Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. and also the potential to manifest. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. In this sense.’ (Blackie. emotionally and physically. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. the previously manifest. BY DR.J. 1986. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. as does Margery Blackie’s statement.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. mentally. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. p14) . to the stress of environment. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. but also the past and future. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. the vital force. It treats the manifest. which determines the individuals reaction. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy.T. successful or unsuccessful.

The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. diverging body. 1842. 1988. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. Only in paragraph 136. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. Most often.’ (Hahnemann. p26) However. 1935. He appears. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. but only in many different. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. as opposed to common.’ (Leeser. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. the conception has also been misused. during its proving in the healthy state.’ (Leeser.and soul-constitutions. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. pviii) she states. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. like any model. over the years. p77). of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. phlegmatic. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. … Unfortunately. 1994. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. choleric. which deals with provings. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. 1935. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions.

however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. endomorphs and ectomorphs. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. and oxygenoid. . There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. Kretschmer. p651 and Kent. even accurately. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles.' (Leeser. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. carbonitrogenoid. p272) And again. sulphuric. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. citing the various classifications of Czerny. cold air. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. even when morbid. p650 and Kent. the form or shape. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms.’ (Gypser. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. warm air. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. 1987. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. Pende.’ (Gypser. for he may be better or worse from motion. 1994. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional many during this period. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. Romero and Maranon. 1987. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. p377. the tall or short. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. changes of weather. 1935. as no two are sufficiently similar. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. are not generally considered morbid. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. to guide to a remedy. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. 1994. phosphoric. phosphoric. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. symptomatology.

p171) Ortega. however. and finally. forming groups. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. fate. rather than remedy-based. In contrast.’ (Roberts. Further. the presentation of evidence. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. 1989. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium.’ (Foubister. mode of living and weather influences. 1980. bilious. the three . … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy.’ (Ortega. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. regardless of the temperament. sanguinous. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. 1942. according to Hahnemann. 1942.’ (Roberts. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. by the influence of the milieu. furthermore. the division into syphilis. This has its basis in that. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time.

these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. 1986. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. It is . pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. to categorise and deconstruct. 1935. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. However. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. As Yasgur states. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. not patients. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments.’ (Leeser. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. complete cure will take a relatively long time. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation.’ (Vithoulkas. However. It is in our nature to group and dissect. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. In such cases. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. So it seems likely. he writes purely about the classification of disease. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. 1993. (Close. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns.

In this state. Whitmont implies a fixity of . It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. or at least moderates. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. 1983. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. But as with any set of data. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. characteristic patterns. it is open to formulaic. 1994. p12) is what. 1980.’ (Yasgur. Built is something more than the well formed body. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. D in Capra. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. Emphasis added. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. the sickness’ (Ortega. 1980. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. in his inherited and evolving constitution.’ (Whitmont. p45. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. at base. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man.

Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. we mean that each person has a specific. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. p112) However. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. youth.’ (Sankaran. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. 1994. mind and disease. If change does occur. middle age. By this. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. individual body. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. p27). defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood.response patterns which. . rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. 1991. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran.

This returns to Lao Tzu. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). some to a greater extent than others. on another. there is no other than the body’s sensation. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. 1986. . a genuine challenge. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. but is greater than these. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. in particular. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. be it weight or number. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. you will not find. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. It comprises the form patterns which their life. 1989. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. serving as directive. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. by implication. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. p12). however. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them.’ (Gutman.’ (Twentyman. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs.

8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. which appeared to be fairly well determined.3) It is constant and immetable. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 10) No treatment can modify them. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. As they were at birth so they will remain. the only exception being orthodontics.

oxygen. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. the carbon. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. hydrogen and nitrogen. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy.a) Calcarea carbonica. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. c) Calcarea flourica. perturbation of secretions. . c) There is hepatic insufficiency. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. b) Calcarea phosphoric.VON GRAUVOGL. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution.

Cuprum Met. swollen. Carbo Veg. 2) The phosphoric type.Examples: Lycopodium. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. d) Retracted and emaciated. b) Puffines.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. c) He is easily affected by humidity. & mucouses. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum..LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. 3) The fluoric type. c) Easy demineralisation. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. hydropexic.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . Thuja Occidentalis. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. Examples: Acid Nit. retension of water in the cells.

General aspect : • Short limbed. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Thick skeleton. • Thick Set. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Developed in width. • Stranger. Respects order necessary and in matter. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Detector. • Rigid articulation. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Vaulted. . • Reasonable. • Rachis supple. • Square Or Sphere. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Stubborn. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows.

• Imaginative. • Horror of reality. • Easy vanity or dominating. of facts. Mentality: . • Skin dry and cracked. • Care for elegance. • The lower belly fall infront. • Emotive. • Saddle backed. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Intuitive. • Asymmetric.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Superficial. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. Mentality: • Nervous. • Distracted. • Dreamer.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Sensitive.

• Intuitive. • Easily vulgar. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Disorderly. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. the nature of the disease state. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Horror of rules and of solitude. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Brilliant but unstable. • Cannot continue. • Versatile. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Capricious. • Fantastic. • Rapid assimilation. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. Therefore. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Restless. as well as environment conditioning factors.• Unstable. . • Cannot take any decision.

and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. the physician should take into account the patient's . It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. In truth. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. the potential causations including miasms. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. befallments and symptoms. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. In these investigations.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. In this sense. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient.

Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. rheumatic constitutions. nervous. Lifestyle and habits. Sexual function.). etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. On this solid foundation the objective signs.1. Occupations. in chronic cases). the chronic miasms. lymphatic. venous. loose or tight tissue types. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. etc). strong. 2. unstable. 4. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". short or fat. Age 7. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. Rubrics related to these states are ." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). 5. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. etc. etc. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). The mental and emotional character. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. The discernible body constitution (especially. a description of the physique (tall or thin. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition).

puberty. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. Age. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. Lifestyle and habits. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. friends. children. 5. childhood. 3. The critical times are conception. These are cardinal general symptoms. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. and old age. 4. phlegmatic. Civic and domestic relationships. Strictly speaking. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. 7. The occupation. rest. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. How a person relates to their mate. adolescence. sanguine. middle age. 6. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. Some work well at both extremes of life. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. A person’s sexual ethics. birth. . Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. Sex and sexuality. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. family relations.

sexual performance. Felt by the patient himself. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. Wesen.sexual fantasies. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. the physical constitution. disease signs. temperament. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. That is. 7. The disease-Gestalt is . and 3. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. Perceived by those around him. essence. causation. The time and progression. which are: 1. 2. being – DL]. constitution. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. befallments and symptoms. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. nature. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. that is." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. 8. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. Observed by the physician. "The unprejudiced observer. causation. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient.

mental and emotional temperament. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. the spiritual. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. 91. infection. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. In this way. 92 & 175). Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . single and multiple causations. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. As Hahnemann said. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. inheritance.DL] of the disease.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. befallments and symptoms. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. nature." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. the instinctive vital force. susceptibility. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. that is. predispositions. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. being . of the suffering of the life force. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon.

published in Leipzig in the 1830s. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). constituere. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. The W.dynamic influence (§11). condition. the complete whole. the bodily constitution. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. inherent in the natural frame. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. page 12. "constituted". to work". make something available". had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. quality. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. our living human organism. to appoint to give being to. or inherent nature. This. . to make. temperament. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. The English word. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. Beschaffen is a verb that means. however. to establish. to form or make up. Introduction. laws of the organic constitution. disposition. the make-up of the body & soul. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. defines the German term. constitution. temper. comes from the Latin root. the spiritual-bodily organism. In this sense constitutional means. Beschaffenheit. as nature. Turner’s Dictionary. etc. O'Reilly edition. which means constitutes: to set up. the unity of life. which one calls disease. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. beschaffenheit (make up). Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). and as an adjective it means. "to procure.

in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 34. 101. 243. 3. 142. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 2. 145. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. . Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 181. 103.constitution. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 242. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. its constitution. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. composition. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. 99. For example. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. 90. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 1. 75. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. construction or nature. 48. etc. 143. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. Therefore. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. Pages 30. 98. disposition and circumstance. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. 35. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution.

"But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). that is. every manifestation of power. Every sensation. The human organism houses the mental. No part can suffer without all other parts. Lebenskraft). the event itself. Delhi. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. vital force and body. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. "Organism: An organized or organic system.g. emotional and bodily faculties. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. page 194.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. B. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. (§ 9. a unity. One does not appear without the other.g. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. 11.. Jain. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. which is more than the sum of its parts. it comprises of the body. Appendix. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Dudgeon and Boericke." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted.. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. mind. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being.

To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. and its fruit in Hahnemann. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. "The employment of this. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . 1833. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. physis. its trunk in Hippocrates. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. page 345.teachings on temperaments. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. 3rd edition. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. as of all other medicines. its branches in Paracelsus. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness.

Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. This portrait includes natural. mild. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. this is not the complete picture. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine".resolutions with rapidity. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. For example. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Ms. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". even though they may appear to be good tempered. positive and negative qualities. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". and are quick in their movements. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. slow phlegmatic temperament). which means "who": . This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. silent peevishness). Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic".

therefore.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy.. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. if they are not only sharply distinct. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. which must be scanned all the more carefully. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. For example. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. but also of rare occurrence and. nature and genius) in The Organon. Therefore. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. correspond to only few remedies. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. if a formerly obese. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . jovial person becomes thin. Therefore. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. separated according to his sick and his well days i. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. both if possible.e. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". for the natural disposition rests on it. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important.

Halle. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. the menses disappear prematurely. page 17. This same is true with sycosis. attended with deep. burning pains. Vide The Chronic Diseases. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. 15-18. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. also by inflammatory fever. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. This is the true Esse. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. also other indurations. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. 1750.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). pseudopsora. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. the menses were delayed. Junker makes . "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. Volume I. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. p. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption.

. phlegmatic. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. these symptoms become more strange. temperare. nature.. aspectGreek. befallments and symptoms. mind and body. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. general appearance of anything. an interpreter. compound. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. If this is not the case. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. predisposition. Temperament from Latin. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. temperament. rare and peculiar. moderate. restrain. esp." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. Let us look at the definition of the key terms.physiognomy. as well as the present state of the spirit. and constitution. character. heredity. to temper. from the face. the art of judging character from the appearance. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. This 2. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. miasms and constitutional diathesis. gnomon-onos. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. For example.

fire. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. Constitution.choleric. a natural temperament. the phlegmo-choleric. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). phlegmatic. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. temperament. water. the sangino-phlegmatic. a fit of anger. air.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. a proportioned mixture of qualities. a mood. the nervo-phlegmatic. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. Each of these temperaments represents . Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). the sanguino. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. nervo. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. the cholero-sanguine. the cholero-nervous. pitch and mood) by the vital force. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument.choleric. composure. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. an innate or acquired disposition. an internal constitutional state. the phlegmosanguine. voice. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. phlegmatic. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. a frame of mind. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. the five elements (ether. the constitution of the body and/or mind. a natural disposition. the choleric or bilious. to exert self control. to be uncontrolled. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. and the nervo-sanguine. Temper-noun. the spiritual body organism. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale.

Among these may be mentioned. I (4) is the second grade. "II. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . lecture on Nux Vomica. troubled with indigestion. Debauches. the choleric. irritable. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. page 223. "Some practical instructions may be of use. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. sanguine and nervous melancholic. wicked irascible disposition. II. Bilious temperaments. (hepatic affections) I.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. nervous disposition. Drug subjects. or of a malicious. with tendency to hemorrhoids. II. malicious disposition. melancholic people. thin. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. venous constitution. Vide Materia Medica Pura. Suits thin. Nervous. composure." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. zealous. II. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. always irritable and impatient. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. fiery. phlegmatic. Volume VIII. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. For very particular. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. hot temperament. inclined to get angry or excited. choleric persons with dark hair. Vide Guiding Symptoms. or of a spiteful. Nux Vomica. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. spite or deception. mood. state. zealous persons. II. of an irritable. II. I. etc. page 168. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings.

This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. impatient. miasmic tendencies. drugs). (addicted to wine. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. mental rubrics (angry. chilly. spiteful. irritable. nervous anxious temperaments. with quick perceptions. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. §5. delicate eyelashes. indigestion. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. dark. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. and very sensitive nature.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). thin.7). habits. On this constitutional basis the signs. choleric. blond or red hair. Allen includes temperaments. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament.6. Boenninghausen and Hering. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. coffee. fair skin. dry. nervous dispositions with their traits). choleric persons. physical descriptions (thin. blond haired. dark hair).Keynotes under the title "adapted to". This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. These are all constitutional general rubrics. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. fine. melancholic. . bilious. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. etc). To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. One might ask. hepatic affections). as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms.

The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. For example. cries and loses temper. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved.The Argent Nit. confident. Type . Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. long or short limbed. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. The Arsen. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Readily laughs. Eyes. The Argent Nit. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. lazy etc. Digestive system. hair type. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Alb. so B will be the best remedy. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. salt and cheese. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. if they are bright and alert in the morning. under or overweight. B. such as how they respond to noise. hair colour. preferred type of clothing and so on. fat or thin. Ailments tend to the left side. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Physical factors are also important. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. sad. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. Often anxious and worried. candy. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Prone to bedwetting.tearful. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. Dislikes chilled foods. their eye colour. or C.

Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. warm foods and drinks. Can be critical and intolerant. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Alb. Fine facial features with fine. Teeth. nose and throat. Exhaustion. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Reassurance helps to improve condition. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Strong opinions. Sluggish. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. The Calc. Prone to depression. in particular coffee. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. . Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Digestive system. Perfectionist at work and at home. bloated and tired in appearance. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. keeps room tidy. Easily upset by loud noise. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Alb. Dislikes mess and being messy. The Arsen. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. candy. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Carb. Skin. delicate skin. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Types. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Skeletal system. Respiratory system (coughs. may manifest as back ache. Often well groomed and stylish. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. sensitive and quiet. Skin.

prone to suppression of grief. iced drinks and ice cream. Type. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. May have rough. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Slow metabolic rate. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. dry skin that can crack easily. Placid and calm. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. desserts. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Dislikes sweet foods. Possible mood swings. Prone to dark circles under eyes. be exhausted. candy. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. tearful and despondent then impatient. Can have a rugged. child: Plump and overweight. Dark to mid range colour hair. Possible difficulty in . Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Carb. Carb. Blushes easily. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Ears. salt. Dislikes fatty meats. chocolate. Sighs a lot. Not an early morning person. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Timid. Physical weaknesses: Skin. such as vegetables and salads. The Calc. carbohydrates. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Can fall over easily. eggs. Dry lips. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. hesitant and anxious. The Graphites type like savoury foods. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Flaky scalp. have bad breath. salt. Rapid and extreme mood swings. May often have sores in corner of mouth. nose bleeds. seafood and hot drinks. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Dry hair. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. windswept appearance. Nails. usually dark. boiled food and boiled milk.

bad sleep and insomnia. Hyperactivity. causing outbursts of anger. May view self as sinful when religious. staring eyes. Dislikes sweet foods. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. cool drinks. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. May be sensitive to noise. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. choughs. sore throats and asthma. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. crying and poor grades at school. varicose veins.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. May experience headaches. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. can be hurtful to peers. especially new babies. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. Prefers not to be alone. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. sore throats. twitching and grinding teeth. coughs and colds. sore throat. May lick lips a lot.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Responds well to encouragment. fixed expression. Strong. Talkative. constipation. excitable and sensitive. palpitations and panic attacks. sour and savoury foods. Prone to left-side problems. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dislikes sweet drinks. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. dairy products. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Jealous and possessive. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. leading to headaches. menopausal problems. carbohydrates. The Lycopodium Type . alcohol and seafood. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Strong. Suspicious of strangers.

male baldness. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Anxious over important events. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Often look older than their years. Hates being contradicted.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. creating mountains out of molehills. May stammer. Thinning hair in men. Sol. onions. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. The Merc. Right-side problems. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Facial twitching. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. garlic and seafood. prostate. swelling of glands and exhaustion. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Conscientious and achiever academically. Shy and cautious. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Hair may be fair to medium colour. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Type Appearance: Medium build. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats.The Merc. Forgetful. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Insecure and hates change. Sol. sore throats. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. child: Irritating behaviour. Susceptible to ear nose and . with grey translucent look. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. May explode with rage and anger. Avoids commitment. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). kidney stones.

child: Small for their age. Can be addicted to sex. Dry cracked lips. May look stressed and tense. fear. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Smart appearance. strong and lean build in men. coffee. red eyes. guilt and loneliness. Medium to dark hair. Slow development. mur. which can lead to depression. The Nat. palpitations and headaches. especially when young. Ages prematurely. Well behaved. Depression. premenstrual syndrome. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. anger. Solid. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. Finds it difficult to relax. Dislikes coffee and bread. type may be professional and career minded. . Impatient. Intolerant of imperfection in others. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Can be very ambitious. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. May have cravings for alcohol. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Watery. mur.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. anorexia. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable.throat complaints. skin problems. Loves animals. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. May have dark circles under eyes. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. mur. cigarettes. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. The Nat.

alcohol. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Artistic and creative in appearance. Expressive. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. alcohol. Hernia and hay fever. Weakness of the lungs. Left-side problems. Loves to receive attention. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Strong fear of the dark. Coughs and colds. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. coffee and spicy foods. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Can have fair to dark hair. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. May have temper tantrums. Migraines and headaches. Feels better after sleep. Dizziness. Circulation problems.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. cheese and cream. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. salt. Likes to be stylish. Nervous. The Pulsatilla Type . Competitive as a teenager. Can be hard work for partner. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Short attention span. Fine skin. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. spicy food. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Headaches. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. carbonated drinks.

Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Blushes easily. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. often with brown eyes. Often sits with legs crossed. Cries easily. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Likes to be supported by others. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Often rests with hands behind head. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. cold foods and cold drinks. spicy foods. Hates being contradicted. Loves animals. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Catarrh. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Skin problems. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Irritable bowel syndrome. Can feel better after weeping. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Skin problems. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Also laughs easily. Prone to coughs and colds. Varicose veins. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. and very rich. Can suppress guilt and anger. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Styes. tragic news or weepy movies. . as holds strong opinions. Can look younger than actual age. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Medium to dark hair. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Gentle and kind appearance. Headaches and migraine. Avoids confrontation. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended.

The Sulphur Type . The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. especially milk. Prone to constipation. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. almost doll-like in appearance. Feels the cold. with a large forehead. Prone to mental exhaustion. citrus fruits. apart from large head. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. The Sepia child: Greedy. fine features. Can be shy. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Usually tidy and well behaved. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. with petite appearance. Moody. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Dislikes very hot food. Constipation. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Slowness in healing and getting well. moves and new jobs. Feels the cold. sweet foods and alcohol. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. sour and savoury foods. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Can become a bedwetter. Not sporty as has little stamina. Headaches. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Skin problems. Exhaustion. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. The head can appear too large for the body. Dislikes dairy products. especially due to burnout from new projects.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Delicate. especially cheese and milk. Does not like being alone. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type.

May lack willpower and self-esteem.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. especially milk and eggs. bathing or washing hands. salads and seafood. body odour. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. disposition. burning feet. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Might not complete ideas and projects. Likes to argue. haemorrhoids and constipation. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . Dislikes most hot drinks. hot. heredity. Has a very healthy appetite. dry. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. Can be hyperactive in the evening. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Likes alcohol. May look untidy. Vide Organon. Hair may be course. temperament. citrus fruits. Does not like showers. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. spicy foods. Can be critical. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Dislikes dairy products.

In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78.feelings and functions. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. heart . He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. "The true. they mount until the end of life. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease." Note 78. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. Therefore. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. Lamarck. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time.

On this basis. incubation period. i. implanted in them through infection or heredity. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. and especially through inexpedient. the acute. However. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. 1. grief and worry. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. 3. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. were completely vanished. He classified miasms into three categories. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms.and body. a moment of infection. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. Second.. by contact with the infected host. 2. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. prodromal stage and primary. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. Third. He points out that mental and . half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. medicinal treatment. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state.e. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. First of all.

predisposition and diathesis. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. hereditary dispositions. the mental temperament. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. habits. and. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. is announced by the increase of the . lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. inheritance. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this.

etc. diet. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. his hereditary disposition. " It is. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. his morality. diet and stress (nurture). For these reasons. etc. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. his employment. deviate so greatly from one another. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. which already. in and of themselves.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . morals. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. climate. little by little. the various errors in his education and habits. his turn of mind. The next most important factors are environment. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. to some extent. his manner of living and diet. thus attaining incredible proliferation. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). befallments and symptoms. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora).

and/or mind. scrofulous. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. venous. A constitutional state which mistunes the body.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. sycotic. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. etc. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. leucophlegmatic. diathesis. i. diathesis.e. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term.. 2. psoric. DIATHESIS. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. From the Greek. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. lymphatic. 1. 3.

. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. Example: "Lymphatic. Large fat... constitutions. Lymphatic. BAR-C. bloated." 2. Lean.. constitutions. constitutions. GRAPH. Dwarfish. constitutions. arn. BELL. Nat-m.. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. dulc. constitution.. Tubercular... constitutions. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. kalm. calc-ar. and their similar remedies. nit-ac. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. bapt. . For example. constitutions. constitutions. constitutions.. Fibre.. Emaciated constitutions.. Scrofulous. constitutions. aur-m. thuj. FERR. Venous. Chin. Sil. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state.. aster. Plethoric. phos. Hemorrhagic. Hep.. Apis. Gouty. Hysterical. constitutions. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. lax.. MERC.. Tall lean. Puls.. Sulph.. Rheumatic. people. constitutions.. Paralytic. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Rhus-t.. Asthmatic constitutions. murx.. constitutions. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Bar-m. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Sep... Fibre rigid. 1.. Petr. Cann-i. CALC. Lyc. ars. constitutions -am-c... thin people..

constitutions. constitutions. SABAD.... NUX V. Merc-d. CALC..." Rubrics related to the miasms include. constitutions-agar. chol.....constitutions.. Cor-r. ant-t... berb.. constitutions. Choleric. Lach. constitutions-Ars.. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and ....... bar-c. cann-i. Still. CHEL.. Guai.. Petr. Sulph. sep.. Example: "Bilious. constitutions... nat-s. Bell.. Example: "SYPHILITIC. ars. Benz-ac.. PHOS. hep. temperament.. Phlegmatic.. ferr-i. and their similar remedies. Phos. CARD-M... constitutions. mag-m. MERC. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. OP. sulph... euph. iris. cinnam... constitutions. Example: "Fibre..... Nervous. Ip.. Clem.. Psoric. Caps. lept. aec-t. Merc. bor. Fl-ac. cund.. Aesc. Puls. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). constitutions... NIT-AC... Sil... Mercc. CHIN.. Sanguine constitutions... acon. PSOS. Tubercular. chion. Syphilitic. constitutions and their remedies.. sang.. KALI-C. Merc-i-f. Cocc... plat.. Kali-b.. KALI-I.. diathetic states and miasms. These are general symptoms of the constitution. ptel. ail.. Cham. SYPH. Sycotic constitutions.. Phos. MERC. Mez..... Crot-h. MAG-C." 3... spong." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. Ph-ac. ant-c.. constitutions... lax.. ambr. Thuj... Bilious. Sars.. Melancholic. BRY.. Sil. AUR... calc-p. Phyt..

according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. inheritance. miasms and diathesis. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. susceptibility. temperament. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. temperament. or of the Copaiva balm. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. or a small dose of Cannabis. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. of Cantharides. susceptibility. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . For example. diathesis and miasms. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. The Chronic Diseases. Vide Sycosis. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly.conditioning factors. the footnote on page 150. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy.

Robert. The Genius of Homœopathy. Aphorisms and Precepts. New Delhi. Blackie. Homœopathy in Practice. New Delhi. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Gutman. Redmond. ed. the Essence of its Remedies. Beaconsfield. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Wenda. 1993. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Close. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. New Delhi. William. 1986. 5th edition. Classical Homœopathy. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Beaconsfield. 1988. James Tyler. New Remedies. 6th edition. 1987 (republished 1988). ed. Brewster O’Reilly. Birdcage Books. WA. Douglas. Hahnemann. B Jain. Kent. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Beaconsfield Publishers. Margery. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Foubister. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Edinburgh. 1994. Lesser Writings. The Organon of Medicine. Clinical Cases. W&R Chambers. phlegmatic. Beaconsfield Publishers. B Jain. C M Boger Collected Writings. 1842. Bombay. Decker. etc. 1989. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Flamingo. The Tao of Physics. 1954 (republished 1994). Beaconsfield. Melbourne. New Delhi. New Delhi. (a) 1922 tr. 1988. . Klaus-Henning. Chambers English Dictionary.choleric. (b) 1996 tr. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. signs. B Jain. B Jain. London. 1986. Churchill Livingstone. Borland. 1994. Donald McD. Stuart. Beaconsfield Publishers. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Madrid. Samuel. Gypser. B Jain. Tokyo. 1983. Capra. Fritjoff. befallments and symptoms. New York. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Cambridge. London.

Van Hoy Publishers. 1st edition. Otto. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Unwin Paperbacks. George. The Science of Homœopathy. . The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Floris Books. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Notes on the Miasms. Tao te Ching. New Delhi. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Whitmont. The Science and Art of Healing. Berkeley. 1988. Herbert A. 2nd edition. London. Bombay. Greenville. Roberts. Rajan. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Sankaran. 1994. Jay. Ortega. Ralph. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. tr. New Delhi. 1980. Vithoulkas. Unknown (between 6-600BC). Yasgur. B Jain. 1986. PA. 1980. The Substance of Homœopathy. Edinburgh. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. North Atlantic Books. 1991. 1985. Edward C. Wellingborough. 1979. Bombay. London. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. 3rd edition. The Spirit of Homœopathy. New York. 1942 (republished 1994). 1989. CA. Proceso Sanchez. B Jain.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. 1935. Leeser. Dorset & Baber. Thorsons. 2nd edition. 1994. New Delhi. Psyche and Substance. Tophi Books. Twentyman.