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3M Electronics & Energy Business Group

Weathering Effects and Life Time


Predication
Credits: Wolfgang Schoeppel

Increasing
Santhosh K Chandrabalan
Efficiency
1
Global Business Manager – Wind Energy 2©May
3M 2017. All Rights Reserved.
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3M Electrical Markets Division
Before We Start
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Meet your Speakers

FEATURED SPEAKER MODERATOR


Santhosh Chandrabalan
Global Business Manager
Michelle Froese
- Wind Energy Senior Editor
3M Windpower Engineering
& Development

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3M Vision
Ab
Abrasives

Our Vision
Ad Fi Md
Adhesives Films
3M Technology Advancing Every Company Medical Data
Management

Am Fl 3M Products Enhancing Every Home Ec Mf


Advanced
Materials
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3M Innovation Improving Every Life Energy
Components
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technology Control Electronics and Control

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Processing Design

Materials Processing Capabilities Applications

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May 2017 . All Rights Reserved. 3M Confidential. 4
3M Wind Solutions

§ Improve resistance to erosion


Safety First - 3M Personal Safety Solutions

Rotorblade § Improve aerodynamics Acrylic Foam Tapes


§ Enable attachments to surface
Surface § Simplify maintenance
Erosion Protection Solutions
Tapes & Coating offering superior erosion
resistance and process-advantages in
For mess-free bonding applications that
require high durability and bonding
strength while being mess-free and fast
§ Lower O&M cost blade production to apply

§ Increase strength
Rotorblade § Decrease weight Vortex Generators
Aerodynamic Optimization of Installed
§ Enhance mechanical
Structure properties
Wind Fillers
Wind Turbines with customized
enhancement solutions
§ Improve laminate quality Easy and fast to apply Blade Bonding Adhesive
Offering long pot life and still 50%
§ Lower blade cost filler offering significant
faster cure - additionally increasing
time savings before
sanding crack resistance and fatigue behavior

§ Reduce cycle time


§ Decrease variability
Rotorblade
§ Increase blade throughput
Process § Lower process cost
O
p
e
r
a

Dry Layup Adhesive


t
o
r
R
e
v
e

Red colored spray adhesive to efficiently Sealants & Adhesives


Reliabili
n
ty
u
e

Performance

fix the fiber mats during dry layup High-performance sealing and
bonding materials for all
Windpower Engineering & Development Webinar Series | #WindWebinar ©2 3M
May 2017 . All Rights Reserved. 3M Confidential. 5
areas of the blade
3M Renewable Energy Solutions

Product Line History


Wind Turbine
Max Blade Tip Speed: 180-200
mph (290-322 kph)
USAF C-17
2009
Air Speed: 500 mph (805 3M Launches
1965 kph) 1990 1994 Renewable
Vietnam Era 1973 Matte Black Erosion Protection Energy Division
Navy Radome 1985 Desert Storm Introduction to
Rotor Blade
Boots Light-Stable Rotor Protection Wind Turbine
Protection
Erosion Blades
Protection

196 197 198 199 200 201


1968 1977 1991
0 General Use 0 0 1989 0 0 0
Fuel Cell High Impact
Aircraft Supersonic
Bladder Protection 2007
Leading Application
Protection (C130) 2001 Four of the
Edges & Capability
Wind Turbine Largest Wind
Rotors Blades Protected in Blade OEMs
Protection 1994 Still in Use Applying Wind
Protection Tape

UH-60
USAF F-16
Tip Speed: 600 mph (966 kph)
Max Speed: 1500 mph (2414 kph)
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3M Renewable Energy Solutions

Artificial Weathering: Selection of Test Parameters

Low Heat High Heat

acceleration sometimes does not


show the expected results
38°C 120°C
Artificial weathering is a complex science

There is a tendency to reduce test time by increasing the stress to unrealistic levels (time-to market)

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Artificial Weathering: Xenon, UV-A or UV-B

Xenon Arc tester for


simulation
of solar radiation
(rotating drum)

source: q-lab.com

source: 3M

Fluorescent lamp tester


for UV-A and UV-B 3M proposes UV-A for mechanical performance
testing of polymers for leading edge protection

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How do Standard Climates Relate to the Irradiation on Leading Edges ?


South Florida (Miami) - Climatological Data Central Arizona (Phoenix) - Climatological Data
Latitude 25° 52' N Latitude 33° 54' N
Longitude 80°27' W Longitude 112° 8' W
Annual Mean Temperature* 25 °C Annual Mean Temperature** 24 °C
Annual Mean Relative Humidity 78 % Annual Mean Relative Humidity 37 %
Annual Solar Radiant Exposure Annual Solar Radiant Exposure

UV (295-385 nm) 280 MJ/m² UV (295-385 nm) 333 MJ/m²

Total (295-3000 nm) 6500 MJ/m² Total (295-3000 nm) 8004 MJ/m²
source: ATLAS Weathering Testing Guidebook
*source:http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/miami/florida/united-states/usfl0316
**source:http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/phoenix/arizona/united-states/usaz0166

Exposure measured in south direction at latitude tilt angle on fixed plate


26°/34° angle

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Amplification Factor and 1-Year Equivalent for 0.76 W/m²nm Q-UV (67% Light-On)
as in ISO 4892-3, cycle 2 (8 h UV 0,76 W/m² nm (340 nm) @ 50°C, 15 min. spray, 3:45 h condensation @ 50°C)
Q-UVA: 340nm UVA lamps at 0.76 W/m² nm result in an irradiance of 40.8
W/m² or a radiant exposure of 147 MJ/m² in the range between 295-385 nm per
1000 hours

This results in 1288 MJ/m² in 8760 hours (1 year)


South Florida Arizona

Annual Solar Radiant Exposure (295-385 nm) 2,80E+08 J/m² Annual Solar Radiant Exposure (295-385 nm) 3,33E+08 J/m²

Annual Q-UV Radiant Exposure (295-385 nm) 1,29E+09 J/m² Annual Q-UV Radiant Exposure (295-385 nm) 1,29E+09 J/m²

Percentage Irradiation during Q-UVA 66,6 % Percentage Irradiation during Q-UVA 66,6 %

Q-UVA irrdiation amplification factor 3,06 Q-UVA irrdiation amplification factor 2,58

1 year Q-UVA irradiation test equivalent 2859 h 1 year Q-UVA irradiation test equivalent 3401 h

12 months under Florida conditions require almost 4 months in Q-UV tester: Factor is 3x
How relevant is this for a turbine ?
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Area of Interest: The Leading Edge

Irradiance on leading edge is dependent from


sun position relative to leading edge orientation

Turbine orientation (azimuth)


wind direction
yaw error
Turbine axis tilt

Blade geometry

Blade twist

Blade pitch

Distance from axis

Most interesting area is the outermost region


of the leading edge at the blade tip
source: 3M

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Use of SMARTS for More Accurate Calculations


Parameter Value SMARTS (Simple Model of the Atmospheric
Solar Position Month, Latitude and Time Intervall Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) predicts
Site Pressure Calculated from latitude, altitude, height clear-sky spectral irradiances for any time,
Atmosphere US Standard Atmosphere 1976 altitude, latitude, orientation, tilt, atmospheric
Water Vapor Calculated from Ref. Atmosphere and conditions, wavelength, and albedo.
Altitude
Ozone Default from Reference Atmosphere
Gaseous Absorption Defaults from Selected Atmoshere SMARTS can not calculate irradiances
Carbon Dioxide 370 ppmv for objects with changing
Extraterrestrial Spectrum Gueymard 2004 orientations and has limitations in
Aerosol Model Maritime Reference the selection of time periods
Atmospheric Turbidity 0.084 (Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm)
Albedo Sea Water
Tilt 90°, Azimuth SMARTS can be downloaded from
Spectral Range 295 – 385 nm http://www.nrel.gov/rredc/smarts/
Solar Constant 1366.1 W/m²
and was developed by Dr. Christian Gueymard,
license required for commercial use
Circumsolar, Smoothing, Illuminance, UV Bypassed
corr.
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Complexity Added for Turbine Calculations


2° Turbine Azimuth
0° Clockwise, North=0°
Cone Angle
(not considered)

Turbine Tilt

0° 180° 0°

-6°
90°

Blade Rotation Angle


Counter-clockwise, Left=0°
Leading Edge Twist
0° for turbine azimuth direction
view from
90° for cutting position
turbine backside

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3M Leading Edge Protection Solutions
Rain Erosion Comparison without aging

Wind Protection Tape – W86XX Wind Protection Coating – W4600

9 hours 18 hours

Wind Protection Trape 2.0 – W87XX Wind Protection Coating – W4601

50 hours 36 hours

Test Specifications – Polytech: Vtip [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
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May 2017 . All Rights Reserved. 3M Confidential. 14
3M Leading Edge Protection Solutions
Rain Erosion Comparison without aging

Wind Protection Tape – W86XX Wind Protection Coating – W4600

9 hours 18 hours

Wind Protection Trape 2.0 – W87XX Wind Protection Coating – W4601

50 hours 36 hours

Test Specifications – Polytech: Vtip [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
Windpower Engineering & Development Webinar Series | #WindWebinar © 3M2 May 2017 . All Rights Reserved. 3M Confidential. 15
Wind Protection Tape 2.0
3X Performance vs Std. Wind Protection Tape*
Standard WPT Wind Protection Tape 2.0

4 hours

6 hours

severe erosion no erosion


30 hours
Test Specifications: Vtip [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm

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WPT 2.0 after 50 Hours of RET
3X Performance vs Std. Wind Protection Tape*

Clear W8750 w Coating – No


Visible Change

Clear W8750 wo Coating – No


Visible Change

severe erosion
Gray W8780 WPT 2.0 – No
Visible Change

Test Specifications: Polytech - Vtip [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
Windpower Engineering & Development Webinar Series | #WindWebinar © 3M2 May 2017 . All Rights Reserved. 3M Confidential. 17
Wind Protection Tape 2.0 Aged
4X Performance after aging vs Std. Wind Protection Tape*

Standard WPT – 2000h Q-UV Wind Protection Tape 2.0 – 2000h Q-UV

Severe Erosion
4 hours 4 hours

Test stopped after 4.5 hours of RET 6 hours

18 hours
Test Specifications: Vtip [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm

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Wind Protection Tape 2.0
Continued protection even with common application defects (air bubbles)*

13.0 hours (air bubble)

18.0 hours (test stopped) &


contiued to 30.0 hours

*Seen in the sample above, air bubble formation not followed by catastrophic failure
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Wind Protection Tape 2.0 Repair
4X Performance after aging vs Std. Wind Protection Tape*

Repair of W8750 with W8750 Patch 18hr RET

Excellent bond to W8750


W8750

repair strip no breakthough despite


some air bubbles in weld line
W8750

Repair of W8607 with W8750 Patch 18hr RET

Bond to W8607 more critical,


needs good process control
W8607

repair strip no breakthough despite


delamination between W8607
W8750 and repair strip

Test Specifications – Polytech: Vtip [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
May 2017 . All Rights Reserved. 3M Confidential.
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Wind Protection Tape 2.0
Robust Construction & Improved Application Product Construction

Improved Application
• Improved conformability Improved UV
High Grade PU
• Matte finish leading to reduced & Hydrolysis
Film
friction during application Package
• Improved repositionability

Other Advantages
• Improved final aesthetics
• Microbial resistance High Shear Robust
• Easy removability after product life Adhesive Manufacturing
• Patented Repair Method*

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