Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. successful or unsuccessful. but also the past and future. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. and also the potential to manifest. BY DR.J.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. emotionally and physically. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy.’ (Blackie. to the stress of environment. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). the vital force. 1986. which determines the individuals reaction. mentally. the previously manifest. It treats the manifest. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above.T. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. p14) . INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. In this sense. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease.

The four traditional temperament types (melancholic.and soul-constitutions. over the years. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. … Unfortunately.’ (Hahnemann. Only in paragraph 136. p77). choleric. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. p26) However.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. which deals with provings.’ (Leeser. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. diverging body. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. but only in many different. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. 1988. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. 1842. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa.’ (Leeser. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. pviii) she states. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. Most often. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. 1994. 1935. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . 1935. the conception has also been misused. as opposed to common. phlegmatic. during its proving in the healthy state. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. He appears. like any model.

' ( many during this period. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. 1994. Romero and Maranon. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. p650 and Kent. warm air. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. and oxygenoid. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. 1994. 1987. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. .’ (Gypser. Pende. Kretschmer. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. cold air. for he may be better or worse from motion. citing the various classifications of Czerny. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. p272) And again. phosphoric. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. endomorphs and ectomorphs. p651 and Kent. even accurately. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. the tall or short. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. as no two are sufficiently similar. carbonitrogenoid. the form or shape. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. changes of weather. phosphoric. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. even when morbid. to guide to a remedy. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. 1935. are not generally considered morbid.’ (Gypser. sulphuric. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. p377. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. symptomatology. 1987.

mode of living and weather influences. furthermore. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. p171) Ortega. 1942. rather than remedy-based. fate. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. 1942. the division into syphilis.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. In contrast. bilious.’ (Foubister. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. however. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. This has its basis in that. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. according to Hahnemann. forming groups. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology.’ (Roberts. the three .’ (Ortega. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. 1980. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. 1989. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. sanguinous. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. regardless of the temperament.’ (Roberts. the presentation of evidence. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. Further. by the influence of the milieu. and finally.

to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. However. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. (Close. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. complete cure will take a relatively long time. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. not patients.’ (Leeser. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. 1986. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. he writes purely about the classification of disease. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. to categorise and deconstruct. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. As Yasgur states. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. However. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. 1993. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. 1935. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear.’ (Vithoulkas. It is . ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. In such cases. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. So it seems likely. It is in our nature to group and dissect. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils.

It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. characteristic patterns. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. 1980. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. 1980. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. But as with any set of data. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. the sickness’ (Ortega. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. it is open to formulaic. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations.’ (Yasgur. Emphasis added. p12) is what. Whitmont implies a fixity of . CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. 1994. D in Capra. in his inherited and evolving constitution. In this state. at base. or at least moderates.’ (Whitmont. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. Built is something more than the well formed body. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. 1983.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. p45.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique.

we mean that each person has a specific. mind and disease. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. p27). In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. 1991. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. youth. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. 1994. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. individual body. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. . middle age. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion.response patterns which. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution.’ (Sankaran. By this. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. If change does occur. p112) However. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world.

inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. in particular. however. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. This returns to Lao Tzu. you will not find.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. a genuine challenge. 1986. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. on another. there is no other than the body’s sensation. 1989. be it weight or number. serving as directive.’ (Gutman. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. but is greater than these. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. some to a greater extent than others. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time.’ (Twentyman. by implication. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). . It comprises the form patterns which their life. p12).

study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation.3) It is constant and immetable. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. which appeared to be fairly well determined. 10) No treatment can modify them. As they were at birth so they will remain. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. the only exception being orthodontics.

oxygen. c) Calcarea flourica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. hydrogen and nitrogen. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy.a) Calcarea carbonica. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution.VON GRAUVOGL. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. . b) Calcarea phosphoric.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. the carbon. perturbation of secretions. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter.

 THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: .Examples: Lycopodium. hydropexic. swollen.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. & mucouses. c) Easy demineralisation. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. Carbo Veg. c) He is easily affected by humidity. Thuja Occidentalis.. Examples: Acid Nit. Cuprum Met. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. 2) The phosphoric type. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. retension of water in the cells. 3) The fluoric type. B) According to a French homoeopath DR.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. d) Retracted and emaciated. b) Puffines.

• Stubborn.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Thick skeleton. • Square Or Sphere. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Vaulted. • Thick Set. • Stranger. • Developed in width. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Rigid articulation. • Rachis supple. • Detector. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. . • • Predominance of the cranium. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Reasonable.

Mentality: . • Imaginative. • Asymmetric. • Distracted. • The lower belly fall infront. • Care for elegance. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Superficial. • Saddle backed. • Horror of reality. • Dreamer.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Emotive. • Sensitive. • Intuitive. of facts.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Skin dry and cracked. Mentality: • Nervous. • Easy vanity or dominating.

All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time.• Unstable. • Horror of rules and of solitude. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. . • Fantastic. as well as environment conditioning factors. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Rapid assimilation. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Restless. • Disorderly. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Capricious. • Intuitive. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. the nature of the disease state. • Easily vulgar. • Cannot continue. Therefore. • Brilliant but unstable. • Versatile. • Cannot take any decision.

In this sense. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". befallments and symptoms. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). the physician should take into account the patient's . One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. In these investigations. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. the potential causations including miasms. In truth.

This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. The mental and emotional character. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). On this solid foundation the objective signs. etc. strong. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). Lifestyle and habits. Sexual function. Rubrics related to these states are . rheumatic constitutions. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. lymphatic. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). 2. 5. nervous. Age 7. etc. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. venous. unstable. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. 4. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. The discernible body constitution (especially. in chronic cases). loose or tight tissue types. short or fat. etc).1. the chronic miasms. Occupations. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. a description of the physique (tall or thin. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6.).

These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. children. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Civic and domestic relationships. 4. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. 5. These are cardinal general symptoms. Lifestyle and habits. friends. The occupation.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. Strictly speaking. phlegmatic. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. Some work well at both extremes of life. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. sanguine. Age. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. . and old age. The critical times are conception. 3. family relations. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. Sex and sexuality. A person’s sexual ethics. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. 6. 7. middle age. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. childhood. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. puberty. adolescence. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. birth. rest. How a person relates to their mate. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet.

sexual fantasies. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. The disease-Gestalt is . All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. essence. the physical constitution. Observed by the physician. Felt by the patient himself. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. nature. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. and 3. temperament. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. being – DL]. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. 8. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. disease signs. 2. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. "The unprejudiced observer. sexual performance. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. The time and progression. that is. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. That is. 7. Wesen. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. befallments and symptoms." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). causation. causation. constitution. which are: 1. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. Perceived by those around him.

infection. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. As Hahnemann said. 92 & 175). The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. befallments and symptoms. being . inheritance.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. predispositions. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. susceptibility. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. 91. of the suffering of the life force. mental and emotional temperament. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). single and multiple causations. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . nature. the spiritual. the instinctive vital force. that is.DL] of the disease. In this way.

which means constitutes: to set up. constitution. inherent in the natural frame. the bodily constitution. O'Reilly edition. as nature. to make. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. Beschaffenheit. our living human organism. "constituted". Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. to form or make up. or inherent nature. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. The W. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. the make-up of the body & soul. The English word. disposition. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". the spiritual-bodily organism. temperament. to appoint to give being to. does not reflect all the usages of the German term.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. laws of the organic constitution. which one calls disease. temper. "to procure. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). quality.dynamic influence (§11). condition. Turner’s Dictionary. Introduction. defines the German term. page 12. to establish. . Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. to work". the complete whole. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. constituere. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. This. the unity of life. however. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. Beschaffen is a verb that means. make something available". The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. comes from the Latin root. In this sense constitutional means. etc. beschaffenheit (make up). and as an adjective it means.

A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. 48. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. . This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. 101. 75. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. 145. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. 181. etc. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages.constitution. 143. Pages 30. For example. 242. its constitution. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 99. composition. 98. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. which means the congenital bodily constitution. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. 90. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 3. 103. 142. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. 243. 34. 2. 35. 1. construction or nature. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". disposition and circumstance. Therefore.

India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). page 194. Jain. Every sensation. every manifestation of power. Dudgeon and Boericke. Appendix. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. which is more than the sum of its parts. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. The human organism houses the mental.. that is. (§ 9." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. "Organism: An organized or organic system. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. Lebenskraft). the ability to become more seasoned through provings). wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. mind. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. emotional and bodily faculties. the event itself. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e.g.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. One does not appear without the other. B. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Delhi.g. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. it comprises of the body. a unity.. vital force and body. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. 11. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. No part can suffer without all other parts. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind).

This example includes the use of classical temperaments. its trunk in Hippocrates. and its fruit in Hahnemann. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. its branches in Paracelsus. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. as of all other medicines. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. page 345. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. 1833. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. physis. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. 3rd edition. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura.teachings on temperaments. "The employment of this.

This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". slow phlegmatic temperament). Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. positive and negative qualities. this is not the complete picture. and are quick in their movements. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Ms. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. which means "who": . positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". even though they may appear to be good tempered.resolutions with rapidity. For example. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. mild. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. silent peevishness). In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. This portrait includes natural. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms.

The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. correspond to only few remedies. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice.e. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. Therefore. therefore. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". jovial person becomes thin. but also of rare occurrence and. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. nature and genius) in The Organon.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. if they are not only sharply distinct. which must be scanned all the more carefully.. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. both if possible. if a formerly obese. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. for the natural disposition rests on it. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. separated according to his sick and his well days i. For example. Therefore. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. then the bodily constitution and the temperament.

Junker makes . Halle. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. also other indurations. the menses were delayed. This is the true Esse. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). attended with deep. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. pseudopsora. This same is true with sycosis. p. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. burning pains. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. also by inflammatory fever. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. Volume I. 15-18. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. page 17. Vide The Chronic Diseases. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. the menses disappear prematurely. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. 1750.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression.

Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. mind and body. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. character. phlegmatic. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. This 2. moderate. miasms and constitutional diathesis. befallments and symptoms. . aspectGreek. as well as the present state of the spirit. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. rare and peculiar. If this is not the case. temperament. an interpreter. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. For example. from the face..a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. gnomon-onos. these symptoms become more strange. predisposition. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. compound. restrain. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. to temper. temperare." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. nature.physiognomy. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. and constitution. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. esp. Temperament from Latin. heredity. general appearance of anything. the art of judging character from the appearance.

a fit of anger. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. the sangino-phlegmatic. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). the cholero-nervous. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). the sanguino. the cholero-sanguine. the choleric or bilious. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture.choleric. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. fire. temperament. voice. a mood. a natural temperament. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. to exert self control. the constitution of the body and/or mind. an internal constitutional state. a frame of mind. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. nervo. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). a natural disposition. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the nervo-phlegmatic. an innate or acquired disposition. and the nervo-sanguine. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. pitch and mood) by the vital force. a proportioned mixture of qualities. Temper-noun. Constitution. phlegmatic. composure. phlegmatic. the phlegmosanguine. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. water. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. the spiritual body organism. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. to be uncontrolled. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. the five elements (ether. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. the phlegmo-choleric.choleric. Each of these temperaments represents . air.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities.

choleric persons with dark hair. or of a spiteful. "Some practical instructions may be of use. Among these may be mentioned. I." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. II. Vide Materia Medica Pura. For very particular. state. or of a malicious. venous constitution. Vide Guiding Symptoms. melancholic people. composure. etc. I (4) is the second grade. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. phlegmatic. Nervous.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Drug subjects. II. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. sanguine and nervous melancholic. malicious disposition. inclined to get angry or excited. of an irritable. hot temperament. "II. fiery. Bilious temperaments. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. Debauches. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. troubled with indigestion. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. Volume VIII. wicked irascible disposition. (hepatic affections) I. II. thin. the choleric. II. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. page 168. Suits thin. irritable. spite or deception. Nux Vomica. zealous. page 223. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. always irritable and impatient. lecture on Nux Vomica. zealous persons. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. II. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. mood. nervous disposition. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life.

blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. On this constitutional basis the signs. . choleric persons. indigestion. blond or red hair. mental rubrics (angry. drugs). what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. physical descriptions (thin. impatient.7). irritable.6. melancholic.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. thin. These are all constitutional general rubrics. choleric. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). dry. blond haired. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. delicate eyelashes. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. chilly. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. fair skin. bilious. Allen includes temperaments.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". hepatic affections). diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. with quick perceptions. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. etc). Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. nervous dispositions with their traits). coffee. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. One might ask. fine. §5. habits. miasmic tendencies. spiteful. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. and very sensitive nature. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. (addicted to wine. dark. nervous anxious temperaments. Boenninghausen and Hering. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. dark hair).

May react badly to new situations like moving house. so B will be the best remedy. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. long or short limbed. candy. For example. fat or thin. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. lazy etc. Eyes. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. hair colour. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself.tearful.The Argent Nit. under or overweight. The Arsen. such as how they respond to noise. Dislikes chilled foods. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Physical factors are also important. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. cries and loses temper. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Prone to bedwetting. confident. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. salt and cheese. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Alb. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. The Argent Nit. or C. sad. preferred type of clothing and so on. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. Readily laughs. Ailments tend to the left side. hair type. B. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Type . Digestive system. Often anxious and worried. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. their eye colour. if they are bright and alert in the morning.

Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Types. in particular coffee. Easily upset by loud noise. Digestive system. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Respiratory system (coughs. sensitive and quiet. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. The Calc. Prone to depression. Carb. The Arsen. candy.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. keeps room tidy. Strong opinions. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Can have a deep fear of being alone. nose and throat. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Exhaustion. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Teeth. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. delicate skin. Skeletal system. may manifest as back ache. Skin. Fine facial features with fine. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. warm foods and drinks. Perfectionist at work and at home. Alb. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Dislikes mess and being messy. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. . Dislikes large amount of fluid. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Sluggish. Often well groomed and stylish. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Can be critical and intolerant. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. bloated and tired in appearance. Alb. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Skin. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%.

Physical weaknesses: Skin. Sighs a lot. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. iced drinks and ice cream. Carb. May have rough. Blushes easily. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Possible difficulty in . Dry hair. candy. be exhausted. such as vegetables and salads. Dislikes sweet foods. Timid. May often have sores in corner of mouth. The Calc. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. child: Plump and overweight. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. salt. Can fall over easily. have bad breath. Type. Possible mood swings. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Nails. eggs. hesitant and anxious. Placid and calm. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Dislikes fatty meats. Carb. nose bleeds. salt. Dark to mid range colour hair. Not an early morning person. desserts. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Can have a rugged. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Not always willing to change habits and routines. windswept appearance. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. prone to suppression of grief. dry skin that can crack easily. tearful and despondent then impatient. usually dark. Slow metabolic rate. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Rapid and extreme mood swings. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. carbohydrates. Flaky scalp. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Ears. Dry lips. chocolate. boiled food and boiled milk. seafood and hot drinks.

leading to headaches. May lick lips a lot. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. coughs and colds. May experience headaches. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Prefers not to be alone. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. The Lycopodium Type . sore throats and asthma. staring eyes. fixed expression. Jealous and possessive. Talkative. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. bad sleep and insomnia. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Hyperactivity. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. twitching and grinding teeth. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. dairy products. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. sore throat. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. choughs.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Prone to left-side problems. cool drinks. sore throats. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Dislikes sweet drinks. menopausal problems. constipation. varicose veins. excitable and sensitive. May be sensitive to noise. can be hurtful to peers. May view self as sinful when religious. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). sour and savoury foods. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Strong. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. causing outbursts of anger. palpitations and panic attacks. Strong. crying and poor grades at school. carbohydrates. Suspicious of strangers. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Dislikes sweet foods. Responds well to encouragment. especially new babies.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. alcohol and seafood.

The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. male baldness. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Thinning hair in men. May explode with rage and anger. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Insecure and hates change. Dislikes wearing light clothing. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Type Appearance: Medium build. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Forgetful. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Sol.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. The Merc. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. sore throats. Conscientious and achiever academically. Shy and cautious. Right-side problems. Anxious over important events. Avoids commitment. Sol. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. creating mountains out of molehills. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Hates being contradicted. May stammer. child: Irritating behaviour. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. prostate.The Merc. Susceptible to ear nose and . Facial twitching. with grey translucent look. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. garlic and seafood. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. kidney stones. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. swelling of glands and exhaustion. onions. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Often look older than their years. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome.

Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. . May have cravings for alcohol. Depression. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. The Nat. Slow development. red eyes. anger. The Nat. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. anorexia. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. type may be professional and career minded. which can lead to depression. cigarettes. Dislikes coffee and bread. mouth ulcers and cold sores. mur. fear. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. May look stressed and tense. Can be very ambitious. guilt and loneliness. Impatient. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. May suffer from headaches under pressure. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. strong and lean build in men. Watery.throat complaints. Dry cracked lips. Medium to dark hair. mur. May have dark circles under eyes. palpitations and headaches. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. especially when young. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. child: Small for their age. Smart appearance.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. Ages prematurely. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Finds it difficult to relax. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Can be addicted to sex. Intolerant of imperfection in others. skin problems. premenstrual syndrome. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Well behaved. Solid. coffee. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. mur. Loves animals.

Can be hard work for partner. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Loves to receive attention. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Coughs and colds. Headaches. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Can have fair to dark hair.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Circulation problems. Dizziness. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Migraines and headaches. Artistic and creative in appearance. cheese and cream. carbonated drinks. Left-side problems. Nervous. Likes to be stylish. Strong fear of the dark. Feels better after sleep. coffee and spicy foods. Hernia and hay fever. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. salt. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Expressive. The Pulsatilla Type . spicy food. Short attention span. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Fine skin. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. alcohol. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Weakness of the lungs. May have temper tantrums. alcohol. Competitive as a teenager. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Can suppress guilt and anger. Skin problems. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Medium to dark hair. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Styes. Headaches and migraine. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Can look younger than actual age. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. . Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Varicose veins. Cries easily. as holds strong opinions. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. tragic news or weepy movies. Also laughs easily. cold foods and cold drinks. Blushes easily. Avoids confrontation. Loves animals. often with brown eyes. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Hates being contradicted. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Skin problems. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Can feel better after weeping. Irritable bowel syndrome. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Prone to coughs and colds. Likes to be supported by others. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. spicy foods. Often rests with hands behind head. and very rich. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Gentle and kind appearance. Often sits with legs crossed. Catarrh.

Slowness in healing and getting well. especially due to burnout from new projects. citrus fruits. Can be shy. Constipation. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. moves and new jobs. Exhaustion. Skin problems. Dislikes dairy products. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Can become a bedwetter. The Sepia child: Greedy. Prone to mental exhaustion. Moody. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Feels the cold. almost doll-like in appearance. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. fine features. sweet foods and alcohol. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. sour and savoury foods. Dislikes very hot food. Delicate. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Prone to constipation. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Not sporty as has little stamina. Does not like being alone. Feels the cold. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. especially milk. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. with a large forehead. Usually tidy and well behaved.Dietary factors: Likes spices. especially cheese and milk. apart from large head. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Headaches. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. with petite appearance. The head can appear too large for the body. The Sulphur Type .

May look untidy. May lack willpower and self-esteem. heredity. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Does not like showers. Has a very healthy appetite. especially milk and eggs. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. bathing or washing hands. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. disposition. body odour. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. haemorrhoids and constipation. Dislikes dairy products. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Likes alcohol. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. hot. spicy foods. citrus fruits. Can be hyperactive in the evening. burning feet. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. temperament. Hair may be course. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Might not complete ideas and projects. Skin and lips can be prone to redness.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. salads and seafood. dry. Dislikes most hot drinks. Vide Organon. Can be critical. Likes to argue.

Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. they mount until the end of life. heart . tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses.feelings and functions. "The true." Note 78. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. Therefore. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. Lamarck. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical.

Second. He points out that mental and . he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. However. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. 3. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. Third. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. incubation period. 1..and body. On this basis. and especially through inexpedient. medicinal treatment. the acute. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. grief and worry. prodromal stage and primary.e. a moment of infection. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. First of all. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. i. 2. by contact with the infected host. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. He classified miasms into three categories. were completely vanished. implanted in them through infection or heredity.

hereditary dispositions. inheritance. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. the mental temperament. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. habits.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. predisposition and diathesis. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. is announced by the increase of the . The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. and. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution.

diet. etc. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. his employment. The next most important factors are environment. diet and stress (nurture). a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. befallments and symptoms. his hereditary disposition.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. climate. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. which already. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. his morality. " It is. For these reasons. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). the various errors in his education and habits. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . to some extent. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. deviate so greatly from one another. etc. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. thus attaining incredible proliferation. in and of themselves. little by little. morals. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). his turn of mind. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. his manner of living and diet.

3. lymphatic.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. 1. psoric. 2. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. i. venous. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. From the Greek. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. leucophlegmatic. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms.e. diathesis. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. DIATHESIS. sycotic. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. diathesis. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. etc. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. scrofulous.. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. and/or mind.

constitutions. Petr. thuj.. Tubercular. constitutions. bapt. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. murx... arn. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Plethoric. GRAPH. Sil.. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. constitutions. thin people.. Asthmatic constitutions... ... 1. people. constitutions -am-c. ars. Tall lean. aster. constitutions. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. Lymphatic. Fibre. constitutions.. Chin. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions... constitutions. MERC. constitutions.. lax. Nat-m. Carb-v. For example. constitutions. CALC. Gouty.... This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. bloated. Dwarfish. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section... Large fat. constitution. Hemorrhagic. Paralytic. Fibre rigid. Lean.." 2... constitutions. FERR. Venous.. aur-m. Rhus-t. dulc. Hep. Bar-m.. Apis. phos. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. BAR-C. Sulph. calc-ar. and their similar remedies. Lyc. Puls. constitutions.. Hysterical.. Rheumatic.. constitutions. kalm. Cann-i. constitutions. Example: "Lymphatic. BELL. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Scrofulous. Emaciated both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. nit-ac. Sep.

constitutions-agar. diathetic states and miasms.. These are general symptoms of the constitution. Phos. NUX V. constitutions. CHEL.. calc-p. temperament. sang.. Guai. sulph.. bar-c. constitutions. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. Thuj. Tubercular. constitutions and their remedies. SYPH. ptel.. ant-c. CHIN. Still. spong." 3.. ferr-i. nat-s... constitutions. ant-t. Example: "Fibre. Bilious.. chol. constitutions. mag-m. Aesc.. Phlegmatic. hep. iris.... Cocc. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . Merc-d..... KALI-I... KALI-C. constitutions.. berb.." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. Sycotic constitutions. Crot-h. ail.. MAG-C. aec-t... constitutions.. cann-i.... Clem. constitutions-Ars.. lept.. Cham. NIT-AC.. cund. Puls. Benz-ac.... plat.. Ip. Fl-ac.constitutions. Bell..... MERC.. Merc.... Ph-ac.. Sulph. bor. SABAD.. Sil. CARD-M.. and their similar remedies. Psoric. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms).. Lach. chion. Sil. Mercc. AUR. euph.... ambr. Petr.... Melancholic. Mez. Phos.... PHOS. lax. Example: "Bilious. Caps.. acon. Syphilitic. MERC. Example: "SYPHILITIC. BRY. Phyt...... CALC. PSOS.... Choleric.. sep. Kali-b. cinnam. Cor-r. OP..." Rubrics related to the miasms include. Sars... Nervous. constitutions... constitutions. Merc-i-f. ars.... Sanguine constitutions...

pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis.conditioning factors. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. susceptibility. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. For example. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. miasms and diathesis. temperament. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. or of the Copaiva balm. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. temperament. Vide Sycosis. The Chronic Diseases. or a small dose of Cannabis. inheritance. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. susceptibility. of Cantharides. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. diathesis and miasms. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. the footnote on page 150.

WA. the Essence of its Remedies. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. The Tao of Physics. Clinical Cases. Capra. 1988. Aphorisms and Precepts. Beaconsfield. 1954 (republished 1994). Donald McD. etc. The Genius of Homœopathy. New Delhi. James Tyler. Birdcage Books. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Borland. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Gutman. Robert. Beaconsfield Publishers. Close. Melbourne. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. London. Churchill Livingstone. Douglas. New Delhi. New Delhi. New Remedies. New Delhi. Brewster O’Reilly. London. (a) 1922 tr. Kent. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. 1986. signs. Edinburgh. B Jain. 1842. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Cambridge. New Delhi. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Decker. 6th edition. 1989. Foubister. 1988. Hahnemann. (b) 1996 tr. Blackie. Fritjoff. B Jain. The Organon of Medicine. 1994. ed. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Samuel. Beaconsfield. B Jain. . phlegmatic.choleric. Flamingo. Wenda. C M Boger Collected Writings. William. 1993. ed. Stuart. Margery. New York. Madrid. Chambers English Dictionary. Lesser Writings. 1987 (republished 1988). They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Gypser. 1983. Redmond. Beaconsfield. B Jain. 5th edition. W&R Chambers. befallments and symptoms. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Homœopathy in Practice. Beaconsfield Publishers. Klaus-Henning. Bombay. 1994. B Jain. 1986. Classical Homœopathy. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Beaconsfield Publishers. Tokyo. Dudgeon (republished 1994).

National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Edward C. Roberts. Proceso Sanchez. Yasgur. Herbert A. 2nd edition. 3rd edition. The Science and Art of Healing. Otto. Greenville. Van Hoy Publishers. B Jain. 1979. tr. 1980. Leeser. London. Twentyman. Notes on the Miasms. 1942 (republished 1994). 1980. Floris Books. Unwin Paperbacks. 1989. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. New Delhi. Vithoulkas. PA. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Psyche and Substance. Rajan. . CA. New York. 1986. Thorsons. B Jain. 1994. Jay. London. Edinburgh. 1st edition. Ch’u TaKao (1959). North Atlantic Books. 2nd edition. 1935. Bombay. George. The Substance of Homœopathy. 1988. Tophi Books. Tao te Ching. Sankaran. 1985. Wellingborough. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. The Spirit of Homœopathy. 1994. Dorset & Baber. New Delhi. Whitmont. Unknown (between 6-600BC). Ralph. Ortega. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. New Delhi. Bombay. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Homœopathic Medical Publishers.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. The Science of Homœopathy. Berkeley. 1991.