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Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:
[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.
(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to
The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.
[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]
A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.
The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.
The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.
The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.
The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.
A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.
Constitutional : (adj.)
Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.
upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.
(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:
Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.
The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.
To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance
1986. BY DR. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. mentally. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. and also the potential to manifest.J. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. the vital force.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. to the stress of environment. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. the previously manifest. but also the past and future.T.’ (Blackie. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. In this sense. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). It treats the manifest. successful or unsuccessful. which determines the individuals reaction. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. p14) . ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. emotionally and physically. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man.
p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. 1935. diverging body. 1988. pviii) she states. 1994. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. … Unfortunately. p77). 1935. as opposed to common.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. phlegmatic.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. but only in many different. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. which deals with provings. choleric. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. He appears.’ (Leeser. over the years. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. p26) However. the conception has also been misused. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. Most often. like any model. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. Only in paragraph 136. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . during its proving in the healthy state. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic.and soul-constitutions.’ (Leeser. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa.’ (Hahnemann. 1842. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person.
who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. even when morbid.by many during this period. to guide to a remedy. Kretschmer.’ (Gypser. p650 and Kent. sulphuric. changes of weather. 1994. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. phosphoric. cold air. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. the tall or short. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. 1987. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. carbonitrogenoid. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. are not generally considered morbid. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. 1994. Pende. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. p651 and Kent. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. symptomatology. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. 1987. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. and oxygenoid. p377. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. Romero and Maranon. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. as no two are sufficiently similar. for he may be better or worse from motion. warm air. p272) And again. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. .’ (Gypser. endomorphs and ectomorphs. 1935. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. phosphoric. citing the various classifications of Czerny.' (Leeser. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. the form or shape. even accurately.
Further. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-.’ (Roberts. the three . furthermore. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. and finally. according to Hahnemann.’ (Foubister. forming groups. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. rather than remedy-based. sanguinous. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. p171) Ortega. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous.’ (Roberts. In contrast. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. the division into syphilis. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. 1980. 1942. mode of living and weather influences. however. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. by the influence of the milieu. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. fate. bilious. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. the presentation of evidence. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. regardless of the temperament. 1989. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time.’ (Ortega. 1942. This has its basis in that. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium.
divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. he writes purely about the classification of disease. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. complete cure will take a relatively long time. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. (Close. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. not patients. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. 1993. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. In such cases. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. So it seems likely. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy.’ (Leeser. 1935. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. It is in our nature to group and dissect. As Yasgur states. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing.’ (Vithoulkas. It is . However. However. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. 1986. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. to categorise and deconstruct.
In this state. the sickness’ (Ortega. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. But as with any set of data. Built is something more than the well formed body. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. at base.’ (Yasgur. Whitmont implies a fixity of . 1980. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. p12) is what. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. it is open to formulaic. 1983. or at least moderates.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. in his inherited and evolving constitution. 1980. p45. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique.’ (Whitmont. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. Emphasis added. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. D in Capra. characteristic patterns. 1994. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence.
and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. youth. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. . he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. 1994. If change does occur. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point.response patterns which. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world.’ (Sankaran. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. individual body. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. By this. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. mind and disease. p112) However. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. we mean that each person has a specific. 1991. p27). defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. middle age. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran.
It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. This returns to Lao Tzu. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. on another. there is no other than the body’s sensation.’ (Gutman. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. by implication. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. but is greater than these. however.’ (Twentyman. . you will not find. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. 1986. 1989. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. It comprises the form patterns which their life. serving as directive. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. be it weight or number. in particular. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. some to a greater extent than others. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. p12). a genuine challenge. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure.
7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation.3) It is constant and immetable. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. the only exception being orthodontics. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 10) No treatment can modify them. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . which appeared to be fairly well determined. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. As they were at birth so they will remain. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status.
b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed.VON GRAUVOGL. the carbon. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. b) Calcarea phosphoric. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. . CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles.a) Calcarea carbonica. c) Calcarea flourica. oxygen. perturbation of secretions. hydrogen and nitrogen. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical.
c) He is easily affected by humidity. OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. hydropexic. retension of water in the cells. 2) The phosphoric type. Cuprum Met. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . Examples: Acid Nit. Thuja Occidentalis. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. d) Retracted and emaciated. b) Puffines. HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.Examples: Lycopodium. & mucouses. Carbo Veg. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. 3) The fluoric type.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. swollen. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. c) Easy demineralisation..
• Developed in width. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Detector. • Rigid articulation. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Stranger. • Thick skeleton.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Reasonable. • Vaulted. • Square Or Sphere. . • Stubborn. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Rachis supple. • • Predominance of the cranium. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Thick Set.
• Distracted. • Care for elegance. • Dreamer. • Superficial. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Asymmetric. of facts. • Saddle backed. • Horror of reality.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Sensitive. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Emotive. • Imaginative. • Easy vanity or dominating. • The lower belly fall infront. • Intuitive. THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Skin dry and cracked. Mentality: . Mentality: • Nervous.
He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Rapid assimilation. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. Therefore. . • Intuitive. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. the nature of the disease state. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Fantastic. • Cannot take any decision. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Cannot continue. • Capricious. • Versatile.• Unstable. • Horror of rules and of solitude. as well as environment conditioning factors. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Disorderly. • Restless. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Brilliant but unstable. • Easily vulgar.
In these investigations. In this sense. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. befallments and symptoms. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). the physician should take into account the patient's . Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. In truth. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. the potential causations including miasms. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances.
In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). unstable. loose or tight tissue types. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. The discernible body constitution (especially. 4.1. nervous. lymphatic. strong. Age 7. the chronic miasms. rheumatic constitutions. etc). etc. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. Rubrics related to these states are . One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. venous. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. etc. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. 5. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). Occupations. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. 2. On this solid foundation the objective signs." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). Sexual function. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). a description of the physique (tall or thin. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. in chronic cases).). rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. short or fat. Lifestyle and habits. The mental and emotional character.
Strictly speaking. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. These are cardinal general symptoms. . How a person relates to their mate. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. Lifestyle and habits. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. friends. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. Some work well at both extremes of life. and old age. sanguine. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. childhood. rest. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. puberty. 7. middle age. phlegmatic. The occupation. adolescence. 5. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. 6. Civic and domestic relationships. A person’s sexual ethics. birth. 4. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. Sex and sexuality. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. 3. Age. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. The critical times are conception. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. children. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. family relations.
essence. 2. the physical constitution. temperament. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. nature.sexual fantasies. being – DL]. 8. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. The time and progression. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. and 3. Perceived by those around him. disease signs. "The unprejudiced observer. sexual performance. 7. Observed by the physician. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. constitution. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. that is. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. That is. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. causation. Felt by the patient himself. Wesen. befallments and symptoms. causation. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. The disease-Gestalt is ." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. which are: 1. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms.
one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). As Hahnemann said. inheritance. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant .DL] of the disease. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. being . nature. befallments and symptoms. infection. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. the instinctive vital force. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. 91. 92 & 175). Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. predispositions. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. single and multiple causations. mental and emotional temperament. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). of the suffering of the life force. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. that is. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. susceptibility. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. In this way. the spiritual.
published in Leipzig in the 1830s. "to procure. temper. laws of the organic constitution. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). condition. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. however. In this sense constitutional means. quality.dynamic influence (§11). to establish. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. to make. as nature. Turner’s Dictionary. and as an adjective it means. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. make something available". constitution. to appoint to give being to. Beschaffenheit. does not reflect all the usages of the German term.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. Introduction. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. our living human organism. defines the German term. or inherent nature. the make-up of the body & soul. comes from the Latin root. O'Reilly edition. beschaffenheit (make up). page 12. the complete whole. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. the bodily constitution. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. the spiritual-bodily organism. to form or make up. The W. inherent in the natural frame. This. disposition. which one calls disease. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. . The root word "schaffen" means "to do. constituere. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. "constituted". Beschaffen is a verb that means. temperament. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. The English word. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. the unity of life. etc. to work". which means constitutes: to set up.
etc. . Therefore. 181. 90. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. 99. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. composition. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. 145. its constitution. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 48. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 34. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. construction or nature. 103. 143. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 2. 142. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. 75. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. For example. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. disposition and circumstance. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. 1. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up.constitution. 242. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. 3. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 243. 101. 98. Pages 30. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 35. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance.
emotional and bodily faculties. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. page 194. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts.. vital force and body. every manifestation of power. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. which is more than the sum of its parts. The human organism houses the mental. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). One does not appear without the other. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . it comprises of the body.. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. the event itself. Lebenskraft). wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. Jain. 11. that is. Delhi. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. Appendix. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. mind." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. "Organism: An organized or organic system. Every sensation.g. No part can suffer without all other parts. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. (§ 9. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. B. Dudgeon and Boericke. a unity.g.
He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. "The employment of this. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. its trunk in Hippocrates. its branches in Paracelsus. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. as of all other medicines. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. 3rd edition. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. 1833. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments.teachings on temperaments. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. and its fruit in Hahnemann. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. physis. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. page 345. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when.
Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. This portrait includes natural.resolutions with rapidity. Ms. mild. even though they may appear to be good tempered. this is not the complete picture. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. For example. slow phlegmatic temperament). In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. positive and negative qualities. which means "who": . mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". silent peevishness). This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. and are quick in their movements. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine".
For example. separated according to his sick and his well days i.e. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. which must be scanned all the more carefully. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. if a formerly obese. correspond to only few remedies. Therefore. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing"."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. if they are not only sharply distinct. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. but also of rare occurrence and.. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. nature and genius) in The Organon. Therefore. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . for the natural disposition rests on it. therefore. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. both if possible. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. jovial person becomes thin. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy.
"A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. 15-18. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. Junker makes . This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. This is the true Esse. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). pseudopsora. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. Halle. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. also by inflammatory fever. page 17. also other indurations.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. p. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. burning pains. the menses were delayed. Volume I. attended with deep. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. This same is true with sycosis. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. 1750. the menses disappear prematurely. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. Vide The Chronic Diseases. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy.
phlegmatic. nature. and constitution. compound.physiognomy. character. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. befallments and symptoms. restrain. general appearance of anything. This 2. from the face. as well as the present state of the spirit. . these symptoms become more strange. predisposition. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. temperare. Temperament from Latin. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. to temper. esp. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. temperament. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. moderate.. an interpreter. mind and body. the art of judging character from the appearance. miasms and constitutional diathesis. For example. gnomon-onos. rare and peculiar. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. If this is not the case. aspectGreek. heredity. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament.
Temper-noun. the choleric or bilious. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. a frame of mind. the constitution of the body and/or mind. temperament. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. water. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. the sanguino. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. a proportioned mixture of qualities. to exert self control.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. phlegmatic. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the sangino-phlegmatic. the cholero-nervous. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. nervo. the phlegmosanguine. and the nervo-sanguine. a mood. the phlegmo-choleric. the spiritual body organism. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). air. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). voice.choleric. to be uncontrolled. the five elements (ether.choleric. composure. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. a natural disposition. pitch and mood) by the vital force. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. a natural temperament. the nervo-phlegmatic. an internal constitutional state. a fit of anger. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. Constitution. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. the cholero-sanguine. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. phlegmatic. fire. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. an innate or acquired disposition. Each of these temperaments represents .
page 223. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. malicious disposition. page 168. "Some practical instructions may be of use. "II. the choleric." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. always irritable and impatient. (hepatic affections) I. lecture on Nux Vomica.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. II. nervous disposition. Volume VIII. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . II. I. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. sanguine and nervous melancholic. etc. II. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. choleric persons with dark hair. spite or deception. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. II. Vide Materia Medica Pura. or of a malicious. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. Vide Guiding Symptoms. Among these may be mentioned. wicked irascible disposition. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. Nervous. Drug subjects. Debauches. mood. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. venous constitution. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. irritable. Nux Vomica. phlegmatic. inclined to get angry or excited. zealous. of an irritable." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. fiery. state. or of a spiteful. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. For very particular. thin. hot temperament. Suits thin. melancholic people. II. composure. I (4) is the second grade. zealous persons. Bilious temperaments. troubled with indigestion.
melancholic. fair skin. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. choleric. etc).6. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. dark hair). hepatic affections). indigestion. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. chilly. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. spiteful. fine. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. Boenninghausen and Hering. (addicted to wine.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. delicate eyelashes. nervous dispositions with their traits). thin.7). mental rubrics (angry. §5. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. dark. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. On this constitutional basis the signs. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. One might ask. habits. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. drugs). diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. irritable. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). bilious. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. and very sensitive nature. blond haired. miasmic tendencies. coffee. physical descriptions (thin. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. with quick perceptions. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. nervous anxious temperaments. impatient. These are all constitutional general rubrics. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. blond or red hair. .Keynotes under the title "adapted to". dry. Allen includes temperaments. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). choleric persons.
Ailments tend to the left side. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. candy. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. The Argent Nit. Type . preferred type of clothing and so on. under or overweight. Digestive system. hair type. Eyes. lazy etc. salt and cheese. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. For example. Alb. such as how they respond to noise. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Often anxious and worried. Prone to bedwetting. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Type Appearance: Pale complexion.The Argent Nit. so B will be the best remedy. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. their eye colour. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. long or short limbed.tearful. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. May react badly to new situations like moving house. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. sad. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Dislikes chilled foods. Physical factors are also important. Finds it difficult to control emotions. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. The Arsen. if they are bright and alert in the morning. fat or thin. confident. cries and loses temper. B. hair colour. Readily laughs. or C.
The Arsen. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Digestive system. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Strong opinions. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. in particular coffee. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Respiratory system (coughs. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. warm foods and drinks. Often well groomed and stylish. nose and throat. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Fine facial features with fine. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Alb.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Types. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Alb. Skin. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. keeps room tidy. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Sluggish. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Prone to depression. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Dislikes mess and being messy. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Exhaustion. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. . Perfectionist at work and at home. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Skeletal system. Teeth. Skin. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. candy. sensitive and quiet. may manifest as back ache. Can be critical and intolerant. Carb. The Calc. bloated and tired in appearance. Easily upset by loud noise. Physical weaknesses: Ears. delicate skin. Dislikes large amount of fluid.
Not always willing to change habits and routines. Ears. salt. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. May have rough. Dry hair. Type. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. be exhausted. tearful and despondent then impatient. Rapid and extreme mood swings. dry skin that can crack easily. Blushes easily. desserts. seafood and hot drinks. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. such as vegetables and salads. Carb. Carb. Possible difficulty in . Timid. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. salt. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Sighs a lot. The Calc. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. carbohydrates. child: Plump and overweight. hesitant and anxious. prone to suppression of grief. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. usually dark. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. candy.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. nose bleeds. Slow metabolic rate. chocolate. eggs. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. windswept appearance. Prone to dark circles under eyes. boiled food and boiled milk. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Dry lips. Possible mood swings. Can have a rugged. Dislikes fatty meats. Can fall over easily. Dislikes sweet foods. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Flaky scalp. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. Placid and calm. Nails. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Dark to mid range colour hair. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. have bad breath. iced drinks and ice cream. Not an early morning person.
can be hurtful to peers. menopausal problems. sore throats. choughs. carbohydrates. Hyperactivity. Responds well to encouragment. dairy products. Strong. cool drinks. May experience headaches. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). fixed expression. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. sour and savoury foods. The Lycopodium Type . coughs and colds. palpitations and panic attacks. May lick lips a lot. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Prone to left-side problems. May be sensitive to noise. alcohol and seafood. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. varicose veins. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. leading to headaches. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Talkative. Dislikes sweet foods. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Jealous and possessive. Strong. crying and poor grades at school. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. especially new babies. staring eyes. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. bad sleep and insomnia. constipation. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. causing outbursts of anger. sore throats and asthma. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. May view self as sinful when religious. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. Dislikes sweet drinks. excitable and sensitive. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. Suspicious of strangers. twitching and grinding teeth. Prefers not to be alone. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. sore throat. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still.
Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. male baldness. garlic and seafood. creating mountains out of molehills. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Thinning hair in men. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. May explode with rage and anger. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Right-side problems. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Forgetful. onions. Insecure and hates change. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. sore throats. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Often look older than their years. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Susceptible to ear nose and . Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Type Appearance: Medium build. prostate. The Merc. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. kidney stones. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Sol. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. with grey translucent look. Conscientious and achiever academically. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. May stammer.The Merc. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Sol. Avoids commitment. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. child: Irritating behaviour. Facial twitching. swelling of glands and exhaustion. Anxious over important events. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Shy and cautious. Hates being contradicted.
Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Loves animals. Solid. Dry cracked lips. red eyes. premenstrual syndrome. The Nat. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. fear. . May become very depressed after relationship break-up. guilt and loneliness. cigarettes. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. especially when young. Finds it difficult to relax. mur. May look stressed and tense. mur. child: Small for their age. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. May have dark circles under eyes. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. which can lead to depression. mouth ulcers and cold sores. mur. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Watery. Can be addicted to sex. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. type may be professional and career minded. Depression. Well behaved. Dislikes coffee and bread. The Nat. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Intolerant of imperfection in others. palpitations and headaches. skin problems. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. anger. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Impatient. May have cravings for alcohol. strong and lean build in men. Smart appearance. coffee. Medium to dark hair. anorexia. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Slow development.throat complaints. Ages prematurely. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. Can be very ambitious. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence.
salt. alcohol. Fine skin. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Strong fear of the dark. Loves to receive attention. Expressive. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. May have temper tantrums. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. cheese and cream. Weakness of the lungs. spicy food. Can be hard work for partner. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Migraines and headaches. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Left-side problems. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Headaches. Nervous. alcohol. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Feels better after sleep. carbonated drinks. The Pulsatilla Type . Likes to be stylish. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Competitive as a teenager. Circulation problems. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Dizziness. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Coughs and colds. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Hernia and hay fever. Artistic and creative in appearance. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Short attention span. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. coffee and spicy foods. Can have fair to dark hair.
spicy foods. Headaches and migraine. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Often rests with hands behind head. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Blushes easily. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Avoids confrontation. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Skin problems. Can look younger than actual age. Catarrh. Irritable bowel syndrome. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Loves animals. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Can feel better after weeping. Varicose veins. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Can suppress guilt and anger. Styes. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Gentle and kind appearance. Skin problems. Hates being contradicted. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. and very rich. Medium to dark hair. Often sits with legs crossed. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. as holds strong opinions. Cries easily. cold foods and cold drinks. Likes to be supported by others. tragic news or weepy movies. . often with brown eyes. Also laughs easily. Prone to coughs and colds.
The Sulphur Type . Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Can become a bedwetter. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. sour and savoury foods. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Usually tidy and well behaved. Skin problems. Dislikes very hot food. fine features. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. with petite appearance. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Exhaustion. The Sepia child: Greedy. especially due to burnout from new projects. Constipation. The head can appear too large for the body. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. with a large forehead. Dislikes dairy products. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Prone to constipation. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. almost doll-like in appearance. especially cheese and milk. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Delicate. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. apart from large head. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. citrus fruits. sweet foods and alcohol. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. especially milk. Feels the cold. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Feels the cold. Moody. Not sporty as has little stamina. Can be shy. Slowness in healing and getting well. Dislikes meet and dairy products. moves and new jobs. Prone to mental exhaustion. Does not like being alone. Headaches.
May look untidy. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. mistuned and displaced into abnormal .athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. citrus fruits. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Vide Organon. Might not complete ideas and projects. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. temperament. bathing or washing hands. Can be hyperactive in the evening. body odour. Dislikes dairy products. haemorrhoids and constipation. Hair may be course. salads and seafood. Likes alcohol. Dislikes most hot drinks. Can be critical. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. spicy foods. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Likes to argue. dry. hot. Does not like showers. disposition. burning feet. May lack willpower and self-esteem. Has a very healthy appetite. especially milk and eggs. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. heredity. Skin and lips can be prone to redness.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered.
coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822." Note 78. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. Lamarck. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. "The true. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. Therefore. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. heart . Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired.feelings and functions. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. they mount until the end of life. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation.
and especially through inexpedient. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. were completely vanished. Third. incubation period. 3. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms.and body. prodromal stage and primary. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. the acute. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility.. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state.e. implanted in them through infection or heredity. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. However. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. He points out that mental and . 1. First of all. medicinal treatment. grief and worry. Second. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. He classified miasms into three categories. On this basis. 2. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. a moment of infection. i. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. by contact with the infected host. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms.
predisposition and diathesis. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. the mental temperament. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. is announced by the increase of the .emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. and. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. habits. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. hereditary dispositions. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. inheritance.
For these reasons. the various errors in his education and habits. befallments and symptoms. etc. which already. in and of themselves. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. his morality. morals. to some extent. thus attaining incredible proliferation. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. The next most important factors are environment. etc. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. diet. his hereditary disposition. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . his manner of living and diet.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. deviate so greatly from one another. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. diet and stress (nurture). and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. climate. " It is. his employment. his turn of mind. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. little by little.
2. etc. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections.e. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. psoric. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. 3. and/or mind. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. scrofulous. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. sycotic. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. i. lymphatic. diathesis. DIATHESIS. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. diathesis. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. From the Greek. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. venous. leucophlegmatic.. 1.
. Tall lean. Rhus-t. Carb-v. Hep. Large fat.. Venous. people. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. FERR.. Sil. constitutions. Sulph. constitutions.. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies... Bar-m.. Gouty. constitutions. Paralytic.. constitutions.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. kalm. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. and their similar remedies. ars. constitutions. Lymphatic. CALC.. 1. bapt. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Rheumatic.. thuj. BELL.. Lean. Fibre rigid. constitution.. constitutions. constitutions. MERC.. Lyc. bloated. Fibre. . calc-ar. BAR-C. Example: "Lymphatic. murx. Scrofulous. Puls. Dwarfish. phos. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. constitutions. Sep.. aur-m. Plethoric. constitutions. Hemorrhagic. Nat-m. lax... Emaciated constitutions. Hysterical.. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions... Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include.. Cann-i. Asthmatic constitutions... Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. Tubercular. GRAPH.. constitutions." 2. Petr.. nit-ac. For example. constitutions -am-c. constitutions.. Chin. arn.. dulc. thin people. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. Apis. constitutions. aster.
calc-p. spong. Phos. constitutions.... cund.. lept... ptel. Ph-ac. Phlegmatic. ant-c.. bor. Aesc. Merc-i-f.. Syphilitic. NUX V. Sars. lax. Sanguine constitutions. sulph. Crot-h. acon. Petr... Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms).. Ip... ant-t. KALI-C. CHEL. Caps....constitutions. Guai.. cinnam.. Sil. constitutions.... CARD-M. Fl-ac. CHIN.. Still. Thuj. SYPH. constitutions. plat. Clem.. Example: "SYPHILITIC. temperament." Rubrics related to the miasms include. constitutions.. Melancholic. These are general symptoms of the constitution. KALI-I.... PSOS... Mercc... AUR.. NIT-AC. Merc. ars. Cor-r. Kali-b.. constitutions. euph. Phyt. Lach... Psoric... OP. bar-c. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.." 3. BRY. PHOS. Example: "Bilious.. Merc-d. diathetic states and miasms. Choleric.. Cham.... Mez.. MERC... sep. cann-i.. sang.. mag-m. Sycotic constitutions. hep. constitutions-Ars.... Sulph.. ambr. Cocc... ferr-i. nat-s... constitutions. chol.. Nervous. Phos." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. and their similar remedies. Bilious. constitutions. iris....... MAG-C. Example: "Fibre. MERC.... Bell.. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . aec-t.. Puls. Tubercular. constitutions and their remedies. berb.... constitutions-agar. Sil..... ail. CALC. constitutions.. SABAD. chion. Benz-ac...
CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. susceptibility. miasms and diathesis. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. or a small dose of Cannabis. or of the Copaiva balm. susceptibility. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. the footnote on page 150. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. of Cantharides. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed.conditioning factors. temperament. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. inheritance. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. Vide Sycosis. For example. diathesis and miasms. The Chronic Diseases. temperament. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis.
Aphorisms and Precepts. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Cambridge. Samuel. B Jain. Stuart. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Flamingo. London. (a) 1922 tr. Capra. Beaconsfield Publishers. C M Boger Collected Writings. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Robert. Melbourne. Beaconsfield Publishers. (b) 1996 tr. New Remedies. Close. 1989. Chambers English Dictionary. Beaconsfield. 5th edition. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. 1983. Fritjoff. Beaconsfield. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. B Jain. befallments and symptoms. The Organon of Medicine. Decker. etc. Tokyo. London. New Delhi. 1988. Lesser Writings. Margery. New Delhi. Borland. ed. Edinburgh. William. Homœopathy in Practice. . Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Kent. 1987 (republished 1988). If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. New Delhi. Beaconsfield. signs. Bombay. 1994. B Jain. W&R Chambers. Foubister. B Jain. Klaus-Henning. Douglas. Clinical Cases. Gutman. Redmond. 1842. Madrid. 1986. 6th edition. 1988. 1994. B Jain.choleric. The Genius of Homœopathy. New Delhi. phlegmatic. Brewster O’Reilly. James Tyler. New York. Wenda. the Essence of its Remedies. Donald McD. 1986. 1993. Birdcage Books. Churchill Livingstone. The Tao of Physics. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Beaconsfield Publishers. Hahnemann. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Classical Homœopathy. Blackie. WA. ed. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. 1954 (republished 1994). Gypser. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. New Delhi.
The Spirit of Homœopathy. 1942 (republished 1994). 1985. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. 1935. Yasgur. Unknown (between 6-600BC). Bombay. The Science and Art of Healing. CA. 1st edition. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Otto. Jay. 1979.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Unwin Paperbacks. B Jain. Floris Books. Wellingborough. New York. Sankaran. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. Berkeley. 2nd edition. George. The Substance of Homœopathy. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. 1986. Thorsons. Herbert A. The Science of Homœopathy. 1994. Roberts. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. . Greenville. tr. 3rd edition. Proceso Sanchez. Ralph. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Whitmont. New Delhi. New Delhi. Psyche and Substance. Leeser. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. New Delhi. 1989. 1980. Tophi Books. B Jain. 2nd edition. PA. Bombay. Rajan. 1994. Vithoulkas. Tao te Ching. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Edward C. London. North Atlantic Books. 1991. Twentyman. Van Hoy Publishers. Dorset & Baber. Notes on the Miasms. London. Ortega. 1980. 1988. Edinburgh.
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