ ™™ ü
& Ó & ™4 œ œ V V V V ™ ™V V V V VœV V V
ΠV V
Œ ‰V V jV V V V bbbbb
œ œ œ œ

œ ˙
Joni
Rhythm œ

{
? ™™4 ∑sane ™™ ¢† ™™ w ™™ bass pizz
section
¢ 4 †
now
∑ I'm but j rath - er j bebbbb
I'd punch
bass arco

Ϫ Ϫ
w œ œ b
˙ ˙
# œœœ œœœ # œœœ
f 2 flutes 2 Fl + 2 Clar
=
+ clar nœ œ
& same vamp (in new key),∑without bass root and string pedal ∑ Œ ‰ J J ‰ ‰ œ
3
WW's
bbbbb j j j nnnnn ∑
? &Later œ œ the‰ostinato
j j œ theŒpiano – this
œ by ∑
Œ
˙™
œ in œthe piece, œ œ is œplayed time up one half step

{ ˙˙
Joni

˙ n˙

{{
b
fur - tive sigh, the
˙black - ened bœ bœ œ
eye,

& b bbb (See Example


in D major ∑ of the ostinatonnnin
∑ 9.3). Both appearances nn the
∑ piece set up
∑ Joni

œœ œœ b œœ œœ ˙˙ ™™œœ ™™
WW's
?bb
Mitchell’s ˙ j ∑
∑ and act as a constant against
& b b bvocal entrance nnnnn In∑ addition, her
her melody. Œ
∑ first Œ ‰
˙ b
™ ™

b
Brass two notes& b bbinb weach measure are the ‘C’ww and D – part ofœ the clusternnnvoicing.
nn ∑ ∑
˙ b ˙ nœ ˙
Since the
? ?˙
Strings
w
n˙ œ
œ™ œ œ
œ ∑œ œ #œ ˙ Œ Œ ‰
bb ∑ J
song’s lyricb revolves around a tension-filled relationship, it mightn nbe
b nn ∑ ∑

{
b n concluded that

&b b b V V V V V V V V
bb nnnnn ∑ ∑
œ™ œ œ™ œ™ œ œ™
Vbbbbb œV™ V V ‰ V V JV V V nnnnn V∑ V V V V
piano œœ ™™ œœœ œœœ™™™ œœœ ™™™ œœœ œœœ™™™
DbMa9 Ab7¸ Fill
Rhythm
& ? J ‰ ∑
Rhythm F#Œ†7(b5) FºŒ„Š7 C„ˆˆ9/E Bb13 Eb13 D9 G7
{ ? ™™4
¢ 4 ∑ ∑ ™™ ™™
¢† ∑ ∑ ™™
† ∑ ∑ bbbbb

{
w w
° °™ ü ™ ™™ ü
& ™™44 w w ™ ™w w ∑ 123∑ bbbbb

œ ™ œœ œœ ™™ ‰ œ ™ œœ œœ ™™ ‰
mp
j j
? ™™4 ™ ™
™ ¢† ™ w ™ ™ ™™
Strings

Mendoza was¢ intending † of voicings – one


∑ ∑ œ œ ∑ ∑ bbbbb
4 wof the songw

{
to paint the mood wwith the pair
drums > >
mf

voicing with °tension, °ü ü


& ™™4 V V V V ™™ ™™ V V V V V V V V ™™
4 ¿ ¿¿ while
¿ ¿¿ simile.....
V V V V V V VV bbbbb
the next resolves.
Rhythm
? ™™4 ™™ ™™ ™™ bass pizz
section
¢ ¢† w †
j j bb
bass arco
∑ ∑
™ œ™
œ bbb
4 w œ
˙ œ
Example 9.3. Vince Mendoza,fI Wish I Were In Love Again, Mitchell’s entrance ˙

=
after the interlude, mm. 1-2, in 4/4 time. The pair of voicings played by piano later in the
piece.
same vamp (in new key), without bass root and string pedal

bb j j nnnnn ∑
&b b b j œ œ œ ‰
œ
j j œ œ Œ ∑
œ œ œ

{
Joni
fur - tive sigh, the black - ened eye,
bb nnnnn ∑
&b b b ∑ ∑ ∑
WW's
?bb
bbb ∑ ∑ nnnnn ∑ ∑

{
bb nnnnn ∑
&b b b w
w
w
w

Strings
?bb
bbb ∑ ∑ nnnnn ∑ ∑

{
&b b b V V V V V V V V
bb nnnnn ∑ ∑
Ϫ
piano œœ ™™
œ œ™ œ™ œ œ™
œœœ œœœ™™™ œœ ™™™ œœœ œœœ™™™
DbMa9 Ab7¸

? b b Ϫ
Rhythm
œ
bbb J ‰ J ‰ nnnnn ∑ ∑

Mendoza uses the horn section boldly at the introduction. In Example 9.4, he

relies on them for playing sustained pads. When Joni Mitchell breathes at the end of

measures 4 and 6, the horns begin to comp, or rhythmically accompany the vocal line,

with closed voicings. Their sustained half-notes balances the more active vocal melody.

When Mitchell rests in measure 4, the comping puntuates her line with a voiced five-note

arching melody. The horns are also utilized in measure 8 in another manner, to support

and accentuate the final note of the woodwind line. The horn voicing itself consists of,

from low to high – root, 3rd, 7th, 9.


124

The entrance of the flutes and clarinets in measure 7 helps to act as a segue into

measure 8. The gesture in the measure that follows may have otherwise seemed

haphazard. In addition to the striked entrance of the horns in the final measure, the

jagged arpeggiated woodwind line, and the half-step trill, is Mendoza’s way of text-

painting the lyric “punch drunk.” The arpeggio descends through the root, 13th, 3rd, and

9 of the G7 chord. The notes make up a vertical structure that Professor Whit Sidener

from the Frost School of Music calls the “minor-augmented-major 7 grip.”50 It is a

structure which creates a unique and colorful sound.

50
Whit Sidener, Jazz harmony lesson, Miami, FL, February 9, 2011.
125

2
Example 9.4. Vince Mendoza, I Wish I Were In Love Again, First ‘B’ section,
I wish I were in Love Again - lead into the first bridge (00:48)
mm. 1-8, in 4/4 time. Horns comping, and woodwinds and horns text-painting.
1
j j j
˙™
& ∑ Ó œ œ j Œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
œ w
Joni

no more pain, no no more pain

& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
WW's > > >
? Ó bassoon
‰ œ™ ‰ j
#œ œ œ œ

{
#˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ
>four f. horns > >
& Ó ‰ œœ ™™ ˙˙ ‰ j œ œ œœ œ
˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ b ˙˙ ˙˙ œ œ œ œ œ
Brass Ϫ
>œ ™ ˙˙ #˙˙ œ œ œ>œ œœ œœ >œ
? Ó ‰ #˙˙ nb ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ‰ J #œ

{
> ‰
‰ V™
œj
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
drum fill

Rhythm F#Œ†7(b5) FºŒ„Š7 C„ˆˆ9/E Eb13 D‹…11 G13(b9) CMa7 G7¸


? ∑
#œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ

& Ó j j Œ Œ ‰ j ‰ j Œ ‰ j
Joni œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ

{
now I'm sane but I'd rath - er be punch drunk the

# œœ œœ 3 b Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~
# œœœ
2 flutes 2 Fl + 2 Clar
nœ œ
‰ œJ œ
+ clar
& ∑ ∑ Œ J ‰ ‰ œ #œ nœ ˙
3
WW's
? Œ ∑
˙ n˙ ˙ bœ bœ œ ˙™

{
œœ ™™ ˙˙ ™™
& ˙˙ ˙˙ j Œ Œ ‰ j
b œœ œœ b œœ œœ œœ ˙˙
œœ™™ œœ œœ #nœœ ˙˙ ™™
Brass
? ˙˙ nb ˙˙ œœ Œ Œ ‰ bnœœ ˙˙
J J

{
>
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
Fill

Rhythm

Ϫ
?F#Œ†7(b5) FºŒ„Š7 C„ˆˆ9/E Bb13 Eb13 D9 G7 Db7(b9)
#œ œ nœ œ œ #œ j
œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ bœ ˙
126

Throughout Example 9.5, Mendoza offers up a full palette of orchestrational

colors. The flute and oboe trills in measure 1, are voiced as a C major triad. In measure

2, the tightly-packed horn chord is comprised from a cluster of – in pitch order from

bottom to top – 13, 7, 9 and 3 of the F139 chord. The muted brass in measure 3

contain the root to Major 7 dissonance, while playing a voicing that has no 3rd chord tone.

His first voicings in measure 4 contain a wide major 13th gap. In doing so, Mendoza may

be further painting the song’s theme of dissention. In addition, he continues his use of

the cluster voicings. The exact voicings within which clusters appear are designated in

Example 9.5.

In measure 7 of the same example, Mendoza alters the chord progression from

CMa6 to a CMa6/G. Though seemingly a subtle alteration, a listener who hears the root

position CMa6 might easily hear it as stagnant. By using CMa6/G, Mendoza aims to

maintain the momentum he created. After the CMa6/G, the chord root seamlessly

resolve down a single half-step to the F#mi75 which follows.


127

Example
I wish I were in 9.5.
Love AgainVince Mendoza,
- Last "A' section of the opening I Wish
chorus (1:07) I Were In Love Again, First ‘B’ section,
3
mm. 1-9, in 4/4 time. Various orchestraional colors, and continued use of clusters.
1

& ‰ j ‰ j j j Œ
Joni
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
fly - ing fur of cat and cur the fine mis - mat - ing of a him and her cluster

œœœ œœœ œœœ #œœœ n# œI œœ


Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~ fl + ob œ
fl + ob nœ
œœ ˙˙˙ œ ˙
fl cl œœ
& Œ ‰ ∑ Œ ‰ J ‰ cl J
cl J
cl

WW's
? ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
cluster cluster

I Ij
‰ b#œœœj ˙˙˙
4 horns trpts in cup mutes
‰ œœœ ˙˙˙
fr. horn
& ∑ Œ Œ ‰ j
œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ
‰ œJ ˙
Brass
? ∑ ∑ Œ ∑
bones in

{
cup mutes

& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
Rhythm CMa7 F13(b9)/C CMa7 F7
? œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
œ nœ œ œ œ œ b œ nœ
œ

5
3
& ‰ œj œ j j Ó ∑
œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ œ œ ˙
Joni

{
I've learned my les - son but I wish I were in love a - gain

œœœ ™™™
j œœ œ œ œœ œœœœ # ˙˙˙˙
To Ob.
œœœ ˙˙˙
fl + ob œ
& J ∑ ∑ ‰clclœœJ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œœ
œ Ó
eng horn
WW's
? ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
cluster
cluster cluster
I
I I trumpets œ œ œœ # ˙˙˙
˙˙ ™™ œœœœ œœœ œœœ œœ ˙
horns and trombones
& j Ó
œ™ œ ˙ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ ˙˙ # ˙˙˙˙
Brass
œœ œœ b œœ œœ b ˙˙˙ ™™™ n œœœ œœœ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙
b˙ ™
? ∑ œ œ b œ nœ ˙ ˙ Ó
œ œ ˙ ˙ #˙

{
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
Rhythm C<7(#11) CMa7 F(#11) Bb9 AŒ†7 Ab6 G7(b9)/Ab C„ˆˆ9/G F#Œ†9(b5)
?
œ œ œ œ bœ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ
œ œ œ bœ
128

The sense of line, even to the detriment of a complete or standard chord voicing,

seems to be of utmost importance to Mendoza. Example 9.6 shows the first two ‘A’

sections of his arrangement of Answer Me, My Love. The excerpt is orchestrated mostly

with the rhythm section and strings. As early as measure 2, there is an atypical harmony.

G/F# is a voicing that many arrangers might not elect to write, due to the dissonance

between the outer parts. However, Mendoza does so in order to follow a concept: the

upper strings remain steady, while the low cello continues to drift away in oblique

motion. One might again equate this musical occurrence with the mood and lyric of the

piece, which revolve around a drifting love affair.

Mendoza also creates and maintains interest despite the thin density. When

Mitchell’s vocal phrase pauses (e.g. measures 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16), Mendoza

introduces small gestures intended to answer the vocalist. For instance, he often

suspends the 4th scale degree on major chords, only to gently resolve to the 3rd degree on

the following beat. In measure 8, a larger sweeping gesture in the horns helps to drive

the momentum into the next ‘A’ section.

As do the other writers in this study, Mendoza also maintains interest by

introducing shape into his lines. The horn solo in measure 8 is indicative of this: the half-

step between the major 7 and the root acts to launch into the high 5th, then concludes by

dropping an octave into the low 5th. In another instance of shape, one might follow the

contour of the top violin part starting at measure 13 of Example 9.6. The line gradually

ascends to the peak note ‘B’, followed by a quick descent as the section comes to a close.
129

Example 9.6. Vince Mendoza, Answer Me, My Love, First two ‘A’ sections, mm.
1-17, in 4/4 time.
Answer me, My Linear
love - first "A'string writing,
section of the and
opening chorus (00:37)subtle answers between vocal phrases.
4

1
# 3q = 71 straight 8th note ballad

œ œ œ™ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ
& 4 Œ Œ Œ ‰ j
œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ

{
Joni
œ œ œ œ œ
An - swer me oh, my love just what sin have I been guil - ty of? tell me how I came to lose your love, please
#3 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
& 4
WW's
?# 3 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
4

{
#3
& 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Brass
?# 3 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
4

{
& 43 ˙˙ ™™
#
˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ˙˙
Œ ‰ œj œœ
œœ œœ ˙˙
?# 3 ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙ œ œ̇ œ œ ˙™ œ̇ ˙
pp
˙™ ™
Strings
4 ˙ bœ œ

{
# 3 drums - stir w/brushes
& 4V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
?# 3 ˙ ™ ˙™ ˙™
G G/F# C„ˆˆ9/E CŒ†„ˆˆ9/Eb G“/D G/D GMa7/B C6 G“/D G/D
˙™
Rhythm
4 ˙ bœ ˙ œ
=
bass pizz

9
#
œ œ œ™ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ
& ‰ j Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
Joni
œ œ œ œ
œ
# an- swer me, sweet heart. you were my yes - ter - day, I be - lieved that love was here to stay,
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
WW's
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
# œ
˙™
horn solo
& ∑ œ œ ∑ ∑ ∑
p œ
Brass
?# ∑ Ó
horns
? ∑ ∑ ∑
&
œœ œ œ ˙

{
œ ˙
# ™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™
pp

& ˙˙ ™ ˙ ™
j œ œ
˙™

œ ˙ œ œ̇ œ
˙™ ˙ œ œœ ˙
?# ˙ ™ ‰ œJ œ œœ
Strings
˙˙ b œœ ˙˙
˙™
˙ œ Œ

{
#
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
D/C GMa7/B GMa7/A G“2 D/F# C/E CŒ†’/Eb G“/D G/B
?# ˙ ™
Rhythm
˙ œ ˙™ ˙™ ˙ bœ ˙ œ
130

(Example 9.6 continued.)


5
13
#
& ‰ j ‰ Œ ∑
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
Joni
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ
won't you tell me how I've gone a - stray please an - swer me, my love
#
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
WW's
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
#
˙˙ ™™™
& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Brass ˙
?# ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
œ™ œ œ œ™ œj œ 3
Ϫ
# œ œ œ œ̇ œ œ œ
& œ̇ ˙ œ œJ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Œ
˙™ ˙™
˙™
˙˙ b œœ b œœ ˙˙
?# œ ˙
˙™
Strings
˙ œ ∑

{
#
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V Œ Œ
Rhythm CMa7 C6 D/G G A‹…11 D7“(b9) D7“(b9)/G G BŒ†’
?# Œ Œ
˙™
œ œ
˙™ œ ˙ œ
˙

=
Answer me, My love - key change (1:50)
Soprano Sax Improvisation
1
# success of the modulation in Answer Me, My
bbb VLove
V V V
is dueBb/D
V V
Eb
The ‰ Œ in large part to the12
Joni & 8
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ

{
th
shape of# the lines
an - swer me, as well
my (See
love Example 9.7). The violins’ dramatically rising 16 note
& ∑ ∑ bbb ∑ ∑ 12
8

{
line
WW'sin?#
measure 2∑propels the listener into
∑ the modulation. In addition, the ascending
bbb ∑ ∑ 12
8
#
To Hp.
bbb the
horns
‰ ˙˙ œ well. 12
triads in
& the
œ œhorns
œ are inserted for support,
j and enhance œ build-up œ œ ˙˙
as To Pno.
œœ œœ œœ b œœ œ œœœ œ œœœ œœ œœ ˙˙ œœ œ ˙˙ 8
œœœ œ
˙–™ down the ˙interval

Brass ff

bbb ˙ ™™ ˙™
?#Mendoza’s ∑
modulation from G ∑major to trombones
E major of a major12
˙™
8
˙

{
œ ™
˙to ™ glis
œ to œthe
œ œ
3rd – is an atypical one. In order to allow theœ modulation be palatable slistener,
œ #œ
.
# b
& œœ œœ œœ ™™ ‰
œ œ œ œ œ œ b b J 12
8
™ œ˙ ™ œ
Mendoza employs the fresh sound of the soprano saxophone. Any possibility of an
˙™ ˙ ™™
ff

?# œ œ œ ‰ ˙˙
Strings
bbb ˙ ™™ ˙™
œ 12
˙ ™ improvise very
˙ ˙ 8

{
ff
˙
awkward harmonic transition is avoided when the saxophone begins to
æ
+™
sus cymbal
#
& V V V bbb V V V V V V
12
firmly in the new tonal center. In addition, Mendoza’sfffuse
Eb
of a solo instrument
Bb/D
here was8
Rhythm

˙™
?# bbb ™ 12
˙™
8
withœ the intimate nature of this song and ˙
˙
also consistent ff lyric.
Strings

{ ˙™
?# œ ˙ ˙™
˙™
˙˙
˙
b œœ
œ
b œœ
˙™
˙˙

{
#
& V V V V V V V V V V V V V Œ Œ
131
Rhythm CMa7 C6 D/G G A‹…11 D7“(b9) D7“(b9)/G G BŒ†’
?# œ Œ Œ
˙™
œ œ
˙™
œ ˙
˙
Example 9.7. Vince Mendoza, Answer Me, My Love, mm. 1-4, in 4/4 time.
=
Segue into modulation.
Answer me, My love - key change (1:50)
Soprano Sax Improvisation
1
#
V V V V V V
Bb/D
bbb
Eb
‰ Œ 12
Joni & 8
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ

{
an - swer me, my love
# ∑ ∑ bbb ∑ ∑ 12
& 8

{
?#
bbb
WW's
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 12
8
# horns ‰ bbb œ ˙˙
To Hp.
œ œ ˙To Pno. 12
& œœ œœœ œœœ b œœ œœœ œ j œœ œœ ˙˙ œœœ œ ˙˙˙ 8
œ œœ œœœ œ œ
œ
˙™ ˙˙ ™™
Brass ff
?# bbb ˙˙ ™™ 12
trombones
∑ ∑
˙™
8

{
œ ˙™ œ œ™
œ œ
glis
œ œ
s.
# #œ
& œœ œœ œœ ™™ ‰ œ œ bbb J 12
œ œ œ œ 8
™ œ˙ ™ œ ˙™ ˙˙ ™™
ff
˙˙
?# œ œ œ œ ‰
Strings

˙™ bbb ˙ ™™ 12
˙ ˙™
8
˙

{
ff

sus cymbal æ
æ
+™
EŒ†’/A D9/A D7(b9)
#
& V V V bbb V V V V V V
12
8
G“ G ff Eb Bb/D
Rhythm

˙™
?# bbb ˙ ™ 12
˙™
8
˙ œ ff

In the introduction for At Last, Mendoza again makes extensive use of solo

instruments (See Example 9.8). The piano’s repeating 12/8 pattern – a signature of the

famous Etta James recording of this song – here is incorporated unobtrusively in the

upper octave of the piano. The harp glissandi create an intentional dream-like effect,

while its single-note lines help maintain the pulse. Finally, the section ends with the

single english horn providing support for the conclusive solo oboe line.
132

Example 9.8. Vince Mendoza, At Last, Introduction, mm. 1-5, in 12/8 time.
Colors createdAtby
Last solo instruments.
- Intro (0:34)
6
1 q. = 60
# 12
& #8 ∑ ∑ ∑ 6 ∑ 12 ∑ 12
8 8 8

{
Joni

# 12 Ó™ ‰ œJ œ œ 86 œ œJ œJ œ 128 w ™
solo oboe Piano
& #8 ∑ ∑ 12
Oboe 8
2 2
# 12 solo eng. horn
& #8 ˙™ ˙™ nw™
∑ ∑ 6 12 ? 12
˙™
Eng. Hn. 8 8 8

{
#
& # 128 ∑ ∑ ∑ 6
8 ∑ 12
8 ∑ 12
8
œb œ
b˙ ™ ˙™ n˙ ™
n œ œ
˙™ 6 ˙™
œœ œ œ
Œ™ Œ™ Œ ™ Ó ™ 128

?## 12 œ œ œ œ œ™ 12 b œ
Harp L.V.
8 8 8

{
3 4 4
D„ˆˆ9/E B‹…11/E E‹…11 A7“(b9)/E D„ˆˆ9/E A‹…11/E D‹…11/E A7“(b9)/E
#
& # 128 ˙˙ ™ ˙˙˙ ™™™ ˙˙˙ ™™™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙˙ ™™™ ˙˙˙ ™™™ 8˙ ™
w ™™
6 12 12
˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™
8 w 8
˙˙ ™™ b ˙˙™œ™ ™ œ œ ˙˙ ™™ n˙˙ ™™ n ww ™™
?## 12 ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™ ™
8 ˙™
12 w ™
b
Strings
6˙ 12
8 8 8

{
“œ” œ
2

## 12 œ œ
œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ
6 12
w ™™
w
12
& 8 8 8 8
mp
Rhythm brushes on sus cymbal Let ring

8 ææ
?## 12 ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ 6 O™ 12
bass (as written)
12
8 8 8
mp w™

= At Last - second "A" section (1:23)


In the second ‘A’ section, Mendoza chooses a color not often utilized: that of solo

Ó™ line it plays
Œ ™ Œ– inj measures
Œ ™ 3-4
Ó™ then again
Œ ™ inŒ measures
1 q. = 60 3
bassoon ## 12 Example
∑ 9.9). The j
Joni & (See
8 œ j œ œ nœ 5- œœ
œœ

{
œ œ
at last the skies a - bove
6 – has definite
# 12 shape, created by its half-step ascension into the root then its drop to the
& #8 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

œ œ w ™ two measures
solo bassoonœ œ œ
Ó™
3rdWW's
of the
?# chord. The line itself, in conjunction with its verbatim Jrepetition

{
12 #8 ∑ ∑
œj œ ™ œ œHowever,
œj œ mundane. j 4

œ œœ œ œ œ œœ ˙ ™
™ œ
later, seems
## 12 Œfairly the unique color of the bassoon brings it
& 8 ˙™ œ 4œ œ ™ œœ œ ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™
˙™ ˙˙ ™™ œ™ ˙™ œ œ œ œb œœ ™™
˙˙˙˙ ™™™™ b ˙˙ ™™™œœ ™™
poignancy.
?## 12 ˙˙ ™™
œ˙ ™# œ œ
4 4

n˙˙ ™™
Strings
˙™ ˙™ œ™ ˙˙ ™ œ™
8 ˙ ™ ™

{
In Example 9.9, his use of clusters continues in the string section˙voicings.
piano “œ” œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ “œ” œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
# œ œ
Through #analysis, œ œ œ
this author has found that he tendsœ toœ place
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ clusters
œ œ œ œ œ œonœ minor
œ œ œ œ œ11œ œ œ œ œ œ
& 128
ææ
p D/F# BΠ7 mp
A7“4[áÆ] A7(b9) E‹…11
™ the chord.
EŒ†7/D BŒ†7 GŒ†„ˆˆ9
chords.
Rhythm In this case,
dms: brushes thew/HHcluster
on snare on 2&4 D/F#
is comprised of the drums
adjacent 9, 3 and 11 Óof An
?## 12 ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ˙™
sus cym O™
continue.... ff
8 ˙™ ™ ˙™
example
Bass (As written)
˙ ™ Emi11 œ™
of this can be˙ ™seen in the chord
˙ ˙™
Ϫ in measure 4. In addition, his major 7
At Last - Intro (0:34)
6
1 q. = 60
# 12
& #8 ∑ ∑ ∑ 6 ∑ 12 ∑ 12
8 8 8

{
Joni
133
Ó™ ‰ œJ œ œ 86 œJ œJ œ 128 w ™
# 12 œ
solo oboe Piano
& #8 ∑ ∑ 12
Oboe 8
2
chords often
#
include a cluster, comprised of the adjacent
solo eng. horn
2 major 7, root, and 9. An
& #8 ˙™ ˙™ nw™
12 ∑ ∑ 6 12 ? 12
˙™
Eng. Hn. 8 8 8

{
example can be seen in the DMa9/F# voicing in Measure 7.
#
& # 128 ∑ ∑ ∑ 6
8 ∑ 12
8 ∑ 12
8
œ œb œ9.9 should
b˙ ™ ˙™ n˙ ™
Harmonically, the Emi7 to A7sus progression in measure 8 of Example
n œ œ œn œ
œœ
?## 12 œ œ œ œ Œ™ Œ™
œ™ ˙™ 6 ˙™ 12 b œ Œ ™ Ó ™ 128
Brass Harp
8 8 8

{
3 4 4
complete its cadence to D major. However, Mendoza deceptively moves to a B Major
D„ˆˆ9/E B‹…11/E E‹…11 A7“(b9)/E D„ˆˆ9/E A‹…11/E D‹…11/E A7“(b9)/E
# 12
& #8
˙˙˙ ™™™ the VI ˙˙of
˙ ™™™ the tonal
˙˙˙ ™™ center.
˙˙ ™™ He˙˙˙is™™™ able ™™™ ˙˙˙ ™™ since the
8 w™
6 12 12

˙˙˙ to do8so, ™w ™vocal melody at8
n w™
chord instead,
?## 12 ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™ b ˙˙™œ™ ™ œ œ ˙˙ ™™ n˙˙ ™™ 6 ˙™ 12b ww ™™
8 ˙™
Strings
12
8 8 8

{
this point in the song also fits his new harmony. The harmonic shift is so effective that
“œ” œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
2

w™
## 12 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 6 œ œ œ œ œ œ 12 w ™ 12
& repeats
Mendoza 8 it throughout the arrangement. 8 8 8
mp
Rhythm brushes on sus cymbal Let ring
?## 12 ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™ ¿™

6 O™
bass (as written)
12 12
8 8 8
mp w™
Example 9.9. Vince Mendoza, At Last, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-12, in 12/8
=
time. Use ofAtsolo bassoon, and harmonic shift.
Last - second "A" section (1:23)

Ó™ Œ™ Œ™ Ó™ Œ™
1 q. = 60 3
# j
& # 128 ∑ Œ j œœ œ Œ j œ œ nœ œ œ

{
Joni
œ œ
at last the skies a - bove
# 12
& #8 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

J œ œ w™
œœ
Ó™
WW's solo bassoonœ

{
?## 12 ∑ ∑
8
œ œ œ œ ™ œ œj
j j 4
## 12 Œ ™ œœœ œ ˙ ™
œœ
œ œ œœ ™
& 8 ˙™ œ œ4 œœ œ ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™
˙™ œ™ œ œ œ œb œœ ™™ œœ ™™ ˙ ™™ ˙™
?## 12 ˙˙ ™™ ˙ ™™ ˙˙˙˙ ™™™™ b ˙˙ ™™™
4 4
œ˙ # œ œ
n˙˙ ™™
Strings
˙™ œ™ œ™ ˙˙ ™
˙™ ˙™
8 ˙

{
piano “œ” œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ “œ” œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
## 12 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœœœ œœœ œœœœœœ œ œœ œ œœ
& 8
ææ
p D/F# BΠ7 mp
A7“4[áÆ] A7(b9) E‹…11

Ó™
EŒ†7/D BŒ†7 GŒ†„ˆˆ9
Rhythm dms: brushes on snare w/HH on 2&4 D/F#
?## 12 ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ sus cym O™
˙™
drums continue.... ff
8 ˙™ ˙™ ˙™
Bass (As written) ˙™ ˙™ œ™ œ™ ˙™
134

(Example 9.9 continued.) 7

Ó™ Œ™ Œ™ Ó™
5
# j
& # œ œ œ œ™
4
Œ j j‰‰ Œ j j bœ
œ œ nœ œ œ
œ œn œ œ™
Joni
œ œ

{
œ œœ
are blue. my hearts wrapped up in clo ver ev-er since the night
#
& # ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
œ œ œ œ w™ w™ œ™ œ™ nœ ™
?## Ó™
WW's

{
J œ œ™
œ™ ™
œ ˙™
œ œ™ œ™ œ œ j
# ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œj œj ™™
& # Œœ™ nœœ ™™ œœœ ™™™ œœœ ™™™ œœ ™™ œœ ™™ w˙ ™™ nœ ™
w
œœ ™™ œ™
œ w
Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ
?## ˙˙ ™™ ˙™ ˙˙˙˙ ™™™ nœœ ™™ œ™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙ ™™ ˙œ˙˙ ™™™™ œ™ n˙œ ™™
n˙˙ ™™ œ™
Strings
™ œ™ œ™ ˙˙ ™ ˙™
Ϫ
˙™ ˙™ #˙ ™ ˙™

{
“œ” œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ
## œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
&
D/F# B‹…11 E‹…11 A7“(b13) A9 DMa9/F# B‹…9 E‹…11 A7“(b13)

œ™ ˙™
Rhythm
j
œ™ ˙™
?##
˙™ œ œ
˙™ œ™ ˙™ ˙™

Ó™ Œ™ Œ™ Ó™
9 11
#
& # Œ œj nœ œ œ˙ ™ 4
œ œ œ œ™
j
œ œ œ œ œ œ™
Joni 4
Ϫ

{
œ™ œ™ nœ ™
I looked at you I found a dream that I could speak to
œœ nœ ˙ ™
& # Œ ™ nœ ™ bœ ™
nœ œ
œ™ J ˙™
#
b œnœ œ ∑ ∑ 4
4
J
n œœ œœ œœ œœ ˙˙ ™™
?## nœ ‰ œ ™ œ œ œn œ bœœ œ œ ˙™
WW's
J J J J ∑ ∑ 4
4

{
j j
nb œœœ œœ œœ nœœœ ˙˙˙ ™™™
#
& # nœ œ
f. horns
∑ ∑ ∑ 4
4
Brass

{
?## ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 4
4

nœ ˙ ™ œ# œ œ
# œ
4
nœœb œ œœ#œœ
& #
b ˙˙ ™™ ™
4
nœœb œ œœ# œ ™
˙œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ™ œ œ œ™
4
4 4 œœ œ w
œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ
nnœœ ™ b œœ œœ œœ œœ ˙˙ ™™
j j
?## nb ˙˙ ™™ œ˙œ™ œ œœœœœœ˙ ™œœœœœ œ œ œ˙ ™œ œœœœœœœ˙ ™œ œœœœœœ 4
Strings

œ ™™
Ϫ
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Ϫ
b˙ ™ œ™ ˙™ ˙™ n ˙˙ ™ ˙™ ˙™ ˙™
™ ˙™
4

{
œ™ œ™ nœ ™ œ nœ ˙ ™
& # Œ ™ nœ ™ bœ ™
œ
œ™ œ œ ˙™
# bnœœnœ
(piano out)
∑ ∑ 4
J J 4

?## Bb ™
bœ ™ œ™ ˙™
Rhythm

˙™ ˙™
BbMa7 BbÐ BbMa7 GŒ†7 C/G GŒ†7 DMa7/F# E‹…11 A13“ DMa9 B‹…9
˙™ ˙™
4
˙™
b˙ 4
135

Many of Mendoza’s orchestrational techniques mentioned previously are on

display in his arrangement of Comes Love. Here, he once again utilizes the colors such as

the solo bassoon, tuba, harmon muted trumpets, and unison clarinets (See Example 9.10).

Unison horns are added for a dramatic triplet line, which descends linearly from the 9 of

the F#7 chord. He adds a woodwind cluster containing the root, 9th, and 3rd of the Bmi in

measure 1. Along with these other colors, the cluster helps Mendoza paint the mystery

and danger inherent in the lyric of the song. The sparse bass line doubled with tuba

creates the space for the colors, while acting largely as a punctuating counterpoint to

Mitchell’s vocal rhythms.


136

Example 9.10. Vince Mendoza, Comes Love, Second ‘A’ section, mm. 1-8, in 4/4
time.
8
Mendoza’s
Comes Lovepalette of (0:43)
- 2nd "A" section orchestrational colors.

Swing eighths 1
# 4 3 3 3 3 j 3
& #4 Œ œ j Œ Œ ‰ ‰ œ

{
œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ
œœ œ œ œ#œ œ œ
Joni
œ œ
comes a fi - re, fi-re - man come and res - cue you, blow a ti - re, you can patch the in - ner tube,
#
& # 44 Œ Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ #œœ ˙˙ #˙w ˙
œœœ ˙˙˙ w
ww J
WW's

œ#œ #œ œ ˙ #œ œ œ œ ˙ w
bassoon
?## 4 Πw
4

{
# 4 ‰ œj ˙ ‰ œj ˙
& #4
trpt
Œ Œ w Œ
w
‰ œj ˙
Brass
?## 4 Œ
Tuba
Ó Œ ‰ Œ w
4 œ jÓ Ó Œ ‰ Œ ‰
œœ œ œ

{
œ œ œJ œJ

#
Ride cym
¿ ¿¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ 4
& # 44 Œ
Œ hi-hat ¿ Œ ¿ ‘ ‘ ‘
Rhythm BŒ†% F#7(b9) F#“(b9)
?## 4 Œ Ó Œ ‰
4 œ jÓ Ó Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j
œœ œ œ
œ œ œ œ

5
# 3
Joni & #œ Œ ‰ j œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó ∑

{
¿
but comes love, noth - in' can be done

Ϫ
# 3 clarinets 3 j
& #Œ Œ #œ œ #œ ˙
n˙ ™ ˙™
Ó œ

Cl.

?## Œ #˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ #˙˙ w


w ∑

{
trpts w/harmon mute
# Œ
& #Œ
trpt growl w/harmon mute
œ ˙œ œ œ Ó ˙
œ̇ œ # œ œ̇ œ œ w

Brass
horns
3 Ó̇ œ œ œ n œœœ
?## Ó Œ 3
Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
(tuba) œ œ œ œ œ œ

{
#
V V V V
small drum fill
& # ‘ ‘ ‘
Rhythm F#7[âÅ] BŒ†’ F#Œ†7(b5)/B
?## Ó Œ Œ ‰ j Œ ‰ j
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
œ œ œ œ œ œ
137

Mendoza’s use of text painting is significant, and can be observed in the final ‘A’

section of You’re My Thrill (See Example 9.11). In this passage, he composes rapidly

moving sextuplet lines and trills. For the listener, the oscillating rhythms are a direct

reflection of the lyric, “Where’s my will.” In addition, the trill creates the effect of

fluttering excitement inherent in the mood of the song. The rapid ascending line in the

flutes and violins in measure 4 paints the lyric which follows, “Flaming higher and

higher.” Finally, in measures 7 and 8, as the lyric states, “I can’t keep still,” Mendoza

writes an oboe line that quickly meanders up, then down.


138

Example 9.11. Vince Mendoza, You’re My Thrill, Last ‘A’ section in


arrangement, mm. 1-8, in 4/4 time. Text painting with musical gestures.
You're My Thrill - Last "A" section and end (3:00)
9
1 q = 67 straight 8ths
b
Joni &b œ œ œ™ œœ œ
Œ Ó Œ ‰ j
œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ Ó

{
oh, oh, where's my will? what's this strange de - si - re?
œ nœ
Ÿ~~~~~~~~ Ÿ~~ b Ÿ~~ Ÿ~~ Ÿ~~~ Ÿ˙~~~~ œ œ œ#œ#œn œ n œ œ œ
b b b flute
eng. horn b
bb
6 6 b
∑ nœ
&
mf
œœœœœœœœœœœœ˙ oboe œ œ bœ 5 6
WW's
? bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
6
b Ÿ~~~~~~~~
5
nœ œ œ œnœ
& bb
6 6
Ó̇ œœ œ#œ#œ œ
œœœœœœœœœœœœ˙ n ˙˙ ˙˙ b ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙
Strings
? b #˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ #˙ ˙ ˙˙ #˙˙
b ˙ ˙ ˙ #œ
˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ

{
&b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b brushes stir on snare
Rhythm D7(b13) AŒ†7(b5) D7½ D7[äÁ] AŒ†7(b5) D7(b9) D7(b9)/F#
?b
b ˙ œ œ #œ
˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ

‰™
5
b
& b Œ ‰ œj œœœ œ œÓ ‰ Œ r œ Œ
œ œ
Joni
œœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ

{
n œœ ™™ œœ œ ™™ œ
fla - ming high - er and high - er, ev -'ry time i look at you, I can't keep still,
œœ ™™ b Ÿ~~~~~
œ œ™
b Ÿ~~~~
b œ nœ b œœ œ œ œ Œ b œj n˙
6
b J
oboe
nœ œb œb œ œ
&b J J œ œ œ œb œ ˙
nœ#œ œnœ œ #˙ œb œ
WW's f 6 flute 6
? bb ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
n œœ ™™ œœ œ ™™ œ œœ ™™
bb J b œ n œJ b œœ œœ œ œ œ
œ œb œ ˙ ˙˙˙
& J n˙ b ˙˙˙ ˙˙
˙ ˙˙ bn ˙˙˙ ˙ b ˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ b ˙˙
n˙˙
6
? bb b ˙˙ ˙˙
Strings
˙ ˙ ˙
n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙
˙

{
&b V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V
b
Rhythm FŒ†% G7½ G7(b9) C9 Ab13 G‹…9 Eb9(#11)
?b
b n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙
˙
139

In transcribing and analyzing the previous excerpts from Vince Mendoza’s

writing, this author finds his use of orchestrational color to be dramatic, and influenced

by the tone and lyric of the song. His effects are dramatic – featuring quick runs,

sweeping melodies, trills, and at times highly rhythmic and jagged lines. Also notable

are the harmonic surprises he injects at transition points, interludes, and endings. Finally,

his use of dissonant and atypical voicings break rules that most writers tend to follow.
Chapter 10

THE SIX ARRANGEMENTS BY THE AUTHOR

The following scores represent the six arrangements written by this author for this

study. They have been either directly or indirectly influenced by the study of the six

writers and their techniques. The instrumental tracks for the accompanying CD were

recorded, produced and mixed by the author, at the Weeks and Foster recording studios

on the campus of the University of Miami.

The arrangements include:


“All My Tomorrows” by Sammy Cahn and Jimmy Van Heusen
For studio orchestra
Vocals by Kate McGarry – produced by Jeremy Fox
at Soundpure Studios in Durham, North Carolina

“Friendship” by Anders Edenröth,


For studio orchestra
Vocals by Anders Edenröth – produced by Anders Edenröth
at The Real Studio in Stockholm, Sweden.

“I’m Glad There is You” by Jimmy Dorsey, Paul Madeira, and Paul Mertz
For studio orchestra
Vocals by Peter Eldridge – produced by Jeremy Fox
at JRock Studios in New York, New York

“Three Little Words” by Kevin Mahogany and Paul Hoffman


For studio orchestra
Vocals by Kevin Mahogany – produced by Jeremy Fox
at the MWP Studio at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

“Moonray” by Artie Shaw


For big band
Vocals by Lauren Kinhan – produced by Jeremy Fox
at JRock Studios in New York, New York

“That Old Feeling” by Lew Brown and Sammy Fain


For big band
Vocals by Kate Reid – produced by Jeremy Fox
at Foster 206 Studio at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida

140
TRANSPOSED SCORE

All My Tomorrows
For Kate McGarry Sammy Cahn / Jimmy Van Heusen
Arr. by Jeremy Fox
Gentle Swing q = 108
## 6
{ 42
E‹…11
KATE & 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

œ œ˙™™ œ œ ˙˙
œ
3
j
° ## 6 Ó œœ ˙
solo

∑™ 42
Flute 1&2 & 4 ∑ Œ ∑ ∑
Œ
mp 2.
# œ œœ
& # 46 œœ ˙ œ œ™ œJ œ œ™ J 42
solo
Oboe ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó
## Ó™ œ œ ™ œ™ œ ™
mf

& # 46 42
3

English Horn ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó œ™

Clarinet in Bb 1
##
& # # 46 ∑ ∑ ˙™ ˙ Œ Ó™ Ó œ œ™ œ ™ œ™ œ ™ 42
Ó™
p
##
™ œ™
& # # 46 œ œ ™ œ™ œ 42
Clarinet in Bb 2 ∑ ∑ ∑ Ó
##
& # # 46 ∑ ∑ Ó™ Ó Ó™ 42
w™ ˙™
Bass Clarinet
in Bb œ
?# 6 42
¢ # 4
pp p
Bassoon 1&2 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

° ### 6
∑ ∑ Ó™ Ó w™ ˙˙™™ Ó™ 42
a2 div
Horn in F
1&2 & 4 œ w™
pp
p

### 6 Ó™ œ ww ™™ Ó™
3&4 ¢& ˙˙ ™™ 42
∑ ∑ Ó
a2
Horn in F
4

{
pp p

#
& # 46 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 42
? ## 46 42
Harp
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Ϫ
œœ ™™ œœ ™™ œœœ ™™™ œœ™™
# 6 œ ™ œ™
&# 4 V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V 42
E‹…11

{
Guitar


w™™
pp
# w
E‹…11

& # 46 ∑ w ∑ ∑ ∑ 42

∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏

w™™
Piano p w
w
? ## 46 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 42
? ## 46 ˙™ ˙ œœ˙ ˙™ œ™ 42
˙™ œ™

˙ œ œ œ ˙ œœ
Upright Bass

## 6 w™
Vibes
Vibraphone/
Perc. {& 4 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 42
p

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V 4
Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ
46 ∑ 2
Brushes - lightly swinging
Drum Set /
p

° ##
46 Ó™ w ™™ ˙˙ ™™
3
w ˙˙
Ó œ Œ ∑ ∑ 42
2
Violin 1 &

46 Ó™ w™™ ˙˙™™
p 2
## Ó œ w ˙˙ Œ ∑ ∑ 42
3
Violin 2 &

w™ ˙™
p
B ## 46 ∑ ˙ Œ ∑ ∑ 42
w ™™ ˙˙ ™™
Viola

w ™™ w ™™
p
w ˙˙
?# 6 42
¢ # 4 ∑
w™ ˙™ w™ w™
a2
Cello
˙ œ w w
p

141
142

q = 108
8 E‹13
Ó™
## 2
6 Straight eighths G¦(Œ„Š7)

{ 46 j
E‹13
KATE & 4 ∑ Ó ‰ j œ™ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ bœ™ ‰ j
œ ˙ œ
° ## 2
Sung freely: To - day I may not have a thing at all, ex -

Fl. 1&2 & 4 ∑ 46 ∑ ∑ ∑


# ˙ bœ œ w ™
Ob. & # 42 46 ∑ ∑

##
Eng. Hn. & # 42 ˙ 46 w™ ∑ ∑

# ## 2 ˙ w™
Cl. 1 &# 4 46 ∑ ∑

Cl. 2
# ## 2
&# 4˙ 46 w™ ∑ ∑

##
B. Cl. & # # 42 ∑ 46 ∑ ∑ ∑

? ## 42 46
Bsn. 1&2
¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

° ### 2 Ó™
∑ 46 ∑
a2
Hn. & 4 ˙™ w™
ppp

### 2
¢& 4 ∑ 46 ∑ ∑ ∑

{
Hn.

#
& # 42 ∑ 46 ∑ ∑ ∑
Hp.
? ## 42 ∑ 46 ∑ ∑ ∑
˙˙
˙
# 2
46 +™
E‹13

&# 4 ∑ ∑

{
J. Gtr.


w™™
# 2 w
E‹13

&# 4 ∑ 46 w ∑ ∑
∏∏∏∏

w™
w™™
w
Pno.
? ## 2
4 ∑ 46 ∑ ∑
∏∏∏∏

? ## 2 ˙
U. Bass 4 46 w™ ∑ ∑
## 2
Vibes/Perc
{& 4 ∑ 46 ∑ ∑ ∑

ææ
42 + 46 +™
Cym Let ring
Dr. / ∑ ∑

° ## 2 ææ ææ ææ
Vln. 1 & 4 ∑ 46 ww ™™ ww ™™ w ™™
bw
æ æ ææ
46 wæw ™™ wæw ™™ ww ™™
p
# 2
Vln. 2 &# 4 ∑

Vla. B ## 42 ∑ 46 ææ
w™
ææ
w™
ææ
w™

? ## 2 ˙
Vc.
¢ 4 ˙˙ 46 ∑ ∑ ∑
143

#
10 DMa7/F© Fº7 EŒ†7 F©Œ†7 B7(b9)

{ &# œ ™ œj œ œ œ ˙ Ó ‰ j
3

œ b˙™ j
œ œ œ œ™
œ™ œ œ œ ˙ j
œ œ n œ œ™ œ
KATE

cept for just a dream or two. But I've got lots of plans for to - mor - row, and all my to

° ## ˙˙ ™

3

∑ ∑ ∑ ‰ œœ#œ˙˙
Flute
Fl. 1&2 & Œ

˙™
p

# ‰ œœ#œ˙
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p
3

## ˙ ˙™
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p

##
Cl. 1 &## ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ ˙ ˙™
p

##
Cl. 2 &## ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ
p
˙ n˙ ™

? ##
˙ #˙ ™
Bsn. 1&2
¢ ∑ ∑ ∑ Œ
p

° ### div ™
Hn. & ww ™ ww ™™ ∑ ∑

###
Hn.
¢& ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
œ œ b œ œnœ
Ó™ Ó™
Fdim scale
# œ œœœœbœ
&# Ó ‰ œœ Ó Œ ∑
œ œ n˙ ™
œnœœœ
3 Ab
Hp. MNMOMMMM
? ##

∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

{
˙™ ˙™
˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™
>œ F©‹…11 B7(b9)
# œ ˙™
&# ∑ ∑ Ó
Pno.
mf p˙˙ ™™ n ˙˙ ™™
? ## ∑ ∑ ∑

## w™
{& ∑ ∑ ∑
Vibes
Vibes/Perc
p

æ ææ
° ## nwææw ™ ææ
ww ™™ wæ ™™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™

ææ
Vln. 1 & w

ææ ææ ææ ææ ææ
p

ww ™™ w ™™ nww ™™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙˙ ™™
#
Vln. 2 &# #w
ææ
p

ææ
B ## wwæ ™™ nww ™™
ææ
ww ™™ ˙˙ ™™ ˙™
ææ
div

æ
Vla.
p

˙™ #˙ ™
ææ
w™ w™ w™
? ## ææ ææ ææ ææ
¢
1
Vc.
p
144

#
14 A7(b9)“4 B¨<7(#11) E¨Ma7

{
E‹…11
&# ‰ Œ ‰
w™ ˙™
j j
œ œ œ œ b˙ œ
KATE
œ œ

œ œ n˙ ™
mor rows be - long to you Right

° ## ˙˙™™ ˙
Ó™
˙˙
Fl. &
œ #œ
Œ Ó œ Œ

˙™
p 3
1.

# œ #œ ˙
Ob. &# Œ ∑ ∑

## ˙™ ˙
Eng. Hn. &# Œ ∑ ∑

##
Cl. 1 &## ˙™ ˙ Œ ∑ ∑

##
Cl. 2 &## ˙™ ˙ Œ ∑ ∑

? ## n˙ ™ b˙
Bsn. 1&2
¢ Œ ∑ ∑

° ###
ppp p pp
∑ ∑ Ó
3
Hn. & nœ ˙ œ œ nœ
###
¢&
Hn. ∑ ∑ ∑

{
“” >œ
# œ œ
&# ∑ ∑ Œ Œ ‰ J œ Œ
Hp. MNLOMNMM mp
? ## ∑ ∑ ∑

#
B¨<7(#11) E¨Ma7

&# ∑ V V V V V V V V V V V V
Colors
J. Gtr.
mp

3 >

{
˙˙˙ ™™™ œ ˙™ “”
™ ˙™

E‹…11 B¨<7(#11)
œ
˙˙˙˙™™™ Œ Œ œ
w ™™™
∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏

# A7(b9)“4
‰ J
&# ww
Œ Œ
˙˙™™ ˙™
b ˙˙ ™™ w ™™
w™
∏∏∏∏∏∏

Pno. mp
? ## bnw ∑

Y™
Triangle

Ó™ Ó™ ææ
# To Dr. sus cymbal
Œ Œ
Vibes/Perc
{ &# ∑ œ /
p
&

° ## ˙˙ ™™ Ó™ ˙™
Vln. 1 & ææ w™ n˙ ™

˙˙™™
p
#
&# Ó™
ææ w™ w™
Vln. 2

˙™
p

Vla. B ## ææ Ó™ w™ nw ™
p

n˙ ™ bw ™
ææ Ó™ nw ™ b w™
b w™
? ##
Vc.
¢ p
145

17
Swing 8ths Fº7
#
‰ j œ™
E‹…11 G¦(Œ„Š7) DMa7/F©

{ &# j Ó
KATE œ™ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ bœ™ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ b˙™ œ
œ
now it may not seem like spring at all we're drift - ing and the laughs are few but

° ## ˙˙™™
Œ œœ™™
œ b œœ œœ #n œœ n œœ ## œœ
Ó™
œœ œœ œœ ˙˙
& ∑ Œ
Fl.
p p J
mp

#
&# ∑ ∑ Œ œ™ œ ˙ œ n˙ ™ ˙™
Ob.
p
J
mp