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공수(3) 2009년 1학기 기출문제

         

1. Consider the following linear system         .
  
      
(a) If        , solve the liner system.

(b) Find the conditions for   and  which the linear system is consistent.
(연습내용에 있습니다)

     
2. Let       . 
     
(a) Find rank of A.
(b) Find eigenvalues of A.
(c)Find eigenbasis (a basis of eigenvectors) of A.
(d)Find the geometric multiplicity of each eigenvalue.
(3차퀴즈문제)

4. (a) Set up the model for the undamped system in Fig. 1.

-- Fig. 1.--
(b) Solve the system of ODEs obtained.
(5차숙제)

5. Find the  ×  matrix with eigenvalues -1, 3, 7 and corresponding eigenvectors


           
(연습내용에 있습니다.)

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7. Tank  contains initially 200 gal of water in which 160 lb of salt are dissolved. Tank 
contains initially 100 gal of pure water. The inflow, circulation and outflow are shown in the Figure.
The mixture is kept uniform by stirring. Find the amounts of salt    in  and    in  .

(5차숙제)

6. Find a general solution of ′



     
   
    

sol)

Let        


                →    

I)    →     
ii)    →      

∴       
    

let          
′                               

→      →            
→   
 
         
   
  
 
  

 
→         
 

    
let         


→    
 
 

 

 


 
  
       
 

  
      

  

   

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3. Determine whether the following statements are true or false and explain the reason.
(a) If the size of  is  ×  and    ,    can't have infinitely many solutions for any  .
(b) If the size of  is  ×  and    ,    can't have unique solution for any  .

(c) When  is nonsingular, if      , we must have      .

(d) The transpose  of a square matrix  has the same eigenvalues as  .
( a,b : 연습내용중에 있습니다. d : 3차퀴즈문제)
sol) (c)
True.
풀이 1 :    ∼  이므로       
-> If      then we must have det(B)=0
풀이 2 :                   
-> If      then we must have det(B)=0. (  ≠ )

   
8. Let    . For each of the following conditions, state the values of  for which the
  
  ′   .
    and ′
equation ′    or its phase portrait satisfies them. Here,  
 ′   
(a) Asymptotically stable (i.e. all solutions converge to 0 as →∞ ).
(b) Spiral or center. Is it circling clockwise or counterclockwise?

sol)
(a)
Asymptotically stable ( ⇔ stable and attractive)
        
         
→       

∴ 

(b)
spiral or center &          
→        ∴   

 ′′ 


  

   


To know the direction, assume that           


→   ′    ′  
-> clockwise.

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9. Write  for the population of bugs (100 per a unit), and  for the population of birds.

′       
Birds eat bugs, and the two together satisfy the nonlinear autonomous system 
′     
(a) Find all the critical points of this system.
(b) Find the linearization at each critical point, and sketch the trajectories near each critical point.
(c) If there is no bird then what is the eventual bug population?
(d) If there are initially 250 bugs and 50 birds, then what are the eventual bug and bird populations?

sol)
(a)  ′            
 ′         →         
     →   
      →      
Critical points : (0,0), (2,0), (1,1)

(b) I) (0,0)

→ ′ ≃   ⇒    : saddle point

ii) (2,0)
Let       
  

→ ′ ≃   ⇒   : saddle point

iii) (1.1)
Let 
       
   

→ ′ ≃   ⇒        →  : not pure : Spiral point

(그림생략)

(c)   이므로   축 위에서 →∞ 이면 (2,0)으로 수렴한다.


 →  →∞ ∴ 200마리

(d) (2.5, 0.5)에서 출발하여 →∞ 일때 trajectories 따라가면 (1,1)로 수렴한다.


 →   →  →∞ ∴ 각각 100마리

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