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A Research Presented to Professor Josefina Santos De Asis

College of Engineering and Architecture

Technological Institute of the Philippines
P. Casal St. Quiapo, Manila


Partial Fulfillment of Course Requirements for AR 403

(Research Method of Architecture)


Jo Crisley Telino Pasayan

Isaiah Vinoe Reyes Villarico

January 24, 2018


A tire is made of rubber compounds, steel and fibers. A normal passenger automobile tire that contributes to the
84% of annual waste tire generation is designed for supporting more than 600 lb. over 20 in2 (approximate contact area
of the tire with the ground). A tires typically last an average of 50000 miles under a variety of road or ground conditions

Rubber, which is the principal element of the tire, is a thermoset material whose individual chains have been
chemically linked by covalent bonds during polymerization or by thermal treatment during fabrication. Once the bonds
are formed, these crosslinked networks resist heat softening, creep and solvent attack, and cannot be thermally re-
processed [2]. Such properties of rubber make it possible to use tires under severe conditions. The other elements,
such as steel and fibers, are also required to have durability and strength, and all components are chemically or
physically bonded together.

Tire disposal requires special solid waste management because of their particular properties. The durability and
strength of tires make their disposal and reprocessing extremely difficult. Tires are virtually immune to biodegradation.
In landfills, tires occupy a large volume since approximately 75% of the space that a tire occupies is void [3]. Tires tend
to float or rise in a landfill and come to the surface, piercing the landfill cover. Therefore whole tire landfilling is
undesirable today.

There are numerous toxic chemicals in scrap tires. When tires are burned, hazardous pollutants are released into
the air, such as benzene, a known carcinogen [4]. Although tires are difficult to ignite, once they are on fire, they are
difficult to extinguish. When water is poured on a burning tire, it creates an oily runoff that can contaminate the surface
and groundwater. Large tire fires may smolder for weeks, or even months, releasing unhealthy toxins into the air and
threatening groundwater supplies.

In recent years, the use of recycled tires for children’s playgrounds has been debated, due to arsenic, lead,
and mercury potentially being present in the rubber. No official scientific conclusions have been reached as to the
safety of using recycled tire material for playgrounds. However, the Centers for Disease Control has issued an advisory
for potential lead contamination in artificial turf created from tires. Many gardeners use old tires as planters for plant
and food gardens. As tires degrade, they release zinc and metals into the soil that could end up in the food grown in
the tire [5]. Unfortunately, there is not enough scientific evidence to know if tires release enough of these chemicals
into the soil to present a hazard to humans.

Recycling tires has been the main focus so far, but it is not enough to get rid of the massive number of waste
tires generated each year. There are alternatives, such as retreading, but they have major limitations. More eco-friendly
recycling alternatives are now being explored. But finding efficient recycling technologies for tire is difficult because of
their composition. Tires are made of rubber, carbon black, steel and some additives. These are difficult to break down
and separate, which makes reprocessing hugely challenging. Hence the need to develop new technologies.

Some countries like Pakistan already develop methods to used rubber tires as aggregate to concrete. Results
are amazingly positive but found that the more rubber added to concrete the lesser is the modulus of elasticity [6]. It
has been investigated that a distribution of mini expansion joints was occurred when crumb rubber was used as
aggregate to concrete. This means that concrete is good in controlling cracks. In January 2003 a slab was tested
having 25% of crumb rubber as a replacement of coarse aggregate in concrete. After performing tests, results showed
that no visual cracks were produced and the ductility and toughness had increased [7].


A. Statement of the Problem

The researchers sought to conduct experiment for proper ratio of the rubber tire added to concrete and test how
efficient the end product. This research shall answer the following concern:

1. Proper ratio of rubber tire on the concrete to attain standard strength of concrete with rubber tire.

2. Weight of concrete with rubber tire comparing to typical concrete mixture.

3. Decrease of concrete price with rubber tire.

B. Limitation of Study

1. The researchers will not test on actual building to test but by method of concrete cube test. For the reason
that this partial study needs chain of test to prove possibility applying to mega structures that requires more
technical and longer period of time to conduct study. This research will focus only on the Class B mixture of
concrete that is commonly used in residential building construction in the Philippines.
2. The research itself does not have the capacity to run a test on different size rather focus on size on gravels.
This is to determine strength of concrete having the same size of content. The sizes can affect the strength
of concrete that can cause conflict on results.

3. All samples are uniform in shape and size to not affect the comparison of weights of samples. And clearly
determine the effect of rubber tire on concrete with respect to research objective.

4. Other concrete testing experiment has calendar of scheduled dry run. But the researchers are only allowed
to test all results and gather data of samples on the 28 day of cement curing. Avoiding the failure of samples
due to lack of days in curing.

Chart below is the list of mixture class types of concrete including Class B to be used for entire study.

Mixture Class Proportion Cement in Bag Cement in bag Sand Gravel

(40 kg) (50 kg) Cu. m Cu. m
Class B 1:2½:5 7.5 6.0 0.5 1.0

C. Definition of Terms

 Aggregate - composed of mineral crystals of one or more kinds of mineral rock fragment often use in concrete
 Admixture - material added to enhance the toughness of concrete
 Pounds per square inch (psi) - unit of measuring concrete capacity
 Material cost – price of units used in construction
 Footings – support of building column that is usually in square shape
 Flat work – concrete works sample are walkways and pavements.
 Mixture class – the different type of cement, gravel and sand mixture.
 Walkways – flat surface used as walking area for human
 Global warming – the abnormal change of weather and temperature on earth surface
 Mega structure – buildings that are multiple storey high.
 Wasteland – an area of land provided used to put un-useful materials.
 Rubber tire – pertaining the vehicular tires that has been used.
 Thermoset - is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid resin.
 Polymerization - is the process of connecting these monomers together and creating large macromolecules
of different sizes and shapes.
 Benzene -a colorless volatile liquid hydrocarbon present in coal tar and petroleum, used in chemical
 Carcinogen- a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue.
 Arsenic- a natural element that is not actually a metal but which has some of the properties of a metal.
 Mercury- is liquid at room temperature and slowly forms a vapor in the air.
 Centers for Disease Control- is a federal agency that conducts and supports health promotion, prevention
and preparedness activities.
 Zinc- is used in the galvanizing process would be a huge disservice to the natural, healthy metal.
 DPWH-Department of Public Ways and Highways
 Proportion-the mixture of cement, gravel and sand depending on class

D. Assumptions

1. The standard concrete strength issued by the Department of Public Works and Highways, 3000 psi (pounds
per square inch) is usually used for concrete wall and footing and 3500 psi used for flat work such as floors
and walkways. Adding rubber tire with the right amount to pass the allowable psi required.

2. This project can be lesser in concrete of price and help mass production. It can make difference in construction
industry being economically reasonable. This method can be accepted as one of the type concrete mixture.

3. If rubber tire are used as admixture on concrete aggregates possibly resulting to produce a lighter weight
concrete. And the rubber tire concrete can be one option on high rise building walls with advantage of lesser
4. This study will gain interest to those individuals/companies to gain profit by selling the used rubber tire they

E. Importance of the Study

The research will greatly affect how construction industry work. Material costing will be lesser compared to previous
value. Rubber concrete is way lighter due to reducing of gravels/sand and partially replace by scrapped rubber tire.
Location dumpsite for rubber tires will be converted to other land use. Decaying of rubber takes decades of time and
containing hazardous chemicals that affect the natural environment, by this alternative use will decrease the
percentage of earth destruction.

Research shows that rubber tires contain material that do not decompose under environmental conditions
and cause serious problem. One option on decomposing is to burn but also create pollution. But this project is one of
the best solution to this serious environmental problem.

F. Objectives of the Study

This study aim to lower the percentage of waste by means of converting waste to other end product
particularly the use of tires as admixtures to concrete. Reducing the concrete cost but not the capacitance of the
concrete. Below are list of this research objectives.

 To determine the percent of rubber tire aggregate admixture.

 To reduce concrete cost by adding rubber tire and reducing gravel and sand.

 To attain a lightweight concrete.


In the book Waste Management, Volume 28, Issue 11, November 2008, Pages 2041-2047 by Zainab Z.Ismai and
lenas A.AL-Hashmi. Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid
waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine
the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes
was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the
concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature.

These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and
toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were
cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures
were applied in this work.

The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes
to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives
a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics.

To relate this study, Experimental Study on Concrete Using Copper Slag as Replacement Material of Fine
Aggregate conducted by the Department of Civil Engineering, Dr. Sivanthi Aditanar College of Engineering,
Tiruchendur-628215, Tamilnadu, India. In this project work, the concrete grade M40 was selected and IS method was
used for mix design. The properties of material for cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and copper slag were
studied for mix design.

The various strength of concrete like compressive, flexural and split tensile were studied and non-destructive
test such as rebound hammer test and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement were studied for various replacements
of fine aggregate using copper slag that are 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The maximum compressive strength
of concrete attained at 40% replacement of fine aggregates at 7 and 28 days.

The split tensile strength and the flexural strength were also obtained higher strength at 40% replacement
level at 28 days. The rebound hammer test showed higher compressive strength at 40% fine aggregate replacement,
this is due to uniformity of concrete. But unlike this research, some methods will be with in accordance to the Philippine
concrete classification.

Rubber tire has more likely one of those mention above used as aggregate in concrete mixture. Only that this
material is more elastic than those. But the idea of how to conduct the experiment on finding the right ratio to be added
has the same equation on this research.












There are many types of concrete available, created by varying the proportions of the main ingredients below. In
this way or by substitution for the cementitious and aggregate phases, the finished product can be tailored to its
application with varying strength and density.
Cement-commonly Portland cement, and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, serve as
a binder for the aggregate. The cement used in this study will be the Fortune Blended Cement Type 1P 40 kg.
Aggregates of a concrete are composition of water, sand and gravels. On this experiment, certain percentage of
gravel will be substituted by rubber tire on the same size as gravels. From 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100%.
Rubber tire materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire, along
with carbon black and other chemical compounds. On this test, fabric and wire will not be included because it is
compose other element. Rubber tires will be process to attain the sizes of a gravel without altering or adding other
chemical substances.


Class B of concrete mixture will be used in this experiment as shown in Fig. 1 above.

Compressive Strength Test of Concrete Cubes - is carried out either on cube or cylinder but this research will
use cubes. Various standard codes recommends concrete cylinder or concrete cube as the standard specimen for
the test.


(I) Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water from the surface.
(II) Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m
(III) Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine
(IV) Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the opposite sides of the
cube cast.
(V) Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.
(VI) Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the specimen.
(VII) Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of 140 kg/cm2/minute till the specimen fails
(VIII) Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.
Minimum three specimens should be tested at each selected age. If strength of any specimen varies by more than 15
per cent of average strength, results of such specimen should be rejected. Average of three specimens gives the
crushing strength of concrete. The strength requirements of concrete.

Calculations for Concrete Cube Tests for Compressive Strength

Size of the cube =15cm x15cm x 15cm

Area of the specimen (calculated from the mean size of the specimen) = 225 cm2
Characteristic compressive strength (f ck) at 28 days =
Expected maximum load =fck x area x f.s
Range to be selected is …………………..
Maximum load applied =……….tones = ………….N
Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm2 ) = ……………N/mm2

Reports of Cube Test

a) Identification mark
b) Date of test
c) Age of specimen
d) Curing conditions, including date of manufacture of specimen
f) Appearance of fractured faces of concrete and the type of fracture if they are unusual

Results of Concrete Cube Test

Average compressive strength of the concrete cube =………. N/mm2 (at 28 days)

Formula converting N/mm2 to psi

1 N/mm2 = 145.083 psi
% of Cost substituted by rubber tire x price of gravel = Php………..00

Since specimens are in cube sizes, any conventional weighing scale can do for every specimen with and
without rubber tires.