Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. emotionally and physically. the previously manifest. p14) . and also the potential to manifest. In this sense. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. to the stress of environment. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. which determines the individuals reaction.T. It treats the manifest. but also the past and future. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above.’ (Blackie. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy.J. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. 1986. BY DR.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. successful or unsuccessful. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. mentally. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). the vital force.

either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. as opposed to common. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. but only in many different.’ (Leeser. p77). ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. during its proving in the healthy state. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. like any model. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. … Unfortunately.and soul-constitutions. 1994. which deals with provings. over the years. pviii) she states. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. Only in paragraph 136. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. p26) However. phlegmatic. 1935. He appears. diverging body.’ (Leeser. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. 1842. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. 1935. 1988. the conception has also been misused. choleric. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. Most often.’ (Hahnemann. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined .’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing.

for he may be better or worse from motion. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. 1935. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. 1994. p651 and Kent. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. Pende. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. and oxygenoid. sulphuric. 1994. the tall or short. many during this period. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. phosphoric. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic.’ (Gypser. Romero and Maranon. the form or shape. changes of weather. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. phosphoric. 1987. to guide to a remedy. warm air. as no two are sufficiently similar. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. 1987. even when morbid. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles.' (Leeser. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. are not generally considered morbid. even accurately. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. citing the various classifications of Czerny. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. symptomatology. cold air. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. carbonitrogenoid.’ (Gypser. endomorphs and ectomorphs. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. Kretschmer. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. p272) And again. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. p650 and Kent. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. .

who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments.’ (Roberts. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. This has its basis in that. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. the three . the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. regardless of the temperament. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy.’ (Foubister. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. mode of living and weather influences. sanguinous.’ (Ortega. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. the division into syphilis. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. by the influence of the milieu. 1942.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. bilious. p171) Ortega. forming groups. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. the presentation of evidence. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. furthermore. according to Hahnemann. rather than remedy-based. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing.’ (Roberts. In contrast. and finally. 1980. Further. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. however. 1942. fate. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. 1989.

to categorise and deconstruct. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear.’ (Leeser. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments.’ (Vithoulkas. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. However. (Close. However. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. complete cure will take a relatively long time. 1935. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. So it seems likely. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. he writes purely about the classification of disease. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. 1993. As Yasgur states. not patients.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. 1986. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. In such cases. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. It is . It is in our nature to group and dissect.

prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. Whitmont implies a fixity of . in his inherited and evolving constitution. the sickness’ (Ortega. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. at base. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. 1983. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. characteristic patterns. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. In this state. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. p12) is what. Emphasis added. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. D in Capra.’ (Yasgur. 1994. 1980. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. p45.’ (Whitmont. But as with any set of data. or at least moderates. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. it is open to formulaic. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. 1980. Built is something more than the well formed body.

If change does occur. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. By this. 1991. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. p112) However. 1994. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world.’ (Sankaran. youth. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. middle age. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change.response patterns which. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. mind and disease. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. individual body. . do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. p27). This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. we mean that each person has a specific.

Their very opposition can become a stimulus. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. It comprises the form patterns which their life. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them.’ (Gutman. 1989. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. . CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. in particular. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. p12).’ (Twentyman. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. however. a genuine challenge. This returns to Lao Tzu. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. there is no other than the body’s sensation. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. be it weight or number. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. some to a greater extent than others. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). but is greater than these. on another. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. 1986. by implication. serving as directive. you will not find. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them.

the only exception being orthodontics. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. As they were at birth so they will remain. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 10) No treatment can modify them. which appeared to be fairly well determined. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign.3) It is constant and immetable.

c) Calcarea flourica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution.a) Calcarea carbonica. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. the carbon. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. oxygen. hydrogen and nitrogen.VON GRAUVOGL. . c) There is hepatic insufficiency. perturbation of secretions. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. b) Calcarea phosphoric. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic.

Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. swollen. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. 3) The fluoric type. hydropexic.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. c) Easy demineralisation.. Cuprum Met. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. retension of water in the cells.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. c) He is easily affected by humidity. b) Puffines. 2) The phosphoric type.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. & mucouses. d) Retracted and emaciated. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. Examples: Acid Nit.Examples: Lycopodium. Carbo Veg.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. Thuja Occidentalis.

•  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Detector.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Stranger. • Stubborn. • Rachis supple. • Vaulted. Respects order necessary and in matter. • • Predominance of the cranium. . Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Developed in width. • Thick Set. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Rigid articulation. • Reasonable. • Thick skeleton. • Square Or Sphere.

• The lower belly fall infront. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Superficial.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Dreamer. • Imaginative.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Distracted. • Skin dry and cracked. • Horror of reality. • Intuitive. • Sensitive. • Saddle backed. Mentality: . of facts. Mentality: • Nervous. • Care for elegance. • Asymmetric. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Emotive. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule.

He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Intuitive. the nature of the disease state. • Cannot continue. • Easily vulgar. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Fantastic. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. as well as environment conditioning factors. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. . • Brilliant but unstable. • Restless. Therefore. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Capricious. • Rapid assimilation. • Disorderly. • Versatile. • Horror of rules and of solitude.• Unstable. • Cannot take any decision.

"It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. the physician should take into account the patient's . In this sense. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. the potential causations including miasms. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". In truth. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. befallments and symptoms. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. In these investigations. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms.

It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. Age 7. The mental and emotional character. in chronic cases). The discernible body constitution (especially. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. Lifestyle and habits. Sexual function. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. loose or tight tissue types. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. On this solid foundation the objective signs. Rubrics related to these states are . Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. etc). strong. 4. short or fat. etc. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. 2. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". the chronic miasms. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. etc." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). Occupations. nervous. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). venous. lymphatic. rheumatic constitutions. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition).). and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). unstable. a description of the physique (tall or thin. 5.1.

childhood. A person’s sexual ethics. Lifestyle and habits. rest. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. birth. Civic and domestic relationships. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. 4. The critical times are conception. 5. phlegmatic. adolescence. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. The occupation. Strictly speaking. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. sanguine. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Some work well at both extremes of life. Age. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. 3. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. friends. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. 6. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. 7. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. family relations. puberty. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Sex and sexuality. children. middle age. . These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. These are cardinal general symptoms. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. and old age. How a person relates to their mate.

miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. The disease-Gestalt is .sexual fantasies. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. and 3. constitution. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. Felt by the patient himself." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). sexual performance. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. 8. "The unprejudiced observer. That is. the physical constitution. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. Observed by the physician. 2. disease signs. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. Perceived by those around him. causation. nature. which are: 1. Wesen. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. being – DL]. 7. essence. befallments and symptoms. causation. The time and progression. temperament. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. that is.

single and multiple causations. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. predispositions. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. being . "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. that is. mental and emotional temperament. 92 & 175). of the suffering of the life force. inheritance. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. susceptibility. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy.DL] of the disease. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. In this way. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. nature. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. infection. the spiritual. befallments and symptoms. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. As Hahnemann said. the instinctive vital force. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. 91.

The root word "schaffen" means "to do. In this sense constitutional means. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. temper. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. page 12.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). Beschaffen is a verb that means. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works.dynamic influence (§11). "constituted". condition. as nature. etc. Introduction. constitution. O'Reilly edition. the unity of life. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. our living human organism. which means constitutes: to set up. beschaffenheit (make up). had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. comes from the Latin root. to form or make up. inherent in the natural frame. and as an adjective it means. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. to establish. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. Turner’s Dictionary. quality. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. This. however. temperament. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. the spiritual-bodily organism. The W. or inherent nature. to make. laws of the organic constitution. defines the German term. . to appoint to give being to. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). "to procure. disposition. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. which one calls disease. constituere. the make-up of the body & soul. make something available". "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. Beschaffenheit. The English word. to work". the complete whole. the bodily constitution.

99. 1. 145. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 243. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 181. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. 34. 242. . 2. 90. Pages 30. 142. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. construction or nature. composition. its constitution. 3. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. 48.constitution. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. disposition and circumstance. 35. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. 75. 143. etc. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 98. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. For example. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. Therefore. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. 103. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. 101. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. which means the congenital bodily constitution. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen.

Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). it comprises of the body. Delhi. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Appendix. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. the event itself. No part can suffer without all other parts." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. 11. Dudgeon and Boericke. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. The human organism houses the mental. "Organism: An organized or organic system. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. Every sensation. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. vital force and body. B. page 194. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. every manifestation of power. emotional and bodily faculties. Jain. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). mind.g.. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts.g. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. which is more than the sum of its parts.. Lebenskraft). that is. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . One does not appear without the other. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. (§ 9. a unity. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts.

especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. page 345. its branches in Paracelsus. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. 3rd edition. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. as of all other medicines. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. its trunk in Hippocrates. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. 1833. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. and its fruit in Hahnemann. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. physis. "The employment of this. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras.teachings on temperaments.

Ms. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief.resolutions with rapidity. which means "who": . He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. mild. even though they may appear to be good tempered. For example. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. This portrait includes natural. this is not the complete picture. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. silent peevishness). Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. slow phlegmatic temperament). Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". positive and negative qualities. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. and are quick in their movements. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms.

in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. nature and genius) in The Organon. therefore. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". if a formerly obese. separated according to his sick and his well days i. Therefore. For example. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a .. correspond to only few remedies. both if possible. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease.e. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. which must be scanned all the more carefully. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . Therefore. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. if they are not only sharply distinct. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. but also of rare occurrence and." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. jovial person becomes thin. for the natural disposition rests on it.

also other indurations. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Volume I. Vide The Chronic Diseases. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. Junker makes . This same is true with sycosis. pseudopsora. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. burning pains. the menses were delayed. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. 1750. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. p. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. This is the true Esse. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. the menses disappear prematurely. 15-18. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. page 17. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. syphilis and any other chronic miasm.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. also by inflammatory fever. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. attended with deep. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). Halle.

For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. heredity. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. general appearance of anything. . esp. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. miasms and constitutional diathesis. phlegmatic. character. as well as the present state of the spirit. temperare.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. befallments and symptoms. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold.physiognomy. gnomon-onos. Temperament from Latin. nature. to temper. temperament. and constitution. compound. mind and body. restrain. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. an interpreter. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. these symptoms become more strange. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. predisposition. from the face. aspectGreek. This 2. rare and peculiar. For example. the art of judging character from the appearance.. If this is not the case. moderate." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament.

Temper-noun. fire. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. an innate or acquired disposition. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the phlegmo-choleric. composure. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. to be uncontrolled. a natural temperament. the choleric or bilious. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. the five elements (ether. a fit of anger. the sanguino. phlegmatic. the spiritual body organism. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). They are the cholero-phlegmatic. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. to exert self control. pitch and mood) by the vital force.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities.choleric.choleric. phlegmatic. air. an internal constitutional state. the nervo-phlegmatic. voice. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). and the nervo-sanguine. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. the cholero-sanguine. Each of these temperaments represents . The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the cholero-nervous. the phlegmosanguine. water. nervo. Constitution. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. a frame of mind. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). the constitution of the body and/or mind. a mood. a natural disposition. the sangino-phlegmatic. temperament. a proportioned mixture of qualities. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning.

II. page 168. page 223. Nux Vomica. Bilious temperaments. zealous. phlegmatic. or of a malicious. inclined to get angry or excited. state. malicious disposition. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. with tendency to hemorrhoids. troubled with indigestion. nervous disposition. lecture on Nux Vomica. hot temperament. sanguine and nervous melancholic. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. Drug subjects.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. mood. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. etc. (hepatic affections) I. or of a spiteful. For very particular. "Some practical instructions may be of use. Vide Materia Medica Pura. composure." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. spite or deception. I. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. thin. zealous persons. Vide Guiding Symptoms. the choleric. Suits thin. II. "II. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . irritable. melancholic people. fiery. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. Debauches. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. of an irritable. II. I (4) is the second grade. II. always irritable and impatient. Among these may be mentioned. wicked irascible disposition. II. venous constitution. choleric persons with dark hair. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. Volume VIII. Nervous.

Boenninghausen and Hering.6. choleric persons. chilly. On this constitutional basis the signs. drugs). Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. fair skin. spiteful. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. mental rubrics (angry. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". and very sensitive nature.7). dark hair). One might ask. blond haired. physical descriptions (thin. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. These are all constitutional general rubrics. hepatic affections). nervous dispositions with their traits). An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. blond or red hair. §5. choleric. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. habits. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. thin. delicate eyelashes. irritable. bilious. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. indigestion. dark. coffee. Allen includes temperaments. miasmic tendencies. with quick perceptions. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. fine. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). dry. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. impatient. etc). (addicted to wine. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. melancholic. . nervous anxious temperaments. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective.

The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. lazy etc. Physical factors are also important. Type . looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. such as how they respond to noise. hair colour. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. long or short limbed. or C. Dislikes chilled foods. For example. B. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Often anxious and worried. hair type. The Argent Nit. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems.tearful. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. confident. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. under or overweight. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. May react badly to new situations like moving house. their eye colour. Prone to bedwetting. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. The Arsen. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Digestive system. sad. fat or thin. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. if they are bright and alert in the morning. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Readily laughs. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. preferred type of clothing and so on. candy.The Argent Nit. so B will be the best remedy. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Ailments tend to the left side. cries and loses temper. Eyes. Alb. salt and cheese.

delicate skin. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Sluggish. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Alb. Digestive system. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. in particular coffee. Often well groomed and stylish. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Prone to depression. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. warm foods and drinks. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. bloated and tired in appearance. Skin. Types. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Dislikes mess and being messy. sensitive and quiet. Perfectionist at work and at home. Can be critical and intolerant. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Teeth. Carb. Fine facial features with fine. Skeletal system. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Easily upset by loud noise. Respiratory system (coughs. may manifest as back ache. Skin. . The Arsen. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Exhaustion. keeps room tidy. candy. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. nose and throat. The Calc. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Alb. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Strong opinions. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure.

seafood and hot drinks. Dark to mid range colour hair. prone to suppression of grief. Prone to dark circles under eyes. dry skin that can crack easily. Carb. May have rough. Ears. candy. Possible difficulty in . Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. chocolate. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Physical weaknesses: Skin. The Calc. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Dry hair. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. Type. Not always willing to change habits and routines. desserts. be exhausted. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. windswept appearance. such as vegetables and salads. Sighs a lot. iced drinks and ice cream. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. eggs. salt. Blushes easily. carbohydrates. Not an early morning person.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Can fall over easily. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Placid and calm. Dislikes sweet foods. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Can have a rugged. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Possible mood swings. have bad breath. Timid. salt. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. hesitant and anxious. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Dislikes fatty meats. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. tearful and despondent then impatient. Nails. child: Plump and overweight. usually dark. Slow metabolic rate. nose bleeds. Dry lips. Flaky scalp. boiled food and boiled milk. Carb. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Rapid and extreme mood swings. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite.

Strong. Talkative. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. dairy products. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. May be sensitive to noise. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). twitching and grinding teeth. staring eyes. palpitations and panic attacks. Suspicious of strangers. excitable and sensitive. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Responds well to encouragment. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. fixed expression. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. coughs and colds. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. cool drinks. The Lycopodium Type . can be hurtful to peers. sour and savoury foods. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Prefers not to be alone.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. constipation. sore throats. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Dislikes sweet drinks. sore throats and asthma. varicose veins. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. bad sleep and insomnia. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. leading to headaches. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. especially new babies. sore throat. menopausal problems. choughs. Strong. Dislikes sweet foods. Prone to left-side problems. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. Jealous and possessive. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. carbohydrates. May view self as sinful when religious. May lick lips a lot. causing outbursts of anger. May experience headaches. crying and poor grades at school. Hyperactivity. alcohol and seafood. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with.

May stammer.The Merc. Shy and cautious. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. swelling of glands and exhaustion. kidney stones.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. prostate. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Avoids commitment. onions. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. creating mountains out of molehills. sore throats. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Type Appearance: Medium build. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Sol. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Hates being contradicted. Right-side problems. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. May explode with rage and anger. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. child: Irritating behaviour. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Anxious over important events. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. The Merc. Facial twitching. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Thinning hair in men. garlic and seafood. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. male baldness. Forgetful. Conscientious and achiever academically. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Often look older than their years. Susceptible to ear nose and . with grey translucent look. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Insecure and hates change. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Sol.

May look stressed and tense. skin problems. Depression. Loves animals. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. mur. Ages prematurely. Slow development. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. which can lead to depression. Watery. Finds it difficult to relax. palpitations and headaches. May have cravings for alcohol.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Smart appearance. The Nat. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. May have dark circles under eyes. Can be addicted to sex. cigarettes. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. fear. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. premenstrual syndrome. child: Small for their age. anger. . mur. Well behaved. Can be very ambitious. The Nat. Dislikes coffee and bread. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Dry cracked lips. red eyes. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. anorexia. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Intolerant of imperfection in others. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. mouth ulcers and cold sores. especially when young. Failure is the worst thing that can happen.throat complaints. Impatient. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. guilt and loneliness. Solid. coffee. type may be professional and career minded. Medium to dark hair. May suffer from headaches under pressure. strong and lean build in men. mur. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women.

Hernia and hay fever. The Pulsatilla Type . Can be hard work for partner. Strong fear of the dark. Coughs and colds. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. Headaches. Artistic and creative in appearance. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Competitive as a teenager. Can have fair to dark hair. Dizziness. Circulation problems. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. alcohol. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. spicy food. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Migraines and headaches. Fine skin. alcohol. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Loves to receive attention. Weakness of the lungs.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. cheese and cream. Likes to be stylish. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Left-side problems. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. coffee and spicy foods. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. carbonated drinks. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Nervous. salt. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. May have temper tantrums. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Expressive. Feels better after sleep. Short attention span. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Conditions usually improve with exertion. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Can look younger than actual age. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Styes. Gentle and kind appearance. Also laughs easily. Avoids confrontation. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. as holds strong opinions. often with brown eyes. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Irritable bowel syndrome. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. tragic news or weepy movies. Headaches and migraine. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Can feel better after weeping. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Hates being contradicted. cold foods and cold drinks. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Often sits with legs crossed. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Cries easily. Loves animals. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Blushes easily. Varicose veins. Likes to look attractive and elegant. . Prone to coughs and colds. Likes to be supported by others. Catarrh. and very rich. Medium to dark hair. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Often rests with hands behind head. Can suppress guilt and anger. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Skin problems. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. spicy foods. Skin problems.

Skin problems. Dislikes dairy products. Exhaustion. Feels the cold. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. almost doll-like in appearance. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Not sporty as has little stamina. Slowness in healing and getting well. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Headaches. Prone to constipation. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Delicate. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. with petite appearance. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Prone to mental exhaustion. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. moves and new jobs. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Constipation. with a large forehead. The head can appear too large for the body. especially milk. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Moody. especially cheese and milk. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. sour and savoury foods. The Sepia child: Greedy. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Dislikes very hot food. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Feels the cold. Can become a bedwetter. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. fine features. Does not like being alone. sweet foods and alcohol. Can be shy. The Sulphur Type . apart from large head. Usually tidy and well behaved. citrus fruits. especially due to burnout from new projects.

especially milk and eggs. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. haemorrhoids and constipation. Can be hyperactive in the evening. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Likes to argue. Does not like showers. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. hot. Hair may be course.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. May lack willpower and self-esteem. Vide Organon. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. body odour. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Has a very healthy appetite. Likes alcohol. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. Dislikes dairy products. bathing or washing hands. Dislikes most hot drinks. Can be critical. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . disposition. heredity. Might not complete ideas and projects. May look untidy. temperament. burning feet. salads and seafood. citrus fruits.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. spicy foods. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. dry. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking.

In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. Therefore. "The true. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. heart . Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. they mount until the end of life. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822." Note 78." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers.feelings and functions. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. Lamarck. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm.

i.and body. and especially through inexpedient. implanted in them through infection or heredity. 1. On this basis. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. 3. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. He classified miasms into three categories. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. Second. First of all. grief and worry. by contact with the infected host. a moment of infection. incubation period. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy.. He points out that mental and . The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. Third. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. were completely vanished. However. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. medicinal treatment. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms.e. the acute. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. 2. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. prodromal stage and primary.

lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. is announced by the increase of the . Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. predisposition and diathesis. hereditary dispositions. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. habits. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. inheritance. and. the mental temperament.

his morality. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. in and of themselves. etc. diet and stress (nurture). a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. The next most important factors are environment. diet. little by little. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. to some extent. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. deviate so greatly from one another. his manner of living and diet. his hereditary disposition. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . etc. thus attaining incredible proliferation. morals. his turn of mind. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. For these reasons. his employment. the various errors in his education and habits. climate. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. befallments and symptoms. " It is. which already.

The concept of diathesis is closely linked . and/or mind. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. DIATHESIS. psoric. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. 2. etc. sycotic. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. 3.e. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. leucophlegmatic. venous. diathesis.. i. From the Greek. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. scrofulous. lymphatic. diathesis. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. 1. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state.

CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies.. murx.. and their similar remedies. Rhus-t. constitutions... Cann-i. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section.. Nat-m.. constitution. Hep. aur-m... For example.. people. Plethoric. aster. constitutions. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings.. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. constitutions. constitutions. Lean. GRAPH. constitutions. Hemorrhagic. constitutions... calc-ar. nit-ac.. bloated. Sulph. Fibre. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. constitutions. dulc.." 2. phos. constitutions. lax.. Sep.. arn. Bar-m. Hysterical. constitutions -am-c. Lyc. BAR-C. Carb-v. bapt. thin people. ars.. Apis. Large fat. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Tubercular. Dwarfish.. Sil. Tall lean. constitutions. Chin. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. Lymphatic. Example: "Lymphatic. Gouty. MERC. kalm. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. Paralytic. thuj. constitutions. CALC... FERR. Scrofulous. 1. BELL.. constitutions.. Petr. Fibre rigid. Puls. Venous. ... constitutions. Rheumatic. Asthmatic constitutions. Emaciated both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions...

Choleric.. constitutions. Benz-ac. Merc.. cann-i. ambr. Melancholic... Sulph. Sanguine constitutions. cund." 3...." Rubrics related to the miasms include.. Aesc. chion.. constitutions... Sil. Cham. constitutions. Thuj.... ant-c.. Merc-d.. sep. AUR.. ferr-i.. These are general symptoms of the constitution.. MERC. Kali-b.. Psoric. Phos. ptel.. Mez... sang.. Example: "Bilious. iris.. Clem.. Bell.. constitutions.. constitutions and their remedies. Phos. Merc-i-f. constitutions... constitutions. Tubercular. Ip. Mercc... Cocc.. KALI-C. Example: "Fibre. MAG-C. euph. Petr. berb.. ant-t. NUX V. lept.. OP. sulph.. diathetic states and miasms.... Crot-h. constitutions.. acon. Ph-ac.. Phyt. Syphilitic. Sycotic constitutions.constitutions. PHOS. Sil. CARD-M..... plat..... spong.. Bilious.. ail... bor. nat-s. MERC. temperament.. Cor-r.. Sars. mag-m. cinnam. constitutions. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and .. Nervous.. constitutions-Ars. CHEL..... Still.. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include. SYPH. CALC.. chol... CHIN. Example: "SYPHILITIC." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. Phlegmatic. Lach. Fl-ac.. and their similar remedies. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms).. BRY. NIT-AC. calc-p. lax. SABAD. KALI-I... Guai.. constitutions-agar... Caps... bar-c.. ars. PSOS. Puls. aec-t... hep..

If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. of Cantharides. temperament. Vide Sycosis. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. or of the Copaiva balm. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. susceptibility. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . For example. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. inheritance. miasms and diathesis.conditioning factors. the footnote on page 150. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. temperament. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. The Chronic Diseases. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. or a small dose of Cannabis. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. diathesis and miasms. susceptibility. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy.

Kent. signs. Donald McD. Capra. WA. Lesser Writings. Homœopathy in Practice. Beaconsfield Publishers. ed. ed. (a) 1922 tr. Samuel. Margery. Douglas. Beaconsfield. 6th edition. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. New Delhi. The Tao of Physics. 1988. Clinical Cases. befallments and symptoms. Cambridge. Redmond. Foubister. London. Beaconsfield Publishers. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Fritjoff. 5th edition. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. B Jain. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Birdcage Books. Gutman. B Jain. New York. . Tutorials on Homœopathy. Close. Blackie.choleric. New Delhi. Klaus-Henning. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Edinburgh. Chambers English Dictionary. Bombay. sanguine and nervous temperaments. W&R Chambers. Decker. Stuart. Beaconsfield. 1993. New Remedies. William. Borland. Wenda. 1986. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. The Organon of Medicine. Aphorisms and Precepts. 1988. Brewster O’Reilly. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. New Delhi. B Jain. Melbourne. 1987 (republished 1988). Tokyo. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. phlegmatic. Gypser. 1842. B Jain. New Delhi. 1989. London. Beaconsfield Publishers. Classical Homœopathy. Churchill Livingstone. Dudgeon (republished 1994). 1986. Hahnemann. 1994. (b) 1996 tr. Beaconsfield. etc. James Tyler. B Jain. Flamingo. The Genius of Homœopathy. Robert. the Essence of its Remedies. Madrid. 1983. New Delhi. C M Boger Collected Writings. 1954 (republished 1994). 1994.

1980. 2nd edition. Floris Books. Roberts. . 1994. Unwin Paperbacks. 1935. Edward C. Tophi Books. Psyche and Substance. 1979. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Jay. PA. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. The Substance of Homœopathy. Notes on the Miasms. B Jain. tr. Whitmont. 1989. Yasgur. New Delhi. Vithoulkas. Unknown (between 6-600BC). New York. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Greenville. Dorset & Baber. The Science and Art of Healing. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. 1980. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1994. Ralph. 1986. Sankaran. Berkeley. Wellingborough. London. Ch’u TaKao (1959). National Homœopathic Pharmacy. New Delhi. Otto. 3rd edition. Bombay. Leeser. London. The Spirit of Homœopathy. 2nd edition. 1988. New Delhi. B Jain.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Rajan. Twentyman. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. 1942 (republished 1994). The Science of Homœopathy. Van Hoy Publishers. Proceso Sanchez. 1991. CA. Thorsons. North Atlantic Books. 1985. George. 1st edition. Tao te Ching. Herbert A. Edinburgh. Bombay. Ortega.

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