Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to

Constitution:(n)

The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.

Constitution:(n.)

[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. In this sense. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. the vital force.J. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. to the stress of environment. emotionally and physically. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). and also the potential to manifest.’ (Blackie. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. successful or unsuccessful. which determines the individuals reaction. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. mentally. BY DR. It treats the manifest. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. p14) .KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. the previously manifest.T.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. 1986. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. but also the past and future. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode.

choleric. 1935.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . during its proving in the healthy state. 1994. Most often. the conception has also been misused. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body.and soul-constitutions. 1935. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. phlegmatic. p26) However. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. diverging body.’ (Leeser. symptoms of the disease (Bannan.’ (Leeser. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. but only in many different. like any model. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. Only in paragraph 136. as opposed to common. which deals with provings. … Unfortunately. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. He appears. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. p77). of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type.’ (Hahnemann. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. pviii) she states. over the years. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. 1988. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. 1842.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions.

'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. even when morbid. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. endomorphs and ectomorphs. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. changes of weather. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. phosphoric. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. 1994. citing the various classifications of Czerny. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. …Temperaments are not caused by provings.’ (Gypser. 1994. Romero and Maranon. warm air.' (Leeser. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms.’ (Gypser. as no two are sufficiently similar. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. carbonitrogenoid. 1987. phosphoric. . and oxygenoid. for he may be better or worse from motion. even accurately. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. are not generally considered morbid. cold air. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. the tall or short. Pende. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’.by many during this period. 1935. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. Kretschmer. sulphuric. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. to guide to a remedy. 1987. p272) And again. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. p651 and Kent. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. p377. the form or shape. symptomatology. p650 and Kent.

Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. by the influence of the milieu. 1942. sanguinous. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. bilious. This has its basis in that. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous.’ (Ortega. the presentation of evidence. however. according to Hahnemann. rather than remedy-based. In contrast. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. fate. mode of living and weather influences. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. the three . furthermore. 1942. regardless of the temperament. and finally. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. forming groups. the division into syphilis. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. 1989.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time.’ (Foubister. Further. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. 1980.’ (Roberts. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. p171) Ortega.’ (Roberts. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering.

resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. However. However. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. As Yasgur states. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. 1986. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. So it seems likely. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega.’ (Leeser. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. It is in our nature to group and dissect. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. not patients. In such cases.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. he writes purely about the classification of disease. to categorise and deconstruct. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. (Close. complete cure will take a relatively long time.’ (Vithoulkas. It is . 1935. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. 1993.

It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. characteristic patterns. p45.’ (Whitmont. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. in his inherited and evolving constitution. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. Whitmont implies a fixity of . it is open to formulaic. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. 1983. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. at base. Emphasis added. or at least moderates. the sickness’ (Ortega. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. But as with any set of data. 1980.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. p12) is what.’ (Yasgur. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. 1994. In this state. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. D in Capra.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. 1980. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. Built is something more than the well formed body. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence.

mind and disease. 1991. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. If change does occur. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. p112) However. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. p27). From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. youth. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. By this. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion.response patterns which. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. . and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. middle age. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. 1994. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world.’ (Sankaran. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. we mean that each person has a specific. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. individual body. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional.

Their very opposition can become a stimulus. 1989. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time.’ (Twentyman. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. however. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. serving as directive. p12). It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). be it weight or number. in particular. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. . by implication.’ (Gutman. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. a genuine challenge. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. some to a greater extent than others. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. This returns to Lao Tzu. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. but is greater than these. there is no other than the body’s sensation. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. you will not find. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. 1986. on another. It comprises the form patterns which their life. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death.

which appeared to be fairly well determined. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. the only exception being orthodontics. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. As they were at birth so they will remain.3) It is constant and immetable. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 10) No treatment can modify them. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation.

hydrogen and nitrogen. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. the carbon. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. b) Calcarea phosphoric.VON GRAUVOGL. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen.a) Calcarea carbonica. perturbation of secretions. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. c) There is hepatic insufficiency.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. oxygen. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. c) Calcarea flourica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. .

LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. c) Easy demineralisation. c) He is easily affected by humidity. 3) The fluoric type. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. 2) The phosphoric type. retension of water in the cells. swollen.Examples: Lycopodium. Carbo Veg. hydropexic. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. Thuja Occidentalis. Cuprum Met. d) Retracted and emaciated.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. b) Puffines. & mucouses.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. Examples: Acid Nit. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation..

• Rigid articulation. • • Predominance of the cranium.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Developed in width. • Thick Set. • Vaulted. • Reasonable. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Thick skeleton. • Square Or Sphere. • Stubborn. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Rachis supple. • Stranger. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. . Respects order necessary and in matter. • Detector.

• Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Dreamer. • Skin dry and cracked. • Distracted.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Imaginative. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Horror of reality. • Saddle backed. • Sensitive. • Superficial. of facts. Mentality: • Nervous. • Asymmetric. • The lower belly fall infront. • Care for elegance. • Intuitive.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Emotive. • Easy vanity or dominating. Mentality: .

• Intuitive. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. the nature of the disease state. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Brilliant but unstable. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Rapid assimilation. • Disorderly. • Easily vulgar. • Versatile. • Cannot take any decision. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Cannot continue. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. . Therefore. • Restless. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Fantastic. • Capricious. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time.• Unstable. • Horror of rules and of solitude.

In truth. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies".There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". the potential causations including miasms. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . befallments and symptoms. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. In this sense. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. the physician should take into account the patient's . In these investigations. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition).

The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. the chronic miasms.1." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). unstable. loose or tight tissue types. rheumatic constitutions. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. etc. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". nervous. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. short or fat. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. Occupations. Rubrics related to these states are . lymphatic. in chronic cases). It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. strong.). The discernible body constitution (especially. venous. etc). etc. a description of the physique (tall or thin. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. 2. On this solid foundation the objective signs. The mental and emotional character. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). Sexual function. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). Age 7. 4. 5. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. Lifestyle and habits. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2.

rest. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. and old age. 5. puberty. Age. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. 6. The occupation. Lifestyle and habits. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. A person’s sexual ethics. These are cardinal general symptoms. childhood. Sex and sexuality. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. children. phlegmatic. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. 7. The critical times are conception. Civic and domestic relationships. 4. birth. Strictly speaking. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. friends. Some work well at both extremes of life. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. adolescence. How a person relates to their mate. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. sanguine. . and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. middle age. family relations. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. 3.

and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. nature. "The unprejudiced observer. 7. befallments and symptoms. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. that is. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. The time and progression. the physical constitution. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. 8. Felt by the patient himself. temperament. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. disease signs. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. causation. Wesen. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. Perceived by those around him. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. The disease-Gestalt is . constitution. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. That is. essence." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). being – DL]. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. sexual performance.sexual fantasies. 2. and 3. causation. which are: 1. Observed by the physician.

mental and emotional temperament. As Hahnemann said. single and multiple causations. predispositions. of the suffering of the life force. being . In this way. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. susceptibility. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. the spiritual. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . that is.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. infection. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). inheritance. 91. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). nature. befallments and symptoms. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. the instinctive vital force." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease.DL] of the disease. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. 92 & 175). How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy.

our living human organism. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). inherent in the natural frame. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. condition. the make-up of the body & soul. quality. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. Beschaffen is a verb that means. to make. the complete whole. In this sense constitutional means. constituere. Beschaffenheit. temperament.dynamic influence (§11). the unity of life. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. etc.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. which means constitutes: to set up. The English word. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. which one calls disease. the bodily constitution. to appoint to give being to. make something available". laws of the organic constitution. constitution. temper. beschaffenheit (make up). This. "constituted". or inherent nature. . "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. page 12. comes from the Latin root. "to procure. defines the German term. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. as nature. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. to work". published in Leipzig in the 1830s. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". and as an adjective it means. disposition. Introduction. Turner’s Dictionary. The W. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. to establish. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. to form or make up. O'Reilly edition. however. the spiritual-bodily organism.

The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 142. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. 143. 181. 1. . 2. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. 145. 243. Therefore. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. composition. etc. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 90. 101. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. 3.constitution. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. 48. 242. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. construction or nature. 34. 75. which means the congenital bodily constitution. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. 103. 98. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. For example. 99. 35. its constitution. Pages 30. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". disposition and circumstance.

every manifestation of power. Every sensation. Delhi. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). (§ 9. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. that is.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. No part can suffer without all other parts. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. which is more than the sum of its parts. a unity. vital force and body. Dudgeon and Boericke. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. Appendix. B.. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. 11. The human organism houses the mental. mind. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. it comprises of the body. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit.. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. page 194. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . "Organism: An organized or organic system. emotional and bodily faculties. the ability to become more seasoned through provings).g. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. One does not appear without the other. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. the event itself. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself.g. Jain. Lebenskraft).

physis. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. its branches in Paracelsus. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. 1833. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. "The employment of this. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks.teachings on temperaments. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. page 345. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. and its fruit in Hahnemann. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. its trunk in Hippocrates. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. as of all other medicines. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. 3rd edition.

[Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". even though they may appear to be good tempered. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. silent peevishness). Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. positive and negative qualities. For example. slow phlegmatic temperament). which means "who": . This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. Ms. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. This portrait includes natural. this is not the complete picture.resolutions with rapidity. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". mild. and are quick in their movements. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient.

For example. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . jovial person becomes thin. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. if a formerly obese. nature and genius) in The Organon. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. therefore. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient.. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. which must be scanned all the more carefully.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. Therefore. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. but also of rare occurrence and. separated according to his sick and his well days i."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. Therefore. for the natural disposition rests on it. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. correspond to only few remedies. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. both if possible.e. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . if they are not only sharply distinct.

attended with deep. the menses disappear prematurely. This is the true Esse.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). also other indurations. This same is true with sycosis. 1750. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. burning pains. Junker makes . Vide The Chronic Diseases. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. 15-18. Volume I. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. the menses were delayed. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. p. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Halle. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. also by inflammatory fever. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. pseudopsora. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. page 17.

Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. heredity. miasms and constitutional diathesis. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. gnomon-onos. an interpreter. If this is not the case. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. befallments and symptoms.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. . character. the art of judging character from the appearance. temperare. restrain. For example. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. compound. from the face. to temper. This 2. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. nature. phlegmatic. Temperament from Latin. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. as well as the present state of the spirit. temperament. esp.physiognomy.. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. mind and body. predisposition. aspectGreek. and constitution. general appearance of anything. moderate. these symptoms become more strange. rare and peculiar.

The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. the phlegmosanguine. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. air. the five elements (ether. Each of these temperaments represents . composure. the sangino-phlegmatic. the nervo-phlegmatic. pitch and mood) by the vital force. an internal constitutional state. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. to be uncontrolled. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. Temper-noun. to exert self control. the constitution of the body and/or mind.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. nervo. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. a natural disposition. the cholero-sanguine.choleric. a frame of mind. fire. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. the choleric or bilious. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. a fit of anger. the phlegmo-choleric. the sanguino. the cholero-nervous. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. the spiritual body organism. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). an innate or acquired disposition. and the nervo-sanguine. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. water. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). a mood. Constitution. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. a natural temperament. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). voice. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. phlegmatic. a proportioned mixture of qualities. temperament. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments.choleric. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. phlegmatic.

spite or deception. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. page 168. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. II. Vide Materia Medica Pura. wicked irascible disposition." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. composure. page 223. I. malicious disposition. (hepatic affections) I. troubled with indigestion. "II. II. Bilious temperaments. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. Nervous. zealous. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. II. always irritable and impatient. sanguine and nervous melancholic. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. zealous persons. inclined to get angry or excited. the choleric. etc. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. "Some practical instructions may be of use. of an irritable. venous constitution. II. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. choleric persons with dark hair. I (4) is the second grade. II. mood. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Among these may be mentioned. melancholic people." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. fiery. Volume VIII. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. or of a spiteful. thin. lecture on Nux Vomica. state. nervous disposition. or of a malicious. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . For very particular. phlegmatic. Suits thin. Nux Vomica. Drug subjects. hot temperament. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. Debauches. irritable. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. Vide Guiding Symptoms.

thin. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. mental rubrics (angry. (addicted to wine. delicate eyelashes. §5.7). as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. impatient. coffee. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. One might ask. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. hepatic affections). Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. blond haired. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. drugs). as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. These are all constitutional general rubrics. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. spiteful.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. nervous dispositions with their traits). dark. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). nervous anxious temperaments. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. choleric. dry. chilly. Allen includes temperaments. habits. dark hair). . this means looking at whether they are generally happy. fine. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration.6. physical descriptions (thin. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. indigestion. melancholic. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". Boenninghausen and Hering. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). blond or red hair. On this constitutional basis the signs. bilious. miasmic tendencies. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. fair skin. with quick perceptions. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. choleric persons. and very sensitive nature. irritable. etc).

Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. Dislikes chilled foods. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Ailments tend to the left side. or C. candy. Digestive system. under or overweight. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Type . hair type. salt and cheese. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. hair colour. long or short limbed. sad.tearful. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Often anxious and worried. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. preferred type of clothing and so on. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. confident. cries and loses temper. The Arsen. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. Finds it difficult to control emotions. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B.The Argent Nit. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. For example. Physical factors are also important. lazy etc. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. The Argent Nit. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Alb. fat or thin. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Readily laughs. Prone to bedwetting. B. so B will be the best remedy. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. their eye colour. Eyes. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. if they are bright and alert in the morning. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. such as how they respond to noise.

Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Often well groomed and stylish. may manifest as back ache.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Physical weaknesses: Ears. warm foods and drinks. nose and throat. Exhaustion. this can hide a hoarding mentality. The Calc. Skin. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. The Arsen. candy. Can be critical and intolerant. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Dislikes mess and being messy. Alb. Alb. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Skeletal system. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. bloated and tired in appearance. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Prone to depression. Fine facial features with fine. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. . Dislikes large amount of fluid. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Reassurance helps to improve condition. delicate skin. Teeth. sensitive and quiet. alcohol and sour tasting foods. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Easily upset by loud noise. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. in particular coffee. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Types. Perfectionist at work and at home. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Carb. Strong opinions. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. keeps room tidy. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Skin. Sluggish. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Respiratory system (coughs. Digestive system.

hesitant and anxious.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. usually dark. be exhausted. tearful and despondent then impatient. Nails. Dislikes sweet foods. Rapid and extreme mood swings. Type. iced drinks and ice cream. May often have sores in corner of mouth. The Calc. Can have a rugged. Physical weaknesses: Skin. dry skin that can crack easily. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Dry lips. eggs. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Can fall over easily. Placid and calm. Not an early morning person. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. windswept appearance. boiled food and boiled milk. May have rough. Carb. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Possible mood swings. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Dislikes fatty meats. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Flaky scalp. seafood and hot drinks. such as vegetables and salads. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. child: Plump and overweight. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Dry hair. prone to suppression of grief. Dark to mid range colour hair. nose bleeds. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. salt. Blushes easily. Possible difficulty in . have bad breath. candy. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. carbohydrates. chocolate. Slow metabolic rate. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Ears. salt. desserts. Timid. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Carb. Sighs a lot. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes.

The Lycopodium Type . Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. especially new babies. alcohol and seafood. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. May view self as sinful when religious. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. staring eyes. palpitations and panic attacks. Talkative. choughs. Jealous and possessive. dairy products. Prone to left-side problems. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Strong. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. Strong. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. varicose veins. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. bad sleep and insomnia. May experience headaches. leading to headaches. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. twitching and grinding teeth. coughs and colds. sour and savoury foods. Suspicious of strangers. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. Dislikes sweet drinks. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. causing outbursts of anger. Hyperactivity. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Prefers not to be alone. sore throats and asthma. carbohydrates. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. May be sensitive to noise. constipation. Responds well to encouragment.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. fixed expression. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. sore throat. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. menopausal problems. crying and poor grades at school. sore throats.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. cool drinks. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. May lick lips a lot. excitable and sensitive. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. can be hurtful to peers. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Dislikes sweet foods.

Often look older than their years. Anxious over important events. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. male baldness. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. child: Irritating behaviour. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders.The Merc. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. creating mountains out of molehills. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Dislikes wearing light clothing. swelling of glands and exhaustion. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Shy and cautious. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Insecure and hates change. Hates being contradicted. Avoids commitment. sore throats. Sol. Sol. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Right-side problems. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. May stammer. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Forgetful. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Thinning hair in men. May explode with rage and anger. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. onions. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Type Appearance: Medium build. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. garlic and seafood. prostate. Susceptible to ear nose and . with grey translucent look. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Conscientious and achiever academically. The Merc. kidney stones. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Facial twitching. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors.

Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. which can lead to depression. guilt and loneliness. Ages prematurely. The Nat. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Well behaved. type may be professional and career minded. mur. anger. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. May have dark circles under eyes. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help.throat complaints. cigarettes. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Medium to dark hair. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. May look stressed and tense. Loves animals. Intolerant of imperfection in others. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Dry cracked lips. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. palpitations and headaches. Can be addicted to sex. Dislikes coffee and bread.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. strong and lean build in men. child: Small for their age. Finds it difficult to relax. premenstrual syndrome. Slow development. The Nat. mur. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. mur. Impatient. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. Solid. skin problems. especially when young. red eyes. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. coffee. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Watery. May have cravings for alcohol. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. fear. . Can be very ambitious. Smart appearance. Depression. anorexia.

Left-side problems. Migraines and headaches. alcohol. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Can be hard work for partner. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Dizziness. Feels better after sleep. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Coughs and colds. carbonated drinks. Can have fair to dark hair. Competitive as a teenager. Expressive. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. alcohol. Strong fear of the dark. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Short attention span. Hernia and hay fever. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Likes to be stylish. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Weakness of the lungs. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. coffee and spicy foods. Nervous. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Loves to receive attention. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Fine skin. Headaches. The Pulsatilla Type . May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. spicy food. May have temper tantrums. salt. Circulation problems. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Artistic and creative in appearance. cheese and cream. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods.

Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Varicose veins. often with brown eyes. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Often sits with legs crossed. Likes to be supported by others. but does not like it when others are fussing around. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. . Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Also laughs easily. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Catarrh. Blushes easily. Avoids confrontation.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Can look younger than actual age. Medium to dark hair. cold foods and cold drinks. Headaches and migraine. as holds strong opinions. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Can feel better after weeping. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Skin problems. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Can suppress guilt and anger. spicy foods. Gentle and kind appearance. Hates being contradicted. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Styes. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Prone to coughs and colds. and very rich. tragic news or weepy movies. Cries easily. Skin problems. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Often rests with hands behind head. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Irritable bowel syndrome. Loves animals. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime.

apart from large head. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. fine features. Can become a bedwetter. Feels the cold. with a large forehead. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Prone to mental exhaustion. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. Usually tidy and well behaved. Constipation. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Slowness in healing and getting well. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. especially cheese and milk. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Dislikes very hot food. sweet foods and alcohol. sour and savoury foods. The Sulphur Type . The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. moves and new jobs. Dislikes dairy products. especially milk. Skin problems. Prone to constipation. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Does not like being alone. with petite appearance. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim.Dietary factors: Likes spices. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Moody. Exhaustion. Delicate. citrus fruits. Can be shy. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. The head can appear too large for the body. The Sepia child: Greedy. Headaches. especially due to burnout from new projects. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Not sporty as has little stamina. almost doll-like in appearance. Feels the cold.

citrus fruits. salads and seafood. Vide Organon. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. Does not like showers. Dislikes most hot drinks. May lack willpower and self-esteem. temperament. May look untidy.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. spicy foods. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Can be critical. disposition. haemorrhoids and constipation. hot. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. especially milk and eggs. dry. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Likes alcohol. bathing or washing hands. Hair may be course. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. Can be hyperactive in the evening. Likes to argue. body odour. Has a very healthy appetite. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. burning feet. Might not complete ideas and projects. Dislikes dairy products. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. heredity.

" Note 78. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. Therefore. Lamarck. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. they mount until the end of life. heart .feelings and functions. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. "The true. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances.

grief and worry. However. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. Third. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. He classified miasms into three categories. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. incubation period.and body. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. 3. medicinal treatment. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. by contact with the infected host. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. and especially through inexpedient. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. implanted in them through infection or heredity. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. First of all. 1. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. 2. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. prodromal stage and primary. Second.. the acute. On this basis. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. were completely vanished.e. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. a moment of infection. i. He points out that mental and . Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance.

"The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. and. habits. inheritance. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. predisposition and diathesis. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. hereditary dispositions. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. the mental temperament. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. is announced by the increase of the . as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases.

This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). befallments and symptoms. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . his manner of living and diet. For these reasons. etc. etc. thus attaining incredible proliferation. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. to some extent.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. diet. his turn of mind. " It is. The next most important factors are environment. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. in and of themselves. little by little. climate. his employment. his hereditary disposition. which already. morals. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. deviate so greatly from one another. his morality. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. diet and stress (nurture). the various errors in his education and habits.

A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. sycotic. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. scrofulous. diathesis. DIATHESIS. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state.e. leucophlegmatic. lymphatic. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. i. etc. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. 3. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. 1. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders.. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. and/or mind. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . diathesis. venous. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. psoric. 2. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. From the Greek.

Plethoric.. constitutions. Chin. constitutions." 2.. Paralytic. constitution.. constitutions -am-c. thin people. BELL. constitutions. Dwarfish. ars. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. Sep. Example: "Lymphatic.. Gouty. Sil. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. Carb-v. MERC. phos. arn. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Hep.. Rheumatic.. Tubercular. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions... calc-ar. bloated. GRAPH. murx. For example.. Cann-i. people. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. CALC. constitutions. Fibre. constitutions. constitutions. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. Puls. Venous. Hemorrhagic. constitutions.. Tall lean. Lean. constitutions. Nat-m.. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. Apis. aster. Asthmatic constitutions. Lymphatic... Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy.. nit-ac. constitutions.. Sulph. FERR. Bar-m. . constitutions.. aur-m. kalm. Lyc. Fibre rigid.. constitutions.. Emaciated constitutions. constitutions. Hysterical. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include.. BAR-C.. Scrofulous. Large fat.. and their similar remedies. lax. dulc. Petr. 1... Rhus-t. bapt. thuj....

. cinnam. Phos. constitutions. Phlegmatic. KALI-I. Example: "SYPHILITIC. ars. diathetic states and miasms.. Puls. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include. Cham... Fl-ac. Merc-i-f. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). ambr... SABAD. Mercc.. Tubercular... chol... SYPH. Example: "Bilious.. CARD-M.. constitutions... acon. Crot-h.. CHEL.. bor... Mez... constitutions... Sanguine constitutions.. Psoric. mag-m. Bell. Merc-d. Phos. OP.. Cor-r.. sulph. Lach. Ph-ac. berb. Benz-ac.. PSOS. ferr-i...constitutions. Syphilitic." 3... Cocc. Sars.. aec-t.. iris... Petr. plat. ptel.. Ip. MAG-C.. Sil. ant-t.. constitutions.. MERC. CALC.. Kali-b. temperament. NUX V.. nat-s.. lept. PHOS. bar-c. ail...... MERC. Bilious. ant-c.. Still.. constitutions. constitutions and their remedies.. sep. calc-p... Sulph.. constitutions. Merc.. AUR. spong. KALI-C..." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories.. sang. CHIN. and their similar remedies.. cann-i. Caps... chion. constitutions-Ars. Nervous... Example: "Fibre. hep.. constitutions-agar. euph. Aesc.. Clem. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and ... Guai. Phyt. NIT-AC. cund. Melancholic.. BRY.." Rubrics related to the miasms include.. Sycotic constitutions.. constitutions... lax. constitutions.. Choleric... Sil.. These are general symptoms of the constitution. Thuj...

This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism.conditioning factors. or of the Copaiva balm. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. diathesis and miasms. The Chronic Diseases. the footnote on page 150. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. Vide Sycosis. temperament. For example. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. temperament. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. susceptibility. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. susceptibility. inheritance. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. or a small dose of Cannabis. miasms and diathesis. of Cantharides.

C M Boger Collected Writings. Foubister. Close. Aphorisms and Precepts. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. (b) 1996 tr. Fritjoff. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Edinburgh. Gutman. Beaconsfield. WA. Chambers English Dictionary. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Kent. London. The Organon of Medicine. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. London. Beaconsfield. . Melbourne. W&R Chambers. Robert. 1988. Douglas. Samuel. Margery. Beaconsfield Publishers. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. sanguine and nervous temperaments. 1983. 5th edition. Borland. Decker. Madrid. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Tokyo. 1987 (republished 1988). New Delhi. Beaconsfield Publishers. New Delhi. New Delhi. B Jain. 1988. Capra. Gypser. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Flamingo. (a) 1922 tr. New Remedies. Churchill Livingstone. James Tyler. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Cambridge. phlegmatic. Classical Homœopathy. ed. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. etc. Beaconsfield Publishers. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. signs. the Essence of its Remedies. Homœopathy in Practice. Brewster O’Reilly. Lesser Writings. 6th edition. Hahnemann. The Genius of Homœopathy. New Delhi. Birdcage Books. 1994. 1954 (republished 1994). Redmond. 1993. Blackie. Donald McD. The Tao of Physics. Beaconsfield. 1986. New Delhi. New York. Clinical Cases. B Jain. 1989. 1986. B Jain. Dudgeon (republished 1994). B Jain. befallments and symptoms. Wenda. 1994.choleric. Bombay. Stuart. ed. William. Klaus-Henning. 1842. B Jain.

Whitmont. Wellingborough. . 1980. 1986. 2nd edition. B Jain. 1980. London. Bombay. Roberts. Yasgur. 1988. Rajan. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Unknown (between 6-600BC). Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Notes on the Miasms. Proceso Sanchez. Sankaran. New Delhi. Tao te Ching. Floris Books. The Substance of Homœopathy. tr. PA. Jay. 1st edition. 1985. Van Hoy Publishers. 1994. Dorset & Baber. Bombay. B Jain. Tophi Books. Leeser. London. 2nd edition. Unwin Paperbacks. The Science and Art of Healing. New Delhi. Psyche and Substance. Vithoulkas. 1942 (republished 1994). Otto. Twentyman. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. CA. 1991. The Science of Homœopathy. Thorsons. Edinburgh. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Ralph. North Atlantic Books. New York. 1979. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Herbert A. 1994. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Greenville. 1935. George. New Delhi. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Ortega. Edward C. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. The Spirit of Homœopathy. 3rd edition. Berkeley. 1989.

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