Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. the previously manifest. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease).and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. to the stress of environment. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. the vital force. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. which determines the individuals reaction.’ (Blackie. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. 1986. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. It treats the manifest. p14) . but also the past and future. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. mentally.T.J. In this sense. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. successful or unsuccessful. and also the potential to manifest. emotionally and physically. BY DR.

and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. during its proving in the healthy state. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. … Unfortunately. diverging body. like any model. 1988. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century.and soul-constitutions. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. Only in paragraph 136. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. 1842. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. choleric.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing.’ (Hahnemann. Most often.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. but only in many different. phlegmatic. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. over the years. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. pviii) she states. as opposed to common.’ (Leeser. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. He appears. 1994. 1935. p26) However. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. which deals with provings. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers.’ (Leeser. p77). does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. 1935. the conception has also been misused. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5.

the tall or short. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. . p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. phosphoric. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. 1994. p272) And again. Pende. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions.’ (Gypser. 1987. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. Kretschmer. carbonitrogenoid. 1987. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles.' (Leeser. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. endomorphs and ectomorphs. 1935. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable many during this period. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. are not generally considered morbid. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. even accurately.’ (Gypser. the form or shape. changes of weather. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. sulphuric. to guide to a remedy. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. for he may be better or worse from motion. phosphoric. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. citing the various classifications of Czerny. symptomatology. as no two are sufficiently similar. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. warm air. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. cold air. 1994. p650 and Kent. Romero and Maranon. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. and oxygenoid. p377. p651 and Kent. even when morbid. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms.

does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. This has its basis in that. rather than remedy-based. however. and finally. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. the presentation of evidence. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. p171) Ortega. mode of living and weather influences. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. by the influence of the milieu. 1980. according to Hahnemann. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. Further. 1989.’ (Roberts. 1942. p26) This view is modified by Roberts.’ (Roberts. the three . forming groups. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. furthermore. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. fate.’ (Ortega. sanguinous. bilious. 1942. In contrast. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. regardless of the temperament. the division into syphilis.’ (Foubister. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. takes a different slant on constitutional typing.

‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. 1986. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division.’ (Vithoulkas. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. However. to categorise and deconstruct. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. he writes purely about the classification of disease. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. In such cases. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. (Close. complete cure will take a relatively long time. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. 1993. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. not patients.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. It is in our nature to group and dissect.’ (Leeser. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. However. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. So it seems likely. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. 1935. It is . As Yasgur states.

Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. 1980. In this state. Built is something more than the well formed body.’ (Yasgur. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. it is open to formulaic. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. p45. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution.’ (Whitmont. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. 1994. Emphasis added. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. 1983. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. But as with any set of data. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. D in Capra.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. in his inherited and evolving constitution. the sickness’ (Ortega. 1980. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. Whitmont implies a fixity of . There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. p12) is what. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. at base. characteristic patterns. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. or at least moderates. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health.

and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. If change does occur. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. p112) However. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. middle age. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. By this. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. 1994. mind and disease. p27).’ (Sankaran. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. 1991. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. . while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran.response patterns which. youth. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. we mean that each person has a specific. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. individual body.

Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. . in particular. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which.’ (Twentyman. by implication. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. 1986. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. serving as directive. on another. p12).’ (Gutman. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. there is no other than the body’s sensation. be it weight or number. some to a greater extent than others. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. a genuine challenge. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. but is greater than these. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. 1989. It comprises the form patterns which their life. however. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). you will not find. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. This returns to Lao Tzu. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level.

9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. As they were at birth so they will remain. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. the only exception being orthodontics. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . 10) No treatment can modify them. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. which appeared to be fairly well determined. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign.3) It is constant and immetable.

2) Hydrogenoid constitution. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. perturbation of secretions.VON GRAUVOGL.a) Calcarea carbonica. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. c) Calcarea flourica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. b) Calcarea phosphoric. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. the carbon. oxygen. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. hydrogen and nitrogen. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. . 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites.

swollen. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. Examples: Acid Nit.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. Cuprum Met. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum.Examples: Lycopodium. 2) The phosphoric type. & mucouses. 3) The fluoric type. Thuja Occidentalis.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . c) Easy demineralisation. retension of water in the cells. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. b) Puffines. hydropexic. d) Retracted and emaciated. Carbo Veg. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. c) He is easily affected by humidity.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation..

• Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Stranger. • Rachis supple. • Rigid articulation. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Stubborn. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Thick Set. • Vaulted. . • Square Or Sphere. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Developed in width.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Detector. • Reasonable. • Thick skeleton. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. Respects order necessary and in matter. • • Predominance of the cranium.

 THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Imaginative. • Asymmetric. • The lower belly fall infront. of facts. • Dreamer. • Horror of reality. Mentality: • Nervous. • Sensitive. • Emotive. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Distracted. • Intuitive. Mentality: . • Easy vanity or dominating. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Care for elegance.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Skin dry and cracked. • Superficial. • Saddle backed.

• Rapid assimilation. • Easily vulgar. • Intuitive. • Fantastic. • Brilliant but unstable. . The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism.• Unstable. the nature of the disease state. • Restless. Therefore. • Cannot take any decision. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Cannot continue. • Disorderly. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Horror of rules and of solitude. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Capricious. • Versatile. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament.

which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". the potential causations including miasms. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. In these investigations. the physician should take into account the patient's . They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. In truth. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. In this sense. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". befallments and symptoms.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution".

etc. 4. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. The mental and emotional character. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. etc). This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. 5. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. venous. short or fat. nervous. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). rheumatic constitutions. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. Age 7. a description of the physique (tall or thin.). Occupations. On this solid foundation the objective signs. the chronic miasms. in chronic cases). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. strong. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6).1. lymphatic. unstable. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. Lifestyle and habits. 2. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. Rubrics related to these states are . This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition)." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). The discernible body constitution (especially. loose or tight tissue types. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. etc. Sexual function.

6. 5. family relations. friends. birth. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. A person’s sexual ethics. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. middle age. Age. How a person relates to their mate. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. The critical times are conception. and old age. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. puberty. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. sanguine. phlegmatic. adolescence. 4. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. children. 7. Lifestyle and habits. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. The occupation. 3. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. . childhood. Strictly speaking. Some work well at both extremes of life. Sex and sexuality. These are cardinal general symptoms.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. rest. Civic and domestic relationships. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy.

the physical constitution. Perceived by those around him. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. Wesen. temperament. The disease-Gestalt is . miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. and 3. 7. nature. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. 8. Felt by the patient himself. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. which are: 1. sexual performance. befallments and symptoms. That is. constitution. essence. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. being – DL]. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors.sexual fantasies. "The unprejudiced observer. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. that is. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. 2. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. disease signs. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. Observed by the physician. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. causation. The time and progression. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. causation." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6).

acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. that is. nature. 91. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. As Hahnemann said. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. inheritance. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon.DL] of the disease.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. single and multiple causations. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). predispositions. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. of the suffering of the life force. infection. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. susceptibility. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. befallments and symptoms. being . 92 & 175). The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. In this way. the spiritual. mental and emotional temperament. the instinctive vital force. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9).

The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. The W. the spiritual-bodily organism. the bodily constitution. defines the German term. to make. In this sense constitutional means. condition. Introduction. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. This. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". O'Reilly edition. "constituted". disposition. comes from the Latin root. laws of the organic constitution. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). inherent in the natural frame. constituere. page 12.dynamic influence (§11). "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. "to procure. to work". Beschaffenheit. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. etc. quality. as nature. . to form or make up. our living human organism. to establish. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. and as an adjective it means. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. which means constitutes: to set up. constitution. make something available". This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. which one calls disease. the unity of life. the complete whole. The English word. Beschaffen is a verb that means. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. to appoint to give being to. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. temper. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). however. Turner’s Dictionary. temperament. the make-up of the body & soul. or inherent nature. beschaffenheit (make up). to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases.

Pages 30. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 75. 143. its constitution. 99. 1. composition. 103. 2. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 145. 90. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. 35. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. disposition and circumstance. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 101. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. etc. . A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. For example. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. 48. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. 3. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street.constitution. 181. Therefore. construction or nature. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. 242. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 142. 98. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 243. 34.

Every sensation. a unity. (§ 9. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts.. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. every manifestation of power. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit.g. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . mind. vital force and body. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. The human organism houses the mental. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. page 194. Jain. B. which is more than the sum of its parts. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. the event itself.g. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. Dudgeon and Boericke. One does not appear without the other.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr.. that is. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. Appendix. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. it comprises of the body. 11. No part can suffer without all other parts. Lebenskraft). emotional and bodily faculties. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Delhi. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. "Organism: An organized or organic system.

its branches in Paracelsus. page 345. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. physis. as of all other medicines. "The employment of this. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. 1833.teachings on temperaments. and its fruit in Hahnemann. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. its trunk in Hippocrates. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . 3rd edition. This example includes the use of classical temperaments.

which means "who": .resolutions with rapidity. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. even though they may appear to be good tempered. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". This portrait includes natural. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. mild. positive and negative qualities. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. Ms. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. slow phlegmatic temperament). For example. this is not the complete picture. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". silent peevishness). This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. and are quick in their movements.

It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. For example. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. both if possible. correspond to only few remedies. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. if they are not only sharply distinct. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. if a formerly obese. Therefore. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence.e. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". nature and genius) in The Organon. for the natural disposition rests on it. which must be scanned all the more carefully. Therefore."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. therefore. separated according to his sick and his well days i.. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing"." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. but also of rare occurrence and. jovial person becomes thin.

with wasting away (cancer of the womb). and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. pseudopsora. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. Vide The Chronic Diseases. 1750. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. Volume I. page 17. Junker makes . stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. p. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. This same is true with sycosis. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. This is the true Esse. Halle. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. also by inflammatory fever. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. burning pains. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. the menses were delayed. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. attended with deep. also other indurations. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. 15-18. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. the menses disappear prematurely. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated.

phlegmatic. these symptoms become more strange. For example. rare and peculiar. miasms and constitutional diathesis. temperament. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. . That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. general appearance of anything. heredity.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. This 2. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. gnomon-onos.physiognomy. moderate. to temper. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. character. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. temperare. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. from the face. nature. and constitution. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. aspectGreek. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. as well as the present state of the spirit. the art of judging character from the appearance. esp. Temperament from Latin. an interpreter. If this is not the case. mind and body. restrain. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. predisposition.. compound. befallments and symptoms.

a mood. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. the choleric or bilious.choleric. nervo. the spiritual body organism. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. the sanguino. the cholero-sanguine. to exert self control. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. air. Temper-noun. water. and the nervo-sanguine. the sangino-phlegmatic.choleric. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). a proportioned mixture of qualities. a fit of anger. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. the nervo-phlegmatic. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. the constitution of the body and/or mind. the phlegmo-choleric. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. to be uncontrolled. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. phlegmatic. composure. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). Each of these temperaments represents . the cholero-nervous. a natural disposition. temperament. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. a natural temperament. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. the five elements (ether. the phlegmosanguine. voice. an internal constitutional state. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. pitch and mood) by the vital force. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. fire. phlegmatic. a frame of mind. an innate or acquired disposition. Constitution. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals.

The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. Bilious temperaments. Drug subjects. II. Vide Guiding Symptoms. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. with tendency to hemorrhoids. of an irritable. state." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. Suits thin. or of a spiteful. etc. II. II. thin. or of a malicious.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. I. II. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. always irritable and impatient. II. melancholic people. Nervous. composure. venous constitution. fiery. the choleric. phlegmatic. zealous. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. mood. zealous persons. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. For very particular. page 223. irritable. malicious disposition. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. hot temperament. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. I (4) is the second grade. spite or deception. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. Volume VIII. choleric persons with dark hair. "Some practical instructions may be of use. sanguine and nervous melancholic. nervous disposition. lecture on Nux Vomica. troubled with indigestion. wicked irascible disposition. Among these may be mentioned. Vide Materia Medica Pura. "II. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. (hepatic affections) I. Debauches. inclined to get angry or excited. Nux Vomica." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. page 168.

Allen includes temperaments.7). this means looking at whether they are generally happy. drugs). rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. thin. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. hepatic affections). nervous anxious temperaments. bilious. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. habits. with quick perceptions. mental rubrics (angry. irritable. and very sensitive nature. fair skin. choleric persons. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. chilly. dark hair). blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. delicate eyelashes. These are all constitutional general rubrics. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. melancholic. impatient. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. dry. coffee. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. indigestion.6. miasmic tendencies. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. blond or red hair.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. blond haired. Boenninghausen and Hering. fine. . spiteful. dark. etc). Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. On this constitutional basis the signs. choleric. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). (addicted to wine. nervous dispositions with their traits). diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). physical descriptions (thin. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. §5. One might ask. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament.

Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Ailments tend to the left side. Physical factors are also important. so B will be the best remedy. Readily laughs. if they are bright and alert in the morning. candy. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. sad.The Argent Nit. Type . Eyes. lazy etc. The Argent Nit. hair type. cries and loses temper. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. B. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. The Arsen. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. confident. Prone to bedwetting. hair colour. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Alb. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. such as how they respond to noise. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. Often anxious and worried. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Finds it difficult to control emotions. For example. salt and cheese. long or short limbed. under or overweight. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. Digestive system. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. fat or thin. preferred type of clothing and so on. their eye colour. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. or C.tearful. Dislikes chilled foods.

Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. in particular coffee. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Fine facial features with fine. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Alb. Prone to depression. Respiratory system (coughs. Teeth. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Alb. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Dislikes large amount of fluid. nose and throat. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Often well groomed and stylish. may manifest as back ache. sensitive and quiet. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Strong opinions. Physical weaknesses: Ears. candy. Sluggish. The Calc. Perfectionist at work and at home. keeps room tidy. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. delicate skin. bloated and tired in appearance. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Dislikes mess and being messy. Carb. Easily upset by loud noise. Types. The Arsen. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. this can hide a hoarding mentality. warm foods and drinks. Skin. Exhaustion. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Skeletal system. Skin. .Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Digestive system. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Can be critical and intolerant. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person.

The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. nose bleeds. Type. Rapid and extreme mood swings. Dislikes fatty meats. such as vegetables and salads. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. hesitant and anxious. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Dislikes sweet foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Dry hair. Not an early morning person. prone to suppression of grief. salt. May have rough. Slow metabolic rate. tearful and despondent then impatient. Placid and calm. iced drinks and ice cream. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Timid. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Not always willing to change habits and routines. chocolate. Carb. Sighs a lot. be exhausted. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Nails. Carb. have bad breath. carbohydrates. salt. usually dark. seafood and hot drinks. Ears. The Calc. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Can have a rugged.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. candy. dry skin that can crack easily. Dark to mid range colour hair. Dry lips. Blushes easily. Possible difficulty in . May often have sores in corner of mouth. Prone to dark circles under eyes. eggs. Possible mood swings. desserts. boiled food and boiled milk. windswept appearance. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Can fall over easily. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. child: Plump and overweight. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Flaky scalp.

The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. May lick lips a lot. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. varicose veins. May be sensitive to noise. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. can be hurtful to peers. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. May view self as sinful when religious. causing outbursts of anger. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. cool drinks. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. sore throats and asthma. especially new babies. staring eyes. sore throat. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. crying and poor grades at school. coughs and colds. Prone to left-side problems. carbohydrates. May experience headaches. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Strong. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. constipation. menopausal problems. Dislikes sweet drinks. sour and savoury foods. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Prefers not to be alone. alcohol and seafood. Suspicious of strangers. excitable and sensitive. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Jealous and possessive. The Lycopodium Type . Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Talkative. choughs. bad sleep and insomnia. Responds well to encouragment. fixed expression. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. Hyperactivity. palpitations and panic attacks.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. sore throats. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Dislikes sweet foods. Strong. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. leading to headaches. twitching and grinding teeth.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. dairy products.

Susceptible to ear nose and . May stammer.The Merc. child: Irritating behaviour. Forgetful. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Thinning hair in men. with grey translucent look. kidney stones. The Merc. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. sore throats. creating mountains out of molehills. Anxious over important events. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Type Appearance: Medium build. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. male baldness. Hair may be fair to medium colour. onions. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Sol. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Avoids commitment. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Conscientious and achiever academically. Right-side problems. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Sol. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. prostate. garlic and seafood. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Dislikes wearing light clothing. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Shy and cautious. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. May explode with rage and anger. Insecure and hates change. swelling of glands and exhaustion. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Facial twitching. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Hates being contradicted. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Often look older than their years.

Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. premenstrual syndrome. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. The Nat. May look stressed and tense. palpitations and headaches. Solid. Smart appearance. Finds it difficult to relax. anorexia. especially when young. skin problems. which can lead to depression. . Loves animals. Ages prematurely.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. Dry cracked lips. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Intolerant of imperfection in others. fear. cigarettes. The Nat. coffee. Well behaved. type may be professional and career minded. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. child: Small for their age.throat complaints. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. mur. May have cravings for alcohol. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Can be addicted to sex. Impatient. Medium to dark hair. anger. guilt and loneliness. mur. strong and lean build in men. Dislikes coffee and bread. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Slow development. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Watery. May have dark circles under eyes. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. Can be very ambitious. mur. red eyes. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Depression. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Down to Earth with mind set on career.

Coughs and colds. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Headaches. Strong fear of the dark. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. The Pulsatilla Type .Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. May have temper tantrums. Competitive as a teenager. Migraines and headaches. Weakness of the lungs. Hernia and hay fever. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. mild cheeses and sweet foods. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Dizziness. Loves to receive attention. alcohol. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Can be hard work for partner. Nervous. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Can have fair to dark hair. Short attention span. spicy food. Feels better after sleep. Likes to be stylish. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Left-side problems. Circulation problems. cheese and cream. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. salt. Expressive. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. carbonated drinks. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. alcohol. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. coffee and spicy foods. Artistic and creative in appearance. Fine skin. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention.

Not assertive and can be indecisive. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Irritable bowel syndrome. Often rests with hands behind head. Medium to dark hair. . Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Blushes easily. Cries easily. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Hates being contradicted. Can feel better after weeping. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. spicy foods. Likes to be supported by others. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. cold foods and cold drinks. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Loves animals. Can suppress guilt and anger. and very rich. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Headaches and migraine. Varicose veins. often with brown eyes. Catarrh. Avoids confrontation. Skin problems.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Also laughs easily. Gentle and kind appearance. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. tragic news or weepy movies. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Skin problems. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Can look younger than actual age. Likes to look attractive and elegant. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. as holds strong opinions. Prone to coughs and colds. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Often sits with legs crossed. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Styes.

The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. especially due to burnout from new projects. Dislikes dairy products. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Skin problems. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Can become a bedwetter. Exhaustion. Prone to mental exhaustion. almost doll-like in appearance. Prone to constipation. Dislikes meet and dairy products. apart from large head. Not sporty as has little stamina. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Usually tidy and well behaved. Dislikes very hot food. Slowness in healing and getting well. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. sweet foods and alcohol. Moody. with a large forehead. moves and new jobs. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Feels the cold. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. sour and savoury foods. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. citrus fruits. Does not like being alone. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Feels the cold. Can be shy. with petite appearance. especially milk. Constipation. Delicate. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. The Sepia child: Greedy. The Sulphur Type . The head can appear too large for the body. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. fine features. Headaches. especially cheese and milk.

dry. temperament. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. May look untidy. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Can be hyperactive in the evening. disposition.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. bathing or washing hands. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Vide Organon. hot. Dislikes most hot drinks. spicy foods. Might not complete ideas and projects. salads and seafood. Has a very healthy appetite. Likes to argue. Can be critical. May lack willpower and self-esteem. Hair may be course. citrus fruits. heredity. Does not like showers. Likes alcohol. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. haemorrhoids and constipation. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. burning feet. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. Dislikes dairy products. body odour. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. especially milk and eggs.

Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. Lamarck. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. "The true. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. heart . When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. they mount until the end of life. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm." Note 78.feelings and functions. Therefore. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions.

the acute.. i. 2. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. prodromal stage and primary. Third. by contact with the infected host. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. were completely vanished. incubation period. He classified miasms into three categories. and especially through inexpedient. However. 3. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. implanted in them through infection or heredity. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. Second.and body. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. 1. medicinal treatment. He points out that mental and . congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. grief and worry. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility.e. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. On this basis. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. a moment of infection. First of all. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection.

the mental temperament. predisposition and diathesis. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. is announced by the increase of the . The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. inheritance. and. habits. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. hereditary dispositions. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms.

his hereditary disposition. etc. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). his turn of mind. climate. in and of themselves. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . " It is. his employment. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. deviate so greatly from one another. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. to some extent. diet. morals. his morality. thus attaining incredible proliferation. little by little. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. his manner of living and diet. the various errors in his education and habits. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. which already. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). befallments and symptoms. The next most important factors are environment. For these reasons. diet and stress (nurture). etc. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs.

scrofulous.e. lymphatic. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. DIATHESIS. psoric. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. 1. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. From the Greek. diathesis.. 3. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. 2. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. i. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. sycotic. etc. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. and/or mind. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. diathesis. leucophlegmatic.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. venous. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes.

constitutions. GRAPH.." 2. Hysterical.. and their similar remedies. constitutions. Plethoric. constitution. phos. Hep. Cann-i. BELL. Large fat. Fibre rigid. constitutions -am-c. constitutions. Carb-v. Scrofulous. Lean.. constitutions. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions... bloated. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. dulc.. FERR.. Hemorrhagic. Example: "Lymphatic. Emaciated constitutions.. Tubercular. constitutions. MERC. bapt. nit-ac... Gouty. lax. Petr.. ars. For example. Bar-m. Puls. Rhus-t.. Sulph. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Sil.. Rheumatic.... Fibre. . constitutions.. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice.. Lyc.. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. aur-m. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section.. Apis. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings... Dwarfish. arn. Sep. thuj.. Nat-m. CALC.. Lymphatic. murx. 1. constitutions. calc-ar.. people. Paralytic. Asthmatic constitutions. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. Venous. aster. thin people. constitutions. BAR-C. Tall lean. constitutions. kalm. Chin. constitutions. constitutions.

bor. berb. ail. diathetic states and miasms. mag-m. chol.... hep. SABAD... Sulph.... ant-t. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms)... PSOS. Clem. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include... Mercc. Crot-h. NIT-AC.... cinnam.. Cor-r.. constitutions and their remedies. constitutions.... CHIN....... Example: "Fibre.. temperament. aec-t.. Phos. ambr. cund. sulph. MERC.. Still... Merc-d." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. ant-c.. Phos.. constitutions-agar..... Nervous. constitutions. ars.. lept. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . Merc. SYPH. Sars.. Bell. ferr-i. Psoric. Choleric.... Sycotic constitutions. Fl-ac. NUX V. iris. Melancholic.. bar-c. constitutions. Lach. Thuj. Aesc..constitutions. Guai... Sanguine constitutions. Bilious. Example: "Bilious. CARD-M. constitutions. CALC. Ip... MERC.. CHEL. Syphilitic.. KALI-I. Example: "SYPHILITIC.. cann-i. ptel.." 3." Rubrics related to the miasms include.. sep. PHOS.... These are general symptoms of the constitution. sang. constitutions........ Phyt... calc-p.. Petr. spong. and their similar remedies... Tubercular. Merc-i-f. constitutions. euph. acon. Mez. nat-s. constitutions.. Cocc. Sil... Ph-ac. plat. Puls.. Caps.. BRY. AUR. constitutions-Ars. lax.. constitutions. KALI-C.. Benz-ac. Sil.. chion... OP. Cham. Kali-b. MAG-C. Phlegmatic.

inheritance. miasms and diathesis. susceptibility. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. of Cantharides. diathesis and miasms. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . susceptibility. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. The Chronic Diseases. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. or a small dose of Cannabis. Vide Sycosis. or of the Copaiva balm. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. temperament. temperament. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. the footnote on page 150.conditioning factors. For example. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly.

Foubister. 1986. Madrid. phlegmatic. B Jain. Melbourne. Lesser Writings. Samuel. signs. Beaconsfield. Homœopathy in Practice. Douglas. Beaconsfield Publishers. Blackie. W&R Chambers. Wenda. Close. 1988. New Delhi. B Jain. WA. C M Boger Collected Writings. Hahnemann. The Tao of Physics. 1988. Fritjoff. Gutman. New Delhi. London. 1983. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Robert. Beaconsfield. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Flamingo. B Jain. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Aphorisms and Precepts. Bombay. The Organon of Medicine. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy.choleric. 1954 (republished 1994). New York. Gypser. the Essence of its Remedies. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Classical Homœopathy. Clinical Cases. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Donald McD. Beaconsfield. . 1842. Birdcage Books. Stuart. Decker. Klaus-Henning. Capra. Brewster O’Reilly. 1994. New Delhi. Churchill Livingstone. Borland. Cambridge. (a) 1922 tr. Kent. New Delhi. etc. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Chambers English Dictionary. 1987 (republished 1988). 1989. Beaconsfield Publishers. 5th edition. Redmond. William. Beaconsfield Publishers. Edinburgh. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Tutorials on Homœopathy. 6th edition. New Delhi. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. James Tyler. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. B Jain. 1993. London. 1994. ed. Tokyo. Margery. The Genius of Homœopathy. 1986. New Remedies. befallments and symptoms. B Jain. (b) 1996 tr. ed.

Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1986. 1980. Ortega. 1979. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Jay. The Substance of Homœopathy. Yasgur. Herbert A. 1942 (republished 1994). Whitmont. Van Hoy Publishers. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. The Science of Homœopathy. Edward C. London. PA. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. 2nd edition. Sankaran. North Atlantic Books. Notes on the Miasms. Twentyman. Floris Books. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Unwin Paperbacks. Edinburgh. Wellingborough. New Delhi. Bombay. . Rajan. Vithoulkas. Unknown (between 6-600BC). 1985. London. Otto. 1st edition. B Jain. The Science and Art of Healing. Ralph. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Bombay. CA. 2nd edition. Proceso Sanchez. Dorset & Baber. 3rd edition. Berkeley. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Tao te Ching. 1989. New Delhi. Leeser. tr. 1988. New York. 1994. George. Greenville. The Spirit of Homœopathy. New Delhi. B Jain. 1994. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. 1980. Roberts. Tophi Books.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Psyche and Substance. Thorsons. 1935. 1991.