FIRST EDITION

FIRST PRINTING-APRIL 1979

Copyright © 1979 by TAB BOOKS

Printed in the United States of America

Reproduction or publication of the content in any manner, without express permission of the publisher, is prohibited. No liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Cannon, William, 1919-

101 tips & tricks for car restorers.

Includes index.

1. Automobiles-Restoration. I. Bishop, Ron, joint author. II.

Title.

TL 152.2C35 629.28'8 78-26494

ISBN 0-8306-9819-1

ISBN 0-8306-2054-0 (pbk.)

Cover photo courtesy of British Leyland Motors Inc.

Contents

1

About the Authors 8

Introduction 11

Engine Tips 13

Engine RPM & Road Speed 13

Inspect Fan Blad es 14

Hard Starting , , 14

Ten Poi nts to I nsu re Easy Starti n g 15

Starting Cars That Have Been Stored 1?

Putting a Car in 8torage 17

Freeing Stuck or Frozen Engines 18

Repairing a Crack in Block or Head 19

Quickie Tail Pipe Diagnosis 20

Reusing Headgaskets ,' , ,.21

A emovi ng Clutch Pilot Beari ng 21

Radiator Cap Leakage ,', 21

Cork Gasket Shrinkage/Slippage .22

Check That Overilow Pipe 22

Isolating Engine Noises 22

Repairing Bendix Starter Drives , 24

Spark P[ugs 25

Horsepower Ratings of Antiques 26

Oil Pressure Line , , 27

Locating TDC , .27

Hydraulic Valve Adjusting Tip 29

No-Stick Gaskets , 29

Easy Off Harmonic Balancer 30

Temperature Change , 30

Changing a Clutch , 30

How to Change Oil 32

Clean You r Car , 34

Breaking In a Rebuilt Engine 34

2

Drive Trai n Tips 36

Rear Axle Ratio & Performance 36

How to Find Rear Axle Ratio 37

External Brake Squeaks 37

Holding Brake Pedal Depressed 38

Warner Gear Overdrives 38

Rear Axle Hub Fit 39

Keep Spring Clips Tightened .40

Con e Clutch R etaci ng .40

Bearing Fits 41

Pressure Lubrication Fittings 41

3

Body Tips 43

Getting After Water Leaks .43

Poor Fitting Doors on Open Cars .44

Hinge Pin Press 44

Door Hinge Alignment Aid ..47

Hinge Pin Tip .48

Cure for Loose Door Hinges .48

4

Electrical & Instrumentation Tips 50

Tum Signals for Your Antique 50

Wiring the Antique 51

Headlamp Reflectors 54

Multi-Function Indicator Lamp 55

Mini Jumper Cables 56'

No Spill Battery Filler " .. .56

12-Volt Droplight 56

Eliminating Distributor End Play 57

Magnetic Drain Plugs 57

Keeping Wiring Harnesses Neat ~ 58

Eliminating Radio Static 58

Volt-Ohm Meter 59

How to Motorize a Generator 60

Generator Short Cuts 62

Combination Headlight & Turn Signal 63

Battery Shutoff Switch 64

Four Temperature Gauges in One 64

King-Seeley Hydrostatic Gasoline Gauge 65

Installing Accessory Gauges ..70

5 Hardware Tips 72

Tips with Fasteners 72

The Lowly Cotter Pin 73

Tightening Studs 75

Stain less Steel F aste ners 75

Storage of Small Parts 76

6

Chemical Tips _ 77

Bleaching Wood with Oxalic Acid 77

Quickie Spark Plug Rinse 77

Commercial Metal Stripping .78

7

Tool Tips 84

Care Package for Your Car 84

Make Your Own Degreaser 86

Some Uncommonly Useful Tools 86

Your Best Friend, the Vise 89

Nail & Tack Pulling Tool 91

Paint Can Jack Stands 91

Permanent Reference Torque Wrench Schematic 92

Easy Spark Plug Installation 93

Fender Mat Clips 93

Ball Stop 93

Who Are Phillips, Reed & Prince? 94

How to Fix Stripped or Damaged Threads 95

Punches 96

Basic Tool Requirements 98

Transmission Alignment Studs 99

Wrench Aids 100

8

Metal Working Tips 101

Annealing Brass & Copper 101

Bench G ri nder to Identify All oys 102

Repai f You r Own Pot Metal Parts 1 03

Hard Chroming 108

Soldering Aluminum 110

9

Reference & Information Tips 112

Safety First 112

Basics of Buyi ng a 'Coli ector Ca r 112

British vs. U.S. Terminology 114

Care of Mohair Velvet.. 114

A Few U.S. Firsts 115

The $2 Machine Shop 116

Sou rees for I nformati on on You r Car 117

A Model Car of Your Car 123

A Camera & Notebook: Tools for F utu re Reference 123

Index 125

About the Authors

W. A. '(Bill" Cannon loves old cars because, as he says, "There is always something new to learn. H He has been restoring and driving collector vehicles for nearly 20 years, and his stable now includes five antique Studebakers and a 1913 Indian motorcycle. Bill is a 1941 graduate of Washington State University. After a career of over 30 years in the automobile and aerospace industries, he retired last year to become a full time eclitor of Skinned Knuckles, a unique monthly car restoration publication. He is the author of nearly 100 scientific, engineering, and technical articles.

Bill is active in a number of antique car clubs including the Antique Automobile Club of America where his car judging activities have earned him the title of "Master Judge." Bill and his wife Charlotte, parents of four grown children, reside in Monrovia, California, in the foothills of the majestic San Gabriel mountains.

Ron Bishop, 30, is an avid "old car nut". His fascination with old cars began at an early age in his home town of Wheat Ridge, Colorado, when he and two other friends disassembled and carried home an abandoned Model A Ford some six miles. That was 20 years ago and he is still bringing home old cars and

8

Ron Bishop (len) and Bill Cannon (right).

parts; much to the dismay of his pretty wife Denise and their dog Dummie.

Ron is a graduate of American River College, Sacramento, California; and Denver University, Denver, Colorado. Ron served with the U.S. Air Force in Viet Nam and currently works in the aircraft manufacturing industry. He is a part time journalist and a consulting editor for Skinned Knuckles, "A J oumal of Car Restoration," and contributes regularly to other automotive publications. Ron is restoring a '50s style Hot Rod and a 1932 Ford 5-window coupe, "Deuce-High Boy" fashion. Ron is a member of the National Street Rod Association and the Throttle Iockies of Covina, California. His all time favorite old car is the '32 Ford.

9

Acknowledgement

The authors make no claim of originality for most of the tips and ideas discussed in this work. Most of the suggestions and concepts have been handed around in one form or another for generations, and it is obviously impossible to acknowledge the many unknown persons who are deserving of credit.

However, the authors would like to thank personally the following individuals who have supplied inspiration during compilation of data in preparation for this book: Sig Caswell, Temple City, California; Len Elliott, Auckland, New Zealand; Richard Evans, Crosby, Isle of Man, U. K.; Julian J. Joyce, Paonia, Colorado; Pat Chiechi, San Gabriel, California; George Clapp, Burdett, New York; George Liddell, Springfield, Pennsylvania; Lester Goetz, Fontana, California; Norm Tillman, West Covina, California; Tom Hutchinson, La Puente, California; Don Berry, E1 Monte, California; John Waugh, San Gabriel, California; Ron Bishop, Sr., Las Vegas, Nevada.

10

Introduction

101 Tips/or Car Restorers is a collection of practical ideas and suggestions for the restorers and drivers of antique, classic, and special interest automobiles. Some are old; some are new. It is firmly believed that this collection of over 100 of the best and most useful ideas will be helpful to both the novice and experienced restorer.

Among the 101 different tricks, tips, ideas, and suggestions there are almost sure to be several that the typical amateur restorer will find invaluable in his work. Each suggestion is, we believe, a practical one and has actually been tried out, tested, or used by one or both authors in their amateur restoration work. With few exceptions, the ideas may be used or implemented with only simple tools or shop equipment.

To a considerable extent, the topics covered are designed to answer questions or points of discussion which have actually been directed to the authors in their capacities of editor and consulting editor, respectively, of Skinned Knuckles magazine, a journal of car restoration. From this standpoint, the subject matter is timely and pertinent to the actual interests of amateur restorers-more so than a random compilation of shop ideas.

Finally, while 101 Tips for Car Restorers presents generalized topics, it is by no means a substitute for shop

11

manuals, service bulletins, or owners' manuals. Any car owner who contemplates or plans extensive mechanical repair work is urged to consult these more detailed reference sources before beginning his project.

Bill Cannon Ron Bishop

12

Chapter 1 Engine TilPS

Simplified formulae for calculating engine rpm from road speed and vice versa are given below.

m h - wheel ilia. (in.) X RP~ x 0.00285

.pn rear axle ratio

. .. RPM ~ mph x rear axle ratio

engme . - wheel rna (in) = 0.,00285

1. ENIGINE RPM AND ROAD SPEIED

The mathematical constant 0.00285 takes into account the average reduction in tire diameter due to loading.

As an example: What is the engine rpm at 40 mph for a vehicle with 32 inch tires and a rear axle ratio of ,4.4?

RPM 40 x 4.4 1930

. - 32 x 0.00285 = . '.

What is the maximum safe speed for a vehicle equipped with 30 inch tires, a rear end ratio of 4.36, and a maximum rated rpm of 2800?

h - 30 x 2800 x 0.00285 = 55

mp -' 4.36

See Tip 30 for information about how to find your rear axle ratio.

13

Hard starting when cold on cars with updraft carburetors is often due to failure of the choke' valve to close fully when the choke control is pulled al11he way out.

2. INSPECT FAN BLADES

When restoring a car, inspect the fan blades and the points of attachment to the hub very carefully. Fan failure is a common occurrence among antique cars and if a fall blade "lets go" at speed the resulting damage to the radiator core may be quite inconvenient and expensive to repair.

Any loose :rivets should be tightened by peening with a small ball peen hammer. Fatigue cracks extending into the blades of the fan will call for replacement of the fan.

3. HIARD STARTING

Hard starting of cars equipped with updraft carburetors is often caused by failure of the carburetor choke valve to close completely. If your car starts with difficulty when cold, but runs and starts easily when warm, it may be due to the reason cited. Check to see if the choke valve closes completely when the choke control is pulled all the way out.

Some updraft carburetor choke valves are equipped with an auxiliary spring-loaded poppet or flap which automatically opens when the engine starts to prevent excessive choking.

14

Backfiring in the carburetor may damage these auxiliary valves so they remain in the open position, thereby' leading to a hard starting problem.

4. TEN POINTS TO INSURE EASY STARTING

Experience shows that the following ten items (not necessarily in the order given) are the most frequent causes of hard starting in antique motor vehicles. It follows that these ten points should be checked when tuning or restoring a car.

1. Improper closing of the carburetor choke valve

2. Air leaks at the carburetor flange

3. Air leaks at the manifold gasket

4. Improper spark plug gap or fouled spark plugs

5. Bad distributor points

6. Bad condenser

7. Weak battery

8. Loose or corroded battery terminals

Auxiliary poppet or flap valves are sometimes used on choke valves to prevent overchoking. Backfiring may damage the auxiliary valve and cause hard starting. The poppet type valve on this Pierce-Arrow carburetor choke is relatively immune from damage but a flap type valve may be more troublesome.

15

9. Low compression

10. Improper use of choke

The operation of the choke valve can be checked by visual inspection. Ascertain that the choke valve doses completely when the choke control is pulled all the way out. Air leaks at the carburetor flange gasket or intake manifold gasket can sometimes be detected by spraying a fme steam of gasolline on the joints while the engine is idling. Any marked change in engine speed or sound is usuaUy indicative of a leak at that point. (Be careful of fire! Perfom this test only out of doors or in a well-ventilated location and have a fire extinguisher handy in case fumes become ignited.) An alternative check is to determine the manifold vacuum while the engine is idling. A manifold vacuum substantially less than 18 inches of mercury is indicative of a possible manifold leak, but it may also be due

I ; to poor engine timing or leaky valves.

I

Improper spark plug gaps or fouled plugs can be detectecll

by visual inspection after removing the plugs. Bad distributor points will be manifested by burned or blue contacts or pitted and uneven contact surfaces. Good contact points should be smooth and frosty in appearance. It is difficult to detect a bad condenser without special test equipment. The simplest thing to do is replace the condenser with a new one or one known to be serviceable, If this replacement clears up the problem, it is likely that the original condenser is defective ..

A weak battery win usually be revealed by failure to take a full charge, or if it loses its charge rapidly so that the starter turns the engine over slowly or not at all. Any service station can check your battery for condition. Loose or corroded battery terminals are best detected by visual inspection. Check I10t only the terminals at the battery but the terminals at the starter, starter switch, and the ground connection to the frame or motor.

Low compression can only be determined with a compression tester. If you do not have one, any garage mechanic can run this test for you. Cranking pressure depends on the compression ratio of the engine and will be approximately as shown in the table:

16

C ompression ratio 5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

Cranking pressure (psi) 90

100

110

120

130

Variations of cranking pressure up to 20 psi from the approximate values given above are not cause for alarm; but the variations in cranking pressure among all the cylinders should not vary more than 10 psi.

Consult your owners manual for proper use of the choke.

5. START:ING C,ARS THAT HAVE BEEN STORED

We often hear stories or comments as follows: "She was in storage for 25 years. We filled her with gas, dropped in a fresh battery J and she took right off. H Such stories, if true, are no credit to the teller but reveal a lack of appreciation for what might be a fine piece of machinery. One might get away with

this procedure once or twice but the risks are not worth it.

It is a mistake to attempt to start a car that has been in storage, or out of service, for an indeterminate period of time without first removing the oil pan and cleaning the crankcase. Just draining the crankcase and refilling with oil is not sufficient as this step may n.ot remove the accumulated sludge of years. Starting the engine may pull some of this sludge into the oils lines with subsequently disastrous results.

6. PUTI'ING A CAR ,IN STo.RAGE

A car that is not to be used for several months or longer should be properly stored to prevent undue deterioration. It is probably better to keep the car in running condition with water, oil, and fuel in it and run the engine every week or so to keep the car properly lubricated. This procedure is not always practicable, so for prolonged storage, the following practices follow manufacturers' recommendations.

1. Select a dry, dark storage space, preferably one that is not subject to excessive temperature fluctuations.

2. Clean the car thoroughly, getting all the mud, tar, and grease off the body and running gear.

17

3. Drain the gas tank. Remove the glass sediment bowl from the fuel pu.mp and drain the pump. If the car is equipped with a vacuum tank, drain it. Start the engine and run it until it stops. This will empty the carburetor. [Note: Many wil! argue that it is better to leave the gas tank filled with fuel, thereby insuring that no moisture can condense inside it to cause rusting. There may be merit to this suggestion, but your authors feel that leaving the tank filled with gasoline is no guarantee that condensed moisture will not already be present in the bottom of the tank which can cause rust. By draining it, the tank is allowed to dry out and will be better protected as long as the vehicle is in dry storage as suggested in (1) above.]

4. Remove the spark plugs and pour about an ounce of engine oil in each cylinder. Crank the engine over a few times to distribute the oil around the cylinders and valves. Replace the plugs.

5. Drain the water from the cooling system. [Some will claim, with possible justification, that less corrosion will take place if the coolant is left in. This may be best for short storage. Of course, in freezing weather, anti-freeze must be used. For prolonged storage, there is always a possibility that traces of water may seep from the cooling system into the cylinders, so the authors feel that draining is preferable for prolonged storage times.]

6. Block up the car so that the weight is off the tires.

Wrap the tires in paper if exposed to sunlight.

7. Remove the battery from the car and if it is not to be used, keep it charged.

8. Close the windows if a closed! car, and cover the entire car.

9. Take precautions to prevent access to the car by rodents and moths (if wool upholstery).

7. FREEING STUCK OR FROZEN ENGINES

As far as the authors know there is no universally accepted procedure for freeing up a stuck or frozen engine. What works on one engine may not on another.

18

The first approach is to remove the spark plugs and pour a liberal amount of penetrating oil into each cylinder. Apply more penetrating oil daily and allow it to work for several days. In the meantime, give some attention to the valve train. Valves may be rusted in the guides and excessive torque applied to the crankshaft may result in a sprung camshaft or worse. If the valves show evidence of excessive rust, disassembly of the valve train is the only safe procedure. It will probably have to be done eventually anyway.

After prolonged treatment with penetrating oil, apply torque to the crankshaft with the hand crank or a long -handled

, wrench. This technique is usually successful, but if not, remove the cylinder he.ad. Using a wooden block, hammer the top of each piston (except those on top or bottom dead center) to get them moving. If the head is non-removable, it will be necessary to use ajack or hydraulic press to apply pressure to the bottom of the piston from below. Do not apply pressure to the connecting rod as it will probably bend or twist.

8. REPArRING A CRACIK IN BLOCK OR HEAU

Cracks in blocks or heads may be repaired as follows.

Drill a V4llch hole at one end of the crack. With a 5/16-24 tap,

Simple r'cold" repair for cracks in cylinder block or cylinder head.

1'9

It's always better to use a new headgasket when replacing a cylinder head, but if a new one is not available, and the old one is in reasonably good oondition, try soaking it in hot water for a while to swell the asbestos, Use the kitchen sink, or jf that iSI1't big enough, the bathtub.

thread the hole. With a die, cut the same dimension thread on the end of a copper rod for a short distance. Screw the threaded rod into the hole, cut off dose to the block with a hacksaw, and peen the end, Repeat the procedure, centering the next hole on the edge of the first plug, and! repeat until the entire crack is filled. Tin the patch, and complete the repair by painting over it.

9. QUICKIE TAIL PIPE DIAGNOSIS

You can tell something about the condition of an engine by careful examination of the tail pipe. A black, oily deposit is usually indicative of oil burning due to poor rings or leaky valve guides. A compression test should be made to confirm the diagnosis. A black, sooty deposit doesn't necessarily mean a poor engine -it may be due to too rich a mixture or fouled plugs. A grayish coating on the inside of the pipe usually shows the engine to be in good shape. These .guidelines are not infallible, of course.

20

10. REUSING HEADGASKETS

If you can't find a replacement headgasket, you may be able to make the old one do if if s in reasonably good condition. Soak it in hot water for about an hour. This treatment will swell the asbestos so that a good seal can be obtained when the head is torqued down.

111. REMOVING CLUTCH !PILOT BEARING

If a suitable puller is not available, try this method. Pack the cavity in the end of the crankshaft with grease. Select a piece of dowel rod which is snug fit for the bearing, and with a heavy hammer, drive it down the hole. The hydraulic pressure "Will force the bearing out. Protect yourself from flying grease with a cloth wrapped around the dowel rod.

12. RADIATOR CAP LEAKAGE

Leakage of coolant at the radiator cap is apt to lead to unpleasant discoloration of the radiator shell or hood. In many

Draw filing the upper surface of the radiator filler neck to insure a good tit for the radiator cap and [its -gasket.

21

cases leakage is due to roughness or uneveness at the top of the filler neck. Any dents can be corrected by bending up the dented or low portion of the filler neck with a small adjustable wrench. Use a small mill file to draw file the top surface. Check gasket on rad.iator cap, too.

13. CORK GASKET SHRINKAGE/SLIPPAGE

Cork gaskets often shrink in storage and will no longer fit over the studs or line up with bolt holes on the part for which they are to be used. In this case, soak the gasket in hot water for a few minutes before use and it will usually swell enough to install it properly.

If the gasket tends to slip off the flange before you can get it bolted up, tie the gasket with loops of sewing thread through the gasket holes and mating flange bolt holes. After bolting up, cut off the loose threads, if desired, leaving the rest of the thread in the gasket joint where it will do no harm,

14. CHECK THAT OVERFLOW PIPE

Always check the overflow pipe on the radiator when restoring a car. Slip a rubber tube over the end of the pipe and blow in it. Any restriction will be felt immediately. In case of a restriction, probe with a wire to open it up. Insects have a habit of crawling into such spaces and building nests when a car is in storage.

15. ISOLATING ENGINE NOISES

Engine noises are a good indicator of problem areas.

Often a malfunction inside the engine will reveal itself first as a strange noise before the effects of the problem become apparent or severe damage is done.

A simple tool which will aid you in troubleshooting engine noises is a simple piece of dowel wood or an old broom handle used like a stethoscope. One end of the dowel is placed on the running engine in the desired location (being careful not to come in contact with external moving parts, such as the fan blades) and the other end is placed to the ear, using the thumb as an insulator. You will now be able to hear sounds coming from inside the engine. Moving the dowel from place to place

22.

Cork gaskets which have been stored for a long time and have shrunk so asto no longer fit over the studs; may be swelled by soaking in water.

on the engine will help you to isolate the location of the sound you are investigating.

The dowel isolates a noise by slightly dampening other noises around it, but unless you have some experience in listening to the various sounds that your engine will make, you may find it difficult to determine just what it is you are listening to and exactly where the. noise is coming from. To gain some experience, use the listening dowel before your engine develops a strange noise or listen/ to another engine that is in good running order.

Each area of the motor will have its own distinct, internal sounds when running; with a little practice, you will be able to know these sounds. Valves, bearings, and other internal reciprocating parts emit very melodic, distinct sounds. A valve pulsating up and down will have the same sound at each valve along the engine and will show up as a clicking or metallic slapping sound when something starts to go wrong (when

23

compared to a good operating valve). A journal spinning in a bearing will emit a melodic hum when everything is normal and will give forth a pulsating click or grating sound when the bearing starts to fail. With a little listening practice, you will know the noises your engine makes when it is "sounding good" / making it much easier to isolate the trouble when your engine starts emitting strange new sounds.

16. REPAIRING BENDIX STARTER DRIVES

By far the commonest starter drive is the Bendix system.

The most common cause of failure of these units is breakage of the spring due to metal fatigue after long usage. Springs are easily replaced by removing the cap screws at each end of the spring. Be sure to secure the lock washers after repair.

When the Bendix pinion is fully disengaged it is held loosely in position by the spring-loaded retarder pin which engages a shallow groove in the shaft. If the retarder spring breaks, or the pin becomeswom or broken, the pinion may roll ahead and contact the flywheel gear while the car is in motion. This problem may be manifested by a periodic clicking noise from the vicinity of the starter.

The inertia of the counterweight on the pinion causes the pinion to lag behind the shaft when the starter motor begins to rotate, thus screwing the pinion along the shaft until it engages the flywheel gear. The counterweight, which is riveted or staked to the pinion, occasionally comes loose. Usually, when this happens the pinion then fails to engage or engages poorly.

Bendlix starter drives are not designed to be taken apart.

When available, they slhould be replaced as a unit; however, new ones are becoming hard to find for some antique cars, and broken ones may have to be repaired, if possible.

The collar on the end of the Bendix shaft is ordinarily threaded onto the shaft and riveted in place. Because it is of hardened steel, pliers or a pipe wrench can't get a "bite" on it; so it is necessary to grind flats on opposite sides of the collar to get a grip on it with a w-rench. When the collar has been removed, the pinion can be unscrewed from the shaft to repair the counterweight or retarder pin.

The retarder pin, if faulty, can be replaced with a good one from another unit, or a machinist or clever hobbyist can

24

COUNTERWEIGHT

BOLT LOCK WASHER

RETARDER P~N BENDIX SPRiNG

Bendix starter drive.

make a replacement. If the counterweight is loose, it can be silver soldered to the pinion, Welding would tend to anneal the pinion and is not recorrunended.

When replacing the collar, screw it on as tightly as possible and secure it in place with a small bead of solder. The Bendix drive is about the only mechanical part of a car which should never be lubricated. Leave the pinion and shaft clean anti ds

- ry.

-

17. SPARK PLUGS

Spark plug recommendations are usually based on average use of a motor vehicle. For some operations, a hotter or

The diagrams show the different lengths of heat conducting paths for a "hot" plug at II eft, a "normal" plug at center, and a "cold'; plug at right.

25

colder plug may be indicated. On the extreme left in the illustration is a "hot" plug where the conducting heat path is longer than in the "cold" plug at the extreme right, allowing the tip to operate at a higher than normal temperature.

Conversely, the cold plug at the right has a shorter than normal conducting heat path and it will operate relatively cooler. A hot plug may be advisable for an antique car that is operated only at low speeds and on short trips. Consult your spark plug dealer.

18. HORSEPOWER RATINGS OF ANTIQUES

Newcomers to the antique auto hobby are often puzzled by the different horsepower ratings listed for antique cars. Power is, of course, the rate at which work is done and is usually expressed in horsepower, watts, or kilowatts. James Watt coined the term horsepower to express the power of his stearn engines, and as every student of physics knows, one horsepower is equivalent to 33,000 foot-pounds of energy expended per minute. Watt estimated that a horse can perform work at. this rate.

In the early days of automobiles, it was customary to express horsepower according to the A. L. A. M. (Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers) rating, later to be known as the N.A.C.C. (National Automobile 'Chamber of Commerce) rating. These ratings, which are identical, are obtained by multiplying the square of the cylinder diameter, by the number of cylinders and dividing the product by 2. S. The result is a fair approximation of the power output of a fourcycle engine operating at a piston speed of 1000 feet per minute. With rapid strides in the development of internal combustion engines, it was no time at all until piston speeds far exceeded 1000 feet per minute, and the actual horsepower of engines was much greater than that calculated by the N.A.C.C. formula-voften several times as great.

The old, out-dated N.A.C.C. rating was retained for

. years, however, and was often referred to as "taxable" horsepower, and license fees were imposed according to the formula. For a number of years it was cormnon to quote both the "taxable" horsepower and the developed horsepower of automobile engines. The latter figure is the maximum horse-

26

L

power developed by the engine as measured on a dynamometer without the fan, water pump, or generator in operation. The actual horsepower delivered to the wheels and used for propelling the vehicle is substantially less, but this figure is rarely quoted.

19. Oil PRESSURE LlINE

There are several ways to install an oil pressure gauge line but there are even more ways to do the job wrong. You should always use tubing of sufficient strength and diameter for the job with D!4" copper being the preferred material for quick gauge response.

The line should have a grommet or be insulated at the firewall so as not to become chafed by the sheetmetal. To prevent the line from breaking from engine torquing, put a wide loop ill the tube just before the firewall. This will leave enough slack so that the rocking of the motor will not continually be tugging at the line.

20. LOCATING TOC

"Top Dead Center" (TDC) is an invaluable reference point relative to your car's motor. Corresponding to TDC are your motor's timing marks located on either the flywheel or harmonic balancer of your motor and the adjacent (sometimes calibrated) pointer, Check your shop or owners manual for their exact location on your motor. These "factory installed" reference marks can be off as much as 9 degrees in some rare cases, but 1 or 2 degrees off is common. One or two degrees doesn't sound like much but just this little can effect engine efficiency. To solve this problem and aid in engine tuning. you can determine what your motor' s TDC is once and for all.

To locate TDC, it will be necessary to fabricate a piston stop. Grind off the metal ring located just above the hex of an old spark plug, and remove the porcelain. Grind off the ground electrode and drop a bolt into the spark plug shell that will extend about one inch into the combustion chamber. Braze it in place; top and bottom, and round off the end.

Make sure the piston is down in the cylinder and the key is out of your ignition, and tighten the completed stop into the #1 spark plug hole. Rotate the engine clockwise slowly by

27

il

: : ~.

II

',' :',' .c-;

.; " .

. .. "

,'. :-:: ~:

Spark plug shell (with porcelai n broken out) and bolt are used to fabricate piston stop.

hand until it stops. Make a temporary mark on the harmonic balancer or flywheel adjacent to the pointer (or "0" on the tab). After doing the same in a counterclockwise direction, take out the piston stop, and use a tape measure to locate TDe exactly hall way between the two temporary marks.

Once TDC is established, scribe or centerpunch a permanent mark on the balancer or flywheel; make a corresponding mark on the tab if it does not line up with the "0" or adjust the pointer to correspond to the newly established TDC marks, as the case may be. You have now established TDC and have a valuable and useful reference mark.

"Bottom Dead Center" (BDC) "Will be one halfthe circumference of the balancer/flywheel, or 180 dlegrees from TDC.

Of course, the piston stop method of determining TDC will only work on engines whre the cylinder is directly below the spark plug opening so check this point before proceeding. Always tum the engine over slowly by hand when using the tooL Do not use the starter motor to tum the engine over as excessive force could damage the piston.

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21. HYDRAULIC VALVE ADJUSTING TIP

Hydraulic lifter engines with adjustable valves can be tuned for additional rpm and in some cases a higher horsepower curve by a simple readjustment of the valves. Loosen each valve lock nut (one at a time, with the engine running) until the lifter begins to click .. Slowly retighten the nut until the clicking stops, then tighten another V2 tum. Normally, the tighter the valve, the more low-end power; setting them loose adds top-end power .

. 22. NO-STICK GASIKETS

Gaskets can be made from sticking to mating surfaces by applying a light coat of "anti-seize'; compound to the gaskets before installing them. Thus, the next time the parts have to be removed, the gaskets will come off easily, eliminating the need to hand scrape baked-on gasket material. Apply the

Bolt brazed into place in spark plug shell. Bolt must project far enough into combustion chamber for piston to strike it before reaching top of stroke. When brazlnq bolt into shell, leave a. space for air to escape so engine will tum over easier on compression stroke.

29

compound to only the composition portions of the gaskets and not to the neoprene end seals or the like. Check for leaks as usual after installation is complete.

23. EASY OFF HARMONIC BALANCER

If you have run into a heap of trouble each time you have had to remove the harmonic balancer from your motor because it's pressed on, here r s the answer to your problem. The next time you have the balancer off, use a brake wheel cylinder hone or a little emery cloth and a lot of elbow grease to, open up the inside dliameter of the balancer so it will slide on and off with a minimum of hassle. You don't have to worry about it falling off as there is still a bolt holding it to the crankshaft. Don't take so much off that it wobbles" just enough (a few ten thousandths) so that the balancer will slip on.

,24. TEMPERATURE CHANGE

A little trick for Fords and other makes with different heat-range thermostats is to replace the stock 195 degree unit with the 160 degree unit, allowing cooler running of the motor. 160 degree thermostats are readily available at your local auto parts store.

25. CHANG,INIGA CLUTCH

Disassembly

Mer properly installing YOUlr jack stands and cleaning as much crud as possible from underneath, drain the transmission fluid! and remove the drive shaft. Remove the shut linkage, speedometer cable, and backup light switch, if your car has any of these items" It may be necessary to support the back of the engine with a jack or wooden block. Then you can remove the rear crossmember and the bolts attachiing the trans to the bellhousing. Now slide the trans toward the rear and out.

Next, remove the dust cover (if any) from the bellhousing and the bellhousing if it is removable, and then remove the clutch linkage and clutch release (throwout) bearing. Now you're ready to remove the pressure plate and clutch assembly.

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, If you plan on reusing the pressure plate, scribe an alignment mark on both the pressure plate and the flywheel. There should be a factory alignment mark already stamped on these two items but don't chance it. These are balanced assemblies and must go back together as they came off.

If you need a new or rebuilt pressure plate, there will be an alignment mark on it (ask your parts mall to show it to you) and you should (?) be able to find an aligrunent mark on your flyw-heel after everything is removed. If not, the flywheel will have to come off and the entire flywheel, clutch and pressure plate system will have to be balanced as an assembly. Installing an out of balanced assembly could knock the whole engine out of balance.

Once you have removed the bolts that hold the pressure plate to the flywheel, remove the pressure plate and clutch disc. With everything removed, check the pressure plate and flywheel surfaces to make sure they are not heat-checked or scored from excessive clutch slippage. If the pressure plate is bad, it will have to be professionally rebuilt or replaced with a new one.

• ......... h"·J~ .. •••••

Alignment marks on clutch pressure platte and flywheel insure correct installation for balanced assembly ..

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Reassembly

Putting everything back together is simply the reverse of taking it apart, with one important exception. The most difficult aspect of this job is lining up the hole in the center of the dutch disc so that the input shaft (spline) of the transmission will slide into place.

This operation can be done by using a dummy input shaft from an old transmission or by buying a tool designed for this purpose. If your transmission needs to be disassembled for any reason, do it now, and you can use the input shaft from it to line up your clutch. In some cases an ordinary broom handle will work. With the dummy shaft in place, install the clutch and pressure plate and torque everything down per your car's specs.

Continue the reverse of disassembly until everything is hooked up; don't forget the torque specifications, as outlined in your shop manual and don't forget to put oil back in your transmission.

I might also mention that it is a good idea to replace the dutch release (throwout) bearing before you put everything back together, even if it is good. It will only cost a few dollars and will be good insurance against having to tear everything apart again in a few thousand miles just for this one item.

When everything is back together, you'll have to readjust your dutch linkage to compensate for the added thickness of the new disc. And that folks, is all there is to that task.

26. HOW TO CHANGE OIL

Changing oil in your car need not be a difficult and dirty job, if you take a few preparatory steps. You might even save a few bucks in the process.

1. With the parking brake on and the transmission in "Park" or first gear, jack and chock the front end of your car, giving yourself enough access to the oil

drain plug and oil filter. -

2. With a pan or bucket capable of holding at least twice the oil capacity of your engine (about 10 qts.), remove the drain plug in the oil pan, letting the oil pour into the bucket.

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.,. 1

LOOSE FIT IN

CLUTCH PILOT BEARING

LOOSE FIT IN CLUTCH DISC HUB SPLINES

Clutch pilot tool simplifies alignment of clutch disc for easy insertion of transrnissian pilot shaft when transmission is rnstaueo.

3. After the oil has drained, let it continue to drip for 15 or 20 minutes, then dean and reinstall the oil. pan plug.

4. Remove the oil filter cartridge; or oil filter can with cartridge, as applicable. Pour the remaining oil held by these elements into the bucket, then dean the reusable parts. Clean the casting boss in and around where the oil filter attaches; remove any old gasket or seal material that may be hanging on.

5. Reverse the procedure of filter removal and reinstall the parts with the new filter element. A thin film of oil on the new seal (spread on with your finger) will aid in sealing the filter. Screw the filter in place and snug it down by hand; don't use a tool to torque it in place as this will crush the filter element inside the canister and make removal only that rnuch harder. Hand tight is sufficient on canister/throwaway-type oil filters.

6. Remove the oil dip stick gauge, oil breather cap and the air filter, if it is the oil bath type. Clean the parts and set aside.

7. Using a funnel or oil can pour spout, add the correct amount of oil to your motor; be sure that it is of the correct SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) viscosity rating for your motor.

S. Save a bit of oil and fill your oil bath air cleaner.

Reinstall the dip gauge, oil breather cap, and air cleaner.

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9. Put the front end of the car back down on the ground.

10. Start your car and watch the oil pressure gauge; you should have pressure in 10-15 seconds. Check for any initial leaks; but let the motor get up to operating temperature and check again for leaks. If everything is OK, you've done a good job.

11. Now all that remains is the disposal of the used oil. filter and any rags you may have soiled. Half gallon milk containers make excellent disposal containers for used oil; a paper type milk carton will conveniently hold the used filter and old rags. Save and dispose of your old oil properly; pouring it down the drain is not reconunended ..

12. By watching sale ads, you can usually save a few cents on your oil and oil filters; buying oil in case lots will also save you some money. There's no reason, even these days, why yOU! can't change the oil and oil filter in your car for less than $5.00.

27. CLEAN YOUR CAR

There are probably as many ways to clean up old cars and parts as there are ways of getting them dirty. Take a tip and have your car steam cleaned inside and out, top and bottom, before you ever start restoration on it. With all tlie dirt, grease and grime removed, you will find the task ahead of you all that much easier. You'll be able to see what you have, what you're doing, and you and your garage will stay cleaner. It's a wise investment.

28. BREAKING IN A RE.BUll T ENGINE

There's one thing certain about breaking in a rebuilt motor: If you ask a dozen different people what's the right way to do it, you'U get a dozen different answers. Everyone seems to have a secret formula for breaking in a motor and he's convinced that his is the only right way to do it. There seems to be one common element in all of them though; everyone will agree that the most important factor in breaking in any engine is the seating of the piston rings.

Getting a good sealing surface between the rings and the cylinder wall is what determines whether or not the engine will

34

burn oil and also whether or not it will make horsepower. The best way to establish a good ring seal is by running the engine at varying rpm during the first few hundred miles.

Be sure to spend some time in deceleration as well as acceleration during the break in. The ring seal is governed by the gas pressure exerted on the rings and that pressure is determined by engine speed. Running at a constant speed will generate a balanced pressure and may lead to polishing of the cylinder walls. Therefore, continually varying the speed during break in is of utmost importance. The acceleration! deceleration cycle is necessary because this will load both sides of the rings against the walls, since the thrust surfaces are loaded during acceleration and the opposite surfaces are loaded during deceleration.

Watch the Gauges!

As soon as the motor is started it should be set at high idle, which will allow oil to circulate through the engine oil galleries under high pressure; oil pressure is very important, so keep an eye on your oil pressure gauge. Also, keep a very close watch on the engine temperature gauge to avoid any chance of overheating which may distort the internal components at this critical time in the engine's new life.

After the engine has reached operating temperature and run for 20 or 30 minutes, recheck the ignition timing and adjust the carburetor for correct idle speed. Shut the engine off and re-torque the heads and manifold bolts; on motors with adjustable solid valve lifters,re-adjust them at this time. Recheck oil and coolant levels. .

Don't take any long trips and don't run theengine at extreme rpm. After the first couple of hundred miles, it's also a good idea to spend some time checking the engine compartment for loose belts, hoses, electrical connections and so on. Once the 200-miJe mark is reached, you may then go ahead and run the engine the way you plan to drive it. If it's not broken in by the time you reach the SOO-mile mark, it probably never will be.

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Chapter 2

Drive Train Tips

Many antique car owners, dissatisfied with the power, performance, and top speed of their vehicles, are prone to start looking around for a low ratio rear end in the hope that it will solve all their problems. The common assumption is that switching from, let us say, a 4.36 to a 3.91 rear end ratio \ViII immediately result in a 10 percent higher top speed. It is usually found that only a mile or two is added to the top speed and in the meantime there is a 10 percent loss in hill climbing ability and acceleration, with the result that the vehicle feels a lot more sluggish in average driving situations.

29. REAR AXLE :RATIIO AND PERFORMANCE

Antique owners should get over the idea that their 50- year-old cars are going to perform like modem vehicles. Car manufacturers usually provided a so-called standard rear end ratio which was the best compromise for the power and weight of the vehicle. It ordinarily provided that the normally loaded car could reach its top rated horsepower and rpm at high speed. For unusual load or driving conditions, optional higher and lower ratio rear ends were often made available. If the car was to be operated principally on level roads with light loads, a lower ratio rear end would provide adequate performance at a somewhat lower rpm for a given road speed, resulting in quieter operation and probably a slight increase in fuel

36

economy. The passing performance and hill-climbing ability would be somewhat impaired, of course.

Vehicles which were to be operated consistently in heavy traffic or in hilly country could profitably be equipped with a higher ratio rear end which provided better acceleration. and hill climbing ability, but at a slight sacrifice in high speed and fuel economy. It was not prudent for the manufacturer to provide too high a rear end ratio, though, as the engine might be overrevved, so the maximum difference between the standard ratio and the high and low options was usually limited to about 7 or 8 percent for practical reasons.

30. HOW TO FIND REAR AXLE RATIO

You can determine the approximate rear axle ratio as follows. Jack up one rear wheeL With the transmission in neutral, have an assistant turn the rear wheel by hand (either direction) through exactly two revolutions. In the meantime, count the number of revolutions the drive shaft turns. Make some marks on the drive shaft for reference purposes and try to estimate the number to a tenth of a revolution. Repeat a couple of times and take an average reading. The reading is the rear axle ratio, although the number will probably not be highly accurate.

Some manufacturers stamped the rear axle ratio on a plate and affixed it to the differential housing, usually un.der one or two capscrews on the housing. There is always a good chance that the plate has been lost or defaced over the years. In this case, remove the cover plate over the rear axle housing (drain oil), Look for a stamped number on the ring gear which may indicate the rear axle ratio. If none can be found, count the number of teeth on both the pinion and ring gear. Dividing the latter by the former number will give the precise fear axle ratio. For example, if the ring gear has 47 teeth and the pinion 10, the rear axle ratio is 4. 7 to 1.

31. EXTERNAL BRAKE SQUEAKS

External brake squeaks are often caused by dirt embedded in the lining from mud splashed on the surface. Remove the brake bands and scrub the inside surface with a stiffbristle

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brush to remove the dirt. This will often eliminate squeaks. and make the brakes more efficient.

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32. HOLmNG BRAKE PEDAL DEP,RESSED

When adjusting mechanical brakes, it is necessary to hold the brake pedal in a partially depressed condition while setting the drag on each wheel. You can do this without the aid of a helper by placing the jaws of a monkey wrench on the clutch pedal ann and depressing the brake pedal with the projecting hanclle.

If you don't have a monkey wrench of appropriate size, you can achieve the same result with a piece of 1 x 21umber cut to the right length so that one end can be propped against the front of the seat while the other end is placed against the brake pedal. Label and save the board for future use .

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33. WARNER GEAR OVERDRIIVES

The Warner Gear Division of Borg- Warner advised that Warner overdrives used by Chrysler, DeSoto. Graham, Hupmobile, Nash, Lafayette, Pierce-Arrow, and Studebaker should be lubricated only with light-weight straight mineral gear oils. For the type and weight of oil to use, owners should follow the recommendations found in their owners' manuals. In the absence of specific recommendations, a good grade of S.A.E. 90 straight mineral gear oil may be used.

According to the manufacturer, oils containing any extreme pressure (EP) additives such as lead, sulfur, or chlorine compounds should never be used in these units. Because of the high speed and high temperature at which the planetary gear train operates in these transmissions, EP additives may break down and clog the fine oil passages ill the planet pinion gears, leading to excessive noise and even premature failure.

In the event that EP gear oils were used in these transmissions, the manufacturer recommends that the transmission be drained and flushed before filling with the proper grade of straight mineral gear oil.

Some car makers who used Warner overdrives were not quite so adamant against the use of EP gear oils, stating that some EP additives could be used. Most manufacturers, how-

38

External brake squeaks are often caused by imbedded mud. Use a wire brush to remove the -g laz.ed surface.

ever, preferred to play it safe and prohibited all EP gear oils in their service instructions. The owner of a car equipped with one of these overdrive units today will be well advised not to take any risks and stick with straight, additive-free mineral gear oils ..

34. REAR AXLE HUB FIT

A common but unexpected cause of rear axle shaft breakage is poor fit of the hub to the tapered shaft. When you restore your car, examine the tapered portion of the axle shaft for evidence of wear or rust. Such a condition will prevent a secure fit of the hub to the shaft, and breakage of the shaft is likely to occur at a later time.

The hub and shaft may be lapped together to provide a secure fit. Place the axle shaft in a vertical position in a vise, making sure that the jaws of the vise cannot mutila te the shaft. Cover the tapered portion of the shaft with valve grinding compound and place the hub over it using a turning motion in the same manner as when grinding valves. Raise the hub

39

frequently while turning it to redistribute the valve grinding compound. Check the fit of the hub and shaft with Prussian Blue.

35. KEEP' SPRING CUPS TIGHTENED

Contrary to popular opinion, road springs do not usually break on compression, but on rebound when the spring clips are not tight, allowing the main leaf to take the full stress. Properly tightened spring clips allow distribution of the stress to all leaves and prevent spring breakage.

Improper spring shackle adjustment is another frequent cause of spring breakage. Shackle bolts should only be tightened snugly enough to still allow spring eye and upper shackle to have clearance to move freely.

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36. CONE CLUTCH REf ACING

When the leather on an old style cone clutch needs replacing, the clutch must be disassembled and the old leather removed by cutting the rivets from underneath with a small chisel and punching them out. Save the old leather for a pattern.

Saddle makers or shoemakers are good sources for replacement leather. The new piece should be of uniform thickness and if the leather is stiff it should be given one or two coats of neatsfoot oil and hung up for a few days to soften.

The new leather should fit tight and true to the cone and the secret here is to actually stretch it over the cone. One end should be cut square and riveted to the cone and the other end brought around to meet, taking care to see that the leather is only two-thirds over the cone on the side opposite the rivets. After securing both ends with rivets, force the leather up over the cone. Drill the remaining rivet holes, countersink them, and finish the job. The hair sideof the leather goes next to the cone.

Make a prop stick of the proper length to go between the seat and the clutch pedal. Use the stick to keep the clutch pedal depressed when the car is not in use. This procedure allows the dutch leather to expand and remain soft and pliable.

40

Keep spring clips tightened to avoid spring breakage.

37. BEARING FITS

Occasionally a ball or roller bearing will be found too loose for its housing. One solution to this problem is to machine the housing larger and install a sleeve of the correct size. If the housing is only slightly worn, a simpler solution is to use one of the anaerobic locking and retaining compounds designed for locking nuts, studs, shafts, and bearings in place. These compounds are sold! by mo.st bearing and hardware suppliers under trade names such as Loc-Tite, Stay-Lock, and Super-Lock.

38. PRESSURE LUBRICATI,OIN FITTINGS

In 1919, Mr. Arthur Gulborg was issued a patent for a high pressure lubrication system known as the Alernite system. He sold his invention to the Bassick Manufacturing Company which saw the potential application of the system in the automobile industry and immediately started to exploit this market. By early 19207 Bassick offered the Alernite pin type lubrication fittings and grease gun to match for installation on automobiles. The White Motor Company is said to have been the first finn to offer the system as standard equipment and within two years nearly all automobile and truck manufacturers followed suit.

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The most widely used pressure lube fittings. On the left is the Alernite pin type fitting, center is the Zerk fitting, and on the right is the Alemite ball end hydraulic fitting,

,.,

Alemite-Bassick also acquired the Zerk lubrication system (a later development) in 1924 and in the same year merged with the Stewart- Warner Corporation. The two systems, available from the same manufacturer, dominated the field for years. Some other firms entered the field with products known as Dot, Empress, and Saal but they rapidly fell by the wayside and Alemite and Zerk remained unchallenged.

The Alemite pin-type and the Zerk each had its own adherents. The Alemite gun locked securely in place and resisted leakage but the Zerkwas faster as it did not need any tum to connect it to the fitting, although it required a "push" to hold it against the fitting while in use.

By 1933, Alemite engineers ca.me up with a new design which rendered both the pin-type and Zerk obsolescent. The new development was the Alemite "hydraulic" fitting which resembles the Zerk but has a ball on the end. Fingers inside the grease gun coupling lock onto the ball end of the fitting and the higher the pressure the tighter the grip. The hydraulic ball end fittings became standard equipment on nearly every American-made car by 1934 and they have continued in use to this day.

Photos of the familiar grease fittings are shown. Straight fittings are depicted, but they were also supplied at angles ranging from about 25 to 90 degrees.

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Chapter 3 Body Tips

One of the annoying problems that you may encounter with your car is a water leak-not water leaking out of the radiator or block (annoying enough) -but water leaking in during rainstroms. You may be aware of the leak every time you drive your car in the rain, but locating the source of the trouble may not be easy since water can run along inside the body for a considerable distance before manifesting itself as a puddle or drip.

39. GETTING AnER WATER LE,AKS

To locate leaks, station a sharp-eyed observer inside the car. If the leak is in the floor area, remove the carpets so the observer has an unobstructed view of the floor area. If the leak is thought to be in an area covered by panels, remove these. Start spraying the car with a garden hose with a three or four inch stream of water coming out of it, starting at the bottom of the car and working slowly upward. Always move the hose slowly so as to give the water time to penetrate and allow the observer time to pinpoint the location of the leak.

When hosing down a door, windshield, or window, spray across the bottom first, then up one side and then the other, and finally across the top.

Now let's say your observer spots a point of entry. What to do about it? If the water is entering at a hole or crack in the

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sheetmetal, or at a seam where two pieces of metal join, it can easily be filled from the inside using either epoxy resin or General Electric's Glass Seal. Clean and dry the surface before applying the sealant. Both epoxy and silicone rubber (Glass Seal) win stick to almost any surface, but it must be clean. It is not necessary to remove paint if it is reasonably sound and adherent.

It is very common on older cars for the windshield to leak where the rubber seal has cracked, hardened, or shrunk away from the glass. Glass Seal will do an efficient job of sealing around the weatherstrip where it joins the glass. Epoxy resin should never be used to seal between metal and rubber or glass and rubber=-it's not flexible enough.

If water is leaking in around the edges of a door, check to see if the weatherstripping had come unbonded at some point. If it has, cement it back in place using a weatherstripping rubber cement available at most auto supply stores. If the weatherstripping is damaged or badly worn, then replacement is the only solution.

40. POOR FITTING DOORS ON OPEN CARS

Getting doors to fit properly on open cars is not too tough a job if a little thought is given to it. The drawing shows the usual location of body bolts on each side of a typical touring car. An excessive gap in the door at X can be corrected, for example, by adding extra shim thickness below the body bolt at E. Similarly, too tight a fit at Y can be corrected by adding extra shim thickness at C.

41. HINGE PIN PRESS

Door hinge pin removal can be a real bear. You can beat on them, heat them, drill them, drown them in penetrating oil and cuss 'til you're blue in the face. Yet they stay in place defying all known physical laws.N ot only do the above methods not work, they usually result in damaged pillars and hinges or both. If your pins are original from day one, no doubt your door will wobble a bit on its hinges. Replacement will be necessary for smooth operating, tight fitting, and properly aligned doors on your 19 Whatever. Replacement pins come in

44

y

x

c

D

Usual location of body bolts on each side of a typical touring car.

a variety of styles, lengths and diameters and are readily available from suppliers around the country, Pictured are

JI ven styles of early Ford.

Other makes are similar and many are interchangeable. 10 a little eyeball guesstimating and you'll find pins for your

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IVY atever.

/ Now that you have new pins, the trick is to get the old ones out and the new ones in. You're going to need lots of luck

HINGE PINS

C Part 850 Pana51

- Dia, .23,5 to .238C Dia. ,2:46 to .:249

[ ': t Approx. ~5, 64" .. -------.,..C Approx. 1/4"

~ ~ .J» Length 1-1316" I - Length 1-1.3116"

Open Cars, 192810 1931 Hardened Steel Fordor, 1928 to 1931 Ha~d~ned Steel

() Pari 852 D' 232 t 235C Part 853 Dia. ,280 10 .282

, ',-: l;~'p, ~ox 1 ~/64'; E if ~pprox,9/32::

-------- Length ,.13/16" = ~ Length 1-314

Coupe, Tudor" Closed Cab Harderned Stee[ Hardened Sleel

ld Deluxe Delivery. 1928 to, 1931 Late- 1931 Fmdor and 1932 Open Cars

Pan 1084 b,la. _,' ,,2,,8,3 to .28,6 ~.,' , Part 1083 D, i,a ... 2,8, 3 to ',2~6

~t:J, _, Approx, 9132" Ij 1 Approx. 9f32.

IU : I Length l-9/! 6" , ~ Length ,2·1116'

HSJdimed .slee~ Hardened Sleel

Del.uxe Coupe, 1932 10 1934~Upp8r All 1932,,, 19a3 find 1934 Closed Cars

oia. .237 to ,2:40 Approx, , 5164" $: Length 2" Hardened Steel Cadmium Plated

HINGE SCREWS

Part 718 5;16'"~24 :<711:6"' ,Part 720 5/16"-24 x 9/16" Part_l,l1~ 5/16"-24 x 7/8"

~lm~ ,J3paneed, ' ll'I\Wml' Jap" a, n, ned,' t:··'ml)~·':!l'1 Japanned

1Jl\.J.J..ill;; (Sharll 'l\~ (Long) ~t))~ (Extra long)

1928 to 19(34 Closed Cars 1928 to 1934 Closed Cars 1933and1934 Closed Cars

P'art1i04 5116"CQuntersunk Part 1168, " Part719

a w,-.a, ,S.-her .. ~5H6" C. ountersu, nk 0- " S/,'6",C,ountersunk

\ Shak~prool washer , Shakeprool Washe~

Blued ..., IWlde Flange), (E'" T '

, (Use wi til Parts !' .' '" '. xternal eeth)

J , " (Use With IParts

. n8. 720 and 1115), " 718,720 and 1115) (Use with Parts 718,720 and 1115)

Part 1171

All 1933 anc 1934 Open Gars, ~932 Panell Delivery, A ami AA and Closed Cab, Upper Leh Hinge

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Seven styles of early Ford hinge pins.

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4"

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~----~------~--------~-----~-

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Hinge pln frame layout at left. Bolt at right drilled at end to receive ejector pin. Dimensions may be altered! to suit individual requirements.

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and a little help. The luck I wish you, and the help I give you in the form of a nifty little tool that can be made in your garage.

Basically all this tool amounts to is a rectangular welded frame /

of %" key stock with a threaded hole on one end and an escape/ hole on the other; a hollow bolt is used to force an ejector.rod through the hinge pin hole. The size and shape of the.toblmay vary somewhat, depending upon your car. Modify this basic design to fit your needs and your tool will make swift, ulcer-

free work of hinge pin removal.

A word or two of caution: If your pins are mushroomed on the bottom (many are) file them flush with the hinge; they will push out with little effort and without binding and/or reaming the hinge hole. Secondly, if your pins are hollow on the bottom, taper your ejection rod to fit inside the cavity of the pin.

42. DOOR HINGE ALIGNMENT AIID

Properly aligned hinges are a must for tight fitting. properly aligned doors. As long as you have the doors off anyway for some other repairs, locate a piece of steel rod the same diameter as your hinge pins. Check the alignment of the hinges by first sliding the rod down the hinges attached to the pillar of the.car, (Hinges are aligned relative to each other.) If there is a misalignment; loosen the hinges from the pillar and insert the rod in both (or all three, as applicable) hinges and retighten the screws holding the hinges to the pillar. Repeat this tighten/ loosen operation until your alignment rod twists and slips freely through the hinges. Now do the same for the door that will pivot frorn the pillar just worked on and continue with the rest of the car in the same sequence; pillar-door, pillar-door, etc.

Hinge pin press in action.

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43. HINGE PIN TIP

Hinge pins are heat-treated and are very hard when compared to the hinges they go into. Replacement pins are almost always longer than what is required and win have to be cut for a flush, esthetic finish. You will. find cutting and/or tapering your replacement pins much easier if you will first take a small. file and file around the periphery of the pin that is to be cut off. This breaks a glaze that is formed by the heat-treating process, allowing your hacksaw to finish the job. A file should be employed to put a slight chamfer on the pins to facilitate installation.

44. CURE fOR LOOSE DOOR HINGES

If your doors wobble a bit on their hinges, chances are the holes are elongated. This was caused for the most part by the harder, heat-treated pins working against the softer,. nonheat-treated hinges. This is not a panic situation as there is a simple cure. The pins and doors will have to be removed. Once removed, obtain a set of oversize hinge pins, relative to the largest elongated hole in your hinges. (Hinge pins are readily available throughout the country; check with your local antique parts dealer.)

Purchase a drill and reamer combination from a tool supply store; you'll want the reamed hole to accept your hinge pins. Bring them along and the dealer will fix you up. Now it is just a simple matter of drilling and, reaming each hinge to accept the new, oversize pins.

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1 0 Use an oversize hinge pin.

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Application of an oversize hinge pin.

When reassembly time comes, it would be a good idea to lise a little lubricant on the hinges; a thin film of bearing or axle grease on the pins will las t for years.

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Chapter 4

Electrical and Instrumentation Tips

In several foreign countries all cars are required by law to: carry turn signals both front and rear. In all probability such laws will soon be enacted in some states in this country. This probability brings up the question of how best to retrofit turn signals to antique cars which were built at a time when turn signals were unheard of.

45. TURN SIGNALS FOR YOUR ANTIQUE

Operation of a motor vehicle at night without tum signals is so hazardous that many owners will not venture out at night with their antique cars, and we can't blame them. Hand signals may be suitable for daytime use but who is looking for hand signals at night?

Installation of tum signals on antiques is neither expensive nor difficult. As far as the effect on au thentici ty is concerned' the owner need have no fear since many of the major clubs have adopted policies that the addition of safety lighting equipment, even though not authentic, will not be the basis for point deduction in judging cars as long as the installation is carried out in a reasonably unobtrusive manner.

The accompanying sketch shows a circuit diagram for the installation of tum signals at minimal cost. No self-cancelling feature is included as no simple method is known for accomplishing it. Where to put the lights? If your car is equipped

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FLAS.~ER

I ~PILOT

6 -:;:-

SPDT SWITCH (CENTER OfF)

-. ----'l-~:t----

'--_......It:,

FUSE 0 , FROM HOT TERMINAL

PILOT

-

-

._

.

Diaqrarn for turn signals.

with parking lights in front and dual taillights in the rear, it is usually feasible to adapt these for use as tum signals. If your car lacks these features, consider the use of auxiliary lights for the purpose. These may be the clearance type of lights as used. on trucks and trailers. Clamps or small brackets can be devised for a ttachment of the lights to fenders or bumpers, and the lights may even be made removable for show purposes.

46. WIRINGi THE ANTIIQUE

A good, reliable wiring system is absolutely essential to the safe, pleasurable operation of an antique motor vehicle, yet this important aspect of restoration is often given only grudging attention. It is a well-known fact that most vehicle malfunctions are caused by faulty wiring or ignition. Consider too that poor wiring constitutes a definite fire hazard. The restorer who pays a little extra attention to his wiring early in his restoration project will likely be rewarded later by years of safe, trouble-free operation.

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The restorer is urged to consider the following basic points:

1. Make sure the battery terminal clamps are clean and in first class condition. If there is any doubt, replace them.

2. Check the condition of the grounding strap or cable, and the cable from the battery to starter switch, and starter switch to starter. Replace if worn, or if strands have begun to separate or break. Be sure to replace with cables designed for 6-volt service (assuming your car has a 6-volt system). Modem cables designed for 12-volt service are inadequate.

3. Scrape, file, or grind the grounding point on the frame or engine (as the case may be) so that a good ground contact is obtained. Check wiring diagram of car to determine proper polarity of battery; i. e., is it positive or negative ground?

4. When working on the wiring system, always disconnect one terminal of the battery to prevent disastrous arcing if you should accidently get wires shorted or grounded.

5. Replace all wires that are frayed, badly worn, or oil soaked. Use cloth covered replacement wire of the same or larger gauge. Avoid plastic covered wire on antiques, especially if it shows (looks bad in judging).

6. The following SAE standards have been established

for current carrying capacities of insula ted wires:

16 gauge 6 amperes

14 15

12 20

10 25

Use at least 14 gauge wire for headlamps and horn circuits and 16 gauge for taillarnps, parking lights and dome light circuits. The connection from the battery to the ammeter carries the entire current for all circuits except starting (and sometimes hom), so it should be at least 12 gauge and preferably 10 gauge wire. The wire from the generator to the ammeter carries the entire charging current, and it

52

should be at least 12 gauge. The recommendations given are only guidelines and if your car requires unusually large current draws due to use of foglights, spotlights, or radio; consideration should be given to the use of higher capacity wiring.

7. Most problems in getting lighting circuits to work properly stem from lack of an adequate ground return. Paint or corrosion films may prevent the return current from getting to the battery from the headlights, taillights, or parking lights. Remember that the ground circuit has to be completed through the headlamp, its bracket, the fender, and through the frame to the battery. Maybe you did a beautiful priming job on your fenders and headlamp brackets with the result that these parts are now good insulators-no chance for an electrical current to "pass-so the headlights won't work. It may be necessary to scrape a little paint off where the headlight brackets, frame cross brace, fender, an.d frame touch to provide a low resistance electrical path. A pocket ohmmeter is a good piece of equipment to have for checking high-resistance grounds.

8. Up until the mid-twenties most passenger cars with 6-volt systems used 15 or 21 candlepower headlamp bulbs. Dim headlarnps (if used) were usually 2, 4, or 8 candlepower. Some cars used series resistances to dim headlarnps. Then about 1927 most car makers adopted the use of double filament headlamps with separate filaments for bright and dim. Some states had laws against the use of headlamps brighter than 21 candlepower so a double filament with 21 candlepower each (Mazda No. 1110) came into use for a while. Laws were repealed soon and a double 32 candlepower bulb came into widespread use (Mazda No. 1000). A double filament bulb with 32 candlepower bright and 21 candlepower dim filament was also popular (Mazda No. 1116) and this bulb together with the No. 1000 fulfilled lighting requirements for a number of years. The next advancement was the introduction of the pre-focused headlamp

53

bulb in the thirties. This type is readily identified by the disc at the base of the bulb which locks in the receptacle and maintains a fixed position between the bulb and reflector; thus, it is possible to change the bulb without affecting the focus of the headlamps. Then 1940 witnessed the introduction of sealed beam headlarnps and almost at once all other headlamp systems for automobiles became obsolete ..

The following Mazda bulbs are interchangeable in each group:

Mazda No/s 63 and 81 (dome, instrument, park)

87 and 1129 (dome, stop, headlamp) 1133 and 1183 (spot and fog lamp) 1116, 1000, 1110, 1188 (headlamp) 2331 and 2531 (prefocused headlamp)

47. HEADLAMP REfLECTORS

Many restorers have the headlamp reflectors on pre- 1940 cars (before sealed beam headlamps) chromium plated during restoration. Chromium plating over the usual nickel and copper underplatings produces a bright and tarnish-free surface. However, it has been pointed out recently that chromium plated reflectors, although seemingly highly reflective, actually produce a light of inferior intensity when compared to silver plated reflectors which were the original equipment for most vehicles. There is scientific evidence to sustain this assertion.

Investigation of the technology of headlamp reflectors in the era before the sealed beam lamp became standardized, indicates that silver was the preferred material for plating the interiors of reflectors. Nickel was apparently used to a minor extent. Data for the reflectivity coefficients of various surfaces show that silver is among the highest for all metals. [The reflectivity coefficient is defined as the ratio of light reflected from a surface to the total incident light. It varies with the wavelength of the light and the angle of incidence.] The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics gives a reflectivity coefficient for polished silver of 0.93 for visible light near normal inci-

54

dence. The reflectivity coefficient for chromium plate is given in Gray's "Modern Electroplating" as 0.62 to 0.72 for visible light. Nickel is no better than chromium with a reflectivity coefficient of 0.64.

The data imply that a polished silver reflector can emit up to one and one-half times as much ligh t as a chromium pla ted or nickel plated one under similar conditions, which seems to be a valid reason for selecting silver plating even aside from concern about authenticity of restoration.

Silver plated reflectors will tend to tarnish in time, particularly in an urban atmosphere. However, it is a simple matter to polish the reflector I and for this purpose abrasive polishes should never be used. In the old days, polishing of silver was usually accomplished with carbon black or rouge on a piece of soft cloth or chamois. Any of the modern liquid household silver polish materials readily available today, applied with a pledget of cotton, will probably do a quicker job.

48. MULTI-fUiNCTION INDICATOR lLAMP

If you want the convenience of several indicator lamps (for tum signals; high beam; emergency brake, etc.) but you

MULTI.FUNCTION .iNDICATOR LAMP INDICATOR BULB

,\ \ III",

.. #

DIODES-ONE "--y--~ FOR EACH INPUT

TO PARK TO TURN TO HIGH BEAM

BRAKE SWITCH SIGNAL TERMINAL ON

FLASHER- DIMMER SWITCH

A rnutn-tuncnon indicator lamp.

55

don't want to clutter up your dash with a bunch of lights, why not let the one already existing indicator handle all the functions? With the use of diodes, you can channel numerous indicator functions into one indicator light. The construction of a cliode allows electrical current to flow in only one direction. A small arrow on the diode will indicate this direction and should be installed with the arrow pointing the same direction as the arrowhead in the schematic.

For obvious reasons, the functions channeled in this manner to a single indicator should not be ones that would be used simultaneously. It is very unlikely though that the high beams, turn signals or parking brake would ever be used in conjunction with each other. Diodes can be purchased at radio supply stores.

49, MINI JUMPER CABLES

With a couple of lengths of 16 gauge wire and a few alligator clips, you can fashion a couple of "mini jumper cables" which will providle no end of service around your car's electrical systems. They can be used to bypass a circuit, test light bulbs, temporarily wire in a new component before [mal installation, or any number of other electrical trouble shooting chores. For an example on how they are used, see "How to Motorize a Generator," Tip 57.

50. NO~SPILL BATTERY FILLER

The easiest way to dispense distilled water into a battery while at the same time being able to see how full you're getting each cell, is to use an old detergent bottle or similar container. Find a plastic bottle that has a suitable spout-type cap and with a little practice you'll be able to top off the battery cells without spilling a drop.

51. 12-VOLT DROPLIGHT

For emergency road work at night, an ordinary droplight can be converted to work on a 12 volt car battery. Simply remove the plug and replace it with two large alligator dips; replace the 110 volt bulb with a 25 watt, 12 volt camper/trailer bulb. Snap the alligator clips to your battery and you're all set.

56

Adapting a 110-V droplight to 112-V.

52. ELIMINATING DISTRIBUTOR END PLAY

Most stock Delco distributors suffer from excessive end play of the distributor shaft. Factory specs caIl for .002- to .D07-inch of play, but end play up to . 125-inch is not uncommon. This excessive end play can cause erratic spark timing and rapid distributor wear. Correct tolerance can be achieved by using Chevrolet distributor shaft shims, part number 1927529. These inexpensive, precision ground shims are .005 inch thick and come in packs of five. They are installed between the distributor drive gear and the distributor housing until the proper tolerance is achieved as indica ted by a feeler gauge.

53. MAGNETIC DRAIN PLUGS

Magnetic drain plugs are available in nearly all auto parts stores in sizes to fit most any oil pan, transmission and rearend. Although they are not a cure-all for picking up foreign matter (aluminum and some stainless steel won't be attracted by a magnet), trading your conventional type for a magnetic

57

[.

I,

:1 I'

Use Adel clips, ties and clamps to organize wiring.

type will help catch any loose casting flash, burns from cylinder walls, and ductile iron piston rings.

54. KEEPING WIRING HARNESSES NEAT

Keeping wiring, tubing, and hoses neatly in place throughout your car is no trick with the use of "Adell! clips, wiring ties, and hose clamps. Every size for any job imaginable is available from good electronic supply and hardware stores.

55 .. EU;MINIATIING RADIO STATIC

If you have solid core ignition wire (spark plug wires) and a tape deck and or radio plagued with poor reception or static, you can get around all of that annoyance by swapping your solid core coil wire with a "radio-resistant" wire as used in newer cars. Purchase a length of wire from the auto parts store, exchange the two and your problem is solved. This modification will not affect the solid core wiring, the increased spark afforded by that wire, nor will it harm the ignition. It will,

58

however, do wonders for your radio reception and tape deck performance.

56. VOLT-OHM METER

The Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corporation markets a nifty little gadget that comes in very handy around old cars.

Radio Shack Volt-ohm meter.

59

Called the "Science Fair" Electronic Project Kit #28-12.2 YOM Meter, it is nothing more than a volt-ohm meter. Holding its own against equipment costing twenty times as much, this "precision electronic tool" will perform a number of functions when it comes time to troubleshoot and/or wire your car.

The meter can be used to measure both AC and DC voltage, DC current and resistance. It operates on a small pen light battery and comes with an instruction manual and schematics. It's a fun, easy to assemble kit that requires no special tools or soldering; truly, quality troubleshooting equipment for less than $10.00.

57. HOW TO MOTORIZE A GiENERATOR

There is a quick and easy way to test your car's generator without elaborate test equipment. Prepare a couple of jumper cables as explained in Tip 49. The following procedure may be used when the generator has been removed from the vehicle.

1. Ground the field terminal to the generator frame. If your generator has no field terminal (only one generator terminal is used), ignore this step.

2. Connect the generator armature terminal to the ungrounded post of your car's battery.

3. Connect the other post of the car battery to the generator frame.

4. The generator should now run as a motor with a current draw as given in factory specifications. *

5. Failure to run or meet current draw specifications may be due to one or more of the following:

a. Poor or improper connections; recheck the

schematic and instructions.

b. A low battery

c .. Tight bearings in the generator

d. A bent armature shaft

e. Bad or improperly installed generator brushes f. Bad armature, commutator, or field coils

"Slwp m'(lInUlL~ /ifr your s{x'cific f.,'fl1fmlar will us/wily list currem draw ill amperes rohen a gmem/ny is run as a mottr. To oillam Ihf Q{1T('111 drato connect (11/ ammeter as showli IJ/ flU' Sdll'lJwlic.

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"A" "ARM" "G" OR "GEN" = GENERATOR/ARMATURE TERMINAL "F" OR "FLiD" == FIELD TERMINAL

GENERATOR

GENERATOR FRAME

~

A'

+

NOTE: THIE SCHEMATIC SHOWNi IS FOR NEGATilVE GROUND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. IF YOUR CAR HAS A POSITIVE GROUND SYSTEM, REVERSE THE CONNECTIONS TO THE BATTERY.

BATTERY

How to motorize a qenerator.

If the armature does not rotate and no current flows, the most common problem is poor brush contact. Go over all the brushes to see that they fit the commutator and that the brush springs have the proper tension. Po.lish the commutator with fine sandpaper.

If the ammeter indicates current but the armature does not rotate, the field leads may be improperly connected or the armature may be open. ,A shop inspection of the genera tor will have to be made.

lithe armature rotates intermittently or unsteadily, or if the current fluctuates appreciably, the armature is probably shorted or open and it will have to be removed for further shop tests.

An excessive current draw indicates that the armature is probably shorted or grounded. A test for grounding can be made by placing one test point of a test light on the commutator and the other on the armature shaft. If the lamp lights, the armature is grounded and must be rewound or replaced.

A low or intermittent current indicates an open circuit in the armature. Usually one or more burnedl bars will be visible on the commutator. Ordinarily the armature will have to be rewound or replaced.

61

r "

!I

"

I!

The procedure outlined above is for a bench test of the generator when it has been removed from the car. An equivalent field test with the generator still installed on the vehicle can be performed as follows.

1. Disconnect the generator drive belt. (If your generator also drives other engine components such as water pump, distributor, or oil pump on a common shaft, it will be necessary to disconnect these components as well.)

2. Ground the field terminal (if the generator has one),

3. With all other electrical devices on the vehicle shut off, hold down the contact points on the cutout relay, or bypass the cutout relay with a jumper cable.

4. Have an assistant read the current draw on the ammeter on the dash or instrument panel.

5. The generator should run as a motor with a current draw according to manufacturer's specification. Failure to run, or an excessive current draw, will be indicative of some fault in the generator as outlined above under the bench test procedure.

58. GENERATOR SHORT CUTS

For a really quick way of testing your car's generator output in emergency situations, simply start your motor and disconnect one of the battery cables. If the motor continues to run, the generator is doing its job.

Repair and troubleshooting procedures of a car's generator and related electrical components can be found in numerous manuals. However, the procedures and equipment required! are so complex and so expensive that in the long run you will be time and money ahead if you take your parts to a rebuilder or simply buy new or rebuilt ones (generator, voltage regulator, etc.).

If your generator fails somewhere out in the weeds and far from home, don't panic ... your battery will get you several hundred rrriles. Just refrain from using your accessories, espe~ cially lights and radio (stop and rum signal lights are okay), and don't start your motor any more than you have to. These are high amp draw items and will eat up the energy stored in your battery but fast.

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59. COMBINATION HEADLIGHT AND TURN SIGNAL

Modem tum signals on old cars have always been a problem. You want their safety and convenience but where do you put them?

If you have cowl lights, fine. But what if you don't? Here's a nove] approach to an old problem. Using the schematic shown, wire your headlights to operate for tum signals. The headlights will operate for tum signals whether the headlight switch is on or off. Since only the low beam flashes, the effect would be diminished if the lights were on high beam. (Your lights should be on dim anyway if an oncoming car is close enough to warn of your intended tum.)

Components needed for this modification include two headlight relays, four 10 ohm/25 watt resistors and sufficient wire. This system is not only effective, but an attention getter as well.

The system described above has been designed and tested for 12-volt electrical systems. Its use on 6-volt systems may require changes in the values of the 10 ohm series resistors in the lamp relay circuits. It is also advisable to check

COMBINATION HEADLIGHT-TURN SIGNALS

to12V <: 0

I

to

headlight ! low

SWI~

thlg!1'I

dimmer switch

turn Signal switch

- ...

..

---- ..... --., .,.

-

let! heedllghl relay &realstora

right h.-dillglht lowbNm

right headlight relay :

Md resistors

Diagram for combination headlight-turn signals.

63

GROUND

TO STARTER

RELAY

OR SWITCH

BATTERY

Diagram tor a battery cutoff switch.

with law enforcement officers concerning the legality of the headlight turn signal system in your state before installing it.

60. BATTERY SHUTOFF SWIJC:H

A battery shutoff switch will eliminate residual battery drain while the car is being stored or transported. It provides a quick means of disconnection while working on electrical systems and will eliminate the probability of an electrical fire while the car is not in use. If the switch is hidden, it could very well foil theft of your car. It's a good investment in safety and protection.

61. FOUR TEMPERATURE GAUGES IN ONE

Monitoring your engine and drive train components with mechanical and/or electrical gauges can help you to spot trouble before it causes expensive damage to said componen.ts.

Buying a bunch of temperature gauges is an expensive proposition not to mention the problem of where you're going to put them and keep your antique dash authentic. The solution is to let one gauge do the work of four. Water, oil, trans, and differential temperature can be monitored through one electrical temperature gauge by the use of four different sending units and one four position rotary switch. Install your sending units and follow the schematic shown. You will then be

64

able to check any of the temperatures with a twist of the switch.

62. KING-SEELEY HYD!ROSTATIC GASOLINiE GAUGE

The King-Seeley Telegage gasoline gauge is a hydrostatic gauge unit which measures the pressure due to the weight of gasoline on a column of trapped air in the tank unit of the gauge. This pressure is recorded as the height of a liquid colurrm in the dash unit of the gauge. Since the height of the liquid depends on the height of gasoline in the tank unit jhe dash unit can be calibrated to read directly in gallons.

According to a compilation made recently, the following makes of U. S .. cars used the K-S gauge atone time or another between 1927 and 1935: Duesenberg, Buick, Ford, Franklin, Graham, Lincoln, Nash, Packard, Pierce-Arrow, Reo, Rockne, Studebaker, Willys-Overland, andWillys- Knight.

No ordinary manometer fluid should ever be used in these gauges; only a special dense liquid known as acetylene tetrabromide (the more precise chemical name is I, 1, 2, 2-tetrabromoethane) should be used. This liquid is three times

ElATIERY IGNITION

GROUND 1----

SENOlNG UNITS

Diagram for four temperature gauges with a single readout.

65

AIR Ul't t ----ioI 'VENT P1Pl--+-~ GI'S LIME -- ~-+-+--I

'"OWER ",R tup to! OLE -~>--I--II,",-.I "IR DEl..lvtA.Y 'TUllE

Q10T u!:otD Ott tAAl'i' T'1'PD

K.S. -rEL(GA\JGE' fU[.L GAOGE.

Lo.IUt t"D OF Al~ LillI. '" "',11. 0I,,"6E 1\-

as dense as water and nearly four times as dense as gasoline; hence, a column with a height of about one and one-half inches can support the pressure of six or seven inches of gasoline in the tank unit. It is futile to attempt to use any common type of fluid in these gauges. Fortunately, Telegage fluid is still available today and at the end of this note, two suppliers names will be given where you can purchase gauge fluid and repair kits.

Description: -There are three distinct units comprising the K-S Telegage unit, They are the dash unit or recording unit, the tank unit or pressure unit, and the air line which connects them. They will be taken up individually.

Tank Unit: -The tank unit consists essentially of an inverted cup mounted near the bottom of the gasoline t8!I1k and connected through an air-tight tube to the gauge connection at the top of the tank. The cup is dosed by a plate at the bottom to prevent fuel surges affecting the operation, but gasoline is free to enter the cup through a hole in the plate. A vent pipe to

The King-Seeley Hydrostatic Fuel Gauge.

66

protect the gauge from high pressure extends down through the cup with the lower end (which is open) at the lowest portion of the cup. It is purely a safety device and has no part in the operation of the gauge. There is a small air supply tube running downward from a cup in the upper part of the gasoline tank while the lower end curves up under the inverted lower cup. This tube functions to renew the air supply in the lower cup by trapping gasoline which sloshes in to the upper cup from whence it runs down, drawing with it small bubbles of air. These bubbles find their way into the lower cup of the tank unit

GASOLINE TUBE TO VACUUM TANK

CURVED VENT TUBE

AIR TUBE TO GASOLIIN E GAUGE

c

AIR PIPE

" '

'\ \ ,

, \

\ 'I , I I I I, I I i i I I I

• I

B

SCREEN

BOTTOM BELL

Detail of bottom section of early type of tank unit.

67

and maintain the air supply. When the tube and lower cup are filled with the air, the excess bubbles escape around the edlge. Some tank units have two upper cups at different levels for more efficient operation.

Air Line: -The air line consists of an air-tight copper tube connecting the tank unit and dash mit. It transmits the pressure from the tank unit to the dash unit where it displaces the red fluid in the gauge.

Dash Unit: -The dash unit consists of a glass tube open at the top and mounted directly behind the face of the gauge so that the height of the liquid can be seen. The lower end of the glass tube is connected to a brass supply tube which in tlU11 is connected at its upper end to the air line from the tank unit. The whole assembly is, therefore, a U-tube filled with red liquid open to the atmosphere at one end and connected to the tank unit at the other end. When the pressure is the same at both ends of the If-tube, which it will be when the tank is empty, the liquid will be at the same level in the two sections of the U-tube. This level corresponds to the "empty" position of the gauge.

OPeration: -As the tank is filled with gasoline, the pressure of the gasoline tends to displace air in the tank unit lower cup, driving it through the air line into the dash unit. Here it unbalances the two liquid columns, driving the liquid down in the supply tube and up in the glass gauge tube. The gauge is calibrated to read directly in gallons.

Servicing: -The liquid in the gauge tube should be at the lowest mark in the gauge with the air line disconnected at the top of the supply tube. To check, disconnect the air line and take a reading. The level of the liquid can be adjusted by using a toothpick to absorb excess, or by adding additional liquid. Only genuine King-Seeley fluid should be used for this purpose, of course. The air line should then be dried out by connecting the dash end to a hand pump and pumping approximately 40 full strokes of air through the line. The use of compressed air from an air line is not recommended as the pressure may be excessive.

Test the air line for leaks by plugging the gasoline tank end and sucking on the dash unit end. The vacuum should be sufficient to hold the tongue against the end of the tube for a

68

minute. If it does not, the line probably leaks and should be replaced. Connect up the air line, making sure that theconnections are tight at each end. Drive the car such that the gasoline will slosh around in the tank so that air supply will build up in the lower cup. If the gauge does not register after a period! of driving, or if the reading is not held after the car is stopped, the

~------------INSTRUMENTBOARD

---THREADED TUBE

Detail of dash unit with fluid partially displaced by pressure in air line.

69

tank unit is probably defective due to clogs or leaks and must be repaired or replaced.

Repair kits and gauge fluid can be purchased from the following sources. These sources are listed for information only and the author and publisher cannot be held responsible for failure to deliver.

A & L Parts Specialties P.O. Box 301

Canton, Connecticut 06019

J. C. Whitney & Co. 1917-19 Archer Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60616

63. INSTALLING ACCESSORY GAUGES

Those little red lights on your dashboard really don't tell you much, do they? They light up only when something's wrong. So you get a nifty set of gauges at YOUlr local parts store, read the instructions carefully, and whip them in. Boy, are you on top of it now. At a glance, you can see that your charging system is charging, your oil pressure is pressuring, and your cooling system is cooling.

But what happens in a week or so when you've "grown accustomed to their smile," and stop watching them? The "idiot" lights for oil pressure and water temperature don't work anymore, 'cause you took out their sending units to put in the ones for the gauges. So if something goes wrong under the hood, you might not know it 'til your motor expires and takes a hike for the nearest junkyard.

Sound far fetched? Maybe. But that kind of potential problem can be eliminated by installing the gauges in such a way as to retain the lights. It's easy to do. Just use the gauge and light senders collectively. For the oil pressure gauge, remove the stock sender from the block and replace it with a short length of pipe and a pipe tee. The stock sender can then be threaded into one end of the tee and the gauge sender into the other, and use pipe compound or similar to seal the threads. The water temp senders are a little harder to combine. They have a bulb (capillary tube) which must extend into

the flow of water, eliminating the possibility of using a tee. In most cases, there's a spare hole in the intake manifold, heads, or water pump that can be used for the additional temperature sendingunit. lfnone exists, however, you'll have to make one. Using a drill and pipe tap of the appropriate size, place the hole in the front or rear water passage of the intake manifold (V8's only), or in the water jacket of the block where the drain plug is located. An amp gauge has no sending unit, so it can be installed per instructions and the charging light will still work.

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Chapter 5 Hardware Tips

64. TIPS WITH FASTENERS

1. To remove nuts from rusted bolts, first wire brush the exposed threads to remove rust, and apply a little penetrating oil to the threads. Since most bolts snap off as a result of the nut being forced over an accumulation of rust, elimination of the rust will allow the nut to come off much easier.

2. To remove a rusty screw from wood, first tighten it a little before attempting to remove it. It may come out much easier that way.

3. Rusty screws may be removed from wood easier if heat from a soldering iron is first applied to the head of the screw.

4 .. Never attempt to drive screws dry, especially in oak. Apply a little soft paraffin in wax or beeswax to the threads of the screw before driving.

5. Make a chisel mark on the end of the bolt in line with the cotter pin pole. Installation of the cotter pin when the castellated nut is applied will be simpler.

6. If a recessed hex nut becomes slightly rounded, a socket wrench may not hold. Hacksaw a slot in the side of a spare socket and use vise grip pliers on the socket to loosen the nut.

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Make chisel! mark on end ot bolt in line with cotter pin pole.

CHISEL MARK

7. To start cap screws in a tight or inaccessible location, drill a hole in the end of the cap screw and use an extension wire to hold the cap screw while it is. being started.

65 .. THE LOWLY COTTER [PIN

In proportion to its meager cost, no other device we can think of plays a more important role in the safe, dependable operation of a motor vehicle than the lowly cotter pin (sometimes called cotter key or split pin). It has been used in the auto industry for decades to prevent the backward rotation of

WIRE HOLDER INSERTED IN HOLE DRILLED IN CAP SCREW

Starting a cap screw in inaccessible location.

73

Proper installation of a cotter pin calls for inserting it fully into the hole and bending tile upper leg up over the boli end as in the figure at left above. The lower leg should be bent down against the side of the nut. The poor installation at the right with the pin inserted loosely and the legs spread should be avoided.

a nut that is subjected to intermittent or continual vibration. A recent trend in the industry toward the use of more reliable locking devices still has not eliminated the use of the cotter pin entirely.

Cotter pins are usually made of low carbon steel which is ductile enough so that it can be bent at a sharp angle without rupture. This is an essential requirement, but unfortunately it means that the cotter pin must be made of a material which is not highly resistant to wear or shearing action. It is of prime importance that cotter pins be selected with respect to size so that the maximum resistance to shear is obtained. It is also essential that cotter pins never be reused; straightening and rebending is ahnost sure to reduce the resistance to shear almost to zero. Why risk an accident for a one cent item?

Cotter pins are obtainable in various lengths and diameters for automotive use. Most restorers buy them in assortments so some care is needed in selecting the appropriate size for a given application. Do not install a cotter pin which has a diameter substantially smaller that the casteUation in the nut or smaller than the hole in the bolt.

Cotter pins should be selected as to length as well as diameter. The pin should not just be pushed through the hole and the legs spread. That sort of installation looks sloppy and unprofessionaL The most generally accepted installation is to insert the pin fully to the loop, then bend the top leg up over the end of the bolt. The lower leg should be bent down against

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the flat side of the nut. Ideally, the cotter pin should be tight enough that no movement is possible. This sort of installation will insure minimal wear due to vibration during use.

The length of the cotter pin should be selected so that the upper leg extends one-half to three-fourths of the way across the bolt end. If the upper or lower legs are too long, they can be snipped off with side cutting pliers during installation.

66. TIGHTENING STUDS

You can tighten or loosen studs by using two nuts turned against one another as shown in the illustration. By placing a washer of the proper size between the two nuts as shown, a socket wrench will be prevented from slipping down while tightening the stud.

67 . STAINLESS STEEL FASTIENIERS

Many restorers switch to stainless steel nuts and cap screws for critical applications in car restoration where un-

Two nuts tightened against each other can be used for installing or removing studs. Placing a washer of the proper size between the nuts will prevent a socket wrench from sl.ipping down over the bottom nut when tightening studs.

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sightly corrosion may become a problem., Stainless steel all stainless steel galls very easily and a lubricant must be applied to the threads before assembly.

68. STORAGE OF SMALL PARTS

When disassembling an old car, you should get into the habit of saving al!l the hardware you remove (nuts, bolts, screws, etc.) along with small parts that are also removed, even though you may not plan on reusing them. Once removed, the parts should be stored and segregated from other similar items.

Storage can be in almost anything that is convenient but you will find that old coffee cans with plastic lids work best. Once your parts and/or hardware are in the storage can, a 3 x 5 index card carrying all pertinent information as to location, size, sketches, etc., is stored with the parts ·in the can.

A piece of masking tape and a felt-tip pen should be employed to mark the outside of the can. Then it can be put away until needed. Larger items should be taped together with an information card wrapped in a plastic bag for protection of your information, Don't use chalk to mark your parts for storage; chalk is too easy to brush off and it will fade in a short period of time.

The whole idea in back of all this will come to light some day when you are reassembling your restoration and discover that your memory was not what you thought it to be. You'll be glad you took the time and trouble to "save your memory" when you start searching for new replacement hardware and more importantly ... where all that hardware goes.

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Chapter 6 Chemical Tips

Wooden steering wheels or wood spokes which are stained or discolored can be bleached with oxalic acid prior to refinishing. After removing paint or varnish to the' base wood, make a saturated solution of oxalic acid crystals in water and brush on the wood. Allow the solution to dry after which loose powder on the surface may be brushed off. Repeat the treatment if necessary.

'69. BLEACHING WOOD WITH OXALIC AICID

Oxalic acid is mildly toxic so keep it out of reach of children and pets and avoid inhaling the dust when the residue is brushed from the wood surfaces. It is not, however, a strong acid! like mineral acids so it will not burn the skin or clothing, or attack metals vigorously ..

If you cannot find a source for oxalic acid; purchase one of the heavy duty radiator flushing compounds such as the one marketed by DuPont. Check the label to determine that it is the oxalic acid type. You can use a portion of the crystals for bleaching wood and the balance for flushing your car's cooling system.

70. QUICKIE SPARK PLUG RINSE

If you have trouble with fouling on your spark plugs, you can quickly remove the fouling residue by removing the plugs and rinsing the portion of the plug exposed to the combustion

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chamber with benzene. Just a quick rinse, with no scrubbing, is all that' s needed, and the plug will air -dry in about 30 seconds. A small bottle that will accept just the threaded part of the plug is the handiest way of doing this. Reinstall the plugs and they'll fire cleanly again.

If the fuel fouling problem persists, you have fuel mixture problems (too rich) ill the carburetor and rejetting or other adjustments may be necessary. Benzene is not expensive and you can buy it at your local drug store. Benzene is highly flammable and the vapors are toxic so use it only in a wellventilated area.

71. COMMERCIAL METAL STRIPPING

Rust, without a doubt, is a restorer's Number 1 Enemy.

There are several good and approved methods of rust removal but no matter what method or methods you employ, it must be removed completely in order to repair, paint, or plate an item properly. An excellent method of rust removal is that service offered by the privately-owned, commercial metal processing franchises. Located throughout the U. S., Canada and points abroad, comparries like Redi-Strip and 3M and others offer excellent rust removal services.

Taking My Ford To The Cleaners

My personal experiences with the "stripper" date back to when I finally decided that the mound of rust, old paint, and body filler sitting in my garage and somewhat resembling a '32 5-window Ford coupe get its act cleaned up.

The old body was in sad shape. I had tried to dean the mess up myself bu t alas" garage me thods, as good as they are ,and elbow grease, as cheap as it is, just wouldn't get the Zest-clean body that I was after. The nooks, crannies, channels, and seams throughout the body were impossible to get at even with a sand blaster J and the liquid agents were hard to control,

After talking with the 3M Company I decided to take the '32 to the big tanks. The 3M Company had the body for seven days and put it through four different operations. Total time in the tanks was 16 hours. I had sent the body with doors, firewall, floor pan and some wood attached. When I returned

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seven days later, I honestly did not recognize my car. Except for the dents and holes that were already in the body, I saw before me an absolutely spotless '32 metal body. I was more than pleased. I was delighted. I had an NOS Deuce 5-window.

Everything Nonferrous Goes

I spent about a half an hour inspecting the shell and fOW1d no trace of rust, paint or body filler. I also found no trace of lead, bronze or wood. The method attacks everything nonferrous, except rubber. Undercoating and sound insulation in the doors was also gone.

Thad also requested that the body be phosphated. This is an additional operation that prolongs 'flash rusting', which is common to all newly deaned metal. This mayor may not be an additional expense, depending on the business. In any case, the phosphate gave me time to do my body work without the need of putting primer on the body right after the stripping process. If you feel that you can bypass this operation, you better be fast. Flashing starts ahnost imrnedia tely; wi thin 10 hours.

Here's my super-dean '32 Ford devoid of all paint and rust after the stripping process. The light and dark streaks on the body are due to metal temper. Some cars have 'em, some don't It's nothing to worry about.

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Burning the Metal Clean

There are reports of paint lifting after this s tripping process. The reports are true. However, in all cases, the fault was with the customer and not the stripper. The film of caustic solution that remains on the metal after the process must be removed completely. Instructions from the stripper state that you must thoroughly wash the metal. Paint lifting, if it occurs, usually starts along seams and folds that are difficult to get at. The caustic solution becomes trapped for a time and eventually works its way to the surface and when it does it's goodbye paint job.

My solution to the problem and the one used on my car, is to use heat. Low heat (must be a flame) applied with an acetylene or propane torch will get the job done and very quickly. Use a flame as you would when body leading; that is, a long blue flame with touches of yellow.

Take that flame mid gently "lick" the areas that may have been missed by the washing. (Rain gutters seem to be a real bad source of paint lifting.) Just a few seconds will do the job. You don't want to heat the metal too much. In fact, you should be able to warm the metal and s till tolerate touching it with your bare hand. This temperature will burn away the film, allowing paint and primer to hold without the fear of lifting.

Nooks, crarmies, seams and canals if blind (like around windshield posts) are a little more difficult. In cases like these, merely heat the outside of the blind area to a point where lead would melt, about 360°F. This will burn away the film inside. If you need to do body work; i. e., leading, welding, etc. in a given area, you can bypass these operations as applicable.

Once you have applied this heat method to remove the trapped caustic solution, you have also removed the phosphate and sealing solution that protects the metal from flash rusting. Primer should be applied within 10 hours if possible. IT not, WD-40 will "hold" the metal and prevent flashing until you are ready for primer.

A Little Practice Can't Hurt

A good practice to follow in any restoration endeavor is to practice on something of little or no value before you attack your valuable car/parts. When I sent my '32 to the stripper, I

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sent along a bent and mangled hood, rusty and full of holes. This was my practice piece. It had all of the nooks and crannies similar to the ones on the body. As anxious as I was to get started on the body, I started on that hood first. Through the course of hammering, welding, leading and painting, I inadvertently saved that worthless hood. In each case, I did to the hood first 'what I planned to do to the body. Sure, I made mistakes, but that hood saved me from making the same mistakes on my most prized'32.

The hood, with primer and paint on it, was purposely left outside, where sun, 'Wind and rain would attack it. At this writing, I took that hood, washed and waxed it. It is perfect. No signs of paint lifting. In fact, I took a screwdriver and prick hammer to it, trying to chip the one-half lacquer, one-half enamel finish. It scratched but would not chip. I finally had to take a power sander to a section of the hood before I could effectively remove the finish. The experiment was very successful.

Another trick I might pass along, is how I got primer into these blind areas. I bought a spray can of red lead primer and then borrowed the spray nozzle and tube from a can of WD-40. I interchanged the nozzles on the primer can and attacked those blind spots through screw holes and seams throughout the body, It was a bit messy, but effective; clean up was no problem and I now have primer throughout the blind spots of the body.

An Unexpected Bonus

Although there are some disadvantages to the commercial stripper (such as the loss of all body lead, which can be replaced easily enough), there are some other benefits that I had not anticipated. I sent the body with doors attached. The reasons: (1) I wanted them in place for body rigidity; (2) I. couldn't get the dam things off.

Prior tostripping, I had tried to remove the hinge pins but they were frozen solid. I then tried to remove the screws holding the hinges to the pillars. I used muscle, heat and language on them; drilled one for an "easy-out" and broke the dam thing. They wouldn't budge. I finally gave up and sent the body to the stripper.

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Upon its return and to my delighted surprise; all 12 screws that hold the hinges in place backed out with a screwdriver.and the hinge pins drifted out with little effort. Those 16 hours in the tanks no doubt got to those threads and pins like no penetrating oil could. Something to consider.

What Does It Cost?

. I have nothing but high praise for the 3M process. It was quality work at competitive prices; no doubt other businesses throughout the country will provide the same high quality workmanship. Prices are controlled, for the most part, by location, v~olwne of work, cost of labor and the cost of chemieals and equipment. Shop around. Talk to the people and explore their operation. You might even bring a small part along with you. 1\10st of these opera tor/owners will process the part (if if s small) at no cost to you. A free sample, if you will, of their quality and workmanship. It might bea test part, similar to the hood I mentioned earlier, that you can upgrade to final paint or plate. Size and condition of the parts to be stripped also plays an important role in what it will cost you.

How The Process Wo,rks

Typically, as with my '32, the following sequence of events takes place when your body has been committed to the tanks:

1. Paint Stripping: A highly caustic solution, heated by gas burners in large 4,000 gallon tanks, will completely remove all paint and undercoating in 3-6 hours. A fresh water rinse and hot soap wash follow.

2. Derusting: A conglomeration of chemicals and electricity in another 4,000 gallon tank attacks all the nonferrous materials attached to the body. The separation of nonferrous materials including rust from ferrous materials (iron and steel) is accomplished by an electrolytic process. When the body is removed from the tank (6--8 hours) all rust has been removed, leaving only clean, fresh metal. Another rinse and wash follow.

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3. Phosphate: An ester (an organic compound formed by the reaction of an acid with an alcohol) of phosphoric acid is used as a reagent to form an iron phosphate coating on the metaL This solution prevents the "flash" rusting of bare metal for a guaranteed 10 days. If kept dry; flashing will not start for up to four months (not guaranteed), depending upon your climate and storage conditions. Without the phosphate treatment, the body will start to flash # within 10 hours or less. Process time is one hour followed! by another rinse and wash.

4. Sealing: Once 3M is satisfied that the body is 1000/0 clean, the body is submerged in a chromate sealing solution that further prolongs the onset of rusting and protects the metal. Process time is one hour and the body is once again put through a rinse/wash cycle, followed by a final rinse which is allowed to air dry. After a final inspection, the body is presented to the customer.

NOTE: Electrolytic Process-Electrolysis is the application of a direct electric current to an electrolyte so as to attract its positive ions to the cathode and its negative ions to the anode. An electrolyte is a chemical solution which conducts electricity by the dissociation of its constituents into free ions. In more easy-to-follow terms and all we need to know for that matter:

The electrolytic process zaps the hell out of rust.

Chemi,cal Stripping vs. Sandblasting

Sand blasting has been traditional method of rust removal for many, many years, only because there wasn't anything better. But unless done properly, it can damage valuable, fragile parts. Sand blasting will not get at the nooks, seams or blind areas in panels nor will it effectively remove rubber or undercoatings. Sand blasting can also work-harden metal, similar to peening, which can make body work all that much harder to do .. But before you subject your valuable relic to a stripper or blaster, weigh the pros and cons of both methods; only you can decide which is best. For locations of firms in your area, look ill the Yellow Pages under "Metal Stripping" or "Rust Removing".

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Chapter 7 T'ool Tips

72. CARE PACKAGE FOR YOUR CAR

Contrary to what many people think, a properly res tored and maintained antique car is an extremely reliable piece of machinery. "Roadside restoration" is usually the result of inadequate preparation or inspection of the vehicle before departu.re on a tour.

However, even the best prepared driver win occasionally find the need for minor repair or adjustment of his car while on tour-the result perhaps of the unexpected failure of a component, a fouled spark plug, a leaking line or valve. At such a time, it behooves him to have at hand not only the usual complement of hand tools, but a collection of miscellaneous repair items which we prefer to call our "care package." Kept under the car seat or in the trunk, this handy kit takes up little space but stands ready at all times to aid the driver or one of his fellow tourers in an emergency situation.

The contents of a typical "care package" are shown in the accompanying illustration. Of course, you can supplement the items with others that your experience dictates may be most needed for your particular make and model of car. All the items shown may be packed into an empty 3-pound coffee can.

1. Rubber, felt, paper, and cork gasket materials= handy if you must remove a carburetor, fuel pump,

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"Care Package" for a motorist's antique car is designed to provide a collection of items essential for emergency roadside repairs.

or similar component and damage the gasket in the process.

2. Can of "Stop Leak" compound.

3. Sandpaper and emery paper. These items are essential for cleaning electrical contacts and starter or generator commutators ..

4. Cotter pins.

5.. Miscellaneous nuts, machine screws, washers, and sheet metal screws.

6. Razor blades-used for cutting gasket materials and

rubber tubing.

7. Spare fuses.

8. Tube of Molylube or similar lubricant.

9. Wire.

10. Piece of hacksaw blade-useful for cutting or scrapmg.

11. Miscellaneous rubber or plastic tubing=-useful for

temporary gasoline, vacuum, or air lines.

12. Spare spark plug.

13. Spare condenser.

14. Vinyl tape v-for electrical repairs, taping radiator hoses, and many other uses.

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15. Teflon tape-emergency packing of water pumps and valve stems.

16. Brass tube fitting union-gasoline or oil line repairs.

17. Piece of 1f4 inch copper tubing-for emergency repair of fuel or oil lines.

18. Miscellaneous jumper wires fitted with alligator clips on each end. These will be found invaluable for temporary bridging or replacement of faulty electrical lines.

13. MAKE YOUR OWN DEGREASER

You can make a handy parts degreaser from an old opentop 55-gallon drum. Fill the drum about two-thirds full of water and pour in several gallons of solvent which will form a layer on top of the water. Make a basket out of hardware cloth or expanded metal to hold parts, and suspend the basket by hooks or brackets so that the bottom is just above the water level. A reasonably tight fitting lid should be used to retard evaporation of the solvent when the degreaser is not in use.

Dirt settles through the solvent layer into the water below, thereby keeping the solvent relatively dean. Paint thinner, mineral spirits, Stoddard solvent, or similar high flash point solvents may be used. Gasoline is not recommended because of its flammability and volatility.

Seven gallons of solvent will make a layer about four inches deep in a 55-gallon drum. After prolonged use the solvent will pick up considerable oil and grease, and at that time it is a simple matter to siphon off the solvent layer and discard it. Your local paint dealer can probably supply bulk paint thinner at reasonable cost.

Resist the temptation to clean paint brushes in your degreaser. Paint residues seem to have a tendency to crud up the solvent faster than almost anything else.

74. SOME UNCOMMONLY USEFUL TOOLS

1. Impact screwdriver-The impact screwdriver is an essential weapon in the restorer's arsenal when it comes to disassembly of rusted fasteners. It comes equipped with one or more screwdriver blade heads (Phillips and slotted screw), andit can also be equip-

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The impact screwdriver shown Ihere is equiipped with standard and Phillips screwdriver heads and 3/8 inch drive socket adapter.

pedwith a socket wrench adapter for use on nuts and capscrews. Most hardware and tool dealers stock it ($10 price range).

2. Handy Hacksaw-This convenient tool works wonders in sawing metals in tight places where a conventional hacksaw will not fit. It accepts broken pieces of hacksaw blades, and the length of the exposed blade can be adjusted by sliding it in or out of the handle, whereupon the blade is locked in position by a screw.

This Handy hacksaw will get into tight spots that cannot be reacned with a conventional hacksaw.

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Screw slot recondiitioner will clean and recut gmoves in wood screws for easy removal.

Costs about $2-3 at most hardware or building supply stores.

3. Screw Slot Reconditioner-s-Ever strain at getting a rusty screw out of woodwork only to have the screwdriver ride up out of the screw slot, damaging it so you can no longer get a grip on it? This tool will go a long way toward preventing this problem. It will cut rust, corrosion, and paint out of the screw slot so that the screwdriver blade can get a firm grip, and with a little more effort it will actually recut the slot for even more efficient removal. The tool steel blade can be resharpened. It's not sold through retail outlets, but you can get this tool directly from the manufacturer for $5 postpaid, George Clapp Company, 3993 Chase Road, RD 1, Burdett,N. Y. 14818.

4. Sanding Harp-The sanding harp was invented by a car restorer. It replaces the file and grinder and does a smoother job refinishing small contoured parts. In use, a strip of emery cloth, any grit, about 1f2 to %, inches wide, is torn from a sheet or roll and clamped in the frame. More or less slack can be left in the strip to suit the job. A "sawing" action produces a nice fmish on the part to be refinished, free of gouges. or scratches. On flat, or nearly flat, work, slack can be removed from the strip by hooking the little finger over the end of the strip nearest the handle. The exceptionally light frame gives the user very sensitive control of its operaton.

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The KEE sanding harp is a great aid for sanding and polilshing small parts with contoured surfaces. Uses readily available emery cloth strips.

The sanding harp is not sold through regular retails outlets, but you can get one for $9.95 plus $1 postage and handling from Kee-Cabriel, 7002 Shining Avenue, San Gabriel, California 91775.

75. YOUR BEST fRIEND, THE VISE

Of all the tools you will ever own or hope to own, one of the most useful is your bench vise. A vise will take the grueling

Features of a well-constructed vise ..

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punishment of being hammered on, twisted, overtightened, and burnt throughout the years and come back for more. Here is an item that should not be compromised. Buy the best. A high quality vise will be an investment that will take years of punishment; a tool that will be used, without exaggeration, thousands of times.

A vise has but one basic function and that is to hold parts or material at a bench while work is being performed. The size of a vise is measured by its jaw width ranging from 3 to 6 inches, but the jaw opening of 4 to 9314 inches should also be considered when sizing a vise.

Construction of a Vise

A well-constructed vise will have the following features (see illustration):

1. Front and back jaws (A) made of high carbon tool steeL

2. Replaceable jaw facings (B) allowing the use of either smooth or serrated jaws.

3. A strong spring screw (1) that holds the buttress thread screw (F) tight, preventing slippage or backlash.

4. A heavy hom extension (H) 011 the vise body, which provides extra strength and a better sliide support when the vise is opened to its fullest extent.

5. A non-slip swivel base (G) and base lock CD), which allows the base lock handle (C) to swing back out of the way after locking.

6. A tempered buttress thread screw (F), which will not bind when operated.

7. A built-in anvil (E).

8. A long lasting finish to protect the vise from rust and abuse.

Care of fh e Vise

The vise is a precision tool and should! be treated as such:

1. Never hammer on the vise, unless there is an anvil (E) built on for that purpose.

2. Keep the thread screw (F) dean and well oiled.

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3. Replace the jaw facings (B) when they wear out or lose their holding power.

4. Never overtighten the vise by using an extension bar over the handle.

5. Never hammer on the handle.

How to Use the, Vise

To use the vise, simply rotate the handIe clockwise or counterclockwise until the desired opening is obtained. Place your part or material in. the vise and tighten it just enough to hold it in place. Knowing the type of material being clamped is of importance; if the part being held is soft or brittle, too much pressure may compress or break it.

Be sure that the jaw facings are of the type that will not damage your part or material. Soft jaw caps can be made out of aluminum, copper, or wood to protect delicate parts; a pair of these are made to slip over the jaw facings and will protect soft material from the serrated jaws of the standard jaw facings.

'When placing hard material or parts in a vise that will be hammered on or chiseled, be sure the vise is sufficiently tight enough to prevent slippage, and place the part in such a position that it can be hammered on or chiseled toward the stationary jaw.

76. NiAll & TACK PULLING TOOL

Old cars are riddled with tacks and nails. To remove them easily, fashion a tool from a piece of round stock or an old screwdriver; vary the size of the tool to fit your needs. 'Nuf said.

It is advisable to sharpen the notched end by filing or grinding. However, when using the tool be sure to keep the free hand and other parts of the body out of the way, otherwise if the tool slips a painful injury may be inflicted.

77. PAIN!T CAN JACK STANDS

Jack stands are handy items to have around when working on an old car. However, the standard size you call purchase in hardware and automotive supply stores are at times a bit taller than what you may require. To solve this problem (and save a few bucks in the process), gather up four old

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FILE A "Vii NOTCH

Homemade tack pulling tool. The efficiency may be improved by bending up the' notched tip at a slight angle.

one-gallon paint cans with lids. Fill the cans with sand or dirt that can be compacted (don't use loose gravel). Replace the lids tightly and you'll have four 8" jack stands, with handles, which can be used for any number of chores around your car and garage,

78. PERMANENT REFERENCE TORQUE WRENCH SCHEMATIC

No matter how many times you've had the heads off your engine, it seems like you always have to pause when putting things back together to research the head bolt torquing sequence. Before you go through the hassle of locating the proper sequence in your shop manual the next time your heads are being replaced, rnake a torque schematic for permanent reference.

Take the blank side of the cardboard stiffener that most head gasket sets are packaged with and carefully trace the outline of the head gasket on to iti including the bolt but ignoring the water passageways and cylinder cutouts. Number the holes according to the diagram in your shop manual and you will have a convenient torque pattern for

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future reference. For an even more permanent pattern, I put mine on the garage wall.

79. EASY SPARK PLUG INSTALLATION

Spark plugs that are difficult to thread in because of limited access can often be installed quickly using a short piece of 31s'1 rubber fuel line hose slipped over the spark plug insulator; the hose acts as a flex drive to start the plug in its threads. Once started, the hose will pull off and the plug can be installed the restof the way with your socket. Plugs will also turn more freely by hand if a light coat of "anti-seize" compound is applied to the plug threads.

80. FENDER MAT CLIPS

Tired of having your fender mats or covers sliding off while working on your car? Mount a couple of spring paper clamps just below the hood sill on each side of your fender and your problem is solved.

81. BALL STOP

Parking your car in exactly the right spot in your garage is no trick when you hang an old tennis ball from the ceiling, so

Permanent schematic of tightening sequence.

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)

REED & PRINCE

PHIILUPS

Reed & Prince and Phillips screwdrivers.

that it just touches the windshield when your car is in the proper position.

82. WHO A.RE PHILLIPS, REED s PRINCE?

Phillips, and Reed & Prince are trade names for screw heads that have a socket-like construction. It's nothing to be ashamed of, but it's surprising how few people know the difference between a Phillips and a Reed & Prince screwdriver. There is a difference, an important difference that we'll clear up now once and for all.

The Philllips screwdriver has a point of special design to fit Phillips head screws. These screws have two slots that form an "XH in the head and the point of the screwdriver is fanned to fit that X. The socket-like construction of the Phillips screw allows greater turning effort to be applied to the screw by the driving pain t of the screwdriver. For this reason,

there is less danger of the screwdriver slipping out of the screw slots and damaging the screw head and/or the material, which is a common fault with the conventional "straight slot" screw and screwdriver. The Phillips comes in four different point sizes, the degree of taper on the point being the difference. The #1 Phillips is the most pointed, gradually becoming more blunt as the number size becomes larger. The more holding power required of the screw, the larger the screw will be and the larger the Phillips tip number. For automotive work, you will find that the #2 Phillips is the most common.

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The Reed & Prince screwdriver is very similar to the Phillips except that it is much more pointed and is used only on Reed & Prince screws" which are very rarely anything other than wood screws. A Reed & Prince screwdriver should never be used on Phillips screws and vice versa. If you do interchange them, you're going to damage the screw, the screwdriver, the material or part being worked on and you're going to "skin your knuckles." Promise.

83. HOW TO FIX STRI'PIPED OR DAMAGED THREADS

You mayor may not have heard of Heli Coil inserts for the repair of damaged, stripped, or pulled out threads. Inexpensive kits are available so you can easily repair damaged and valuable parts in your own garage. Not only are they readily available, but they come in all thread sizes, both foreign and domestic. There is even a special kit available for the repair of spark plug holes that have suffered from relentless use or

A Hel'i Coil insert kit.

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Heli Coils with special tap.

cross-threading, Heli-Coil kits are priced under $20, which is cheap when compared to what a machine shop will charge for installing a set of inserts.

"Master Thread Repair Packs," as they are called, include a dozen inserts, a special Heli Coil tap, and an insert tool. (Additional inserts are always available and sold separately). Repair and installation are simple.

1. Drill out the damaged threads with the kit's recom-

mended drill size.

2. Tap the hole with the special tap induded in the kit.

3. Clean all the foreign matter from the hole.

4. Using the special insertion tool, install the insert by merely threading it into the hole.

5. Place a suitable size punch into the installed insert and break off the "drive tong."

That's all there is to it.

This may sound like a "Mickey Mouse" repair, but not so.

Hell Coils are used extensively on high performance an-craft because of their superior strength and holding power. To obtain a kit and additional information, write to:

Heli Coil Product Division Mite Corporation

Shelter Rock Lane

Danbury, Connecticut 06810

84. PUNCHES

Punches come in a variety of sizes and shapes and are used for many different jobs around the old car. The more

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~----]

TAPER PUNCH

A taper punch.

common ones you are likely to have a need for are: 1) Taper, 2) Drift, 3) Center, and 4) Transfer punches.

1. Taper punches: A taper pu:nch is used to align holes in two different parts or pieces of metal (such as a fender to the body, transmission cross brace to the frame, etc.) through which a bolt or other fastener is to be inserted.

2. Drift punches: Drift punches are used to drive out tapered and straight pins etc. from holes into which they have been forced. The diameter of the punch is the same from point to body. Thus, as the punch is

DRIFT PUNCH

A drift punch.

driven into the hole to remove the pin, etc., it will not distort, enlarge or elongate the hole, provided you have chosen the correct diameter punch, which should be just slightly less that the diameter of the hole. The two most frequently used around an old car are Vs" and J;4" drift punches. Sometimes 1/16" or 112" are employed but very rarely.

3. Center punches: Center punches have a tapered bit and a broad, sharp tip, and are used primarily for

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CENTER PUNCH

A center punch.

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TRANSFER PUNCH

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A transfer punch.

indenting metal as a guide for starting a drill bit. For example, mark the spot to be drilled, then place the center punch directly on the mark. With a light hammer, strike the head of the punch with a good, sharp blow. The indention in the metal will prevent the tip of the drill from wandering away from your mark,

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making it much easier to start your drill.

4. Transfer punches: Transfer punches are used to transfer a hole location from one piece of metal or part, to another. Lining up a part being used as a template and drilling, say 1;4" holes, can be difficult, especially if your new holes must be in exactly the same spot as that of the parent part. To avoid frustration and to solve the problem, select a transfer punch with a shaft the same outside diameter as the inside diameter of the hole. Put your part/template in location and strike the punch sharply with a hammer. You'll now have a mark with the same effect of that made by a center punch. If you have several holes to transfer, do only one or two the first time; drill them to size; bolt your two pieces together, then continue. Recommended and common sizes are: Vs" and 1/4"; 3/16" and 5/16" are next, followed by 112" and any special sizes that might crop up.

85. B,ASIC TOOL REQUIREMENTS

If you're going to work on an old car (or a new one for that matter), you're going to need tools. Obviously. Many newcomers to the hobby are faced with the task of what to buy with limited funds. As a rule, I won't buy a tool until I need it. If it's a special tool that I will only lise once in a blue moon, I MIl try to borrow or rent it. On the other hand, there are a few

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basic tools which are used so often you will actually wear them out.

Listed below are the basic tools every old car buff should have in his or her possession, and when you buy, buy quality. Chrome-molybdenum alloy tools are the best.. The Sears "Craftsman" line of wrenches and sockets are high quality, chrome-moly tools and can usually be bought for less if you watch their sale ads.

The basic kit:

• Combination (12 point) wrenches: 5/16, 7/16, V2,

9/16, 51s and % inch

• Straight slot screwdriver: 8" shank with 1/4" bit

• Phillips screwdriver: Number 2 point

• Vise-grips

• 8 oz. ball peen hammer

• Vz" cold chisel

• %" drift punch

• Dikes (diagonal cutting pliers)

• Hacksaw with blades

• 31s inch drive ratchet handle and 5/16, 7/16, V2, 9/16, 51s and 31t inch sockets

86. TRANSMISSION ALIGNMENT STUDS

Transmission changes will go much easier with the aid of a couple of alignment studs. These little items will keep the trans in alignment and prevent it from slipping out of the bellhousing locating hole.

Find two bolts of the same size thread as your bellhousing that are about 11/2-2" longer than what is holding it in place now. Cut off the bolt heads and hacksaw slots in the ends so that the studs can be installed and removed with a screwdriver, and round off the cut off end with a file.

Install the two studs in the two top holes in the bellhousing, or at the 10 and 2 o'clock positions if your trans has a circular bolt pattern. As long as the car is fairly level, you can slip the trans in place and it will stay in place while you screw in the remaining bolts hand tight. Remove the studs with a screwdriver and install the last two bolts. Finish off the job as outlined in your shop manual or see a Changing A Clutch," Tip 25.

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Wedging a screwdriver between a rounded nut and the wrench may get the nut off.

87. WRENCH AlDIS

If the corners of a nu t are rounded off so a wrench will not fit snugly, it can still be removed by placing the wrench on the nut in the normal manner and then wedging a screwdriver between the nut and the jaw of the wrench. This will take up the slack between the nut and wrench allowing you to remove the nut in the normal manner.

Adjustable end wrenches (Crescent) are handy items to have around, but should never be used as a substitute for an open or box end wrench. If you must use an adjustable wrench on a tight nut or bolt, use the side of the wrench with the fixed jaw to pull on the load.

By pulling instead of pushing on a wrench, you can usually avoid skinned knuckles if the wrench should slip. If the situation is such that you must push the wrench, always do so with the palm of the hand, keeping your fingers spread open. Dry hands and clean tools will aid the above suggestions and help save your knuckles.

The size of a wrench does not mean the bolt diameter, but refers to the distance across the flats of the nut or bolt head.

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Chapter 8 Metal Working T'ips

Ever notice how easy dead soft copper tubing bends, but once it is bent it is almost impossible to straighten it again without ending up with some noticeable kinks in it? What has happened here is that the copper has become "work hardened."

88. ANNEALING BRASS AND COPPER

If you wish to straighten and salvage old copper oil, gas, or vacuum lines from your car, first anneal the tubing by heating short portions of it at a time in a blowtorch or propane torch flame to a point where it will barely glow in the dark. Upon cooling, the portion of the tubing heated will be rendered. soft again. It is not necessary to allow it to cool slowly-the part can be quenched in water if desired to speed up the cooling.

Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, also work hardens, so brass parts may be similarly annealed before working on them to repair or straighten. Here, special care must be taken to avoid overheating parts when annealing. Get the temperature a little too high and you run the risk of melting a hole in the part. Annealing will render the parts quite soft, so take care when handling or polishing annealed brass parts so as not to dent them.

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89. BENCH GRINDER TO IDENTIFY ALLOYS

Your bench grinder is a valuable tool for identifying metaIs and alloys. The technique of spark testing is often used around tool rooms and machine shops for confirming the identity of scrap and raw materials. It has been said that an experienced machinist, by holding a bar of carbon steel against a rotating grinding wheel and observing the shower is sparks, can tell within ten points (0.10%) the carbon content of the steel.

It is unlikely that anyone can become that proficient without years of experience, but with relatively little practice one should be able to distinguish between high and low carbon steels, cast iron, and some alloy steels.

"What do I care about the carbon content of steel?" you may ask. Well, carbon is the single most important alloying element in steel and knowledge of its content is of utmost importance for judging the properties and applications of the steel. From a practical viewpoint, we may define a low carbon steel as one containing 0.25 percent carbon or less. Most structural steels fall in this category. High carbon steels are those containing more than 0.45 percent carbon, and these steels will be used for making tools, punches, knives, dies, etc. -parts which are quenched and tempered for greater hardness and strength. Steels containing from about 0 .. 25 to 0.45 percent carbon are usually classed as medium carbon steels.

Steels which contain less than 0.20 percent carbon ordinarily cannot be hardened by quenching, so it would be useless, for example, to attempt to make a cutting tool or spring out of such steel. Instead, you should select a medium or high carbon steel for these purposes. If you weld a part made of low carbon steel, you don't have to worry much about the rate of heating or cooling; it is not susceptible to any quenching or cooling effects. On the other hand, welding high carbon steel requires care in heating and cooling to avoid alterations in the properties of the welded part. These two isolated examples show why it is important to be able to identify high and low carbon steels. Many other examples could be cited, but let's get to the tests themselves.

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