Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. but also the past and future. It treats the manifest.J. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. BY DR.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. successful or unsuccessful. In this sense. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. p14) . Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. which determines the individuals reaction. emotionally and physically. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. mentally. the previously manifest. the vital force. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. and also the potential to manifest. 1986. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. to the stress of environment.T.’ (Blackie.

It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body.’ (Hahnemann. phlegmatic. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. the conception has also been misused. over the years. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. during its proving in the healthy state.and soul-constitutions.’ (Leeser. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. diverging body. Only in paragraph 136. but only in many different. 1935. as opposed to common. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. 1994. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. p26) However. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . p77). There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. choleric. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. pviii) she states. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. 1842. Most often.’ (Leeser. like any model. … Unfortunately. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. 1988. He appears. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. which deals with provings. 1935.

The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. for he may be better or worse from motion. phosphoric. 1994. carbonitrogenoid. 1987. are not generally considered morbid. 1987. the form or shape. the tall or short. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. . No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. to guide to a remedy. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. as no two are sufficiently similar. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. many during this period. symptomatology. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. p650 and Kent. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. Kretschmer. sulphuric. Pende. even when morbid. 1935. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. endomorphs and ectomorphs. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. citing the various classifications of Czerny. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. even accurately. p377. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. 1994. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. p651 and Kent. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. Romero and Maranon. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup.' (Leeser. p272) And again. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis.’ (Gypser. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. and oxygenoid.’ (Gypser. changes of weather. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. cold air. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. warm air.

’ (Foubister.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. In contrast. bilious. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. furthermore. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. by the influence of the milieu.’ (Roberts. the division into syphilis. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. p171) Ortega.’ (Roberts. 1942. 1942. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. This has its basis in that. mode of living and weather influences. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. fate. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. rather than remedy-based. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy.’ (Ortega. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. however. regardless of the temperament. 1989. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. sanguinous. Further. the presentation of evidence. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. 1980. according to Hahnemann. the three . p26) This view is modified by Roberts. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. and finally. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. forming groups.

(Close. However. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. In such cases. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. he writes purely about the classification of disease. So it seems likely. not patients. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. It is in our nature to group and dissect. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. 1986. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. complete cure will take a relatively long time. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. However. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. As Yasgur states. It is . to categorise and deconstruct.’ (Vithoulkas. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. 1935. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy.’ (Leeser. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. 1993. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division.

it is open to formulaic. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. 1980. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. the sickness’ (Ortega. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. p45. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. But as with any set of data. characteristic patterns. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. 1980. 1994.’ (Yasgur. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. in his inherited and evolving constitution. Emphasis added. In this state. Whitmont implies a fixity of . Built is something more than the well formed body. p12) is what.’ (Whitmont. at base. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. 1983. D in Capra. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. or at least moderates. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man.

while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. individual body. mind and disease. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. youth. If change does occur. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. p27). The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. middle age. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. 1991. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. we mean that each person has a specific. By this.’ (Sankaran. p112) However.response patterns which. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. 1994. . he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran.

include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. but is greater than these. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. It comprises the form patterns which their life. by implication. on another. be it weight or number. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. there is no other than the body’s sensation. This returns to Lao Tzu. however. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. a genuine challenge. you will not find. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. 1989. serving as directive. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). Their very opposition can become a stimulus.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. 1986. . The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. in particular.’ (Twentyman. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them.’ (Gutman. p12). Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. some to a greater extent than others. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical.

As they were at birth so they will remain.3) It is constant and immetable. the only exception being orthodontics. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. which appeared to be fairly well determined. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 10) No treatment can modify them. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity.

6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. hydrogen and nitrogen. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR.a) Calcarea carbonica. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. c) Calcarea flourica. oxygen. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. . perturbation of secretions. the carbon. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. b) Calcarea phosphoric. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles.VON GRAUVOGL. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen.

Cuprum Met.Examples: Lycopodium. b) Puffines. Examples: Acid Nit. & mucouses. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. d) Retracted and emaciated. swollen. Carbo Veg. c) He is easily affected by humidity. Thuja Occidentalis.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. retension of water in the cells. c) Easy demineralisation. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. hydropexic.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power.. 2) The phosphoric type.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. 3) The fluoric type. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin.

• Rigid articulation. • Stubborn. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Thick Set. • Square Or Sphere. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Detector. • Reasonable. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Thick skeleton. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Rachis supple.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Stranger. . •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Developed in width. • Vaulted.

 THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Sensitive. Mentality: . • Emotive. Mentality: • Nervous. • The lower belly fall infront. • Imaginative. • Saddle backed. • Superficial. • Skin dry and cracked. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Dreamer. • Horror of reality. • Distracted.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Intuitive. of facts. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Care for elegance. • Asymmetric. • Easy vanity or dominating.

Therefore. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Cannot take any decision. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Brilliant but unstable. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Rapid assimilation. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Easily vulgar. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Disorderly. • Restless. • Versatile. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. the nature of the disease state. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Fantastic. • Cannot continue. .• Unstable. • Capricious. • Intuitive. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament.

It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . In truth. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. the physician should take into account the patient's . befallments and symptoms. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". the potential causations including miasms. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. In these investigations. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. In this sense. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms.

short or fat. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. strong. The mental and emotional character.). This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. Rubrics related to these states are . which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. 4. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. the chronic miasms. in chronic cases). In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". a description of the physique (tall or thin. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. The discernible body constitution (especially. Age 7. lymphatic. etc. etc. 2. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). Occupations." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). rheumatic constitutions.1. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). loose or tight tissue types. Sexual function. nervous. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. 5. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. On this solid foundation the objective signs. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. unstable. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). etc). venous. Lifestyle and habits.

3. friends. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. rest. adolescence. 5. puberty. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. childhood. . these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. The occupation. Age. Lifestyle and habits. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. The critical times are conception. Civic and domestic relationships. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. sanguine. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. 7. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. 6. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. Some work well at both extremes of life. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. family relations. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. Sex and sexuality. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. How a person relates to their mate. 4. These are cardinal general symptoms. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. phlegmatic. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. children. and old age. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. birth. middle age. Strictly speaking. A person’s sexual ethics.

8. the physical constitution. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. 7. which are: 1. 2. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms.sexual fantasies. The time and progression. nature. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. That is. causation. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. being – DL]." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). that is. causation. "The unprejudiced observer. sexual performance. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. The disease-Gestalt is . mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. and 3. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. Perceived by those around him. disease signs. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. Felt by the patient himself. Observed by the physician. befallments and symptoms. constitution. temperament. essence. Wesen. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state.

Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. predispositions. As Hahnemann said.DL] of the disease. 91. susceptibility." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). of the suffering of the life force. mental and emotional temperament. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. nature. inheritance. the instinctive vital force. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. that is. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. infection. being . They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. the spiritual. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. single and multiple causations. In this way. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. 92 & 175). befallments and symptoms. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6.

which means constitutes: to set up. temperament. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. defines the German term. Turner’s Dictionary. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. . inherent in the natural frame. to appoint to give being to. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). page 12. disposition. make something available". What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. Introduction. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. laws of the organic constitution.dynamic influence (§11). to establish. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. however. which one calls disease. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). "constituted". constituere. condition. "to procure. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. comes from the Latin root. Beschaffenheit. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. The W. Beschaffen is a verb that means. beschaffenheit (make up). to make. as nature. to work". the make-up of the body & soul. quality. the spiritual-bodily organism. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. the bodily constitution. etc. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. the complete whole. This. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. the unity of life. and as an adjective it means. In this sense constitutional means. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. to form or make up. or inherent nature. constitution. O'Reilly edition. The English word. our living human organism. temper. does not reflect all the usages of the German term.

constitution. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 99. 101. 1. Pages 30. etc. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 75. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 243. 98. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. 145. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. 143. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. Therefore. 103. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. its constitution. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 90. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 2. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. . disposition and circumstance. 48. 142. 34. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 242. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. For example. composition. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. construction or nature. 3. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. 181. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. 35.

mind. which is more than the sum of its parts. Jain. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). the event itself.. No part can suffer without all other parts. Dudgeon and Boericke. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. Delhi. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. vital force and body. B. emotional and bodily faculties. Appendix. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. Lebenskraft). 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. The human organism houses the mental. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. every manifestation of power. Every sensation. One does not appear without the other. page 194. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts.g. 11. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. "Organism: An organized or organic system. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. (§ 9. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. a unity.g. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic .The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). that is. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr.. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. it comprises of the body. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself.

or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms.teachings on temperaments. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. physis. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. its trunk in Hippocrates. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. and its fruit in Hahnemann. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. "The employment of this. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. as of all other medicines. 1833. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. page 345. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. 3rd edition. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . its branches in Paracelsus.

resolutions with rapidity. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". For example. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. this is not the complete picture. slow phlegmatic temperament). and are quick in their movements. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. This portrait includes natural. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. silent peevishness). mild. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Ms. positive and negative qualities. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. which means "who": . even though they may appear to be good tempered. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition.

both if possible. separated according to his sick and his well days i."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. jovial person becomes thin. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. if a formerly obese. nature and genius) in The Organon. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing".the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. For example. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. therefore. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. correspond to only few remedies. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . Therefore.. for the natural disposition rests on it. but also of rare occurrence and.e. which must be scanned all the more carefully. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. if they are not only sharply distinct. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. Therefore.

Halle. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. also other indurations. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. 15-18. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. also by inflammatory fever. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. Junker makes . page 17. Vide The Chronic Diseases. the menses were delayed. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). pseudopsora. burning pains. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. Volume I. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. This is the true Esse. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. the menses disappear prematurely. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. p. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. This same is true with sycosis. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. 1750. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. attended with deep.

heredity. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. moderate. an interpreter. character.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. these symptoms become more strange. and constitution. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. restrain. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric.physiognomy. general appearance of anything. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. befallments and symptoms. Temperament from Latin.. esp. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. the art of judging character from the appearance. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. temperare. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. as well as the present state of the spirit. phlegmatic. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. miasms and constitutional diathesis. mind and body. . This 2. nature. from the face. If this is not the case. rare and peculiar. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. compound. to temper. predisposition. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. aspectGreek. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. temperament. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. gnomon-onos. For example.

the phlegmosanguine. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. a frame of mind. a proportioned mixture of qualities. a mood. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. voice. the cholero-sanguine. an innate or acquired disposition. the sangino-phlegmatic. to exert self control. Each of these temperaments represents . the sanguino. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). They are the cholero-phlegmatic. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). fire.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. the cholero-nervous. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. and the nervo-sanguine. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. nervo. the spiritual body organism. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being.choleric. a natural disposition. pitch and mood) by the vital force. composure. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. Constitution. an internal constitutional state. to be uncontrolled. the choleric or bilious. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale.choleric. a fit of anger. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. a natural temperament. phlegmatic. the phlegmo-choleric. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). the five elements (ether. Temper-noun. phlegmatic. the nervo-phlegmatic. air. temperament. water. the constitution of the body and/or mind. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale.

Vide Materia Medica Pura. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. zealous persons. always irritable and impatient. nervous disposition. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. II. inclined to get angry or excited. Among these may be mentioned. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. page 168. the choleric. thin. with tendency to hemorrhoids. lecture on Nux Vomica. "Some practical instructions may be of use. irritable. Bilious temperaments. composure. melancholic people. hot temperament. etc. Debauches. Drug subjects. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. For very particular. or of a malicious. I (4) is the second grade. Nux Vomica. II. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . mood. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. wicked irascible disposition. or of a spiteful. II. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. II. troubled with indigestion. malicious disposition. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. Vide Guiding Symptoms. Nervous. state. venous constitution. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. (hepatic affections) I. I. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. Volume VIII. II. phlegmatic. choleric persons with dark hair. sanguine and nervous melancholic. "II. page 223.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. of an irritable. zealous. fiery. spite or deception. Suits thin.

blond haired. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. choleric. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. . blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. spiteful. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. §5. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). etc). This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. delicate eyelashes. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. nervous anxious temperaments. bilious. coffee. choleric persons. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). mental rubrics (angry. dark. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. On this constitutional basis the signs. thin. chilly. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. indigestion. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. fine. with quick perceptions. These are all constitutional general rubrics. One might ask. drugs). fair skin. hepatic affections). irritable. Boenninghausen and Hering. nervous dispositions with their traits). Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. blond or red hair. melancholic. physical descriptions (thin.7).Keynotes under the title "adapted to". dark hair). habits. dry. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. impatient. Allen includes temperaments. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. (addicted to wine. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. miasmic tendencies. and very sensitive nature.6. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone.

tearful. Readily laughs. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Prone to bedwetting. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. hair colour. such as how they respond to noise. fat or thin. Often anxious and worried. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. cries and loses temper. Dislikes chilled foods. Ailments tend to the left side. so B will be the best remedy. hair type. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Alb. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. salt and cheese. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Digestive system.The Argent Nit. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. long or short limbed. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. under or overweight. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. or C. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. B. The Arsen. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. The Argent Nit. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. May react badly to new situations like moving house. preferred type of clothing and so on. For example. lazy etc. Type . Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. Eyes. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. their eye colour. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. Physical factors are also important. if they are bright and alert in the morning. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. sad. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. candy. confident. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes.

Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Fine facial features with fine. Alb. . sensitive and quiet. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Can have a deep fear of being alone. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Skeletal system. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Prone to depression. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. in particular coffee. Often well groomed and stylish. Skin. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Reassurance helps to improve condition.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Perfectionist at work and at home. Carb. nose and throat. Respiratory system (coughs. delicate skin. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Digestive system. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Dislikes large amount of fluid. warm foods and drinks. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Types. Teeth. Dislikes mess and being messy. candy. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. keeps room tidy. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. The Arsen. bloated and tired in appearance. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Skin. may manifest as back ache. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Easily upset by loud noise. Strong opinions. Sluggish. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Can be critical and intolerant. Exhaustion. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. The Calc. Alb.

Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. May have rough. Can have a rugged. Rapid and extreme mood swings. Possible mood swings. Timid. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Dry lips. tearful and despondent then impatient. Dry hair. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Dark to mid range colour hair. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. seafood and hot drinks. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Possible difficulty in . The Calc. The Graphites type like savoury foods. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Can fall over easily. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Nails. prone to suppression of grief. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. eggs. carbohydrates. desserts. dry skin that can crack easily. chocolate. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. candy. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Ears. Type. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. iced drinks and ice cream. salt. Slow metabolic rate. hesitant and anxious. such as vegetables and salads. Dislikes fatty meats. be exhausted. have bad breath. Dislikes sweet foods. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. usually dark. Carb. nose bleeds. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Flaky scalp. Placid and calm. Blushes easily. child: Plump and overweight. May often have sores in corner of mouth. salt. Physical weaknesses: Skin. windswept appearance. Carb. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Sighs a lot. boiled food and boiled milk.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Not an early morning person.

palpitations and panic attacks. menopausal problems. Strong. bad sleep and insomnia. sore throat. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. Hyperactivity. choughs. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. The Lycopodium Type . Suspicious of strangers. May be sensitive to noise. crying and poor grades at school. excitable and sensitive. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. cool drinks. causing outbursts of anger. twitching and grinding teeth. carbohydrates. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Jealous and possessive. can be hurtful to peers. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Strong. Talkative.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. leading to headaches. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. alcohol and seafood. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. especially new babies.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. staring eyes. Prone to left-side problems. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. sour and savoury foods. fixed expression. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. constipation. varicose veins. Responds well to encouragment. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. May view self as sinful when religious. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. sore throats and asthma. Dislikes sweet drinks. sore throats. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. May lick lips a lot. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Dislikes sweet foods. dairy products. coughs and colds. May experience headaches. Prefers not to be alone.

carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Dislikes wearing light clothing. kidney stones. creating mountains out of molehills. Hates being contradicted. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Often look older than their years. Insecure and hates change. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Forgetful. May stammer. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know.The Merc. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. May explode with rage and anger. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. swelling of glands and exhaustion. garlic and seafood. onions. Right-side problems. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Anxious over important events. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Shy and cautious. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. The Merc. Sol. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Facial twitching. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Type Appearance: Medium build. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Sol. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Susceptible to ear nose and . child: Irritating behaviour. Conscientious and achiever academically. sore throats. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. with grey translucent look. prostate. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Avoids commitment. Thinning hair in men. male baldness.

Down to Earth with mind set on career. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. mur. Impatient. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. anorexia. May have dark circles under eyes. The Nat. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. red eyes. strong and lean build in men. . Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Dislikes coffee and bread. cigarettes. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Smart appearance. May look stressed and tense. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. child: Small for their age. Ages prematurely. premenstrual syndrome. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. palpitations and headaches. Well behaved. Watery. Solid. Dry cracked lips. The Nat. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. mur. skin problems. anger. Medium to dark hair. especially when young. guilt and loneliness. which can lead to depression. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. Loves animals. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. Can be very ambitious. Depression. fear. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. May have cravings for alcohol. Can be addicted to sex. mur. Finds it difficult to relax. coffee.throat complaints. Slow development. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. type may be professional and career minded. mouth ulcers and cold sores.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat.

alcohol. Competitive as a teenager. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Can have fair to dark hair. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Dizziness. alcohol. Nervous. Short attention span. Fine skin. May have temper tantrums. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Feels better after sleep. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. coffee and spicy foods. The Pulsatilla Type . May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. spicy food. Coughs and colds. Likes to be stylish. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Can be hard work for partner. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. carbonated drinks. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Expressive. cheese and cream. salt. Strong fear of the dark. Artistic and creative in appearance. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Migraines and headaches. Circulation problems. Left-side problems. Headaches. Weakness of the lungs. Hernia and hay fever. Loves to receive attention. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods.

tragic news or weepy movies. Irritable bowel syndrome. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Hates being contradicted. Styes. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Can feel better after weeping. Often sits with legs crossed. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. spicy foods. Can look younger than actual age. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Catarrh. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Medium to dark hair. Skin problems. Likes to be supported by others. as holds strong opinions. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Often rests with hands behind head. and very rich. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Varicose veins. Headaches and migraine. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. cold foods and cold drinks. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Also laughs easily. . often with brown eyes. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Loves animals.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Cries easily. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Can suppress guilt and anger. Skin problems. Prone to coughs and colds. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Avoids confrontation. Gentle and kind appearance. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Blushes easily. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines.

especially due to burnout from new projects. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Can become a bedwetter. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. citrus fruits. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Moody. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. with a large forehead. Skin problems. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Usually tidy and well behaved. Constipation. with petite appearance. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. fine features. moves and new jobs. almost doll-like in appearance. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. apart from large head. Feels the cold. especially cheese and milk.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Dislikes very hot food. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Can be shy. The Sulphur Type . The head can appear too large for the body. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. sweet foods and alcohol. especially milk. Does not like being alone. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Prone to mental exhaustion. Headaches. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. sour and savoury foods. Dislikes dairy products. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Slowness in healing and getting well. Not sporty as has little stamina. The Sepia child: Greedy. Feels the cold. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Prone to constipation. Exhaustion. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Delicate.

Likes to argue. haemorrhoids and constipation. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Has a very healthy appetite. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. spicy foods. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. bathing or washing hands. especially milk and eggs. Does not like showers. hot. Might not complete ideas and projects. May look untidy. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. body odour. Dislikes most hot drinks.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. disposition. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Can be critical. salads and seafood. Likes alcohol. Hair may be course. citrus fruits. heredity. burning feet. temperament. Dislikes dairy products. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. Vide Organon. Can be hyperactive in the evening. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . dry. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. May lack willpower and self-esteem.

tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. Therefore. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances." Note 78. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. they mount until the end of life. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. Lamarck. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. "The true.feelings and functions. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. heart .

However. by contact with the infected host. 2. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. implanted in them through infection or heredity. He classified miasms into three categories. incubation period. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. the acute. First of all. and especially through inexpedient. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms.e. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. 3. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. He points out that mental and . were completely vanished. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. On this basis. grief and worry. medicinal treatment. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life.and body. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state.. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. 1. a moment of infection. prodromal stage and primary. Third. i. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. Second.

These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. the mental temperament. and. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. predisposition and diathesis. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. inheritance. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. habits. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. is announced by the increase of the . "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. hereditary dispositions.

diet and stress (nurture). thus attaining incredible proliferation. For these reasons. the various errors in his education and habits. The next most important factors are environment. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. little by little. climate. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. to some extent. etc. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. his morality. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora).symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. in and of themselves. deviate so greatly from one another. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. which already. etc. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. his manner of living and diet. " It is. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. his turn of mind. his hereditary disposition. morals. diet. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). his employment. befallments and symptoms. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which .

scrofulous. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. From the Greek. psoric. i. leucophlegmatic. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases.e. and/or mind. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. venous. lymphatic. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. 2. sycotic. 1. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. diathesis. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. The concept of diathesis is closely linked .human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms.. 3. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. DIATHESIS. diathesis. etc.

Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. constitutions. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. CALC. thin people.... constitutions. constitutions. Venous. 1. Sulph. Hep. Hemorrhagic. constitutions.. Sil... Petr. nit-ac.. constitutions. thuj. bapt. Tall lean. Cann-i. aur-m.." 2. Nat-m. constitutions. constitutions. constitutions -am-c... Fibre. murx. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. Tubercular. MERC. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. . constitutions. and their similar remedies. Example: "Lymphatic.. phos.... Apis. Bar-m. Sep. Fibre rigid.. Scrofulous. Plethoric. bloated. calc-ar. constitutions. constitutions. arn.. Puls. Dwarfish. Large fat. people. Carb-v. For example. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. aster. BELL. Gouty.. ars.. kalm... GRAPH.. BAR-C.. FERR. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Lean. lax. constitutions... Asthmatic constitutions. Paralytic. dulc. Chin. Rheumatic. Lyc. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Emaciated constitutions. Rhus-t. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Lymphatic. constitutions. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include... Hysterical.

.. CARD-M. Merc. AUR.. hep.. Cocc. cinnam... CHEL.. Crot-h.. Kali-b. BRY... Bell. Ph-ac.... ferr-i. spong.. Phos.. Example: "Bilious... Sycotic constitutions... constitutions. Phos.. Cham.. constitutions. constitutions. Aesc.... constitutions-agar. MAG-C. Mez. cund.." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. NIT-AC. KALI-I. plat. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . sulph. Merc-d. lept. sang. sep." 3. KALI-C.... Lach. constitutions. ail. nat-s. Nervous.. mag-m. Phyt. Caps. SYPH. bor. chion... Thuj. Syphilitic... Sil. diathetic states and miasms. CHIN. constitutions. Merc-i-f... chol. berb... Phlegmatic. Example: "Fibre. Puls. lax. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. and their similar remedies. calc-p. ant-t.. Sulph. Mercc... Sil.... Clem. Example: "SYPHILITIC. CALC.. SABAD.. OP. acon. ars. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms)... constitutions. constitutions-Ars.. Choleric. MERC.. Melancholic.. ambr. Cor-r.... bar-c. Sars.. temperament." Rubrics related to the miasms include. Guai. constitutions.... NUX V. Bilious. ant-c.. cann-i.... Fl-ac.... Ip. PSOS.. Psoric. iris. Still..... Tubercular. PHOS.. Benz-ac. aec-t. euph.. MERC. ptel.constitutions.. constitutions. Petr.. constitutions and their remedies. Sanguine constitutions.... These are general symptoms of the constitution..

inheritance. Vide Sycosis. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. susceptibility. For example. susceptibility. of Cantharides. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed.conditioning factors. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. The Chronic Diseases. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. temperament. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. diathesis and miasms. or of the Copaiva balm. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. the footnote on page 150. or a small dose of Cannabis. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. miasms and diathesis. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. temperament. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the .

B Jain. B Jain. sanguine and nervous temperaments. 1842. New Delhi. Brewster O’Reilly. Beaconsfield Publishers. Beaconsfield Publishers. Kent. Decker. Cambridge. etc. Dudgeon (republished 1994). The Organon of Medicine. Birdcage Books. Donald McD. Beaconsfield. London. The Tao of Physics. ed. Robert. B Jain. 1986. Hahnemann. 1988. Klaus-Henning. Chambers English Dictionary. New York. 1989. Flamingo. Margery. Bombay. Borland. Churchill Livingstone. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Madrid. (a) 1922 tr. 1954 (republished 1994). Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Douglas. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. 1986. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Tokyo. New Remedies. 1994. phlegmatic. Redmond. Homœopathy in Practice. Stuart. Clinical Cases. Gutman. Lesser Writings. B Jain. WA. befallments and symptoms. Blackie. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. London.choleric. Close. Fritjoff. Beaconsfield Publishers. Capra. The Genius of Homœopathy. Foubister. 6th edition. New Delhi. . New Delhi. the Essence of its Remedies. 1987 (republished 1988). C M Boger Collected Writings. 1983. Edinburgh. 1993. William. signs. Melbourne. Samuel. Beaconsfield. New Delhi. 1988. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Gypser. W&R Chambers. Wenda. Tutorials on Homœopathy. B Jain. ed. 5th edition. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Beaconsfield. James Tyler. Classical Homœopathy. New Delhi. Aphorisms and Precepts. 1994. (b) 1996 tr.

Herbert A. Otto. Tophi Books. Psyche and Substance. PA. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Yasgur. Jay. London. Ch’u TaKao (1959). New Delhi. 1979. 1980. New Delhi. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. CA. Sankaran. Berkeley. Notes on the Miasms. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Tao te Ching. North Atlantic Books. The Science of Homœopathy. Bombay. Greenville. 1988. The Science and Art of Healing. Thorsons. Unwin Paperbacks. 2nd edition.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Bombay. 1980. Ortega. Ralph. 1991. Leeser. The Substance of Homœopathy. New Delhi. Unknown (between 6-600BC). 2nd edition. B Jain. Twentyman. 1935. Rajan. Dorset & Baber. 1st edition. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Edinburgh. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1942 (republished 1994). Van Hoy Publishers. 3rd edition. George. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. 1994. . National Homœopathic Pharmacy. 1985. Proceso Sanchez. London. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. tr. Floris Books. Edward C. Whitmont. Wellingborough. New York. B Jain. Roberts. 1986. Vithoulkas. 1994. 1989.