Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. the previously manifest. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. 1986. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. mentally. the vital force. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. In this sense. but also the past and future. and also the potential to manifest. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification.T.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms.J. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above.’ (Blackie. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. successful or unsuccessful. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. It treats the manifest. p14) . and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. which determines the individuals reaction. BY DR. emotionally and physically. to the stress of environment.

1842. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. p77). (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. … Unfortunately.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. Only in paragraph 136. as opposed to common. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. phlegmatic. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. but only in many different. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. 1935. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. p26) However.’ (Hahnemann. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. Most often. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. during its proving in the healthy state. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century.’ (Leeser. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. pviii) she states. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. choleric. 1988. He appears. the conception has also been misused. diverging body. which deals with provings. 1994.and soul-constitutions.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. 1935. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers.’ (Leeser. over the years. like any model. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined .

and oxygenoid. sulphuric. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. warm air. phosphoric. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser.’ (Gypser. 1994. the form or shape. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players.' (Leeser. 1987. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. endomorphs and ectomorphs. citing the various classifications of Czerny. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. . …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. p650 and Kent.’ (Gypser. to guide to a remedy. changes of weather. carbonitrogenoid. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. cold air. 1987. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. the tall or short. Pende. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. are not generally considered morbid. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. p651 and Kent. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. 1994. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. p272) And again. Kretschmer. phosphoric. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. for he may be better or worse from motion. Romero and Maranon. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. even accurately. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. as no two are sufficiently similar. p377. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. symptomatology. even when morbid. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. many during this period.

rather than remedy-based.’ (Ortega. the presentation of evidence. the division into syphilis. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. mode of living and weather influences. This has its basis in that. 1989. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. In contrast. however. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. Further. bilious. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. 1980.’ (Roberts. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. and finally. p171) Ortega. according to Hahnemann. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. sanguinous.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. by the influence of the milieu. regardless of the temperament. 1942.’ (Roberts.’ (Foubister. furthermore. 1942. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. the three . … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. fate. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. forming groups.

p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. However. 1986. So it seems likely. to categorise and deconstruct. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. It is . In such cases. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. However. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. complete cure will take a relatively long time. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. It is in our nature to group and dissect. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing.’ (Leeser. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns.’ (Vithoulkas. not patients. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. he writes purely about the classification of disease. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. 1935. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. 1993. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. As Yasgur states.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. (Close. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear.

Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. But as with any set of data. it is open to formulaic. in his inherited and evolving constitution. characteristic patterns. at base. D in Capra. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. the sickness’ (Ortega. p12) is what. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing.’ (Whitmont. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. Emphasis added. Built is something more than the well formed body. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. 1994.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. 1980. 1980.’ (Yasgur. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. 1983. In this state. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. or at least moderates. p45.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. Whitmont implies a fixity of . It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm.

old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. middle age. p112) However. If change does occur. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. 1994. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. individual body. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. youth. . rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. p27). 1991.’ (Sankaran. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. By this.response patterns which. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. mind and disease. we mean that each person has a specific. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion.

include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. It comprises the form patterns which their life. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. be it weight or number. by implication. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. in particular. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). Their very opposition can become a stimulus. there is no other than the body’s sensation. 1989. 1986.’ (Twentyman. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. but is greater than these. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. some to a greater extent than others. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. serving as directive. however.’ (Gutman. on another. you will not find. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. . inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. p12). This returns to Lao Tzu. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. a genuine challenge. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time.

7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. As they were at birth so they will remain. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . the only exception being orthodontics. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs.3) It is constant and immetable. which appeared to be fairly well determined. 10) No treatment can modify them. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation.

5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. perturbation of secretions.VON GRAUVOGL. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. . b) Calcarea phosphoric. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution.a) Calcarea carbonica. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. c) Calcarea flourica. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. the carbon. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. oxygen. hydrogen and nitrogen.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites.

Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum.Examples: Lycopodium.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. 2) The phosphoric type. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. Carbo Veg. hydropexic. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. c) He is easily affected by humidity. Thuja Occidentalis. Examples: Acid Nit. d) Retracted and emaciated.. 3) The fluoric type.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . swollen. retension of water in the cells. c) Easy demineralisation. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. Cuprum Met. & mucouses. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. b) Puffines.

• Stranger. • Vaulted. • Stubborn. • Square Or Sphere. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Thick skeleton. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Rigid articulation. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. . Thorax long and flat forward from behind. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Rachis supple.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Thick Set. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Detector. • Developed in width. • Reasonable.

• Horror of reality. • Easy vanity or dominating. of facts. Mentality: . • Does not like neither regularity nor rule.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Skin dry and cracked. • Superficial. • Asymmetric. • Sensitive. • Saddle backed. • The lower belly fall infront. Mentality: • Nervous. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Dreamer. • Imaginative. • Care for elegance. • Emotive. • Intuitive. • Distracted.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness.

the nature of the disease state. • Restless. • Horror of rules and of solitude. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Intuitive. • Easily vulgar. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament.• Unstable. Therefore. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. as well as environment conditioning factors. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Capricious. • Fantastic. . He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Disorderly. • Cannot continue. • Brilliant but unstable. • Versatile. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Cannot take any decision. • Rapid assimilation.

temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. In these investigations. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). befallments and symptoms. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. the potential causations including miasms. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. In truth. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] .There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. the physician should take into account the patient's . Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". In this sense. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms.

rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. 5. in chronic cases). venous. On this solid foundation the objective signs. loose or tight tissue types. the chronic miasms. lymphatic. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). rheumatic constitutions. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). Occupations. Sexual function. etc). The mental and emotional character. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. 4. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. unstable. etc. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. Rubrics related to these states are . It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. The discernible body constitution (especially. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. Age 7. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). nervous. short or fat. etc.1. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter".). Lifestyle and habits. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. strong. 2. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. a description of the physique (tall or thin.

. puberty. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. Lifestyle and habits. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. adolescence. 6. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Strictly speaking. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. childhood. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. rest. 4. sanguine. 5. These are cardinal general symptoms. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Some work well at both extremes of life. The critical times are conception. family relations. and old age. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. How a person relates to their mate. The occupation. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. phlegmatic. birth. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. Age. A person’s sexual ethics. children. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. 3. middle age. Civic and domestic relationships. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. friends. 7. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. Sex and sexuality. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex.

Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. Felt by the patient himself. disease signs. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. befallments and symptoms. "The unprejudiced observer. and 3. the physical constitution. that is. temperament. causation. Wesen. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. sexual performance. The disease-Gestalt is . mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. 8. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. That is. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. 7. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. essence. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. Perceived by those around him." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. 2. nature. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. Observed by the physician. which are: 1. causation.sexual fantasies. The time and progression. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. constitution. being – DL].

infection. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. mental and emotional temperament. 91. In this way. that is. single and multiple causations. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. predispositions. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. being . one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. As Hahnemann said. 92 & 175). the instinctive vital force. the spiritual. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. nature. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. susceptibility.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease.DL] of the disease. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. of the suffering of the life force. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. befallments and symptoms. inheritance.

quality. Turner’s Dictionary. to establish. to form or make up. however. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). Introduction. In this sense constitutional means. defines the German term. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. to make. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. . had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. "to procure. the spiritual-bodily organism. or inherent nature. The W. comes from the Latin root. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). and as an adjective it means. O'Reilly edition. page 12. "constituted". Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. make something available". What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. as nature. to appoint to give being to. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. the unity of life. disposition. to work". The root word "schaffen" means "to do. etc. This. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. condition. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. temper. beschaffenheit (make up). the make-up of the body & soul. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. the complete whole. which one calls disease.dynamic influence (§11). temperament. which means constitutes: to set up. constituere. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. laws of the organic constitution. constitution. our living human organism. Beschaffenheit. inherent in the natural frame. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. The English word. the bodily constitution. Beschaffen is a verb that means.

181. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. construction or nature. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. disposition and circumstance. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. 34. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 142. For example. 90. 99. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. 75. its constitution. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. . The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. 2. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 243. 1. 145. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 242. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. composition. 101. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen.constitution. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. Pages 30. 143. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 48. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. etc. 35. 98. 103. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. 3. Therefore. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German.

mind. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature.g. (§ 9.g. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. 11." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition.. B. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . that is. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. vital force and body. a unity. Lebenskraft). 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. "Organism: An organized or organic system. Dudgeon and Boericke. No part can suffer without all other parts. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. page 194. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. which is more than the sum of its parts. Jain. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. One does not appear without the other. every manifestation of power. emotional and bodily faculties. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). the event itself. Delhi. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself.. it comprises of the body. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. Appendix. Every sensation. The human organism houses the mental. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites.

but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. 1833. its branches in Paracelsus. "The employment of this. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . as of all other medicines. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura.teachings on temperaments. 3rd edition. and its fruit in Hahnemann. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. its trunk in Hippocrates. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. page 345. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. physis. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura.

Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. silent peevishness). Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. This portrait includes natural. and are quick in their movements.resolutions with rapidity. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. even though they may appear to be good tempered. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. For example. which means "who": . In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. Ms. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". this is not the complete picture. slow phlegmatic temperament). This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. mild. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. positive and negative qualities. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing.

separated according to his sick and his well days i. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention."Quis? As a matter of course the personality." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . if a formerly obese. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a .e. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. jovial person becomes thin.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. which must be scanned all the more carefully. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice.. nature and genius) in The Organon. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. but also of rare occurrence and. therefore. For example. correspond to only few remedies. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. both if possible. if they are not only sharply distinct. Therefore. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. for the natural disposition rests on it. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. Therefore.

1750. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. Junker makes . p. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. Volume I. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. also other indurations. This is the true Esse. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. also by inflammatory fever. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. 15-18. This same is true with sycosis. Halle. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). pseudopsora. attended with deep. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. burning pains. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. Vide The Chronic Diseases. the menses were delayed. page 17. the menses disappear prematurely. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche).

temperare. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. rare and peculiar. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. general appearance of anything.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. heredity. .. mind and body. Temperament from Latin. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. gnomon-onos. compound. This 2. predisposition. phlegmatic. an interpreter. restrain. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. befallments and symptoms. and constitution. these symptoms become more strange. miasms and constitutional diathesis. temperament. For example. nature. character. esp. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types.physiognomy. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. from the face. moderate. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. to temper. If this is not the case." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. as well as the present state of the spirit. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. aspectGreek. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. the art of judging character from the appearance. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases.

Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. the phlegmo-choleric.choleric. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. the sangino-phlegmatic. an internal constitutional state. and the nervo-sanguine. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. the nervo-phlegmatic. to exert self control. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. Temper-noun. the five elements (ether. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. temperament. the phlegmosanguine. an innate or acquired disposition. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. Each of these temperaments represents . Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). composure. to be uncontrolled. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. the constitution of the body and/or mind. water. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). Constitution. a frame of mind. the choleric or bilious. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. voice. a fit of anger. nervo. a mood. the sanguino. the cholero-sanguine. air.choleric. phlegmatic. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. a proportioned mixture of qualities. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). The four major constitutions are called the choleric. phlegmatic. the cholero-nervous. the spiritual body organism. a natural temperament.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. a natural disposition. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. pitch and mood) by the vital force. fire. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities.

wicked irascible disposition. sanguine and nervous melancholic. page 223. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. always irritable and impatient. Debauches." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. the choleric. Drug subjects. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . hot temperament." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. I (4) is the second grade. or of a malicious. lecture on Nux Vomica. "II. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. spite or deception. For very particular. or of a spiteful. Bilious temperaments. Suits thin. Among these may be mentioned. nervous disposition. I. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. thin. II. malicious disposition. fiery. etc. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. zealous persons. Nervous. "Some practical instructions may be of use. irritable. with tendency to hemorrhoids. troubled with indigestion. (hepatic affections) I. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. inclined to get angry or excited. composure. II. Vide Materia Medica Pura. of an irritable. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. zealous. melancholic people. state. mood. page 168. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. Nux Vomica. Vide Guiding Symptoms. venous constitution. II. II.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. choleric persons with dark hair. Volume VIII. phlegmatic. II. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait.

diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). blond haired. bilious. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. coffee. One might ask. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. These are all constitutional general rubrics. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. with quick perceptions. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. miasmic tendencies. §5. nervous anxious temperaments. . Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. fine. delicate eyelashes. (addicted to wine. impatient. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle.6. mental rubrics (angry. irritable. melancholic. Boenninghausen and Hering. spiteful. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. blond or red hair. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. dark hair). This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. nervous dispositions with their traits). mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. hepatic affections). and very sensitive nature. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). chilly. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. habits. fair skin.7). indigestion.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. thin. dry. physical descriptions (thin. choleric.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". etc). choleric persons. drugs). Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. On this constitutional basis the signs. Allen includes temperaments. dark. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament.

Dislikes chilled foods. fat or thin. candy. Finds it difficult to control emotions.The Argent Nit. preferred type of clothing and so on. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. under or overweight. May react badly to new situations like moving house. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. such as how they respond to noise. B. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. if they are bright and alert in the morning. lazy etc. hair colour. so B will be the best remedy. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. sad. Readily laughs. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. The Argent Nit. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. cries and loses temper. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Physical factors are also important. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Type . Eyes. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. For example. hair type. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Alb. The Arsen. or C. long or short limbed. Often anxious and worried. salt and cheese. Prone to bedwetting. Digestive system. confident. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. their eye colour.tearful. Ailments tend to the left side. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed.

. Exhaustion. delicate skin. Skin. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Skin. The Arsen. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Teeth. may manifest as back ache. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Perfectionist at work and at home. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Easily upset by loud noise. Skeletal system. Sluggish. warm foods and drinks. in particular coffee. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Alb. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Can worry overly about parent’s well being.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. candy. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Strong opinions. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Types. nose and throat. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Digestive system. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. sensitive and quiet. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. bloated and tired in appearance. The Calc. Respiratory system (coughs. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Can be critical and intolerant. Prone to depression. Carb. Often well groomed and stylish. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Alb. Dislikes mess and being messy. Fine facial features with fine. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. keeps room tidy. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age.

The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Dislikes sweet foods. Can have a rugged. Possible difficulty in . Prone to dark circles under eyes. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. The Calc. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Physical weaknesses: Skin. usually dark. Slow metabolic rate. carbohydrates. Blushes easily. Carb. Can fall over easily. Dislikes fatty meats. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. such as vegetables and salads. May have rough. Dark to mid range colour hair. The Graphites type like savoury foods. salt. iced drinks and ice cream. Ears. hesitant and anxious. salt. Sighs a lot. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. Type. Timid. tearful and despondent then impatient. child: Plump and overweight. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Not an early morning person. Flaky scalp. nose bleeds. Dry lips. Dry hair. Possible mood swings. Nails. candy. prone to suppression of grief. have bad breath. Carb. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Rapid and extreme mood swings. boiled food and boiled milk. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. windswept appearance. dry skin that can crack easily. seafood and hot drinks. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Not always willing to change habits and routines. eggs. be exhausted. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Placid and calm. chocolate. desserts.

The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Jealous and possessive. varicose veins. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. leading to headaches. bad sleep and insomnia. coughs and colds. The Lycopodium Type . Responds well to encouragment. sore throats. crying and poor grades at school. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Strong. Hyperactivity. constipation. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. twitching and grinding teeth. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. sore throats and asthma. sore throat. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. May view self as sinful when religious. Dislikes sweet foods. fixed expression. Dislikes sweet drinks. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. staring eyes. especially new babies. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Prefers not to be alone. can be hurtful to peers. cool drinks. carbohydrates. palpitations and panic attacks. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. menopausal problems. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. alcohol and seafood. May lick lips a lot. Suspicious of strangers. sour and savoury foods. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Strong. choughs. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. causing outbursts of anger. dairy products. Talkative. May be sensitive to noise. May experience headaches. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. excitable and sensitive. Prone to left-side problems.

Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Insecure and hates change. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity.The Merc. Often look older than their years. Shy and cautious. Sol. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Susceptible to ear nose and . Facial twitching. Dislikes wearing light clothing. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. May explode with rage and anger. prostate. garlic and seafood. with grey translucent look. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Hates being contradicted. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. male baldness. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. child: Irritating behaviour. Conscientious and achiever academically. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. swelling of glands and exhaustion. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Thinning hair in men. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Hair may be fair to medium colour. May stammer. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Forgetful. Right-side problems. sore throats. onions. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. kidney stones. Anxious over important events. Type Appearance: Medium build. Sol. Avoids commitment.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. creating mountains out of molehills. The Merc.

Dislikes coffee and bread. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. anorexia. The Nat. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. May look stressed and tense. Depression. May have cravings for alcohol. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Ages prematurely. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. especially when young. fear. Intolerant of imperfection in others. strong and lean build in men. which can lead to depression. mur. Loves animals. cigarettes. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. premenstrual syndrome. Can be addicted to sex. Impatient. Slow development. Medium to dark hair. skin problems. palpitations and headaches. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. May suffer from headaches under pressure. mur. The Nat. coffee. guilt and loneliness. Well behaved. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. red eyes. Watery. Finds it difficult to relax. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. mur. Smart appearance. type may be professional and career minded. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. May have dark circles under eyes. Dry cracked lips.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. Solid. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates.throat complaints. anger. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Can be very ambitious. child: Small for their age. . Down to Earth with mind set on career. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system.

Artistic and creative in appearance. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. alcohol. cheese and cream. Competitive as a teenager. alcohol. The Pulsatilla Type . Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Left-side problems. mild cheeses and sweet foods. carbonated drinks. Circulation problems. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Short attention span. Coughs and colds. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Dizziness. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Loves to receive attention. coffee and spicy foods. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Migraines and headaches. Expressive. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Nervous. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Strong fear of the dark. spicy food. Hernia and hay fever. Likes to be stylish. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. Fine skin. Can be hard work for partner. Can have fair to dark hair. Feels better after sleep. Headaches. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. May have temper tantrums. Weakness of the lungs. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. salt. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions.

Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Can suppress guilt and anger. Styes. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Skin problems. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Often rests with hands behind head.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. spicy foods. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Blushes easily. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Irritable bowel syndrome. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. . Sensitive to changes in the weather. Also laughs easily. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Prone to coughs and colds. Can look younger than actual age. and very rich. Avoids confrontation. often with brown eyes. Hates being contradicted. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Gentle and kind appearance. Cries easily. Varicose veins. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Loves animals. Catarrh. Skin problems. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. cold foods and cold drinks. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Likes to be supported by others. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. as holds strong opinions. tragic news or weepy movies. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Can feel better after weeping. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Headaches and migraine. Often sits with legs crossed. Medium to dark hair. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed.

Dislikes dairy products. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Dislikes meet and dairy products. especially cheese and milk. fine features. Moody. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Feels the cold. Does not like being alone. moves and new jobs. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. especially milk.Dietary factors: Likes spices. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Prone to mental exhaustion. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. apart from large head. especially due to burnout from new projects. almost doll-like in appearance. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Dislikes very hot food. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Constipation. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Not sporty as has little stamina. The head can appear too large for the body. citrus fruits. Feels the cold. sweet foods and alcohol. The Sepia child: Greedy. Prone to constipation. Can become a bedwetter. The Sulphur Type . Can be shy. with petite appearance. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Usually tidy and well behaved. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Exhaustion. with a large forehead. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Skin problems. Slowness in healing and getting well. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Headaches. sour and savoury foods. Delicate.

Likes to argue. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. temperament.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. May lack willpower and self-esteem. hot. Dislikes dairy products. especially milk and eggs. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . body odour. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. salads and seafood. Does not like showers.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. bathing or washing hands. Has a very healthy appetite. heredity. Can be hyperactive in the evening. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. Can be critical. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Vide Organon. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. spicy foods. Hair may be course. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Dislikes most hot drinks. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. May look untidy. Might not complete ideas and projects. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. disposition. dry. haemorrhoids and constipation. burning feet. Likes alcohol. citrus fruits.

Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses.feelings and functions. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. Lamarck. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. "The true. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. they mount until the end of life. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. Therefore." Note 78. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. heart . This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. who is considered the founder of modern genetics." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct.

he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases.and body. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. incubation period. a moment of infection. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. 1. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. He points out that mental and . However. i. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. Second. First of all. 2. implanted in them through infection or heredity. were completely vanished. and especially through inexpedient. He classified miasms into three categories. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. prodromal stage and primary. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. 3. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. grief and worry. the acute. Third. On this basis. by contact with the infected host.e. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm.. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. medicinal treatment.

Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. hereditary dispositions. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. and. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. the mental temperament. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. inheritance. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. is announced by the increase of the . Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. habits. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. predisposition and diathesis.

[Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. diet. deviate so greatly from one another. his employment. The next most important factors are environment. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. in and of themselves. thus attaining incredible proliferation.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. his hereditary disposition. his morality. etc. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. little by little. the various errors in his education and habits. which already. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . his manner of living and diet. climate. to some extent. etc. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). " It is. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). diet and stress (nurture). morals. his turn of mind. For these reasons. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. befallments and symptoms. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms.

. diathesis. etc. lymphatic.e. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. diathesis. psoric. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. venous. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. From the Greek. i. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. 2. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. and/or mind. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. scrofulous. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. leucophlegmatic. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. 1. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. 3. sycotic. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. DIATHESIS. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture.

.. constitutions. constitutions. Lyc. Carb-v. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy.. Cann-i. ars. Hep.. constitutions. Bar-m. Lean. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. constitutions. dulc. constitutions. and their similar remedies. aster. thuj. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice.. constitutions. Lymphatic. Emaciated constitutions. Sep. Gouty. constitutions. CALC. Example: "Lymphatic.... aur-m.. FERR. Large fat. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state.. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. lax. Petr.. Fibre rigid. constitutions. phos. BELL.. BAR-C. Puls.. GRAPH. calc-ar. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. kalm. Chin." 2. . Nat-m. people. murx. constitutions -am-c... Tall lean. arn. Paralytic. constitutions.. Rhus-t. Scrofulous..... nit-ac.. constitutions. Apis. constitutions. bloated. Asthmatic constitutions. Fibre. Hemorrhagic. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Venous. MERC.. constitution.. Tubercular.. Sil. 1.. Dwarfish. Hysterical. Sulph. thin people. For example. Plethoric.. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. bapt. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. constitutions.

. BRY.. MERC.. acon... berb... constitutions. NUX V.. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). OP." 3. calc-p. bor.. ars.constitutions.. euph. Petr.. Benz-ac.. constitutions. constitutions. Sil.. Phyt.. bar-c. Psoric. constitutions. SABAD. sep. constitutions. CHIN... Aesc. ptel. diathetic states and miasms... Still.. iris.... Sars.. Example: "SYPHILITIC. Choleric... cann-i. chion. Bilious. Guai. lept.. Kali-b.. Bell. constitutions. Fl-ac.. constitutions. ferr-i. hep.. Tubercular. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and .. Crot-h. Sycotic constitutions. cinnam. sulph... Merc-d.. KALI-C.. Melancholic. constitutions and their remedies. Sanguine constitutions. and their similar remedies.. SYPH. Example: "Fibre.. Phos. constitutions-Ars. constitutions-agar... Sil. Clem. Ip.... temperament. Cor-r.... NIT-AC. sang.. AUR. mag-m. CARD-M. ant-t.. Phos.. Mercc. nat-s." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. constitutions. ambr.. These are general symptoms of the constitution.. Nervous.. Sulph. lax... cund. PSOS....." Rubrics related to the miasms include. chol. plat. Thuj. Ph-ac.. CHEL. Merc. Caps.... Merc-i-f. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. Lach. CALC.. MAG-C. PHOS..... spong.. KALI-I. Phlegmatic. Cocc. ant-c.... Syphilitic...... Mez. Puls. Example: "Bilious. MERC. ail.... aec-t. Cham.

temperament. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. temperament. or of the Copaiva balm. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. For example. or a small dose of Cannabis. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. the footnote on page 150. The Chronic Diseases.conditioning factors. Vide Sycosis. diathesis and miasms. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. inheritance. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. susceptibility. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. of Cantharides. susceptibility. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. miasms and diathesis.

phlegmatic. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Churchill Livingstone. Beaconsfield Publishers. Beaconsfield Publishers. B Jain. Borland. Madrid. 1994. 1988. Donald McD. . Cambridge. (b) 1996 tr. befallments and symptoms. New Remedies. Klaus-Henning. 1986. 1986. The Genius of Homœopathy. Tokyo. James Tyler. William. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Samuel. Stuart. Kent. Dudgeon (republished 1994). 1988. Clinical Cases. Classical Homœopathy. Melbourne. Gypser. Brewster O’Reilly. 1987 (republished 1988). etc. C M Boger Collected Writings. the Essence of its Remedies. Close.choleric. 1994. Capra. Gutman. 1842. Beaconsfield. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Beaconsfield. Edinburgh. (a) 1922 tr. Beaconsfield. Foubister. WA. New York. sanguine and nervous temperaments. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. ed. Redmond. Homœopathy in Practice. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. 1989. The Tao of Physics. B Jain. Lesser Writings. Fritjoff. Decker. B Jain. The Organon of Medicine. London. 1954 (republished 1994). B Jain. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. New Delhi. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Aphorisms and Precepts. B Jain. Robert. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Flamingo. Douglas. W&R Chambers. New Delhi. ed. Hahnemann. 5th edition. Beaconsfield Publishers. signs. Blackie. London. New Delhi. Chambers English Dictionary. Wenda. 1983. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Birdcage Books. New Delhi. Margery. 6th edition. Bombay. 1993. New Delhi. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states.

CA. 1935. 1979. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Otto. Psyche and Substance. 1994. 1985. 1994. Yasgur. Unwin Paperbacks. Bombay. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. 1989. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Proceso Sanchez. Dorset & Baber. George. 2nd edition. 1980. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Roberts. tr. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Wellingborough. New Delhi. New York. Twentyman. Sankaran. Ralph. 3rd edition. Notes on the Miasms. Berkeley. Bombay. New Delhi. Vithoulkas. Jay. Rajan. Leeser. 1942 (republished 1994). The Science and Art of Healing. Van Hoy Publishers. Thorsons. . London. B Jain. 1991. 1986. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. 1988.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. 2nd edition. 1st edition. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Edward C. Floris Books. New Delhi. Greenville. Tophi Books. Whitmont. 1980. Ortega. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Unknown (between 6-600BC). London. North Atlantic Books. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Tao te Ching. Edinburgh. The Science of Homœopathy. The Substance of Homœopathy. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. PA. B Jain. Herbert A.

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