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Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:
[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.
(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to
The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.
[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]
A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.
The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.
The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.
The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.
The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.
A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.
Constitutional : (adj.)
Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.
upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.
(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:
Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.
The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.
To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance
J.T. which determines the individuals reaction. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. successful or unsuccessful. mentally. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. the previously manifest.’ (Blackie. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. BY DR. and also the potential to manifest. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. to the stress of environment. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. p14) . It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. 1986. In this sense. the vital force. but also the past and future.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. It treats the manifest. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). emotionally and physically. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease.
Most often. … Unfortunately. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. diverging body. as opposed to common. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. but only in many different. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. which deals with provings. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’.and soul-constitutions. choleric.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. the conception has also been misused. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. phlegmatic.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing.’ (Leeser. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. pviii) she states. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. Only in paragraph 136. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. 1994. He appears. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. like any model.’ (Hahnemann. 1935. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases.’ (Leeser. during its proving in the healthy state. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. 1988. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. 1935. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. p77). 1842. p26) However. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. over the years.
Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players.' (Leeser. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser.’ (Gypser. . and oxygenoid. the form or shape. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. phosphoric. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. sulphuric. 1987. warm air. Romero and Maranon. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. symptomatology. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. endomorphs and ectomorphs. Pende. p650 and Kent. even when morbid. p272) And again. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. as no two are sufficiently similar. 1935. p651 and Kent. cold air. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’.’ (Gypser. changes of weather. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. 1994. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. 1987. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. to guide to a remedy. are not generally considered morbid. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. 1994. even accurately. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. Kretschmer.by many during this period. citing the various classifications of Czerny. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. for he may be better or worse from motion. p377. carbonitrogenoid. phosphoric. the tall or short.
p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. bilious. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. sanguinous. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. p171) Ortega. by the influence of the milieu. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. the presentation of evidence. furthermore. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. Further. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. the division into syphilis. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. 1989. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. and finally. rather than remedy-based.’ (Roberts. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. forming groups. the three . fate. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. mode of living and weather influences. regardless of the temperament. This has its basis in that.’ (Ortega. 1980. In contrast. according to Hahnemann. however. 1942.’ (Foubister. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. 1942. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments.’ (Roberts.
A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities.’ (Leeser. It is . p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. It is in our nature to group and dissect. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. to categorise and deconstruct. not patients. So it seems likely. (Close. 1986. However. However. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. complete cure will take a relatively long time.’ (Vithoulkas. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. 1935. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. As Yasgur states. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. In such cases. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. 1993. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. he writes purely about the classification of disease. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy.
In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. it is open to formulaic.’ (Yasgur. But as with any set of data. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. Built is something more than the well formed body. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. 1994.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. D in Capra. In this state.’ (Whitmont. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. p12) is what. in his inherited and evolving constitution. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. 1980. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. 1980. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. p45. at base. Emphasis added.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. the sickness’ (Ortega. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. or at least moderates. characteristic patterns. Whitmont implies a fixity of . 1983. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual.
p112) However.response patterns which. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. By this. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. youth. 1994. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. If change does occur. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. p27). In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. 1991. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. individual body. middle age. we mean that each person has a specific.’ (Sankaran. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. . but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. mind and disease. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states.
p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. however. by implication. a genuine challenge. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. some to a greater extent than others. 1986. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. there is no other than the body’s sensation. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. 1989.’ (Gutman. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. This returns to Lao Tzu. be it weight or number. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual.’ (Twentyman. p12).Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. It comprises the form patterns which their life. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. in particular. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). emotional and intellectual make up of a person. . But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. serving as directive. you will not find. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. but is greater than these. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. on another.
a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 10) No treatment can modify them.3) It is constant and immetable. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. which appeared to be fairly well determined. As they were at birth so they will remain. the only exception being orthodontics. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject.
who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. hydrogen and nitrogen. CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. c) Calcarea flourica. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. oxygen. perturbation of secretions. b) Calcarea phosphoric.VON GRAUVOGL. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. the carbon.a) Calcarea carbonica. . 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles.
THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition.. OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. Examples: Acid Nit. hydropexic. HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. c) Easy demineralisation. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. retension of water in the cells. swollen. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. Carbo Veg. b) Puffines. Cuprum Met. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. c) He is easily affected by humidity. 2) The phosphoric type.Examples: Lycopodium. & mucouses. d) Retracted and emaciated. Thuja Occidentalis. 3) The fluoric type.
• Developed in width. • Stubborn. • Thick skeleton. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Rachis supple. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Square Or Sphere. • Detector. • Thick Set.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Reasonable. • Vaulted. • • Predominance of the cranium. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Stranger. • THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. . • Rigid articulation. Respects order necessary and in matter.
• Sensitive. Mentality: • Nervous. • Superficial. THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Skin dry and cracked. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Imaginative. • Dreamer. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Intuitive. • Saddle backed. • Asymmetric.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Horror of reality. • Distracted. • The lower belly fall infront. of facts. • Care for elegance. • Easy vanity or dominating. Mentality: . • Emotive.
• Restless. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. Therefore. • Rapid assimilation. • Intuitive. • Fantastic. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Brilliant but unstable. • Versatile. • Disorderly. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. the nature of the disease state. • Easily vulgar. as well as environment conditioning factors. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time.• Unstable. . He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Capricious. • Cannot take any decision. • Cannot continue. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease.
enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. the physician should take into account the patient's . In truth. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. befallments and symptoms. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). In this sense. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. In these investigations. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. the potential causations including miasms. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy".There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner.
acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). The mental and emotional character. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. Sexual function. The discernible body constitution (especially. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. a description of the physique (tall or thin. Age 7. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. Occupations. loose or tight tissue types. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms.1. Lifestyle and habits. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. unstable. 5. Rubrics related to these states are . etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. 2." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). rheumatic constitutions. the chronic miasms. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". etc. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. short or fat.). On this solid foundation the objective signs. etc. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. lymphatic. 4. nervous. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. venous. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. etc). in chronic cases). strong.
phlegmatic. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. Age. 7. The critical times are conception. 4. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. 6. middle age. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. friends. 5. 3. birth. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. These are cardinal general symptoms. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. Sex and sexuality. rest. children. sanguine. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. A person’s sexual ethics. family relations. puberty. Strictly speaking. Civic and domestic relationships. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. adolescence. Some work well at both extremes of life. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. How a person relates to their mate. The occupation. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. Lifestyle and habits. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. childhood. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. and old age. .found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly.
the physical constitution. "The unprejudiced observer. essence. The time and progression. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. befallments and symptoms. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. and 3. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. causation. temperament. 7. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. 2. constitution. sexual performance. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. causation. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. disease signs. 8. Felt by the patient himself. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. The disease-Gestalt is . nature. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. that is.sexual fantasies." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. That is. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. Perceived by those around him. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. being – DL]. Wesen. Observed by the physician. which are: 1. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient.
befallments and symptoms. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. infection. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. the instinctive vital force. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. mental and emotional temperament. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant .composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. predispositions. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. that is. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. In this way. As Hahnemann said. nature. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). of the suffering of the life force. single and multiple causations. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. susceptibility. inheritance. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. being . the spiritual. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. 92 & 175). The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name.DL] of the disease. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). 91. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient.
This. In this sense constitutional means. the complete whole. which one calls disease. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. Introduction. quality. disposition. etc. which means constitutes: to set up. The W. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. as nature.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. Turner’s Dictionary. laws of the organic constitution. beschaffenheit (make up). and as an adjective it means. however. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. to make. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. make something available". . which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". to appoint to give being to. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. temperament. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. The English word. constituere. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. constitution. condition. the spiritual-bodily organism. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. to establish. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). page 12. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. Beschaffenheit. the unity of life. temper. O'Reilly edition. "to procure. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. to form or make up. defines the German term. Beschaffen is a verb that means. the make-up of the body & soul. "constituted".dynamic influence (§11). [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. the bodily constitution. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. inherent in the natural frame. or inherent nature. comes from the Latin root. to work". This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. our living human organism. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12).
This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. . 35. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. 1. 142. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. Therefore. 181. 90. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. construction or nature. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 145. 75. 101. 243. For example. 34. 103. which means the congenital bodily constitution. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. etc. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. its constitution. 98. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages.constitution. 143. 99. 3. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". Pages 30. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 2. composition. 242. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. 48. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. disposition and circumstance.
The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. every manifestation of power. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . Delhi.g." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. 11.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. emotional and bodily faculties. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. that is. it comprises of the body. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). which is more than the sum of its parts. a unity. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). One does not appear without the other. Every sensation.. Appendix. vital force and body. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites..g. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. page 194. the event itself. Lebenskraft). Jain. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. "Organism: An organized or organic system. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. No part can suffer without all other parts. mind. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. B. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. (§ 9. Dudgeon and Boericke. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. The human organism houses the mental. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e.
there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. page 345. as of all other medicines. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. its branches in Paracelsus. 3rd edition. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. "The employment of this. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. its trunk in Hippocrates. and its fruit in Hahnemann. 1833. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. physis. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time.teachings on temperaments. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment.
while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". For example. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. silent peevishness). mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. this is not the complete picture. mild. This portrait includes natural. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". which means "who": . Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. positive and negative qualities. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Ms. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. slow phlegmatic temperament). Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. even though they may appear to be good tempered. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. and are quick in their movements. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition.resolutions with rapidity. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient.
Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". jovial person becomes thin. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease.. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. separated according to his sick and his well days i. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. if a formerly obese. Therefore. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. if they are not only sharply distinct. which must be scanned all the more carefully.e. nature and genius) in The Organon. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. correspond to only few remedies. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age."Quis? As a matter of course the personality.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. For example. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. therefore. Therefore. both if possible. but also of rare occurrence and. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament ." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. for the natural disposition rests on it. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice".
"A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. Vide The Chronic Diseases. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. Junker makes . Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. attended with deep. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. also other indurations. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. p. This same is true with sycosis. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. This is the true Esse. pseudopsora. the menses were delayed. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. burning pains. 1750. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Volume I. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. page 17. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. 15-18. Halle. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. the menses disappear prematurely. also by inflammatory fever.
compound. to temper. esp. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. heredity. and constitution. aspectGreek. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. gnomon-onos. nature. befallments and symptoms. moderate. an interpreter. phlegmatic. mind and body. as well as the present state of the spirit. predisposition. If this is not the case. Temperament from Latin. from the face. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. This 2. miasms and constitutional diathesis. rare and peculiar. the art of judging character from the appearance." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. For example. temperament. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. .. temperare. restrain.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. character. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. these symptoms become more strange. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric.physiognomy. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. general appearance of anything.
a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. Temper-noun. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. voice. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. Constitution. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. an innate or acquired disposition. a natural temperament. Each of these temperaments represents . the spiritual body organism. the choleric or bilious. the sanguino. the five elements (ether. a natural disposition. a fit of anger. a proportioned mixture of qualities. a mood. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the sangino-phlegmatic. fire. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. composure. the constitution of the body and/or mind. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). phlegmatic. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. nervo. and the nervo-sanguine. the cholero-sanguine. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. phlegmatic. the phlegmo-choleric. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous.choleric. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. the cholero-nervous. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. water. a frame of mind. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. temperament. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. the nervo-phlegmatic. to be uncontrolled. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). the phlegmosanguine. an internal constitutional state.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. air.choleric. pitch and mood) by the vital force. to exert self control.
Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. page 168. Vide Materia Medica Pura. zealous persons. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. state. hot temperament. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. For very particular. I (4) is the second grade. Among these may be mentioned. composure. Nervous." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. always irritable and impatient. Debauches. thin. or of a spiteful. the choleric. spite or deception. sanguine and nervous melancholic. or of a malicious. fiery. malicious disposition. venous constitution. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. II. irritable. Suits thin. II. phlegmatic. Volume VIII. Drug subjects. II. page 223. Bilious temperaments. I. "II. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. with tendency to hemorrhoids. melancholic people. lecture on Nux Vomica. troubled with indigestion. II. mood. "Some practical instructions may be of use. (hepatic affections) I. of an irritable. Vide Guiding Symptoms. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . nervous disposition. II. etc. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. choleric persons with dark hair. Nux Vomica. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. inclined to get angry or excited. zealous. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. wicked irascible disposition.
One might ask. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. physical descriptions (thin. Allen includes temperaments. dark hair). thin. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. blond or red hair. coffee. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. Boenninghausen and Hering. melancholic. §5. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. spiteful. irritable. delicate eyelashes. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. choleric persons. (addicted to wine. blond haired. nervous dispositions with their traits). miasmic tendencies. nervous anxious temperaments. bilious. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. dark. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. These are all constitutional general rubrics. chilly. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. habits. and very sensitive nature. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. dry. hepatic affections). as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. impatient. fine. choleric.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". with quick perceptions. indigestion. etc). On this constitutional basis the signs. mental rubrics (angry. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). this means looking at whether they are generally happy. fair skin. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids.7). . diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. drugs). The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion).6.
The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. fat or thin. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. salt and cheese. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Eyes. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. their eye colour. hair type. For example. if they are bright and alert in the morning. Ailments tend to the left side. Prone to bedwetting. The Arsen. cries and loses temper. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Digestive system. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Finds it difficult to control emotions. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. Alb. confident. sad. Readily laughs. lazy etc.The Argent Nit. B. hair colour. long or short limbed. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. The Argent Nit. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Type . Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. preferred type of clothing and so on. candy. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. under or overweight. Physical factors are also important. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. or C. such as how they respond to noise. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own.tearful. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. so B will be the best remedy. Often anxious and worried. Dislikes chilled foods.
asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Prone to depression. Strong opinions. Exhaustion. Dislikes mess and being messy. The Calc. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Dislikes large amount of fluid. nose and throat. may manifest as back ache. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. candy. delicate skin. Skeletal system. Skin. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Fine facial features with fine. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Types. Sluggish. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Alb. Respiratory system (coughs. Alb. Reassurance helps to improve condition. keeps room tidy. in particular coffee. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Perfectionist at work and at home. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Easily upset by loud noise. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Skin. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Can be critical and intolerant. . Teeth. Digestive system. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. bloated and tired in appearance. warm foods and drinks. Often well groomed and stylish. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. sensitive and quiet. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Carb. The Arsen. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion.
Dislikes sweet foods. carbohydrates. Timid. May have rough. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Not an early morning person. hesitant and anxious. Slow metabolic rate. candy. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Dry hair. eggs. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. be exhausted. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. usually dark. Dark to mid range colour hair. Can fall over easily. child: Plump and overweight. The Calc. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. tearful and despondent then impatient. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. dry skin that can crack easily. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Can have a rugged. Sighs a lot. such as vegetables and salads. salt. Rapid and extreme mood swings. chocolate.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. boiled food and boiled milk. Ears. Placid and calm. seafood and hot drinks. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. prone to suppression of grief. Physical weaknesses: Skin. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. windswept appearance. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. iced drinks and ice cream. Possible mood swings. have bad breath. Carb. Dry lips. salt. Blushes easily. Prone to dark circles under eyes. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. desserts. Dislikes fatty meats. nose bleeds. Type. Carb. Flaky scalp. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. Possible difficulty in . Nails.
The Lachesis child: Full of spite. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. May lick lips a lot. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. carbohydrates. The Lycopodium Type . leading to headaches. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. menopausal problems. cool drinks. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. twitching and grinding teeth. causing outbursts of anger. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Jealous and possessive. constipation. Prone to left-side problems. May view self as sinful when religious.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. Dislikes sweet foods. bad sleep and insomnia. Talkative. crying and poor grades at school. sore throats and asthma. Strong. sour and savoury foods. dairy products. coughs and colds. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Suspicious of strangers. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Responds well to encouragment. Strong. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. alcohol and seafood. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. May be sensitive to noise. especially new babies. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Hyperactivity. Prefers not to be alone. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. can be hurtful to peers. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. sore throats. excitable and sensitive. palpitations and panic attacks. sore throat. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. staring eyes. May experience headaches. Dislikes sweet drinks. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. choughs. varicose veins. fixed expression. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them).
with grey translucent look. Right-side problems. May stammer. Conscientious and achiever academically. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. onions. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). May explode with rage and anger. garlic and seafood. Facial twitching.The Merc. sore throats. prostate. Sol. The Merc. Often look older than their years. Thinning hair in men. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Anxious over important events. Forgetful. Type Appearance: Medium build. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. male baldness. Avoids commitment. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Hair may be fair to medium colour. kidney stones. creating mountains out of molehills. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Hates being contradicted. Susceptible to ear nose and . Shy and cautious. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Insecure and hates change. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Sol. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. child: Irritating behaviour. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. swelling of glands and exhaustion.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head.
anorexia. especially when young. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. mur. Impatient. anger. skin problems. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable.throat complaints. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. premenstrual syndrome. Slow development. The Nat. type may be professional and career minded. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. mur. Dry cracked lips. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Can be addicted to sex. May look stressed and tense. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Intolerant of imperfection in others. cigarettes. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. Can be very ambitious. Finds it difficult to relax. Medium to dark hair. Solid. Ages prematurely. . Well behaved. strong and lean build in men. Dislikes coffee and bread. Smart appearance. coffee. which can lead to depression. May have dark circles under eyes. Depression. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Loves animals. Watery. May have cravings for alcohol. Down to Earth with mind set on career. red eyes. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. palpitations and headaches. guilt and loneliness. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. mur. The Nat. fear. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. child: Small for their age.
Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Artistic and creative in appearance. Headaches. alcohol. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Hernia and hay fever. Competitive as a teenager. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. mild cheeses and sweet foods. cheese and cream. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Can be hard work for partner. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. spicy food. Likes to be stylish. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. coffee and spicy foods. Strong fear of the dark. Fine skin. Feels better after sleep. Short attention span. Left-side problems. Dizziness. Weakness of the lungs. Expressive. May have temper tantrums. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Circulation problems. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Migraines and headaches. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. The Pulsatilla Type . Loves to receive attention. alcohol. carbonated drinks. Nervous. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. salt. Can have fair to dark hair. Coughs and colds.
Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. and very rich. . Also laughs easily. Irritable bowel syndrome. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Headaches and migraine. Can suppress guilt and anger. but does not like it when others are fussing around. spicy foods. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Gentle and kind appearance. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Loves animals. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Cries easily. as holds strong opinions. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. often with brown eyes. Medium to dark hair. Avoids confrontation. Styes. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Can feel better after weeping. Skin problems. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Catarrh. cold foods and cold drinks. Can look younger than actual age. Varicose veins. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Skin problems. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Hates being contradicted. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Prone to coughs and colds. Often sits with legs crossed. Blushes easily. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. tragic news or weepy movies. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Likes to be supported by others. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Often rests with hands behind head. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily.
Feels the cold. The Sepia child: Greedy. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Can be shy. Dislikes dairy products. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. especially due to burnout from new projects. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. apart from large head. Usually tidy and well behaved. Moody. Can become a bedwetter. especially cheese and milk. Does not like being alone. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Constipation. fine features. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. with petite appearance. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. with a large forehead. citrus fruits. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Not sporty as has little stamina. almost doll-like in appearance. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. especially milk. sweet foods and alcohol. Exhaustion.Dietary factors: Likes spices. moves and new jobs. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Dislikes very hot food. The head can appear too large for the body. Skin problems. sour and savoury foods. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Delicate. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. The Sulphur Type . Feels the cold. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Prone to constipation. Slowness in healing and getting well. Prone to mental exhaustion. Headaches.
salads and seafood. spicy foods. May look untidy. citrus fruits. Vide Organon.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. Hair may be course. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Can be hyperactive in the evening. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . burning feet. body odour. haemorrhoids and constipation. Does not like showers. dry. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. disposition. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. Dislikes most hot drinks. May lack willpower and self-esteem. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Likes to argue. Can be critical. hot. especially milk and eggs. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Likes alcohol. Might not complete ideas and projects. Has a very healthy appetite. Dislikes dairy products. temperament.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. bathing or washing hands. heredity. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods.
Therefore. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances.feelings and functions. heart . Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions." Note 78. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. Lamarck. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. "The true. they mount until the end of life. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822.
he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. the acute. implanted in them through infection or heredity. However. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. 1. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life.and body. 3. medicinal treatment. and especially through inexpedient. were completely vanished. First of all. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. incubation period. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. i. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. a moment of infection. Third. prodromal stage and primary. 2. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. He classified miasms into three categories.. Second.e. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. grief and worry. On this basis. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. by contact with the infected host. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. He points out that mental and . latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms.
hereditary dispositions. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. and. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. the mental temperament. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. inheritance. the transmission of the miasms through the generations.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. habits. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. predisposition and diathesis. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. is announced by the increase of the .
This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. etc. the various errors in his education and habits. which already. his turn of mind. to some extent. deviate so greatly from one another. his manner of living and diet. in and of themselves. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. befallments and symptoms. morals. his morality. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. his employment. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. diet. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. The next most important factors are environment. his hereditary disposition.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. little by little. climate. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). " It is. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). etc. thus attaining incredible proliferation. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. For these reasons. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . diet and stress (nurture).
1.e. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. psoric. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. lymphatic. 3. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. sycotic. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. From the Greek. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. and/or mind.. i. leucophlegmatic. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. etc. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. diathesis. scrofulous. DIATHESIS. 2.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. diathesis. venous.
Gouty. constitutions.. Lyc.. Puls. Lymphatic.. Chin. Dwarfish. GRAPH. Carb-v.. Tubercular. Hysterical. Fibre rigid. constitutions. Apis.. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. CALC.. Petr... phos. kalm.. FERR. Large fat. bloated. Hep. Paralytic. arn. people. constitutions. ars. Fibre.. For example. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. thuj. dulc.. Emaciated constitutions... Hemorrhagic. constitutions. Lean... bapt.. Plethoric. aur-m. Venous." 2. . murx. constitutions. Example: "Lymphatic. constitutions. constitution. aster. BELL. Tall lean. constitutions... Sulph. Sil. BAR-C... Rhus-t. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. nit-ac. Asthmatic constitutions. Sep. constitutions -am-c. Rheumatic. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. constitutions.. calc-ar.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy... Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings.. Cann-i. 1... constitutions. thin people. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. Bar-m. and their similar remedies. constitutions. lax. Nat-m. constitutions. Scrofulous. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. MERC. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. constitutions.
Mercc. ars... Bilious. Petr.. mag-m. constitutions. and their similar remedies. NIT-AC... Cham. calc-p. Melancholic. Clem. Sulph.. constitutions. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms).... Crot-h. Merc-d. Merc-i-f.......... MERC... bar-c. Lach. lax. SYPH. diathetic states and miasms... sang. ferr-i. BRY.... constitutions. cund. Fl-ac. Sil. Sil. constitutions. Phlegmatic.. cann-i.. ambr...... spong. ptel. Ip.. constitutions and their remedies. Caps. Benz-ac.... CARD-M. NUX V. constitutions. nat-s... temperament. Merc. sulph. Example: "Bilious.. OP... chol.. Guai. ail. MERC. Bell. Still. euph. constitutions-Ars." 3. KALI-I. Aesc.. Mez. berb. Cor-r... CALC. SABAD. bor... Sars. AUR. chion.. ant-c... Thuj. KALI-C... Ph-ac... CHIN... Phyt. constitutions.. Cocc.. constitutions-agar. PSOS. hep.... MAG-C. ant-t.. Phos.. These are general symptoms of the constitution... iris.. Example: "Fibre. plat.. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . Tubercular. lept. CHEL. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include...." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. Puls. acon." Rubrics related to the miasms include. Phos.. sep. Nervous. aec-t. PHOS. constitutions. Sanguine constitutions. cinnam. Kali-b. Choleric. Psoric..constitutions.. constitutions. Syphilitic. Sycotic constitutions.. Example: "SYPHILITIC.....
For example. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. Vide Sycosis. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . miasms and diathesis. susceptibility. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. or a small dose of Cannabis. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. The Chronic Diseases. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. or of the Copaiva balm. diathesis and miasms. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. temperament. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. temperament. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. of Cantharides. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness.conditioning factors. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. susceptibility. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. the footnote on page 150. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. inheritance.
phlegmatic. Madrid. Flamingo. Cambridge. 1986. 1988. Chambers English Dictionary. B Jain. Fritjoff. Homœopathy in Practice. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Donald McD. Tutorials on Homœopathy. B Jain. London. Foubister. Beaconsfield. 1988. Wenda. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Beaconsfield. Beaconsfield Publishers. New Delhi. Beaconsfield. Beaconsfield Publishers. Borland. 6th edition. Melbourne. Edinburgh. Redmond. the Essence of its Remedies. Lesser Writings. Classical Homœopathy. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. New York. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Birdcage Books. New Delhi. C M Boger Collected Writings. Gutman. sanguine and nervous temperaments. London. Kent. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Hahnemann. Close. Brewster O’Reilly. . Margery. New Delhi. Tokyo. B Jain. 1954 (republished 1994). signs. Bombay. W&R Chambers. 1994. 1993. Beaconsfield Publishers. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. William. B Jain. New Remedies. ed. 1987 (republished 1988). Samuel. 1842. 1994. Capra. Aphorisms and Precepts. 1983. Klaus-Henning. 1989. Blackie. The Organon of Medicine. (a) 1922 tr.choleric. James Tyler. WA. Stuart. B Jain. New Delhi. ed. 1986. Gypser. The Tao of Physics. etc. New Delhi. (b) 1996 tr. The Genius of Homœopathy. befallments and symptoms. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. 5th edition. Clinical Cases. Douglas. Robert. Decker. Churchill Livingstone.
1980. New Delhi. London. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. George. Vithoulkas. Psyche and Substance. Edinburgh. Dorset & Baber. B Jain. Tao te Ching. Unwin Paperbacks. 1985. 1994. PA. 1994. 1991. Leeser. The Science and Art of Healing. Greenville. 1942 (republished 1994). Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Edward C. Jay. New Delhi. 1935. Ortega. Twentyman.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. B Jain. Sankaran. Proceso Sanchez. 1st edition. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. 1986. Notes on the Miasms. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. New York. 1989. . tr. Herbert A. Thorsons. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. London. Floris Books. Berkeley. Bombay. 1979. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. New Delhi. The Substance of Homœopathy. Van Hoy Publishers. CA. 2nd edition. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Yasgur. 1988. Ralph. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Tophi Books. 2nd edition. Wellingborough. Otto. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Roberts. Whitmont. Bombay. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Rajan. 3rd edition. Unknown (between 6-600BC). The Science of Homœopathy. North Atlantic Books. 1980.