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Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:
[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.
(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to
The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.
[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]
A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.
The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.
The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.
The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.
The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.
A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.
Constitutional : (adj.)
Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.
upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.
(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:
Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.
The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.
To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance
the vital force. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. mentally. BY DR. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. which determines the individuals reaction. to the stress of environment. as does Margery Blackie’s statement.J. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. but also the past and future. p14) . In this sense.’ (Blackie. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. and also the potential to manifest. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. emotionally and physically. successful or unsuccessful. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. 1986. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). the previously manifest.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy.T. It treats the manifest.
’ (Leeser. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. 1988. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. phlegmatic.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. diverging body. p26) However. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. p77). 1935.’ (Hahnemann. choleric. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. 1935. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. over the years. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. like any model. during its proving in the healthy state. Only in paragraph 136. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. but only in many different.and soul-constitutions. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. 1842. 1994. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. as opposed to common.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. pviii) she states. Most often. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. which deals with provings. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa.’ (Leeser. the conception has also been misused. … Unfortunately. He appears.
p650 and Kent. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. p651 and Kent. changes of weather. phosphoric. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. carbonitrogenoid. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. citing the various classifications of Czerny. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. p377. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. warm air. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. Pende. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. p272) And again. are not generally considered morbid. Romero and Maranon.by many during this period. endomorphs and ectomorphs. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. 1994. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. sulphuric. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. and oxygenoid. Kretschmer. 1994. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. . as no two are sufficiently similar. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class.' (Leeser.’ (Gypser. phosphoric. cold air. even when morbid. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. 1987. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. symptomatology. 1987. 1935. the tall or short. for he may be better or worse from motion. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type.’ (Gypser. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. even accurately. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. to guide to a remedy. the form or shape.
1980. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. furthermore. 1942.’ (Roberts. and finally. sanguinous. the presentation of evidence. 1942.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. the three . … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. This has its basis in that. forming groups. bilious. In contrast. Further. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. regardless of the temperament. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions.’ (Foubister. by the influence of the milieu. fate. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. 1989. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. however. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. rather than remedy-based. mode of living and weather influences.’ (Ortega. the division into syphilis. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. p171) Ortega. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. according to Hahnemann. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease.’ (Roberts. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-.
It is . So it seems likely. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. he writes purely about the classification of disease. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications.’ (Vithoulkas. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. (Close. complete cure will take a relatively long time. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division.’ (Leeser. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. 1986. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. However. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. It is in our nature to group and dissect. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. In such cases. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. However. 1993. not patients. to categorise and deconstruct. As Yasgur states. 1935.
There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. p12) is what. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. 1980. 1980. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. D in Capra. 1994. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. at base. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. 1983. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. the sickness’ (Ortega. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. In this state. or at least moderates. characteristic patterns. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease.’ (Yasgur. it is open to formulaic. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. Whitmont implies a fixity of . It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. Emphasis added. p45. But as with any set of data. in his inherited and evolving constitution. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. Built is something more than the well formed body.’ (Whitmont.
p27). and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. youth. 1991. p112) However. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. middle age. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. mind and disease. By this. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood.response patterns which. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. individual body. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. . Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. we mean that each person has a specific.’ (Sankaran. 1994. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. If change does occur. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective.
in particular. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. but is greater than these. serving as directive. by implication. be it weight or number.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. It comprises the form patterns which their life. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. a genuine challenge. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. This returns to Lao Tzu. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. you will not find.’ (Twentyman.’ (Gutman. however. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). emotional and intellectual make up of a person. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. 1986. 1989. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. p12). some to a greater extent than others. there is no other than the body’s sensation. . This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. on another. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes.
a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state.3) It is constant and immetable. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. As they were at birth so they will remain. 10) No treatment can modify them. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. which appeared to be fairly well determined. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. the only exception being orthodontics.
perturbation of secretions.a) Calcarea carbonica. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles.VON GRAUVOGL. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. the carbon. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. hydrogen and nitrogen. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. oxygen. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. . b) Calcarea phosphoric. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. c) Calcarea flourica. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution.
b) Puffines. retension of water in the cells. Examples: Acid Nit. HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. Carbo Veg. 3) The fluoric type. c) He is easily affected by humidity. hydropexic. Thuja Occidentalis. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: .. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum.Examples: Lycopodium. & mucouses. swollen. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. d) Retracted and emaciated. Cuprum Met. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. c) Easy demineralisation. 2) The phosphoric type. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type.
• • Predominance of the cranium. • Reasonable. • Stubborn. • THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Thick skeleton. • Detector.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Stranger. . • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Vaulted. • Thick Set. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Square Or Sphere. • Rachis supple. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Rigid articulation. • Developed in width.
Mentality: . • Skin dry and cracked. Mentality: • Nervous. • Sensitive. • Asymmetric. • Intuitive. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Emotive. • Superficial.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Imaginative. • Saddle backed. • Care for elegance. • Dreamer. of facts. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Horror of reality. • The lower belly fall infront. THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Distracted.
• Disorderly. • Restless. • Cannot take any decision. • Easily vulgar. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Rapid assimilation. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Versatile.• Unstable. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. Therefore. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Intuitive. • Cannot continue. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. the nature of the disease state. • Fantastic. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Brilliant but unstable. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Capricious. .
The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. befallments and symptoms. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. the physician should take into account the patient's . and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. In these investigations. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". In this sense. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition).There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. the potential causations including miasms. In truth. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances.
Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. a description of the physique (tall or thin. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). Lifestyle and habits. nervous. Sexual function. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. Rubrics related to these states are . This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. short or fat. etc. the chronic miasms. The discernible body constitution (especially.). 2. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). loose or tight tissue types. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. The mental and emotional character. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. On this solid foundation the objective signs. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). venous. Occupations. 4. etc). This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. Age 7." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1.1. strong. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). unstable. 5. lymphatic. rheumatic constitutions. in chronic cases). rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. etc.
co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. How a person relates to their mate. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. The occupation. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. phlegmatic. The critical times are conception. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. 6. sanguine. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. puberty. 4. 5. 7. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. middle age. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. and old age. Civic and domestic relationships. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. Strictly speaking. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. adolescence. friends. Sex and sexuality. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. . A person’s sexual ethics. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. rest. Lifestyle and habits. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. Some work well at both extremes of life. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. childhood. family relations. Age. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. These are cardinal general symptoms. birth. 3. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. children.
mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. causation. being – DL].sexual fantasies. Wesen. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. constitution. which are: 1. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). essence. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. disease signs. 2. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. sexual performance. temperament. The disease-Gestalt is . causation. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. That is. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. befallments and symptoms. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. 8. The time and progression. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. 7. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. nature. Perceived by those around him. "The unprejudiced observer. the physical constitution. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. Felt by the patient himself. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. that is. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. and 3. Observed by the physician.
the spiritual. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. befallments and symptoms.DL] of the disease. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. 91. nature. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. As Hahnemann said. In this way. mental and emotional temperament. being . one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. 92 & 175). This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. the instinctive vital force. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. inheritance. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. infection. that is. predispositions. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. of the suffering of the life force. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . single and multiple causations. susceptibility. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9).
laws of the organic constitution. comes from the Latin root. etc. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. page 12. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. and as an adjective it means. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. the make-up of the body & soul. In this sense constitutional means. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). to form or make up. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. "constituted". Beschaffenheit. The W. Turner’s Dictionary.dynamic influence (§11). defines the German term. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. inherent in the natural frame. which one calls disease. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. Beschaffen is a verb that means. . the complete whole. Introduction. however. constituere. disposition. beschaffenheit (make up). This. the bodily constitution. constitution. condition. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. "to procure. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). as nature. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. temperament. to work". The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. the spiritual-bodily organism. temper. make something available". O'Reilly edition. to establish. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. to make. the unity of life. The English word. our living human organism.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. quality. to appoint to give being to. or inherent nature. which means constitutes: to set up.
These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 75. 34. 145. For example. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. etc. composition. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. . which means the congenital bodily constitution. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 90. 48. 143. 98. 1. 35. 101. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 142. 2. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. 3. 181. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 99. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged.constitution. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. Pages 30. its constitution. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. Therefore. disposition and circumstance. construction or nature. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. 243. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 242. 103.
"Organism: An organized or organic system.. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Every sensation. it comprises of the body. B. The human organism houses the mental. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. page 194. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. emotional and bodily faculties.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition.. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. Jain. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. Dudgeon and Boericke. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . Appendix.g. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. the event itself.g. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. 11. which is more than the sum of its parts. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. every manifestation of power. that is. vital force and body. a unity. One does not appear without the other. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. mind. Lebenskraft). Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. Delhi. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. No part can suffer without all other parts. (§ 9. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature.
3rd edition. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. as of all other medicines. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. physis. "The employment of this. its trunk in Hippocrates. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. and its fruit in Hahnemann.teachings on temperaments. 1833. page 345. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. its branches in Paracelsus. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works.
and are quick in their movements. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. This portrait includes natural. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. which means "who": . Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments".resolutions with rapidity. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. silent peevishness). while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". slow phlegmatic temperament). For example. even though they may appear to be good tempered. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". Ms. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. mild. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. this is not the complete picture. positive and negative qualities.
He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. For example. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. separated according to his sick and his well days i. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy.e. correspond to only few remedies.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. which must be scanned all the more carefully. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. but also of rare occurrence and. therefore.. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. jovial person becomes thin. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. for the natural disposition rests on it. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. Therefore. if they are not only sharply distinct. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. Therefore. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. both if possible. nature and genius) in The Organon. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". if a formerly obese. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament .
This same is true with sycosis. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. also by inflammatory fever. 1750. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. 15-18. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. attended with deep. the menses disappear prematurely. This is the true Esse. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. Junker makes . burning pains. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. page 17. the menses were delayed. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. Halle. Vide The Chronic Diseases. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. Volume I. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. also other indurations. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. p.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. pseudopsora. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption.
aspectGreek. general appearance of anything. heredity. predisposition. moderate. these symptoms become more strange. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis.. rare and peculiar. For example. character. an interpreter. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. If this is not the case.physiognomy. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. and constitution. temperare. the art of judging character from the appearance. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. mind and body. phlegmatic. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. as well as the present state of the spirit. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. to temper. from the face. nature. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. befallments and symptoms. Temperament from Latin. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. gnomon-onos. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. temperament. miasms and constitutional diathesis. compound. . That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. restrain. esp. This 2.
temperament. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. the phlegmosanguine. fire. voice. the cholero-sanguine. a proportioned mixture of qualities. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. pitch and mood) by the vital force. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. a frame of mind. composure. to be uncontrolled. an innate or acquired disposition. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. water. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. the constitution of the body and/or mind.choleric. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. Each of these temperaments represents . phlegmatic. air. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. to exert self control. the sangino-phlegmatic. the phlegmo-choleric. phlegmatic. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). a natural disposition. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the spiritual body organism. a mood. the choleric or bilious. an internal constitutional state. Temper-noun.choleric. nervo. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. the sanguino. Constitution. a fit of anger. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the nervo-phlegmatic. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. the cholero-nervous. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. a natural temperament. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. the five elements (ether. and the nervo-sanguine. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type.
Volume VIII. or of a malicious. spite or deception. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. phlegmatic. II. Suits thin. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . wicked irascible disposition. malicious disposition. "II. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. of an irritable. state. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. Nux Vomica. Vide Materia Medica Pura. hot temperament. troubled with indigestion. "Some practical instructions may be of use. II. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. II. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. sanguine and nervous melancholic. Debauches. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. choleric persons with dark hair. venous constitution. irritable. nervous disposition. Among these may be mentioned. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. page 168." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. composure. II. II. For very particular. the choleric. page 223. Nervous. Vide Guiding Symptoms. fiery. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. melancholic people." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. zealous persons. thin. always irritable and impatient. I (4) is the second grade. Drug subjects. etc. I. mood. lecture on Nux Vomica. inclined to get angry or excited. (hepatic affections) I. zealous. or of a spiteful. Bilious temperaments.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious.
melancholic. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. habits. spiteful. One might ask. delicate eyelashes. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. chilly. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). nervous dispositions with their traits). These are all constitutional general rubrics. fine.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. dark. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. §5.6. thin. choleric persons. dark hair). The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. On this constitutional basis the signs. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. fair skin. nervous anxious temperaments. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). miasmic tendencies. drugs). blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. blond haired. bilious. (addicted to wine. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. impatient. coffee. indigestion. blond or red hair. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. etc). dry. with quick perceptions. Allen includes temperaments. choleric. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. Boenninghausen and Hering. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. and very sensitive nature.7). diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. physical descriptions (thin. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. irritable. hepatic affections). An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. mental rubrics (angry. .
The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Type . candy. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. Dislikes chilled foods. their eye colour. The Arsen. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Readily laughs. Physical factors are also important. lazy etc. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. under or overweight. hair colour. Prone to bedwetting. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. confident. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Eyes. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Ailments tend to the left side. preferred type of clothing and so on. or C. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. long or short limbed. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. such as how they respond to noise. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own.tearful. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. May react badly to new situations like moving house. salt and cheese. Digestive system. B. For example. Finds it difficult to control emotions.The Argent Nit. hair type. fat or thin. Often anxious and worried. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. cries and loses temper. sad. The Argent Nit. so B will be the best remedy. Alb. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. if they are bright and alert in the morning.
Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Respiratory system (coughs. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Carb. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Skin. Strong opinions. Easily upset by loud noise. candy. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Perfectionist at work and at home. Sluggish. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. nose and throat. Skin. Can be critical and intolerant. Physical weaknesses: Ears. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Alb. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Prone to depression. Types. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Often well groomed and stylish. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Teeth. may manifest as back ache. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. bloated and tired in appearance. in particular coffee. Exhaustion. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. keeps room tidy. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Dislikes large amount of fluid. sensitive and quiet. Skeletal system. alcohol and sour tasting foods. The Arsen. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. The Calc. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Dislikes mess and being messy. Digestive system.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Fine facial features with fine. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. . Alb. delicate skin. warm foods and drinks. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up.
Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Possible difficulty in . Blushes easily. usually dark. salt. windswept appearance. Ears. Timid. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. hesitant and anxious. eggs. desserts. iced drinks and ice cream. dry skin that can crack easily. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Dislikes sweet foods. be exhausted. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Sighs a lot. Can have a rugged. nose bleeds. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Dry hair. Flaky scalp. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. chocolate. Nails. tearful and despondent then impatient. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Dry lips. boiled food and boiled milk. Carb. Can fall over easily. such as vegetables and salads. Type. seafood and hot drinks. salt. Not an early morning person. The Calc. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. carbohydrates. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Possible mood swings. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. have bad breath. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Prone to dark circles under eyes. child: Plump and overweight. Carb. Dark to mid range colour hair. May have rough. Rapid and extreme mood swings. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. candy. Placid and calm. Dislikes fatty meats. prone to suppression of grief. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Slow metabolic rate.
Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. Dislikes sweet foods. Prone to left-side problems. menopausal problems. twitching and grinding teeth. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. May experience headaches. Jealous and possessive. leading to headaches. bad sleep and insomnia. Suspicious of strangers. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. May view self as sinful when religious.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Prefers not to be alone. choughs. alcohol and seafood. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. especially new babies. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. coughs and colds. Strong. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. varicose veins.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. May be sensitive to noise. fixed expression. cool drinks. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. Responds well to encouragment. excitable and sensitive. constipation. May lick lips a lot. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. causing outbursts of anger. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. Dislikes sweet drinks. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. sore throats and asthma. The Lycopodium Type . palpitations and panic attacks. sore throats. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Hyperactivity. sour and savoury foods. can be hurtful to peers. Talkative. carbohydrates. dairy products. Strong. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. staring eyes. sore throat. crying and poor grades at school.
Sol. with grey translucent look. The Merc. swelling of glands and exhaustion. May explode with rage and anger. Right-side problems. Thinning hair in men. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. onions. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Often look older than their years. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Hates being contradicted. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Insecure and hates change. Hair may be fair to medium colour. male baldness. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Anxious over important events. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Sol. sore throats. child: Irritating behaviour. Shy and cautious.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Forgetful. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. garlic and seafood. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Avoids commitment. creating mountains out of molehills. Susceptible to ear nose and . Facial twitching. Type Appearance: Medium build. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. prostate. kidney stones.The Merc. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Conscientious and achiever academically. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. May stammer. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen.
Can be very ambitious. May become very depressed after relationship break-up.throat complaints. guilt and loneliness. Solid. especially when young. premenstrual syndrome. mur. Slow development. The Nat.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. May suffer from headaches under pressure. May have dark circles under eyes. . palpitations and headaches. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. The Nat. Dry cracked lips. mur. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. mur. anorexia. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Well behaved. skin problems. Watery. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Depression. type may be professional and career minded. Medium to dark hair. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. Can be addicted to sex. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. coffee. fear. Dislikes coffee and bread. Finds it difficult to relax. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. anger. red eyes. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Impatient. Smart appearance. May have cravings for alcohol. strong and lean build in men. Loves animals. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Ages prematurely. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. child: Small for their age. which can lead to depression. cigarettes. May look stressed and tense.
alcohol. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Expressive. salt.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Headaches. Short attention span. Feels better after sleep. Migraines and headaches. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. spicy food. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. alcohol. carbonated drinks. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Circulation problems. Loves to receive attention. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. coffee and spicy foods. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Nervous. Artistic and creative in appearance. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Hernia and hay fever. May have temper tantrums. Strong fear of the dark. Can be hard work for partner. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Weakness of the lungs. Coughs and colds. Likes to be stylish. Dizziness. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. The Pulsatilla Type . Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Fine skin. Left-side problems. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Competitive as a teenager. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. cheese and cream. Can have fair to dark hair.
Irritable bowel syndrome. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Hates being contradicted. Avoids confrontation. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Skin problems. Catarrh. . Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Blushes easily. often with brown eyes. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Gentle and kind appearance. Headaches and migraine. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Not assertive and can be indecisive. and very rich. Loves animals. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Can look younger than actual age. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Often rests with hands behind head. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Also laughs easily. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Varicose veins. tragic news or weepy movies. Medium to dark hair. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. as holds strong opinions. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Styes. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Can suppress guilt and anger. cold foods and cold drinks. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Cries easily.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Skin problems. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Likes to be supported by others. Prone to coughs and colds. Often sits with legs crossed. Can feel better after weeping. spicy foods. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired.
Dislikes very hot food. sweet foods and alcohol. Does not like being alone. with petite appearance. Can be shy. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Moody. with a large forehead. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Feels the cold. sour and savoury foods.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Not sporty as has little stamina. especially milk. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Exhaustion. Can become a bedwetter. Prone to constipation. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. moves and new jobs. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. apart from large head. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. fine features. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Headaches. The Sepia child: Greedy. The Sulphur Type . Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. especially due to burnout from new projects. citrus fruits. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Prone to mental exhaustion. Skin problems. Delicate. The head can appear too large for the body. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Constipation. almost doll-like in appearance. Usually tidy and well behaved. especially cheese and milk. Feels the cold. Dislikes dairy products. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Slowness in healing and getting well. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system.
Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . Can be hyperactive in the evening. heredity. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. especially milk and eggs. salads and seafood. Dislikes dairy products. Has a very healthy appetite. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. citrus fruits. Might not complete ideas and projects. Can be critical.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. Vide Organon. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. bathing or washing hands. burning feet. dry. May lack willpower and self-esteem. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. spicy foods. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Hair may be course. temperament. Does not like showers.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Dislikes most hot drinks. hot. Likes to argue. body odour. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. Likes alcohol. disposition. haemorrhoids and constipation. May look untidy. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings.
When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases." Note 78. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. Therefore. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. "The true. heart . Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. Lamarck." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical.feelings and functions. they mount until the end of life.
Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. the acute..e. He classified miasms into three categories. and especially through inexpedient. First of all. medicinal treatment.and body. prodromal stage and primary. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. He points out that mental and . the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. 3. incubation period. 2. grief and worry. On this basis. Third. i. 1. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. Second. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. by contact with the infected host. However. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. implanted in them through infection or heredity. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. a moment of infection. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. were completely vanished. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy.
and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. predisposition and diathesis. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. the mental temperament.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. habits. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. hereditary dispositions. and. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. inheritance. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. is announced by the increase of the .
understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. his employment. morals. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. For these reasons. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. to some extent. etc. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen).symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. little by little. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. etc. in and of themselves. The next most important factors are environment. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . his turn of mind. his hereditary disposition. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. deviate so greatly from one another. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. the various errors in his education and habits. climate. diet. diet and stress (nurture). his manner of living and diet. befallments and symptoms. " It is. which already. thus attaining incredible proliferation. his morality.
psoric. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. etc. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. leucophlegmatic.. diathesis. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. diathesis. 1.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. 2. and/or mind. scrofulous. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. i. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. From the Greek.e. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. venous. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. DIATHESIS. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. sycotic. 3. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. lymphatic.
Fibre rigid.. Rheumatic.... constitutions -am-c. Dwarfish. constitutions. Tubercular.. calc-ar.... constitutions. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Carb-v. constitutions. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. and their similar remedies. Sep. Paralytic. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. Emaciated constitutions.. constitutions.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Tall lean. lax.. dulc. Hemorrhagic. bloated.. CALC. constitution.. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. constitutions. Plethoric. Hysterical. constitutions. phos. aur-m." 2. people.. constitutions. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice... ars. . constitutions. constitutions. arn. Fibre.. GRAPH. murx. Petr. kalm. Rhus-t.. BELL. MERC. BAR-C. Chin. Apis. bapt... Sulph. Venous. Hep.. For example. Bar-m. Gouty. Nat-m. Example: "Lymphatic... Large fat. Asthmatic constitutions. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. thin people.. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. Puls. aster. Lymphatic. Sil. Scrofulous. nit-ac. FERR. thuj... constitutions.. constitutions. constitutions. 1. Lean. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. Cann-i. Lyc.
. Example: "Bilious.. ant-c.... Fl-ac. MAG-C.... Kali-b. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and ... Aesc..... iris... ferr-i... diathetic states and miasms. sep. Caps. Merc-i-f. Phos. Guai.. constitutions-Ars. Psoric. mag-m. Still.... Example: "Fibre... hep. ant-t. Choleric. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. NIT-AC... Sulph. Cor-r. KALI-C. Petr... Phos.. ptel." Rubrics related to the miasms include.. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). Crot-h. aec-t. constitutions.. lept. ail. constitutions.. Merc. Syphilitic.... plat... berb. CHIN. Sil. Phyt.. Melancholic... bor. NUX V. nat-s... Cham. SABAD. Ph-ac... MERC.. and their similar remedies. Bilious. CARD-M. AUR... Puls. Clem... temperament. cann-i. These are general symptoms of the constitution. bar-c. cund. Sycotic constitutions. constitutions. Lach. acon.... SYPH. Example: "SYPHILITIC.. constitutions. Cocc. Thuj.. ambr... CHEL.. constitutions. sang. CALC." 3.. Mercc. Benz-ac. chol.... cinnam." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. ars. chion.. KALI-I. constitutions-agar. Sanguine constitutions.. Sil. BRY.. MERC. Mez. Ip. sulph. PHOS. lax. OP.. calc-p.. constitutions.. Nervous. constitutions and their remedies. spong.... euph.. Merc-d. PSOS... constitutions. Phlegmatic. Bell. constitutions.constitutions.. Tubercular. Sars....
according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . susceptibility. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. of Cantharides. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms.conditioning factors. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. the footnote on page 150. Vide Sycosis. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. or of the Copaiva balm. susceptibility. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. inheritance. or a small dose of Cannabis. The Chronic Diseases. temperament. miasms and diathesis. diathesis and miasms. For example. temperament. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution.
Chambers English Dictionary. Decker. Melbourne. Klaus-Henning. Cambridge. Blackie. Stuart. the Essence of its Remedies. Bombay. ed. New Remedies. Beaconsfield. etc. 1986. Madrid. William. New Delhi. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Homœopathy in Practice. Tutorials on Homœopathy. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. 1954 (republished 1994). WA. The Organon of Medicine. New York. (a) 1922 tr. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Birdcage Books. New Delhi. Churchill Livingstone. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. 1988. Capra. 1993. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Flamingo. Wenda. B Jain. New Delhi. 1987 (republished 1988). Margery. Beaconsfield. Beaconsfield Publishers. B Jain. Borland. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Fritjoff. C M Boger Collected Writings. James Tyler. The Tao of Physics. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Beaconsfield Publishers. 1994. Kent. ed. Redmond. Edinburgh. New Delhi. signs. befallments and symptoms. Beaconsfield Publishers. Clinical Cases. 1988. 1986. B Jain. Aphorisms and Precepts.choleric. Hahnemann. . Close. 1842. Douglas. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. 1989. Gutman. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. B Jain. London. New Delhi. Robert. Beaconsfield. Foubister. Lesser Writings. Brewster O’Reilly. Tokyo. 5th edition. B Jain. Classical Homœopathy. W&R Chambers. Donald McD. 1983. Gypser. Samuel. phlegmatic. 6th edition. (b) 1996 tr. 1994. London. The Genius of Homœopathy.
1979. B Jain. PA. Rajan. Ortega. The Science and Art of Healing. Unknown (between 6-600BC). New Delhi. tr. Van Hoy Publishers. Yasgur.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Bombay. 1994. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Edinburgh. 1942 (republished 1994). Edward C. Wellingborough. North Atlantic Books. 1989. 1988. . Vithoulkas. 1st edition. Tophi Books. Thorsons. Leeser. Twentyman. Herbert A. George. The Substance of Homœopathy. Sankaran. Tao te Ching. 1991. New Delhi. Notes on the Miasms. B Jain. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Whitmont. The Science of Homœopathy. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Greenville. Proceso Sanchez. Roberts. 1980. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Jay. Ralph. 2nd edition. Otto. 1994. 3rd edition. Psyche and Substance. 2nd edition. 1986. Unwin Paperbacks. 1935. Bombay. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. CA. London. New York. London. 1980. New Delhi. Berkeley. Dorset & Baber. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. 1985. Floris Books.