Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

the previously manifest. the vital force. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. mentally.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. It treats the manifest. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. In this sense. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. and also the potential to manifest. 1986.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. successful or unsuccessful.J. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy.T.’ (Blackie. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. but also the past and future. BY DR. p14) . to the stress of environment. which determines the individuals reaction. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. emotionally and physically.

choleric. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. pviii) she states.’ (Hahnemann.’ (Leeser. 1935. p77). He appears. phlegmatic. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. which deals with provings. during its proving in the healthy state. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. Most often. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. Only in paragraph 136. like any model.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. 1935. but only in many different. 1988. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. … Unfortunately. the conception has also been misused. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’.’ (Leeser. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . diverging body. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. p26) However. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. 1994. as opposed to common. over the years.and soul-constitutions. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. 1842.

including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. as no two are sufficiently similar.' (Leeser. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. cold air. changes of weather.’ (Gypser. and oxygenoid. to guide to a remedy. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. citing the various classifications of Czerny. p651 and Kent. even accurately. sulphuric. warm air. endomorphs and ectomorphs. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. 1935. Kretschmer. the tall or short. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. even when morbid. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. p272) And again. 1987. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. p377. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. the form or shape.’ (Gypser. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. 1994. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. 1987. phosphoric. for he may be better or worse from motion. . p650 and Kent. are not generally considered morbid. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. carbonitrogenoid. symptomatology. phosphoric. Romero and Maranon. Pende. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. and are not changed in any manner by our many during this period. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. 1994.

the three . rather than remedy-based. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. furthermore.’ (Foubister. 1942. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. sanguinous. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. however. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. 1989. mode of living and weather influences.’ (Roberts. This has its basis in that. fate. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition.’ (Ortega. the presentation of evidence. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments.’ (Roberts. 1980. bilious. forming groups. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. regardless of the temperament. by the influence of the milieu. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. In contrast. p171) Ortega. Further. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. p26) This view is modified by Roberts.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. the division into syphilis. and finally. according to Hahnemann. 1942. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-.

… This union to related drugs gives the triple division. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. In such cases. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. However. It is in our nature to group and dissect. (Close. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy.’ (Vithoulkas. not patients. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. As Yasgur states. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear.’ (Leeser. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. 1935. to categorise and deconstruct. he writes purely about the classification of disease. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. So it seems likely. However. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. It is . ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. 1993.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. complete cure will take a relatively long time. 1986. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments.

’ (Yasgur. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. But as with any set of data. p45. Emphasis added. D in Capra.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. at base. characteristic patterns. Built is something more than the well formed body. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. p12) is what. 1983. In this state. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. 1980. Whitmont implies a fixity of . In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. the sickness’ (Ortega. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. 1994. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. 1980.’ (Whitmont. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. it is open to formulaic. in his inherited and evolving constitution. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. or at least moderates. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm.

following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. If change does occur. middle age. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. youth. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. p27). he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. we mean that each person has a specific. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. By this. 1991. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. 1994. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. individual body. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work.response patterns which. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran.’ (Sankaran. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. . He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. mind and disease. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. p112) However. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed.

It comprises the form patterns which their life. there is no other than the body’s sensation.’ (Gutman. 1989. p12). emotional and intellectual make up of a person. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. some to a greater extent than others. by implication.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. This returns to Lao Tzu. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. serving as directive.’ (Twentyman. be it weight or number. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. on another. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. a genuine challenge. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. you will not find. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. 1986. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. in particular. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. however. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. but is greater than these. . p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level.

2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. which appeared to be fairly well determined. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign.3) It is constant and immetable. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. As they were at birth so they will remain. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. the only exception being orthodontics. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 10) No treatment can modify them. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs.

2) Hydrogenoid constitution. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 3) Oxygenoid constitution.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. oxygen. hydrogen and nitrogen. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical.a) Calcarea carbonica. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. .VON GRAUVOGL. c) Calcarea flourica. perturbation of secretions. b) Calcarea phosphoric. the carbon. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR.

c) Easy demineralisation. swollen.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . Thuja Occidentalis.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. & mucouses. b) Puffines. B) According to a French homoeopath DR..LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. Cuprum Met. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. hydropexic. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. c) He is easily affected by humidity. d) Retracted and emaciated. Examples: Acid Nit.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. retension of water in the cells. Carbo Veg.Examples: Lycopodium. 2) The phosphoric type. 3) The fluoric type. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation.

General aspect : • Short limbed. • Stubborn. • Square Or Sphere. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Rachis supple. • Developed in width. . • Stranger. • Vaulted. • Thick Set. • Thick skeleton. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Detector. Respects order necessary and in matter. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Reasonable. • Rigid articulation. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility.

• Intuitive. • Emotive. • Superficial. Mentality: • Nervous. • Distracted. of facts. • The lower belly fall infront. • Skin dry and cracked.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Dreamer. • Care for elegance. • Imaginative. • Saddle backed.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Sensitive. • Asymmetric. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Easy vanity or dominating. Mentality: . • Horror of reality.

He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Disorderly. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Versatile. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable.• Unstable. • Intuitive. • Cannot continue. . • Cannot take any decision. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Rapid assimilation. • Restless. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. the nature of the disease state. • Easily vulgar. Therefore. • Brilliant but unstable. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Fantastic. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Capricious. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Horror of rules and of solitude.

There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. In this sense. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. In these investigations. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". In truth. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. befallments and symptoms. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. the potential causations including miasms. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. the physician should take into account the patient's . This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation).

It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). a description of the physique (tall or thin. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. The mental and emotional character. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). Occupations. Lifestyle and habits. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. etc. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation).). unstable. Age 7. strong. in chronic cases). the chronic miasms. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". Rubrics related to these states are . etc. venous. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). The discernible body constitution (especially. lymphatic. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. nervous." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). etc). Sexual function. rheumatic constitutions. 5.1. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. 4. 2. short or fat. On this solid foundation the objective signs. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. loose or tight tissue types.

middle age. 7. . and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. friends. 3. How a person relates to their mate. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. childhood. family relations. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. 4. The occupation. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Lifestyle and habits. Civic and domestic relationships.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. These are cardinal general symptoms. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. children. Some work well at both extremes of life. puberty. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. The critical times are conception. Sex and sexuality. and old age. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. phlegmatic. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. rest. Age. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. Strictly speaking. adolescence. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. sanguine. 6. A person’s sexual ethics. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. birth. 5. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy.

Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. which are: 1. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued.sexual fantasies. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. essence. Felt by the patient himself. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. sexual performance. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. The disease-Gestalt is . temperament. Observed by the physician. befallments and symptoms. nature. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. Perceived by those around him." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. being – DL]. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. constitution. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. "The unprejudiced observer. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. that is. and 3. causation. disease signs. causation. Wesen. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. That is. 7. 8. the physical constitution. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. The time and progression. 2.

of the suffering of the life force. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. being . susceptibility. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. single and multiple causations. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. infection. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . predispositions. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. nature. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine.DL] of the disease. befallments and symptoms. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. 91. As Hahnemann said." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. that is. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. mental and emotional temperament. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. the instinctive vital force. 92 & 175).composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. the spiritual. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. In this way. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. inheritance.

had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. Turner’s Dictionary. which one calls disease. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. however. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. The W. beschaffenheit (make up). defines the German term. Beschaffen is a verb that means. "to procure. to make.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. to appoint to give being to. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). The root word "schaffen" means "to do. as nature.dynamic influence (§11). which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". temper. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. This. which means constitutes: to set up. constitution. Introduction. to establish. The English word. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. In this sense constitutional means. the complete whole. . "constituted". Beschaffenheit. page 12. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). or inherent nature. the make-up of the body & soul. our living human organism. O'Reilly edition. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. to form or make up. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. disposition. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. laws of the organic constitution. condition. quality. the spiritual-bodily organism. inherent in the natural frame. etc. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. comes from the Latin root. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. to work". and as an adjective it means. temperament. constituere. the bodily constitution. the unity of life. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. make something available".

The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. etc. construction or nature. 142. 99. 35. 103. 2. 48. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 1. its constitution. Pages 30. 181. which means the congenital bodily constitution. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 3. 98. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. . The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. 34. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". composition. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 243. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 101. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. 90. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. 143. disposition and circumstance. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. Therefore. For example. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. 75. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism.constitution. 242. 145. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up.

The human organism houses the mental.. the event itself. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. No part can suffer without all other parts. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. a unity. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). Delhi. Lebenskraft). Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . Every sensation. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. it comprises of the body. every manifestation of power.g. mind. vital force and body. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). which is more than the sum of its parts. that is. 11. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. Appendix. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Jain." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. (§ 9. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. emotional and bodily faculties.g. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. B. page 194. "Organism: An organized or organic system. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. Dudgeon and Boericke. One does not appear without the other..

there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. page 345. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. as of all other medicines. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. physis. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. 3rd edition. "The employment of this. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. its trunk in Hippocrates. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. its branches in Paracelsus. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. and its fruit in Hahnemann. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works.teachings on temperaments. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. 1833. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their .

while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". and are quick in their movements. which means "who": .resolutions with rapidity. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. silent peevishness). Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". Ms. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. This portrait includes natural. slow phlegmatic temperament). positive and negative qualities. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. this is not the complete picture. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. mild. even though they may appear to be good tempered. For example. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms.

Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. separated according to his sick and his well days i. correspond to only few remedies. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. For example. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. jovial person becomes thin. Therefore. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. which must be scanned all the more carefully. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". therefore.e.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. both if possible. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . nature and genius) in The Organon. Therefore. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. then the bodily constitution and the temperament." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important.. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. if they are not only sharply distinct. but also of rare occurrence and. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. for the natural disposition rests on it. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . if a formerly obese. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy.

Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. 1750. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. 15-18. Vide The Chronic Diseases. also by inflammatory fever. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. Junker makes . This is the true Esse. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. pseudopsora. Volume I. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. attended with deep. Halle. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. the menses disappear prematurely. This same is true with sycosis. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. also other indurations. p. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. the menses were delayed. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. burning pains. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. page 17. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated.

500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. Temperament from Latin. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. temperare. character. heredity. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. For example. gnomon-onos. as well as the present state of the spirit.physiognomy. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. restrain. moderate. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. befallments and symptoms. and constitution. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. compound. This 2. rare and peculiar. these symptoms become more strange. miasms and constitutional diathesis. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. nature. the art of judging character from the appearance. temperament. from the face. mind and body. esp. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage.. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. If this is not the case. general appearance of anything. an interpreter. phlegmatic. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. . predisposition. to temper.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. aspectGreek.

an innate or acquired disposition. a natural temperament. a frame of mind. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the five elements (ether. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. to exert self control. a natural disposition. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. the spiritual body organism. the sangino-phlegmatic. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). the constitution of the body and/or mind. Constitution. a fit of anger. an internal constitutional state.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. the choleric or bilious. phlegmatic.choleric. the phlegmo-choleric. fire. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. voice. temperament. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. nervo. composure. the nervo-phlegmatic. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. to be uncontrolled. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. pitch and mood) by the vital force. the cholero-sanguine. air. and the nervo-sanguine. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. Temper-noun. Each of these temperaments represents . Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. a mood.choleric. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. the sanguino. phlegmatic. water. a proportioned mixture of qualities. the phlegmosanguine. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. the cholero-nervous.

irritable. II. Suits thin. venous constitution. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. For very particular. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. Drug subjects. "Some practical instructions may be of use. or of a malicious. "II. I (4) is the second grade. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. always irritable and impatient. II. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. etc. Debauches. We find similar rubrics in Allen's .a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. lecture on Nux Vomica. inclined to get angry or excited. sanguine and nervous melancholic. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. II. zealous. thin. with tendency to hemorrhoids. composure. state. I. the choleric. of an irritable. page 223. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. (hepatic affections) I. troubled with indigestion. Among these may be mentioned." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. II. Volume VIII. nervous disposition. phlegmatic. malicious disposition. Vide Guiding Symptoms. fiery. Bilious temperaments. mood. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. wicked irascible disposition. page 168. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. spite or deception. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. melancholic people." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. Nux Vomica. or of a spiteful. choleric persons with dark hair. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. hot temperament. II. Vide Materia Medica Pura. Nervous. zealous persons.

fair skin. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. mental rubrics (angry. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. melancholic. fine. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. nervous anxious temperaments. . blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. Boenninghausen and Hering. physical descriptions (thin. hepatic affections). including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. dry. blond haired. On this constitutional basis the signs. etc). drugs). and very sensitive nature. with quick perceptions. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion).7). bilious. Allen includes temperaments.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". blond or red hair. coffee. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. choleric persons. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. (addicted to wine. thin. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. irritable. choleric. One might ask. delicate eyelashes. chilly. miasmic tendencies. §5. spiteful. dark hair). These are all constitutional general rubrics. habits. nervous dispositions with their traits). impatient. dark. indigestion. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament.6.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics.

hair colour.tearful. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. hair type. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Prone to bedwetting. if they are bright and alert in the morning. under or overweight. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. B. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. Alb. Readily laughs. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. For example. Digestive system. May react badly to new situations like moving house. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. The Arsen. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. Dislikes chilled foods. their eye colour. Often anxious and worried. The Argent Nit. Physical factors are also important. Ailments tend to the left side. salt and cheese. lazy etc. candy. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Eyes. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B.The Argent Nit. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. confident. such as how they respond to noise. preferred type of clothing and so on. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Type . so B will be the best remedy. long or short limbed. or C. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. fat or thin. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. cries and loses temper. sad.

especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Physical weaknesses: Ears. sensitive and quiet. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. The Calc. Fine facial features with fine. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Teeth. Digestive system. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Strong opinions. Dislikes mess and being messy. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Sluggish. Skin.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. . Carb. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. in particular coffee. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Perfectionist at work and at home. Respiratory system (coughs. bloated and tired in appearance. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Alb. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Types. delicate skin. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Exhaustion. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Skin. nose and throat. Can have a deep fear of being alone. The Arsen. Can be critical and intolerant. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Alb. Easily upset by loud noise. may manifest as back ache. alcohol and sour tasting foods. candy. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Prone to depression. warm foods and drinks. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. keeps room tidy. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Skeletal system. Often well groomed and stylish. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance.

Placid and calm. Possible mood swings. Carb. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. seafood and hot drinks. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Dislikes fatty meats. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. chocolate. Blushes easily. Not an early morning person. Physical weaknesses: Skin. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. tearful and despondent then impatient. Type. such as vegetables and salads. Dry lips. Nails. nose bleeds. eggs. dry skin that can crack easily. Sighs a lot. carbohydrates. Slow metabolic rate. Carb. Dislikes sweet foods. salt. Flaky scalp. boiled food and boiled milk. Ears. hesitant and anxious. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Can have a rugged. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Possible difficulty in . Can fall over easily. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. The Calc. have bad breath. salt. child: Plump and overweight. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. desserts. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. The Graphites type like savoury foods. May have rough. prone to suppression of grief. usually dark. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. iced drinks and ice cream. Rapid and extreme mood swings. candy. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. windswept appearance. Timid. Dry hair. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Dark to mid range colour hair. be exhausted.

Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. constipation. Jealous and possessive. leading to headaches. sour and savoury foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). varicose veins. Prefers not to be alone. May experience headaches. menopausal problems.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. sore throat. Talkative. Dislikes sweet drinks. Dislikes sweet foods. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. twitching and grinding teeth. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. May be sensitive to noise.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Prone to left-side problems. fixed expression. crying and poor grades at school. palpitations and panic attacks. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. Suspicious of strangers. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. carbohydrates. Responds well to encouragment. can be hurtful to peers. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. coughs and colds. alcohol and seafood. May view self as sinful when religious. sore throats and asthma. dairy products. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Lycopodium Type . Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. especially new babies. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Strong. staring eyes. Strong. causing outbursts of anger. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. bad sleep and insomnia. Hyperactivity. choughs. sore throats. May lick lips a lot. cool drinks. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. excitable and sensitive.

Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Sol. creating mountains out of molehills. Often look older than their years. Shy and cautious. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Hair may be fair to medium colour. child: Irritating behaviour. The Merc. Right-side problems. Thinning hair in men. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Dislikes wearing light clothing. swelling of glands and exhaustion.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. onions. Conscientious and achiever academically. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. with grey translucent look. Hates being contradicted. Avoids commitment. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. sore throats. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. May stammer. male baldness. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Type Appearance: Medium build. May explode with rage and anger. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats.The Merc. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Susceptible to ear nose and . prostate. kidney stones. Insecure and hates change. Forgetful. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Sol. Facial twitching. Anxious over important events. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. garlic and seafood.

mur. The Nat. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Loves animals. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. cigarettes. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Watery. The Nat. Can be addicted to sex. anorexia. premenstrual syndrome. which can lead to depression. fear. palpitations and headaches. guilt and loneliness. Dry cracked lips. May look stressed and tense. red eyes. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Slow development. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. anger.throat complaints. May have dark circles under eyes.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. strong and lean build in men. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. mur. Depression. Dislikes coffee and bread. Smart appearance. . Can be very ambitious. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Solid. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. coffee. Ages prematurely. Impatient. child: Small for their age. type may be professional and career minded. Medium to dark hair. Well behaved. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. mouth ulcers and cold sores. May have cravings for alcohol. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. mur. especially when young. skin problems. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Finds it difficult to relax. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence.

Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Fine skin. Coughs and colds. Competitive as a teenager. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. May have temper tantrums. coffee and spicy foods. cheese and cream. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Dizziness. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. The Pulsatilla Type . Migraines and headaches. carbonated drinks. Hernia and hay fever. Circulation problems.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Can have fair to dark hair. alcohol. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. alcohol. Short attention span. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Feels better after sleep. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Headaches. Can be hard work for partner. Expressive. salt. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Weakness of the lungs. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Left-side problems. Artistic and creative in appearance. Likes to be stylish. Loves to receive attention. spicy food. Strong fear of the dark. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Nervous. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods.

Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Cries easily. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Catarrh. Often rests with hands behind head. Gentle and kind appearance. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Medium to dark hair. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Can suppress guilt and anger. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. tragic news or weepy movies. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. and very rich. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Irritable bowel syndrome. Styes. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Headaches and migraine. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Blushes easily. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Can feel better after weeping. Prone to coughs and colds. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Skin problems. Skin problems. Avoids confrontation. often with brown eyes. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Likes to be supported by others. Varicose veins. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. cold foods and cold drinks. as holds strong opinions. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Loves animals. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. spicy foods. Also laughs easily. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Hates being contradicted. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Often sits with legs crossed. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Can look younger than actual age. Conditions usually improve with exertion. .Appearance: Can be slightly overweight.

Slowness in healing and getting well. moves and new jobs. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Headaches. Dislikes dairy products. apart from large head. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. especially due to burnout from new projects. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Prone to constipation. Feels the cold. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. with a large forehead. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Exhaustion. Can become a bedwetter. citrus fruits. with petite appearance. Usually tidy and well behaved.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Can be shy. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. The Sulphur Type . Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. especially milk. Does not like being alone. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. fine features. almost doll-like in appearance. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Delicate. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. The head can appear too large for the body. Skin problems. The Sepia child: Greedy. sweet foods and alcohol. Prone to mental exhaustion. Not sporty as has little stamina. Feels the cold. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Dislikes very hot food. Moody. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Constipation. sour and savoury foods. especially cheese and milk.

Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. bathing or washing hands. disposition. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. May lack willpower and self-esteem. body odour. Likes alcohol. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. hot. Dislikes dairy products. Has a very healthy appetite. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Might not complete ideas and projects.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. Can be hyperactive in the evening. heredity. dry. Hair may be course. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Can be critical. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. especially milk and eggs. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . burning feet. spicy foods. salads and seafood. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Does not like showers. citrus fruits.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Dislikes most hot drinks. Vide Organon. haemorrhoids and constipation. Likes to argue. temperament. May look untidy.

It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired.feelings and functions. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system." Note 78. Lamarck. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. "The true. they mount until the end of life. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. Therefore. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. heart . natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct.

He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. implanted in them through infection or heredity. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. First of all. medicinal treatment. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. grief and worry. On this basis. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. incubation period. Second. However. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. and especially through inexpedient. by contact with the infected host. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. were completely vanished.and body. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. He points out that mental and . Third. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. i. He classified miasms into three categories. 1. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. 2.e. prodromal stage and primary. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. the acute. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. 3. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility.. a moment of infection.

The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. habits. and. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. is announced by the increase of the . "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. predisposition and diathesis. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. the mental temperament. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. inheritance. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. hereditary dispositions.

This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). his manner of living and diet. For these reasons. his hereditary disposition. etc. which already. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . morals. diet and stress (nurture). diet. little by little. his turn of mind. to some extent. etc. thus attaining incredible proliferation. " It is. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. befallments and symptoms. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. his employment. deviate so greatly from one another. in and of themselves. The next most important factors are environment.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. climate. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). his morality. the various errors in his education and habits.

DIATHESIS. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. leucophlegmatic. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. 2. 1. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. diathesis. etc. sycotic. venous. diathesis. and/or mind. From the Greek. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. 3. scrofulous.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms.e.. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. psoric. lymphatic. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . A constitutional state which mistunes the body. i. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Plethoric. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. constitutions. Nat-m. constitutions.. For example. arn. BELL... phos. Sep. constitutions. Gouty. Sil. murx. dulc. Asthmatic constitutions. CALC.. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice...." 2. lax. Sulph.. kalm. constitutions. constitutions. people... Hep.. Petr. Hysterical.. Example: "Lymphatic. thuj. Apis. constitutions.. Bar-m. Fibre rigid. constitutions. Rheumatic. FERR. constitution.. Puls... nit-ac... constitutions. BAR-C. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. constitutions. Emaciated constitutions. Tubercular.. Lyc. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. Hemorrhagic.. Chin. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Rhus-t. Fibre. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Carb-v. Dwarfish. calc-ar. Lymphatic. aster. and their similar remedies... aur-m. thin people. Lean.. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples.. Tall lean. Large fat. 1. constitutions. ars. bapt. Venous. Cann-i.. constitutions. Paralytic. constitutions. GRAPH. . Scrofulous. MERC.. constitutions -am-c.

. chol... constitutions-agar. PHOS. Sulph.. Example: "Bilious... constitutions. Lach. ambr.. ferr-i.. constitutions.. Ph-ac. temperament..." Rubrics related to the miasms include. euph. hep.. constitutions. Example: "Fibre.. Phyt. Nervous.. AUR... PSOS.. ptel. sang... Sanguine constitutions.. Sycotic constitutions. berb... Puls.. Guai.. Sil. ant-c. Sil. mag-m. sulph. constitutions.. Tubercular. constitutions. ail. Mercc. Phlegmatic.. Merc-d. Cocc.. bor. acon. constitutions-Ars. Example: "SYPHILITIC. Crot-h. OP. Bell. lax. constitutions and their remedies." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories.. Aesc. BRY... and their similar remedies.. Syphilitic. cund... CALC. spong..constitutions. cinnam. MERC. Sars. Bilious. constitutions.... Fl-ac... bar-c. Clem... Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include. Petr.. Cham. sep... Thuj. SABAD.. diathetic states and miasms.. Mez. chion.." 3.. MAG-C. Ip... plat.. KALI-I.. NIT-AC.. NUX V.. Caps. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms).. Cor-r. iris. Psoric.. Merc.. MERC. ars. nat-s.... CARD-M... Choleric. constitutions. CHIN.. Melancholic. cann-i. Benz-ac. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . KALI-C. Merc-i-f.... Phos. ant-t... aec-t. These are general symptoms of the constitution. CHEL. SYPH. constitutions... Phos. lept..... Still. calc-p.... Kali-b..

when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. the footnote on page 150. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. of Cantharides. susceptibility. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. miasms and diathesis. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. or a small dose of Cannabis. The Chronic Diseases. Vide Sycosis. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. temperament. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. or of the Copaiva balm. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . inheritance. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. temperament. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. diathesis and miasms. For example. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases.conditioning factors. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. susceptibility.

1994. New Delhi. Bombay. New Delhi. . Margery. Clinical Cases. 1986. Chambers English Dictionary. B Jain. London. Lesser Writings. New Delhi. Madrid. Gypser. 1994. Robert. Cambridge. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. 1954 (republished 1994). B Jain. Tokyo. (a) 1922 tr. etc. New Delhi. 6th edition. Capra. signs. Klaus-Henning. B Jain. Beaconsfield Publishers. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Kent. Borland. B Jain. Flamingo. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Edinburgh. 1986. Wenda. The Genius of Homœopathy. New Delhi. Foubister. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Birdcage Books. C M Boger Collected Writings. Donald McD. 1842. W&R Chambers. befallments and symptoms. 1987 (republished 1988). Homœopathy in Practice. Close. Churchill Livingstone. Samuel. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Beaconsfield Publishers. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Redmond. The Organon of Medicine. the Essence of its Remedies. Stuart. 1993. Beaconsfield. Beaconsfield. ed. 1988. Blackie. Classical Homœopathy. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Hahnemann. Melbourne. 1983.choleric. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. The Tao of Physics. New Remedies. Tutorials on Homœopathy. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. 1988. WA. Decker. phlegmatic. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. 5th edition. Fritjoff. Beaconsfield Publishers. 1989. Douglas. James Tyler. Gutman. ed. William. New York. Brewster O’Reilly. (b) 1996 tr. London. Beaconsfield. B Jain. Aphorisms and Precepts.

George. Whitmont. The Science and Art of Healing. Unknown (between 6-600BC). CA. Yasgur.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Dorset & Baber. Psyche and Substance. 1989. 1935. Edinburgh. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Rajan. B Jain. The Spirit of Homœopathy. 1991. New York. Bombay. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Floris Books. B Jain. Van Hoy Publishers. 1980. Wellingborough. 2nd edition. tr. Leeser. Unwin Paperbacks. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. New Delhi. North Atlantic Books. 1979. Tophi Books. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. 1988. New Delhi. 2nd edition. 3rd edition. Twentyman. 1994. Edward C. 1980. Jay. 1942 (republished 1994). London. Greenville. London. Otto. Thorsons. Tao te Ching. Ralph. Bombay. Vithoulkas. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. 1986. The Substance of Homœopathy. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. Roberts. Herbert A. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Sankaran. 1st edition. The Science of Homœopathy. PA. Notes on the Miasms. 1994. . 1985. Ortega. Berkeley. Proceso Sanchez. New Delhi.

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