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-Behavior in Flexure

Analysis of Serviceability

Limit State (by WSM)

Single Reinforced Rectangular Beam Section Stress in concrete and steel

Single Reinforced Flanged Beam Section for a given moment

Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beam Section Allowable bending moment

1

Analysis of Serviceability Limit State (Flexure)

• Stresses under service loads are usually in the ‘cracked section’ phase and within

the ‘linear elastic range’. The expressions for stresses under service loads are

derived using the linear elastic theory and the cracked-transformed section

concept.

• Sections designed for Ultimate Limit State must be checked for Serviceability Limit

State

• Calculation of deflections, crack width … require computation of stresses under service

loads

2

Basic Assumptions (WSM)

• Plane section normal to beam remain plane after Material Strength

bending

FOS

• All tensile stresses are taken by steel alone and none Allowable Strength

by concrete

• Both concrete and steel are assumed to behave Safety Margin

perfectly elastically (assuming straight line stress-

strain relationships)

Induced Stresses (service

• Stress anywhere in the structure when it is subjected

loads)

to worst combination of ‘service loads’ (working

loads) is less than the allowable stress

• Perfect bond exists between steel and surrounding

concrete

• Modular ratio m = 280/3σcb

𝑈𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 =

𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 (𝐹𝑂𝑆)

3

Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis – Stresses

Given complete cross-sectional dimensions (including details of reinforcing steel),

material properties and applied moment compute the stresses in the materials

Neutral axis depth constant

Stress in concrete at the level of steel

All concrete below the NA is ignored.

2. Determine the depth of NA. NA is located by the line passing through the centroid

of transformed section, and ꓕ to the plane of bending

3. Compute second moment of area about NA of the transformed section and

compute stresses in concrete and steel due to applied moment from flexural

formula

OR Compute stresses in concrete and steel due to applied moment considering

static equilibrium of resultant forces and moments

4

Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis – Stresses (By Flexure Formula)

To locate the depth of the neutral axis below the extreme

compressed fibre (kd)

Taking moments of the compressed concrete and the tension

steel about the NA we get

kd

b(kd ) mAst (d kd ) 0

2

k2 mAst kd mAst d

Ast 2

2

0

Reinforcement Ratio 2 bd bd

bd k2

m k m 0

2

The above equation is a quadratic in k. Only the value of k lying in the range 0 < k < 1 is

acceptable. The fraction, k, is given by

k 2 m ( m) 2 m

cracked transformed section is calculated Knowing the NA location and the second

as follows: moment of area, the stresses in concrete and in

b(kd )3 steel can be calculated from the flexure formula

I cr mAst (d kd ) 2

3

5

Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis – Stresses (By Static Equilibrium)

The maximum compressive stress in concrete and the stress in

the steel can also be obtained from conditions of static

equilibrium as follows:

b(kd ) (Resultant chord force in the compressed concrete)

C fc

2

T Ast f st (Resultant tensile chord force in the steel)

Lever Arm ( jd ) (1- k / 3) d

M C ( jd ) T ( jd ) (where M is moment of the internal couple)

M

fc (Stress in concrete in the extreme top fibre)

b(kd )

jd

2

Stress block

M

f st (Stress at CG of steel reinforcement)

Ast jd

From similar triangles, we can also obtain stress in steel as a function of the extreme fibre

compressive stress in concrete as follows

6

EXAMPLE 4.2 (Pillai & Menon)

Consider the beam section of Example 4.1. Assuming M20 grade concrete and Fe415 grade

steel, compute the stresses in concrete and steel under a service load moment of 140 kNm.

In the present problem M = 140 kNm

moment and hence a cracked section analysis

ignoring all concrete below the neutral axis

shall be carried out

7

Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis -Allowable Bending Moment

(what is the maximum load that can be imposed on a RC beam?)

Assuming that tension steel is stressed to its maximum stress carrying capacity and taking

moments about CG of compressed concrete we get

M all Ast st jd

Assuming that the extreme fibre compressed concrete is stressed to its maximum stress

carrying capacity and taking moments about CG of tension steel we get

1

M all cbcb(kd ) jd

2

(where σcbc is the permissible stress in the extreme fibre compressed concrete)

• In a given beam section, the permissible stresses in both steel and concrete may not be

reached simultaneously. Hence, the lower of the two moments computed will give the

correct permissible moment, and the corresponding stress (either fst or fc ) will be the

one to reach the permissible limit.

• Alternatively, with the knowledge of certain constants, it is possible to predict whether

it is the steel or the concrete that controls Mall

EXAMPLE 4.3 (Pillai & Menon)

Consider the same beam section as in Examples 4.1 and 4.2. Assuming M 20 grade

concrete and Fe 415 grade steel, determine the allowable bending moment, and the

stresses in concrete and steel corresponding to this moment.

kd

jd d 471.8mm

3

9

Balanced/Under/Over Section in WSM

• Balanced section: In a balanced section, the permissible stress in the extreme

compressed concrete fibre and the tensile stress in the steel reinforcement are reached

simultaneously.

• Under-reinforced section: An under-reinforced section is one in which the area of

tension reinforcement is less than that required for a balanced section. Hence, the tensile

stress in steel reaches its allowable limit before compressive stresses in concrete.

• Over-reinforced section: An over-reinforced section is one in which the area of tension

reinforcement is more than that required for a balanced section. Hence, the concrete

stress reaches its allowable limit before the stress in steel reaches its allowable limit.

10

Balanced Section

σst is the permissible stress in the tension steel reinforcement

σcbc is the permissible stress in the extreme fibre compressed concrete

Neutral axis depth constant for balanced section, kb

cbc st / m

Using similar triangles:

kb d d kb d Using C T

A

280 280 3 st 0.5 cbcbkb d Ast ,b st st ,b 0.5kb cbc pt ,b 50kb cbc

Using: m gives bd st st

3 cbc kb d d k b d 0.5 cbcbkb d

Ast ,b

280 st

kb

280 3 st

Ast ,b

pt ,b 100 Percentage Tension Steel (Balanced 11

Section)

bd

Under/Over Section in WSM

kd

For under reinforced section k kb :

M all Ast st d

3

The corresponding maximum stress in the compressed concrete is obtained from force equilibrium, i.e.,

1 2A

F 0, C T f cbkd Ast st f c st st ( cbc )

2 bkd

1 kd

For over reinforced section k kb : M all cbcbkd d

2 3

The corresponding stress in the tension steel reinforcement is obtained from force equilibrium, i.e.,

1 bkd

F 0, C T cbcbkd Ast f st f st cbc ( st )

2 2 Ast

12

EXAMPLE 4.3 (Pillai & Menon)

Consider the same beam section as in Examples 4.1 and 4.2. Assuming M 20 grade

concrete and Fe 415 grade steel, determine the allowable bending moment, and the

stresses in concrete and steel corresponding to this moment.

k 0.4265

kd

jd d 471.8mm

3

13

Ast

Variation of Mall with pt pt 100

bd

Percentage Tension Steel

Effective Depth

Note that: k is dependent on m &

kd

M all Ast st d

3 k 2 m ( m) 2 m

M all Ast k k Ast

st 1 pt st 1 / 100 where reinforcement ratio

bd 3 3

2 bd

bd

For balanced section (k kb )

Ast ,b cbc

pt ,b 100 50kb

bd st

For over reinforced section k kb :

1 kd

M all cbcbkd d

2 3

M all 1 k

cbc 1

k

bd 2 2 3

Variation of Mall with pt (WSM)

• Each curve in the plot is characterised by two distinctive portions: the initial segment

(green line), which is practically linear, conforms to under-reinforced sections; this is

followed by a non-linear segment (red line), which conforms to over-reinforced

sections. The kink (blue marker) in each curve, marking the transition from ‘under-

reinforced’ to ‘over-reinforced’, evidently corresponds to the balanced section.

• Mall with increase in pt

• For under-reinforced sections, Mall increases rapidly and nearly proportionately with pt

• The rate of gain in Mall increases with the use of higher strength steel, but the

‘balanced’ section limit is reached at a lower percentage of steel.

• For over-reinforced sections, the increase in Mall with increasing pt is not significant.

This is so, because the allowable limit of stress is reached in concrete in compression,

and, unless the compression capacity is suitably enhanced (by improving the grade of

concrete and/or providing compression reinforcement), there is not much to gain in

boosting the flexural tensile capacity of the beam section ⎯ either by adding more

tension steel area or by improving the grade of steel.

15

Analysis of Singly Reinforced Flanged Sections

• Frequently, beams of rectangular section are built with flanges (slabs cast integrally) at

top or bottom

• If the flanges are located in the compression zone, they become effective in adding

significantly to the area of concrete in compression

• If the flanges are located in the tension zone, the concrete in the flanges become

ineffective.

• T-Beam and L-Beam : Encountered in beam supported slab floor system

16

17

Equivalent Flange Width

total force = C total force = C

18

Beam Supported Floor Slab System

19

Isolated T/L Beam

Effective flange width for a ‘T’ and a ‘L’ beam which is part of a slab-beam system

l0 / 6 bw 6 D f for T-beam

bf

l0 / 12 bw 3D f for L-beam

l0 0.7le in continuous beam and frames

l0

l / b 4 bw b for T-beam

0

bf

0.5l0 b b for L-beam

l0 / b 4 w

l0 0.7le in continuous beam and frames

20

Analysis of T/L Beam

kd < Df kd > Df

21

N.A. in flange

22

N.A. in web

To locate NA, the moment of the cracked transformed

section is considered. Taking moment about NA:

Df kd

(b f bw ) D f kd

w b kd mAst (d kd )

2 2

This is valid only if the resulting kd exceeds Df

Compare k with kb to find out if section is under/over reinforced

23

N.A. in web

f

f c1 c (kd D f )

kd

1 1

C f cb f (kd ) f c1 (b f bw )(kd D f )

2 2

Total tension force T is calculated as:

T Ast f st

Taking the moments of all the compressed concrete about the C.G. of

the tension steel reinforcement

1 kd 1

M f cb f (kd ) d f c1 (b f bw )(kd D f ) d D f

kd D f

2 3 2 3 24

N.A. in web

For a given moment, M, acting on a T-beam, the stress in concrete, fc, can be found out using the above

equation provided that fc1 is substituted in terms of fc.

Knowing, fc and fc1, the stress in the tension steel can be found out by applying the equilibrium condition

that C = T (ΣFx = 0). This is done as follows:

On the other hand if the analysis problem requires finding the ‘allowable ‘ or the ‘permissible’ for a given

section of a ‘T’ beam or a ‘L’ beam, then first we have to check whether the given beam section will behave

as a balanced or a under-reinforced or as an over-reinforced section.

This can be checked by comparing the actual depth of the neutral axis in the beam with the neutral axis

depth, kb, for a balanced section.

EXAMPLE 4.4-4.5 (Pillai & Menon)

An isolated T-beam, having a span of 6 m and cross sectional dimensions shown in the

Figure. It is subjected to a service load moment of 200 kNm. assuming M20 grade concrete

and Fe250 grade steel.

(i) Compute the maximum stresses in concrete and steel

(ii) Determine the allowable moment capacity

bw 250 mm st 130 MPa

D f 100 mm cbc 7 MPa

d 520 mm m 13.33

It must be verified if the actual flange width b 1000 mm is fully effective or not

l0

bf bw b for T-beam

l0 / b 4

6000

bf 250 850 mm 1000 mm

6000 / 1000 4

26

Doubly Reinforced Sections

• Stirrups provide for shear strength in flexural members

• Required for single/doubly reinforced section

Compression reinforcement

Shear reinforcement

(Stirrups)

Tension reinforcement

27

Doubly Reinforced Sections

• When compression reinforcement is provided in addition to tension reinforcement in

beams, such beams are termed doubly reinforced beams.

• Hanger bars of nominal diameter, used for the purpose of holding stirrups, do not

normally qualify as compression reinforcement — unless the area of such bars is

significant (greater than 0.2 percent)

• It was shown (Variation of Mall with pt ) that merely providing tension steel in excess of

that required for the ‘balanced section’ (pt,b) is not an effective way of improving the

allowable moment capacity of the section, because the increase in the beam’s capacity to

carry flexural tension (with fst = σst) is not matched by a corresponding increase in its

capacity to carry flexural compression. One of the ways of solving this problem is by

providing compression steel.

Transformed Area of Reinforcing Steel

Tension Steel

• If, Ast = Area of steel reinforcement in tension

• Then mAst = steel area transformed into equivalent concrete area

• If stress in equivalent transformed concrete at the C.G. of the steel

reinforcement = fcs then stress in steel = mfcs

Compression Steel

• If, Asc= Area of steel reinforcement in compression

• Then 1.5mAsc = steel area transformed into equivalent concrete area

• If stress in equivalent transformed concrete at the C.G. of the steel

reinforcement = fsc then stress in steel = 1.5mfcs

as the nonlinearity at higher stresses we multiply by 1.5m and NOT m

in the case of compression steel

Permissible stress in tension steel σsc : minimum of value given in Table 22 of IS:456 and

calculated compressive stress in the surrounding concrete multiplied by 1.5 times modular

ratio

29

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections

For locating the neutral axis take moments of the areas of the transformed section about the N.A.

Also from force equilibrium, ΣFx = 0, total resultant compression = total tension on the section

30

EXAMPLE 4.6 (Pillai & Menon)

The cross−sectional dimensions of a doubly reinforced beam are shown in the figure.

Assume M20 grade concrete and Fe250 grade steel

i. Determine the stresses in concrete and steel corresponding to a service load moment of

175 kNm.

ii. Determine the allowable moment on the beam section.

D 600 mm st 130 MPa

d 550 mm m 13.33

d ' 50 mm

Ast 3054 mm 2

Asc 982 mm 2

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