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Limit State Method

-Behavior in Flexure
Analysis of Serviceability
Limit State (by WSM)
 Single Reinforced Rectangular Beam Section  Stress in concrete and steel
 Single Reinforced Flanged Beam Section for a given moment
 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beam Section  Allowable bending moment

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Analysis of Serviceability Limit State (Flexure)
• Stresses under service loads are usually in the ‘cracked section’ phase and within
the ‘linear elastic range’. The expressions for stresses under service loads are
derived using the linear elastic theory and the cracked-transformed section
concept.
• Sections designed for Ultimate Limit State must be checked for Serviceability Limit
State
• Calculation of deflections, crack width … require computation of stresses under service

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Basic Assumptions (WSM)
• Plane section normal to beam remain plane after Material Strength
bending
FOS
• All tensile stresses are taken by steel alone and none Allowable Strength
by concrete
• Both concrete and steel are assumed to behave Safety Margin
perfectly elastically (assuming straight line stress-
strain relationships)
Induced Stresses (service
• Stress anywhere in the structure when it is subjected
to worst combination of ‘service loads’ (working
loads) is less than the allowable stress
• Perfect bond exists between steel and surrounding
concrete
• Modular ratio m = 280/3σcb

𝑈𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 =
𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 (𝐹𝑂𝑆)
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Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis – Stresses
Given complete cross-sectional dimensions (including details of reinforcing steel),
material properties and applied moment compute the stresses in the materials
Neutral axis depth constant

Internal lever arm constant

Stress in concrete at the level of steel
All concrete below the NA is ignored.

1. Determine transformed section

2. Determine the depth of NA. NA is located by the line passing through the centroid
of transformed section, and ꓕ to the plane of bending
3. Compute second moment of area about NA of the transformed section and
compute stresses in concrete and steel due to applied moment from flexural
formula
OR Compute stresses in concrete and steel due to applied moment considering
static equilibrium of resultant forces and moments
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Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis – Stresses (By Flexure Formula)
To locate the depth of the neutral axis below the extreme
compressed fibre (kd)
Taking moments of the compressed concrete and the tension
steel about the NA we get
 kd 
b(kd )     mAst  (d  kd )  0
 2 
k2 mAst kd mAst d
Ast  2
 2
0
 Reinforcement Ratio 2 bd bd
bd k2
 m k  m  0
2
The above equation is a quadratic in k. Only the value of k lying in the range 0 < k < 1 is
acceptable. The fraction, k, is given by
k  2  m  (  m) 2   m

The second moment of area of the

cracked transformed section is calculated Knowing the NA location and the second
as follows: moment of area, the stresses in concrete and in
b(kd )3 steel can be calculated from the flexure formula
I cr   mAst (d  kd ) 2
3
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Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis – Stresses (By Static Equilibrium)
The maximum compressive stress in concrete and the stress in
the steel can also be obtained from conditions of static
equilibrium as follows:
b(kd ) (Resultant chord force in the compressed concrete)
C fc
2
T  Ast f st (Resultant tensile chord force in the steel)
Lever Arm ( jd )  (1- k / 3) d
M  C ( jd )  T ( jd ) (where M is moment of the internal couple)
M
fc  (Stress in concrete in the extreme top fibre)
b(kd )
jd
2
Stress block
M
f st  (Stress at CG of steel reinforcement)
Ast jd

From similar triangles, we can also obtain stress in steel as a function of the extreme fibre
compressive stress in concrete as follows

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EXAMPLE 4.2 (Pillai & Menon)
Consider the beam section of Example 4.1. Assuming M20 grade concrete and Fe415 grade
steel, compute the stresses in concrete and steel under a service load moment of 140 kNm.

From Example 4.1, Mcr = 77.9 kNm

In the present problem M = 140 kNm

Service load moment has exceeded the cracking

moment and hence a cracked section analysis
ignoring all concrete below the neutral axis
shall be carried out

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Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section Analysis -Allowable Bending Moment
(what is the maximum load that can be imposed on a RC beam?)
Assuming that tension steel is stressed to its maximum stress carrying capacity and taking
moments about CG of compressed concrete we get

M all  Ast st  jd 

(where σst is the permissible stress in the tension steel reinforcement)

Assuming that the extreme fibre compressed concrete is stressed to its maximum stress
carrying capacity and taking moments about CG of tension steel we get
1
M all   cbcb(kd )  jd 
2
(where σcbc is the permissible stress in the extreme fibre compressed concrete)
• In a given beam section, the permissible stresses in both steel and concrete may not be
reached simultaneously. Hence, the lower of the two moments computed will give the
correct permissible moment, and the corresponding stress (either fst or fc ) will be the
one to reach the permissible limit.
• Alternatively, with the knowledge of certain constants, it is possible to predict whether
it is the steel or the concrete that controls Mall
EXAMPLE 4.3 (Pillai & Menon)
Consider the same beam section as in Examples 4.1 and 4.2. Assuming M 20 grade
concrete and Fe 415 grade steel, determine the allowable bending moment, and the
stresses in concrete and steel corresponding to this moment.

From Example 4.2: kd  234.6mm

kd
jd  d   471.8mm
3

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Balanced/Under/Over Section in WSM
• Balanced section: In a balanced section, the permissible stress in the extreme
compressed concrete fibre and the tensile stress in the steel reinforcement are reached
simultaneously.
• Under-reinforced section: An under-reinforced section is one in which the area of
tension reinforcement is less than that required for a balanced section. Hence, the tensile
stress in steel reaches its allowable limit before compressive stresses in concrete.
• Over-reinforced section: An over-reinforced section is one in which the area of tension
reinforcement is more than that required for a balanced section. Hence, the concrete
stress reaches its allowable limit before the stress in steel reaches its allowable limit.

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Balanced Section
σst is the permissible stress in the tension steel reinforcement
σcbc is the permissible stress in the extreme fibre compressed concrete
Neutral axis depth constant for balanced section, kb

 cbc  st / m 
Using similar triangles:  
kb d d  kb d Using C  T
 A  
280 280 3 st 0.5 cbcbkb d  Ast ,b st   st ,b  0.5kb cbc  pt ,b  50kb cbc
Using: m  gives  bd  st  st
3 cbc kb d d  k b d 0.5 cbcbkb d 
Ast ,b  
280  st 
kb 
280  3 st
Ast ,b
pt ,b  100 Percentage Tension Steel (Balanced 11
Section)
bd
Under/Over Section in WSM

 kd 
For under reinforced section  k  kb :
M all   Ast st    d  
 3 
The corresponding maximum stress in the compressed concrete is obtained from force equilibrium, i.e.,
1 2A 
F  0, C  T  f cbkd  Ast st  f c  st st (  cbc )
2 bkd

1   kd 
For over reinforced section  k  kb : M all    cbcbkd    d  
2   3 
The corresponding stress in the tension steel reinforcement is obtained from force equilibrium, i.e.,
1  bkd
F  0, C  T   cbcbkd  Ast f st  f st  cbc (  st )
2 2 Ast
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EXAMPLE 4.3 (Pillai & Menon)
Consider the same beam section as in Examples 4.1 and 4.2. Assuming M 20 grade
concrete and Fe 415 grade steel, determine the allowable bending moment, and the
stresses in concrete and steel corresponding to this moment.

From Example 4.2: kd  234.6mm

k  0.4265
kd
jd  d   471.8mm
3

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Ast
Variation of Mall with pt pt  100
bd
Percentage Tension Steel

For under reinforced section  k  kb :

Effective Depth
Note that: k is dependent on m & 
 kd 
M all   Ast st    d  
 3  k  2  m  (  m) 2   m
M all  Ast   k  k Ast
   st   1     pt st   1   / 100 where   reinforcement ratio
 bd   3  3
2 bd
bd
For balanced section (k  kb )
Ast ,b  cbc
pt ,b  100  50kb
bd  st
For over reinforced section  k  kb :
1   kd 
M all    cbcbkd    d  
2   3 
M all  1   k
   cbc    1 
k 
bd 2  2   3
Variation of Mall with pt (WSM)
• Each curve in the plot is characterised by two distinctive portions: the initial segment
(green line), which is practically linear, conforms to under-reinforced sections; this is
followed by a non-linear segment (red line), which conforms to over-reinforced
sections. The kink (blue marker) in each curve, marking the transition from ‘under-
reinforced’ to ‘over-reinforced’, evidently corresponds to the balanced section.
• Mall with increase in pt
• For under-reinforced sections, Mall increases rapidly and nearly proportionately with pt
• The rate of gain in Mall increases with the use of higher strength steel, but the
‘balanced’ section limit is reached at a lower percentage of steel.
• For over-reinforced sections, the increase in Mall with increasing pt is not significant.
This is so, because the allowable limit of stress is reached in concrete in compression,
and, unless the compression capacity is suitably enhanced (by improving the grade of
concrete and/or providing compression reinforcement), there is not much to gain in
boosting the flexural tensile capacity of the beam section ⎯ either by adding more
tension steel area or by improving the grade of steel.

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Analysis of Singly Reinforced Flanged Sections
• Frequently, beams of rectangular section are built with flanges (slabs cast integrally) at
top or bottom
• If the flanges are located in the compression zone, they become effective in adding
significantly to the area of concrete in compression
• If the flanges are located in the tension zone, the concrete in the flanges become
ineffective.
• T-Beam and L-Beam : Encountered in beam supported slab floor system

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Equivalent Flange Width

Actual distribution of compressive stresses Assumed distribution of compressive stresses

total force = C total force = C

bf = equivalent flange width

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Beam Supported Floor Slab System

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Isolated T/L Beam
Effective flange width for a ‘T’ and a ‘L’ beam which is part of a slab-beam system

 l0 / 6  bw  6 D f for T-beam
bf  
l0 / 12  bw  3D f for L-beam
l0  0.7le in continuous beam and frames

Effective flange width of a isolated ‘T’ and a ‘L’ beam

 l0
 l / b  4  bw  b for T-beam
0
bf  
 0.5l0  b  b for L-beam
 l0 / b  4 w
l0  0.7le in continuous beam and frames

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Analysis of T/L Beam

kd < Df kd > Df

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N.A. in flange

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N.A. in web

Beam behaves as a T-beam of width bf

To locate NA, the moment of the cracked transformed
section is considered. Taking moment about NA:
 Df   kd 
(b f  bw ) D f   kd  
 w b kd     mAst (d  kd )
 2   2 
This is valid only if the resulting kd exceeds Df
Compare k with kb to find out if section is under/over reinforced
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N.A. in web

From similar triangles

f
f c1  c (kd  D f )
kd

Total compressive force C is calculated as:

1 1
C  f cb f (kd )  f c1 (b f  bw )(kd  D f )
2 2
Total tension force T is calculated as:
T  Ast f st

Taking the moments of all the compressed concrete about the C.G. of
the tension steel reinforcement
1  kd  1 
M  f cb f (kd )   d    f c1 (b f  bw )(kd  D f )   d  D f  
 kd  D f  

2  3 2  3  24
N.A. in web
For a given moment, M, acting on a T-beam, the stress in concrete, fc, can be found out using the above
equation provided that fc1 is substituted in terms of fc.
Knowing, fc and fc1, the stress in the tension steel can be found out by applying the equilibrium condition
that C = T (ΣFx = 0). This is done as follows:

On the other hand if the analysis problem requires finding the ‘allowable ‘ or the ‘permissible’ for a given
section of a ‘T’ beam or a ‘L’ beam, then first we have to check whether the given beam section will behave
as a balanced or a under-reinforced or as an over-reinforced section.
This can be checked by comparing the actual depth of the neutral axis in the beam with the neutral axis
depth, kb, for a balanced section.

If k > kb, fc = σcbc

EXAMPLE 4.4-4.5 (Pillai & Menon)
An isolated T-beam, having a span of 6 m and cross sectional dimensions shown in the
Figure. It is subjected to a service load moment of 200 kNm. assuming M20 grade concrete
and Fe250 grade steel.
(i) Compute the maximum stresses in concrete and steel
(ii) Determine the allowable moment capacity

l0  6000 mm Ast  3695 mm 2

bw  250 mm  st  130 MPa
D f  100 mm  cbc  7 MPa
d  520 mm m  13.33

It must be verified if the actual flange width b  1000 mm is fully effective or not
l0
bf   bw  b for T-beam
l0 / b  4
6000
bf   250  850 mm  1000 mm
6000 / 1000  4
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Doubly Reinforced Sections
• Stirrups provide for shear strength in flexural members
• Required for single/doubly reinforced section

Compression reinforcement

Shear reinforcement
(Stirrups)

Tension reinforcement
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Doubly Reinforced Sections
• When compression reinforcement is provided in addition to tension reinforcement in
beams, such beams are termed doubly reinforced beams.
• Hanger bars of nominal diameter, used for the purpose of holding stirrups, do not
normally qualify as compression reinforcement — unless the area of such bars is
significant (greater than 0.2 percent)
• It was shown (Variation of Mall with pt ) that merely providing tension steel in excess of
that required for the ‘balanced section’ (pt,b) is not an effective way of improving the
allowable moment capacity of the section, because the increase in the beam’s capacity to
carry flexural tension (with fst = σst) is not matched by a corresponding increase in its
capacity to carry flexural compression. One of the ways of solving this problem is by
providing compression steel.
Transformed Area of Reinforcing Steel
Tension Steel
• If, Ast = Area of steel reinforcement in tension
• Then mAst = steel area transformed into equivalent concrete area
• If stress in equivalent transformed concrete at the C.G. of the steel
reinforcement = fcs then stress in steel = mfcs

Compression Steel
• If, Asc= Area of steel reinforcement in compression
• Then 1.5mAsc = steel area transformed into equivalent concrete area
• If stress in equivalent transformed concrete at the C.G. of the steel
reinforcement = fsc then stress in steel = 1.5mfcs

Due to long-term effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete, as well

as the nonlinearity at higher stresses we multiply by 1.5m and NOT m
in the case of compression steel

Permissible stress in tension steel σst : Table 22 of IS:456

Permissible stress in tension steel σsc : minimum of value given in Table 22 of IS:456 and
calculated compressive stress in the surrounding concrete multiplied by 1.5 times modular
ratio
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Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections

For locating the neutral axis take moments of the areas of the transformed section about the N.A.

Also from force equilibrium, ΣFx = 0, total resultant compression = total tension on the section

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EXAMPLE 4.6 (Pillai & Menon)
The cross−sectional dimensions of a doubly reinforced beam are shown in the figure.
Assume M20 grade concrete and Fe250 grade steel
i. Determine the stresses in concrete and steel corresponding to a service load moment of
175 kNm.
ii. Determine the allowable moment on the beam section.

b  300 mm  cbc  7 MPa

D  600 mm  st  130 MPa
d  550 mm m  13.33
d '  50 mm
Ast  3054 mm 2
Asc  982 mm 2