Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.
Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:
[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.
(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to
The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.
[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]
A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.
The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.
The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.
The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.
The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.
A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.
Constitutional : (adj.)
Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.
upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.
(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:
Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.
The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.
To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance
KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. emotionally and physically. In this sense. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). successful or unsuccessful. BY DR. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. but also the past and future. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. It treats the manifest. p14)
.J. the vital force.T. to the stress of environment. mentally. 1986.’ (Blackie. which determines the individuals reaction.
INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. the previously manifest. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. and also the potential to manifest. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode.
choleric. over the years. but only in many different.and soul-constitutions. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. … Unfortunately.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. 1842. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. 1988. like any model. 1935. Only in paragraph 136. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. He appears. p26) However. Most often. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. during its proving in the healthy state. phlegmatic. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. the conception has also been misused. p77). does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. diverging body. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. which deals with provings. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. pviii) she states. 1994.’ (Leeser.’ (Hahnemann.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. 1935. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person.’ (Leeser. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. as opposed to common. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined
the tall or short. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. are not generally considered morbid. symptomatology. 1987. 1994. for he may be better or worse from motion. even accurately. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. phosphoric. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. as no two are sufficiently similar. 1987. 1935. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. the form or shape.' (Leeser. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. p651 and Kent. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. p650 and Kent. even when morbid. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. changes of weather. carbonitrogenoid. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. endomorphs and ectomorphs. warm air. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles.’ (Gypser. 1994. cold air.’ (Gypser. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. citing the various classifications of Czerny. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. p272) And again. and oxygenoid. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. phosphoric. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. sulphuric. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. Pende.
. Romero and Maranon. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. Kretschmer. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. to guide to a remedy.by many during this period. p377. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type.
’ (Roberts. furthermore. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions.’ (Ortega. 1942. fate.’ (Roberts. Further. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. In contrast. bilious. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. the division into syphilis. regardless of the temperament. the presentation of evidence. by the influence of the milieu. 1989.’ (Foubister. forming groups. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. rather than remedy-based.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. the three
. 1942. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. This has its basis in that. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. sanguinous. mode of living and weather influences. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. and finally. 1980. however. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. p171) Ortega. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. according to Hahnemann. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school.
He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie.’ (Vithoulkas. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. However. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. he writes purely about the classification of disease. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. 1986. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. It is in our nature to group and dissect. not patients. 1935.’ (Leeser. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. complete cure will take a relatively long time. So it seems likely. In such cases. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. However. (Close. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. 1993. It is
. to categorise and deconstruct. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. As Yasgur states. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega.
p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. it is open to formulaic. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. or at least moderates. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. 1994. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. the sickness’ (Ortega. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. characteristic patterns. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. 1980.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. But as with any set of data. Whitmont implies a fixity of
. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. Built is something more than the well formed body. in his inherited and evolving constitution. p12) is what. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. at base. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. 1980. D in Capra.’ (Whitmont.’ (Yasgur. 1983. Emphasis added. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. In this state. p45. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm.
He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood.
. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. p112) However.response patterns which. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. mind and disease. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. 1991. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. By this. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. 1994. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. If change does occur. middle age. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. we mean that each person has a specific. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. p27). individual body.’ (Sankaran. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. youth. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point.
This returns to Lao Tzu. however. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. in particular. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. some to a greater extent than others. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. p12).Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. 1989. you will not find. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. a genuine challenge. by implication. be it weight or number. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant.
. 1986. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. serving as directive. there is no other than the body’s sensation. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them.’ (Gutman. but is greater than these. It comprises the form patterns which their life. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. on another. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present.’ (Twentyman. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns).
applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. which appeared to be fairly well determined. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. the only exception being orthodontics. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:-
.3) It is constant and immetable. As they were at birth so they will remain.
IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 10) No treatment can modify them.
A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state.
There is hepatic insufficiency. b) Calcarea phosphoric. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. c) Calcarea flourica. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical.
b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen.
CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR.a) Calcarea carbonica. hydrogen and nitrogen. oxygen. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter.
. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. the carbon. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. perturbation of secretions.
A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites.VON GRAUVOGL. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic.
& mucouses. d) Retracted and emaciated. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. 3) The fluoric type.. c) He is easily affected by humidity. 2) The phosphoric type.
B) According to a French homoeopath DR. OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. Carbo Veg. b) Puffines.Examples: Lycopodium. Examples: Acid Nit. c) Easy demineralisation.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. Thuja Occidentalis. retension of water in the cells.
Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. Cuprum Met. HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.
THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology:
A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. swollen. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. hydropexic.
General aspect : • Short limbed. • Stranger.
. • Rigid articulation. • Stubborn. • Developed in width. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Reasonable. • Vaulted. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Thick skeleton. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Thick Set.
Predominance of the cranium.
• Rachis supple. • Detector. • Square Or Sphere.
• Easily excited and soon depressed. • Skin dry and cracked. • Dreamer. THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Saddle backed.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Intuitive. Mentality: • Nervous. • Asymmetric. • The lower belly fall infront. of facts. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Distracted. • Superficial. • Sensitive. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. Mentality:
. • Care for elegance. • Horror of reality. • Imaginative. • Emotive.
• Cannot take any decision. • Brilliant but unstable.
THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Rapid assimilation. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. as well as environment conditioning factors.• Unstable. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Disorderly. • Capricious. • Easily vulgar. • Versatile. • Restless. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Fantastic. • Cannot continue. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor.
. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage.
• Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Horror of rules and of solitude. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. Therefore. the nature of the disease state.
One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. the potential causations including miasms. befallments and symptoms. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. In these investigations. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. In truth. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. In this sense. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). the physician should take into account the patient's
. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy".There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms.
2. rheumatic constitutions. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak.1. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. On this solid foundation the objective signs. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile.). which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. The discernible body constitution (especially. Rubrics related to these states are
. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. strong. Age 7. the chronic miasms. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. 4. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). Sexual function. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). lymphatic. in chronic cases). Occupations. unstable. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. 5. a description of the physique (tall or thin. etc. loose or tight tissue types. The mental and emotional character. short or fat. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. Lifestyle and habits. nervous. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. etc)."
The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). venous. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). etc.
Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. 7. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. phlegmatic. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. These are cardinal general symptoms. family relations. puberty. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. Age. adolescence. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. sanguine. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. 5. 6.
. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. rest. 4. Some work well at both extremes of life. middle age. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. Lifestyle and habits. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. Strictly speaking. Civic and domestic relationships. The occupation. friends. childhood. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. and old age. 3. birth. The critical times are conception. children. A person’s sexual ethics. How a person relates to their mate. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. Sex and sexuality. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory.
constitution. temperament. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. being – DL]. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. causation. befallments and symptoms. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. Wesen.sexual fantasies. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. Perceived by those around him. 2. causation. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. Observed by the physician. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. That is. Felt by the patient himself. sexual performance. essence. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. The disease-Gestalt is
. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). and 3. 7. nature. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. that is. The time and progression. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. the physical constitution. which are: 1. disease signs. 8. "The unprejudiced observer. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient.
susceptibility. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. mental and emotional temperament. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant
. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. nature. As Hahnemann said. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. befallments and symptoms. 92 & 175). How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. predispositions. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease."
The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. being . In this way. of the suffering of the life force. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. single and multiple causations. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. 91.DL] of the disease. inheritance. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. infection. the spiritual. that is. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). the instinctive vital force.
This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. as nature. etc. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. comes from the Latin root. or inherent nature. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. This. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. constitution. to make. which one calls disease.dynamic influence (§11). Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. condition. The W.
. temper. Beschaffen is a verb that means. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. Introduction. the unity of life. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. however. make something available". our living human organism. quality. and as an adjective it means. the spiritual-bodily organism. In this sense constitutional means. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). The root word "schaffen" means "to do. to form or make up. defines the German term. laws of the organic constitution. O'Reilly edition. temperament. Turner’s Dictionary. to work". to establish. "constituted". disposition. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. to appoint to give being to.)
In the German text Hahnemann used the term. which means constitutes: to set up. inherent in the natural frame. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). the make-up of the body & soul. Beschaffenheit. beschaffenheit (make up). page 12. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. "to procure. the complete whole. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. constituere. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. The English word. the bodily constitution. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". does not reflect all the usages of the German term.
composition. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 242. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. 243. 1. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. disposition and circumstance. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. 34. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. 142. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. 3. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. 35. 99. Pages 30. 90. 103. 101. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. which means the congenital bodily constitution. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions.
. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 143. etc. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. its constitution. 2. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated.
The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. construction or nature. 48. Therefore. 145. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. For example. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. 75. 98.constitution. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". 181.
a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. that is. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810).g. Dudgeon and Boericke. Lebenskraft). B. Jain. the event itself. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. The human organism houses the mental. it comprises of the body. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. which is more than the sum of its parts. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature.. Every sensation. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). mind. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic
. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. a unity. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. 11. Appendix. No part can suffer without all other parts. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. page 194. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. One does not appear without the other. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. (§ 9. vital force and body. every manifestation of power. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself.g. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. Delhi. emotional and bodily faculties.
"Organism: An organized or organic system.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time..
there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. its branches in Paracelsus. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. page 345. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. 3rd edition. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their
. and its fruit in Hahnemann. physis. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. "The employment of this. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. as of all other medicines. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. its trunk in Hippocrates. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. 1833.teachings on temperaments. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness.
resolutions with rapidity. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. For example. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. mild. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". which means "who":
. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. and are quick in their movements. this is not the complete picture. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". silent peevishness). Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". slow phlegmatic temperament). While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. even though they may appear to be good tempered. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. positive and negative qualities. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. This portrait includes natural. Ms.
in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. which must be scanned all the more carefully. therefore. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. jovial person becomes thin. separated according to his sick and his well days i. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence.. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. correspond to only few remedies. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. Therefore. for the natural disposition rests on it.e. if they are not only sharply distinct."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. but also of rare occurrence and. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a
. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". both if possible. Therefore. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". For example." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. if a formerly obese. nature and genius) in The Organon.
Vide The Chronic Diseases. the menses were delayed. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. p. burning pains. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. attended with deep. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. also other indurations. also by inflammatory fever. the menses disappear prematurely. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. Volume I. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. Junker makes
. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. pseudopsora. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. 1750. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. This is the true Esse. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. Halle. This same is true with sycosis. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. page 17. 15-18. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression.
500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. heredity. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. befallments and symptoms." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. to temper. gnomon-onos. mind and body. character. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. general appearance of anything..physiognomy. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. compound. restrain. Temperament from Latin. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. rare and peculiar. phlegmatic.
. moderate. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. If this is not the case. temperare. nature. miasms and constitutional diathesis. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. the art of judging character from the appearance. predisposition. from the face. temperament. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. and constitution. This 2. an interpreter. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. esp. aspectGreek. as well as the present state of the spirit.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. these symptoms become more strange. For example.
voice. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. and the nervo-sanguine. nervo. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. the phlegmo-choleric. the cholero-sanguine.choleric. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). air. the constitution of the body and/or mind. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). pitch and mood) by the vital force. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. an internal constitutional state. Constitution. water. the five elements (ether. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. composure. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. an innate or acquired disposition. a mood. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. phlegmatic. Temper-noun. to be uncontrolled. the cholero-nervous. fire. a fit of anger. the choleric or bilious. a natural temperament. to exert self control. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. a frame of mind. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities.choleric. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). the sanguino. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. temperament. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. the phlegmosanguine. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. a proportioned mixture of qualities. a natural disposition. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. phlegmatic. the sangino-phlegmatic. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. Each of these temperaments represents
. the spiritual body organism. the nervo-phlegmatic.
malicious disposition. (hepatic affections) I. zealous persons. "Some practical instructions may be of use. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. I (4) is the second grade. Nervous. or of a malicious. wicked irascible disposition. sanguine and nervous melancholic. hot temperament. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. fiery. zealous. Drug subjects. Vide Guiding Symptoms. choleric persons with dark hair. mood. Volume VIII. composure. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. II. phlegmatic. etc. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. irritable. II. troubled with indigestion. I. For very particular. of an irritable.
"II. Nux Vomica. venous constitution. melancholic people. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. Bilious temperaments. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. lecture on Nux Vomica. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. Vide Materia Medica Pura. We find similar rubrics in Allen's
. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. state. II. Among these may be mentioned. page 168. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. spite or deception. nervous disposition. Debauches. inclined to get angry or excited. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. always irritable and impatient." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. thin. the choleric. or of a spiteful. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. Suits thin. II. II. page 223." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments.
this means looking at whether they are generally happy. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. impatient. fair skin. blond or red hair. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. thin. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. nervous anxious temperaments. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. chilly. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. Allen includes temperaments. delicate eyelashes. Boenninghausen and Hering. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). habits. On this constitutional basis the signs. physical descriptions (thin. One might ask. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. mental rubrics (angry. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. indigestion. spiteful. bilious. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. choleric. etc). This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. These are all constitutional general rubrics. dark. nervous dispositions with their traits). dry. coffee. dark hair). what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. (addicted to wine. melancholic.6. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution).Keynotes under the title "adapted to". and very sensitive nature.7). hepatic affections). Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. miasmic tendencies. with quick perceptions. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. drugs). choleric persons. §5. irritable. fine.6hhhssshhhhpes
OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. blond haired.
The Argent Nit. Ailments tend to the left side. May react badly to new situations like moving house. preferred type of clothing and so on. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. sad.tearful. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Often anxious and worried. Dislikes chilled foods. cries and loses temper. Readily laughs. confident. B. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. so B will be the best remedy. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. fat or thin. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Prone to bedwetting. such as how they respond to noise. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Digestive system. long or short limbed. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. For example. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. lazy etc. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. their eye colour. hair type. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. salt and cheese. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Alb. or C. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. candy. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. under or overweight. if they are bright and alert in the morning. Eyes. The Argent Nit. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Physical factors are also important. Type
. The Arsen. hair colour.
in particular coffee. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Skin. alcohol and sour tasting foods.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Respiratory system (coughs. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Prone to depression. Perfectionist at work and at home. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Sluggish. Types. sensitive and quiet. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. nose and throat. may manifest as back ache. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. bloated and tired in appearance. Skeletal system. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Carb.
. Easily upset by loud noise. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Digestive system. Exhaustion. Teeth. Alb. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. keeps room tidy. this can hide a hoarding mentality.
Physical weaknesses: Ears. Alb. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. The Arsen. delicate skin. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Can have a deep fear of being alone. The Calc. Dislikes mess and being messy. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. warm foods and drinks. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Skin. Fine facial features with fine. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Can be critical and intolerant. candy. Strong opinions. Often well groomed and stylish.
Slow metabolic rate. Placid and calm. Carb. salt. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Not always willing to change habits and routines. May often have sores in corner of mouth. have bad breath. tearful and despondent then impatient. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Possible difficulty in
. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Not an early morning person. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Dislikes fatty meats. hesitant and anxious. May have rough. eggs. windswept appearance. child: Plump and overweight. carbohydrates. Flaky scalp. nose bleeds. Type. boiled food and boiled milk. usually dark. prone to suppression of grief. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. iced drinks and ice cream. Dry hair. Rapid and extreme mood swings. dry skin that can crack easily. Ears. Carb. Possible mood swings. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. candy. Dry lips. Dark to mid range colour hair. Sighs a lot. seafood and hot drinks. Can have a rugged. desserts. Dislikes sweet foods. such as vegetables and salads. salt. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Timid. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Blushes easily. Can fall over easily. chocolate. be exhausted. Nails. The Calc.
bad sleep and insomnia. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. sour and savoury foods. choughs. causing outbursts of anger. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. can be hurtful to peers. Suspicious of strangers. crying and poor grades at school. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Jealous and possessive. Strong. constipation. carbohydrates. fixed expression. Prone to left-side problems. coughs and colds. palpitations and panic attacks. sore throats. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. excitable and sensitive. menopausal problems. Dislikes sweet foods. dairy products. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. especially new babies. Talkative. alcohol and seafood. Dislikes sweet drinks. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. May view self as sinful when religious. May experience headaches. May be sensitive to noise. Prefers not to be alone. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. The Lycopodium Type
. sore throats and asthma. leading to headaches. Hyperactivity. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. May lick lips a lot. twitching and grinding teeth. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Responds well to encouragment. varicose veins. Strong. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. sore throat. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. staring eyes. cool drinks.
The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Right-side problems. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Often look older than their years.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Facial twitching. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. child: Irritating behaviour. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Shy and cautious. sore throats. Dislikes wearing light clothing. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Conscientious and achiever academically. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Forgetful. Susceptible to ear nose and
. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Hates being contradicted. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. May stammer. Type Appearance: Medium build. kidney stones. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Thinning hair in men. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. prostate. Sol. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. May explode with rage and anger. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. creating mountains out of molehills. The Merc. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. swelling of glands and exhaustion. garlic and seafood. male baldness. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Anxious over important events. Sol. Avoids commitment.The Merc. with grey translucent look. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. onions. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Insecure and hates change.
Slow development. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. Well behaved. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. anorexia. Finds it difficult to relax. Dislikes coffee and bread. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. which can lead to depression. Smart appearance. Dry cracked lips. Loves animals.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. May have dark circles under eyes. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. fear. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Can be addicted to sex. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Can be very ambitious. Watery. Ages prematurely. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. cigarettes.throat complaints. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Solid. anger. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. The Nat. strong and lean build in men. type may be professional and career minded. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. mur. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. especially when young. skin problems. palpitations and headaches. coffee. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. May have cravings for alcohol.
. Impatient. red eyes. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Medium to dark hair. premenstrual syndrome. child: Small for their age. Depression. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. The Nat. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. mur. guilt and loneliness. mur. May look stressed and tense.
Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Left-side problems. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. spicy food. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Feels better after sleep. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Short attention span. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Competitive as a teenager. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. The Pulsatilla Type
. Expressive. Weakness of the lungs. Fine skin. cheese and cream. Coughs and colds. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Headaches. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Artistic and creative in appearance. Circulation problems. Can be hard work for partner. Dizziness. mild cheeses and sweet foods. salt. Migraines and headaches. alcohol. May have temper tantrums. Strong fear of the dark. coffee and spicy foods. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Loves to receive attention. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Likes to be stylish. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Can have fair to dark hair. Nervous. carbonated drinks. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. alcohol. Hernia and hay fever.
Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. tragic news or weepy movies. spicy foods. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. often with brown eyes. Hates being contradicted.
. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Also laughs easily. Can look younger than actual age. Varicose veins. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Can feel better after weeping. Catarrh. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Styes. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. as holds strong opinions. Sensitive to changes in the weather. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Cries easily. Loves animals. Likes to be supported by others. Skin problems. Often rests with hands behind head. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. and very rich. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Can suppress guilt and anger. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. cold foods and cold drinks. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Blushes easily. Prone to coughs and colds.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Medium to dark hair. Often sits with legs crossed. Irritable bowel syndrome. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Headaches and migraine. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Gentle and kind appearance. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Skin problems. Avoids confrontation. Conditions usually improve with exertion.
Dietary factors: Likes spices. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. Can become a bedwetter. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Moody. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Does not like being alone. Headaches. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. fine features. Prone to mental exhaustion. Exhaustion. apart from large head. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. especially milk. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Prone to constipation. with petite appearance. The Sepia child: Greedy. Constipation. especially due to burnout from new projects. Can be shy. sweet foods and alcohol. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. moves and new jobs. citrus fruits. Delicate. Skin problems. Feels the cold. especially cheese and milk. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Slowness in healing and getting well. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Feels the cold. The Sulphur Type
. with a large forehead. Dislikes very hot food. Not sporty as has little stamina. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Dislikes dairy products. almost doll-like in appearance. sour and savoury foods. The head can appear too large for the body. Usually tidy and well behaved.
haemorrhoids and constipation. May look untidy. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease.athy Constitution Types
CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. temperament. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. burning feet. especially milk and eggs. Does not like showers. body odour. bathing or washing hands. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. hot. Likes alcohol. Can be hyperactive in the evening. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition.
Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Might not complete ideas and projects. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. disposition. spicy foods. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. May lack willpower and self-esteem. mistuned and displaced into abnormal
. Hair may be course. heredity. Has a very healthy appetite. Dislikes most hot drinks. Can be critical. dry. Likes to argue. citrus fruits. Dislikes dairy products. Vide Organon. salads and seafood.
This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers.feelings and functions. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical." Note 78. "The true. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. Therefore. they mount until the end of life. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. Lamarck. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. heart
. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation.
grief and worry. and especially through inexpedient.e. Third. by contact with the infected host. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. the acute. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. were completely vanished. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. On this basis..and body. He classified miasms into three categories. However. implanted in them through infection or heredity. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. incubation period. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. i. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. a moment of infection. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. 1. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. Second. medicinal treatment. First of all. 2. prodromal stage and primary. He points out that mental and
. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. 3. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years.
habits. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. is announced by the increase of the
. predisposition and diathesis. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. the mental temperament. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. and. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. inheritance. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. hereditary dispositions. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies.
diet and stress (nurture). understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. diet. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which
. in and of themselves. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). thus attaining incredible proliferation. " It is. climate. morals. to some extent. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. befallments and symptoms. For these reasons. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. The next most important factors are environment. his employment. etc. his turn of mind. etc. which already. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. deviate so greatly from one another. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). his manner of living and diet. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. the various errors in his education and habits. little by little.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. his morality. his hereditary disposition.
As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. and/or mind. 2. etc. venous. The concept of diathesis is closely linked
. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. scrofulous. lymphatic. leucophlegmatic. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. DIATHESIS. a constitutional predisposition or tendency.e. diathesis. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. sycotic. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. 3. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. 1. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. i.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. psoric. From the Greek. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections.. diathesis. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture.
Asthmatic constitutions... Apis.. Sep. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Fibre. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. calc-ar. aster.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. lax.. nit-ac. Fibre rigid. constitutions. For example. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. FERR.. constitutions.. constitution. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Hep. BAR-C. Cann-i. Tubercular. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. Rheumatic. Hemorrhagic. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. Paralytic.. Carb-v. Lymphatic... Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. arn. Sil. Lyc.. ars. Chin. constitutions.. Example: "Lymphatic. Lean. kalm. Emaciated constitutions. murx.. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Plethoric. BELL. CALC. MERC. Dwarfish.. Bar-m. constitutions. constitutions. constitutions -am-c.. people. constitutions. Nat-m. Petr. dulc. constitutions. constitutions.. GRAPH.. Sulph.. 1. Rhus-t. Puls. Hysterical.. thin people. constitutions... Tall lean. bapt.. Venous. bloated.. Large fat.
." 2. constitutions. constitutions. phos. thuj. and their similar remedies. aur-m. Scrofulous.. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section... constitutions. Gouty..
. Example: "Bilious.. SABAD..... ail. ant-c.... A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and
. Melancholic.. Mez. Cocc.. Nervous.constitutions... Phyt. Sil. Aesc.. Petr.. sep. euph.... Tubercular.. Mercc.. Sycotic constitutions.. Sars. cinnam. Example: "Fibre. Puls.. constitutions-agar. MERC. mag-m. CARD-M. Bell.. PSOS." Rubrics related to the miasms include. CHIN. diathetic states and miasms. ptel.. constitutions-Ars." 3... Phos.... PHOS.. iris. Psoric.. Ph-ac... Example: "SYPHILITIC.. SYPH. NUX V. Choleric. spong. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). aec-t.... Phlegmatic. OP... and their similar remedies. Ip. acon. KALI-C. constitutions. Sanguine constitutions. These are general symptoms of the constitution.. Caps. lept. hep.. AUR.. Merc-d. Fl-ac.. plat. temperament. bar-c.. Merc-i-f. sulph.. ant-t. constitutions...... ars. chion.. Cham. constitutions.. cund. CALC. constitutions.. berb.. Cor-r... Thuj.. lax. Kali-b. Lach... nat-s. Benz-ac.. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. BRY. Clem. Syphilitic.. Crot-h... bor. MAG-C... Sulph. Phos... Bilious. CHEL. sang.. ferr-i. constitutions. MERC. chol. KALI-I. Guai.. calc-p.." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. Sil. constitutions.. Still...... constitutions and their remedies. ambr. Merc.. constitutions. constitutions. NIT-AC. cann-i.
inheritance. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the
. or of the Copaiva balm. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. For example. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. miasms and diathesis. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. the footnote on page 150. The Chronic Diseases. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. or a small dose of Cannabis. susceptibility. temperament. susceptibility. temperament.conditioning factors. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. Vide Sycosis. of Cantharides. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. diathesis and miasms.
ed. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Tokyo. Cambridge. Borland. New Delhi. The Tao of Physics. Robert. The Genius of Homœopathy. Blackie. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Churchill Livingstone. Homœopathy in Practice. London. B Jain. Dudgeon (republished 1994). James Tyler. Beaconsfield. Edinburgh. Margery. Melbourne. Fritjoff. Chambers English Dictionary. Aphorisms and Precepts. 1986. 1994. Capra. Gypser. Foubister. Madrid. signs. Brewster O’Reilly. Decker. 5th edition. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. B Jain. Beaconsfield. Lesser Writings. Wenda. Kent. Hahnemann. New York. 1986. 1987 (republished 1988). Donald McD. 1993. W&R Chambers. Bombay. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Beaconsfield Publishers. etc. BIBLIOGRAPHY:
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The Substance of Homœopathy. Floris Books. Tophi Books. Rajan. 1986. Leeser. New York. London. Tao te Ching. Wellingborough. 1935. 1989.• • • • • • • • • • • •
Lao Tzu. Berkeley. Sankaran. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Van Hoy Publishers. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Otto. 2nd edition. B Jain. Jay. The Science of Homœopathy. London. Proceso Sanchez.
. tr. Dorset & Baber. 1979. Whitmont. Ortega. Greenville. 1980. The Science and Art of Healing. B Jain. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Notes on the Miasms. 1991. New Delhi. Twentyman. Roberts. North Atlantic Books. Psyche and Substance. 2nd edition. New Delhi. CA. Vithoulkas. Thorsons. 1980. Ch’u TaKao (1959). 1942 (republished 1994). Unwin Paperbacks. Herbert A. Yasgur. 1994. 1985. Ralph. PA. 3rd edition. Edward C. Bombay. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Unknown (between 6-600BC). New Delhi. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. 1994. 1st edition. George. Bombay. Edinburgh. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. 1988.