Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. the previously manifest. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. emotionally and physically. which determines the individuals reaction. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease.J.T. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. to the stress of environment. mentally. p14) . INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. the vital force. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. BY DR. and also the potential to manifest. but also the past and future.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. successful or unsuccessful. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. 1986. It treats the manifest. In this sense.’ (Blackie. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider.

diverging body. but only in many different. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. 1988. as opposed to common. which deals with provings. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa.’ (Leeser. phlegmatic. He appears. 1935. … Unfortunately. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. 1994. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic.’ (Hahnemann. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. p77). like any model. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. the conception has also been misused. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. 1935.and soul-constitutions. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. Only in paragraph 136.’ (Leeser. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. choleric. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. pviii) she states. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. Most often. 1842. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. over the years. during its proving in the healthy state.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. p26) However.

1935. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. even when morbid. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. endomorphs and ectomorphs. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. p650 and Kent. 1994. . Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players.’ (Gypser. are not generally considered morbid. cold air.’ ( many during this period. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. sulphuric. warm air. changes of weather. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. 1987. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. citing the various classifications of Czerny. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. and oxygenoid. Pende. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. Kretschmer. Romero and Maranon. even accurately. carbonitrogenoid. for he may be better or worse from motion. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. phosphoric. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. p651 and Kent. the tall or short. to guide to a remedy. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. 1987. symptomatology. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. p377. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. 1994. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities.' (Leeser. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. the form or shape. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. p272) And again. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. phosphoric. as no two are sufficiently similar. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient.

Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. In contrast. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. by the influence of the milieu. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. according to Hahnemann. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. the presentation of evidence.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. and finally.’ (Roberts. 1980. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned.’ (Ortega. mode of living and weather influences. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. Further. furthermore. forming groups. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school.’ (Roberts. the division into syphilis.’ (Foubister. p171) Ortega. bilious. regardless of the temperament. sanguinous. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. This has its basis in that. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. 1942. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. the three . fate. rather than remedy-based. however. 1989. 1942. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology.

opposed to Hahnemann's conception.’ (Vithoulkas. not patients.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. It is . It is in our nature to group and dissect. complete cure will take a relatively long time. to categorise and deconstruct. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. (Close. 1993.’ (Leeser. In such cases. 1986. 1935. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. he writes purely about the classification of disease. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. However. However. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. So it seems likely. As Yasgur states.

p12) is what. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. 1994. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. D in Capra. characteristic patterns. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. at base. or at least moderates. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. 1980. Emphasis added.’ (Yasgur. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. In this state. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. in his inherited and evolving constitution. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. 1983. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. Built is something more than the well formed body. 1980. Whitmont implies a fixity of . Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. it is open to formulaic.’ (Whitmont. But as with any set of data. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. the sickness’ (Ortega. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. p45.

old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. If change does occur. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. middle age. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. . rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. we mean that each person has a specific. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. By this.’ (Sankaran. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. p27). 1994. 1991. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. mind and disease. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. p112) However. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. youth. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. individual body.response patterns which. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present.

Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. some to a greater extent than others. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. there is no other than the body’s sensation. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. 1986. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. a genuine challenge. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. in particular.’ (Gutman. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. . inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which.’ (Twentyman. 1989. however. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. p12). serving as directive. on another. This returns to Lao Tzu. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. you will not find. by implication. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. It comprises the form patterns which their life. be it weight or number. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. but is greater than these.

IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists.3) It is constant and immetable. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. As they were at birth so they will remain. the only exception being orthodontics. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 10) No treatment can modify them. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. which appeared to be fairly well determined. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign.

6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. the carbon. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. hydrogen and nitrogen. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution.a) Calcarea carbonica. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. c) Calcarea flourica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. oxygen. perturbation of secretions.VON GRAUVOGL. b) Calcarea phosphoric. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. . 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles.

e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . c) Easy demineralisation. Cuprum Met. d) Retracted and emaciated. swollen. & mucouses. Thuja Occidentalis. hydropexic. 2) The phosphoric type. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. c) He is easily affected by humidity.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. 3) The fluoric type. b) Puffines. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. Examples: Acid Nit.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type..Examples: Lycopodium. Carbo Veg. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. retension of water in the cells. B) According to a French homoeopath DR.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.

•  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Developed in width. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Stranger. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Vaulted. • Thick skeleton. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Rachis supple. • Square Or Sphere. • Rigid articulation. • Stubborn. • Reasonable. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Thick Set. • Detector. .

• The lower belly fall infront. Mentality: . • Sensitive. • Horror of reality. • Imaginative. • Asymmetric. • Distracted. of facts. • Emotive. • Intuitive.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Skin dry and cracked. • Care for elegance. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Saddle backed. • Dreamer. Mentality: • Nervous.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Superficial.

The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Intuitive. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Easily vulgar. • Brilliant but unstable. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Rapid assimilation. • Restless. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Fantastic. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. .• Unstable. as well as environment conditioning factors. the nature of the disease state. • Cannot continue. • Versatile. • Cannot take any decision. • Horror of rules and of solitude. Therefore. • Disorderly. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Capricious.

which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. befallments and symptoms. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. the potential causations including miasms. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". In truth. In these investigations. In this sense. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. the physician should take into account the patient's .

Occupations. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5).1. etc). Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. The mental and emotional character. The discernible body constitution (especially. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition.). loose or tight tissue types. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). strong. etc. lymphatic. Lifestyle and habits. in chronic cases). etc. 4. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. Rubrics related to these states are . Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. rheumatic constitutions. unstable. a description of the physique (tall or thin. 2. venous. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. On this solid foundation the objective signs. the chronic miasms." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. Age 7. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. 5. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). Sexual function. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. nervous. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. short or fat.

sanguine. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. 5. friends. 4. The occupation. The critical times are conception. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. Strictly speaking. phlegmatic. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. adolescence. middle age. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. . 6. Age. birth. These are cardinal general symptoms. rest. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. Some work well at both extremes of life. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. Civic and domestic relationships. 7. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. How a person relates to their mate. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. 3. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. A person’s sexual ethics. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. Sex and sexuality. Lifestyle and habits. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. and old age. puberty. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. childhood. children. family relations.

What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. constitution. Wesen. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6.sexual fantasies. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. that is. Perceived by those around him. sexual performance. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. That is. and 3. befallments and symptoms. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. The disease-Gestalt is . nature. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. 8. which are: 1. 7. essence. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. causation. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. temperament. Observed by the physician. the physical constitution. disease signs. being – DL]. causation. Felt by the patient himself. The time and progression. "The unprejudiced observer. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. 2.

What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. susceptibility. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. 92 & 175). As Hahnemann said. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. mental and emotional temperament. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9).DL] of the disease. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. the instinctive vital force. infection. single and multiple causations. nature." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. the spiritual. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. befallments and symptoms. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . that is. In this way. inheritance. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). being . 91. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. of the suffering of the life force. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. predispositions. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence.

condition. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. The W. constitution. the make-up of the body & soul. make something available". beschaffenheit (make up). This. . O'Reilly edition. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". temper. our living human organism. however.dynamic influence (§11). THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. and as an adjective it means. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. In this sense constitutional means. to make. inherent in the natural frame. to form or make up. to work". What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. to appoint to give being to. Turner’s Dictionary. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. disposition. the unity of life. temperament. Beschaffenheit. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. defines the German term. quality. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. to establish. which one calls disease. Beschaffen is a verb that means. which means constitutes: to set up. "to procure. the bodily constitution. laws of the organic constitution.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. or inherent nature. the complete whole. The English word. comes from the Latin root. the spiritual-bodily organism. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. "constituted". etc. page 12. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. constituere. as nature. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). Introduction.

For example.constitution. Therefore. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. its constitution. Pages 30. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. 101. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 142. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 99. disposition and circumstance. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 90. 1. 103. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. 75. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. 35. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. construction or nature. etc. 143. 3. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. 48. 2. 98. composition. 243. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". 145. 181. 242. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. . which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 34. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged.

Every sensation. One does not appear without the other. the event itself. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts.g. No part can suffer without all other parts. mind. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being.g. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). 11. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. The human organism houses the mental. that is. it comprises of the body." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. B.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. which is more than the sum of its parts. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. (§ 9. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. Jain. every manifestation of power. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. Delhi. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation.. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. vital force and body. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . Dudgeon and Boericke. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. "Organism: An organized or organic system. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. Appendix.. page 194. emotional and bodily faculties. Lebenskraft). a unity. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names.

its trunk in Hippocrates. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. 1833. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. 3rd edition. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. page 345. physis. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. as of all other medicines. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition.teachings on temperaments. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. "The employment of this. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. and its fruit in Hahnemann. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. its branches in Paracelsus. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition.

Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. Ms. mild. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments".resolutions with rapidity. slow phlegmatic temperament). [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. positive and negative qualities. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. which means "who": . He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. and are quick in their movements. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. even though they may appear to be good tempered. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. For example. silent peevishness). Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. this is not the complete picture. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. This portrait includes natural.

The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. therefore. Therefore.. which must be scanned all the more carefully."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. Therefore. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". jovial person becomes thin. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. if a formerly obese. For example. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. both if possible. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. separated according to his sick and his well days i. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . if they are not only sharply distinct. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". correspond to only few remedies. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. but also of rare occurrence and. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. nature and genius) in The Organon.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy.e. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. for the natural disposition rests on it. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence.

"A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. Halle. burning pains. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. pseudopsora. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). syphilis and any other chronic miasm. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. This is the true Esse. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. Junker makes . with wasting away (cancer of the womb). and insanity in the melancholic temperament. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. the menses were delayed. 15-18. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. 1750. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. Vide The Chronic Diseases. attended with deep. This same is true with sycosis. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. the menses disappear prematurely. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. p. also by inflammatory fever. Volume I. also other indurations. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. page 17.

. to temper. miasms and constitutional diathesis. phlegmatic. from the face. an interpreter. mind and body." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. Temperament from Latin. moderate. predisposition. and constitution. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine.physiognomy. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. general appearance of anything. compound.. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. gnomon-onos. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. these symptoms become more strange. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. nature. character. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. temperare. This 2. as well as the present state of the spirit. restrain. temperament. heredity. the art of judging character from the appearance. esp. befallments and symptoms. rare and peculiar. For example.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. If this is not the case. aspectGreek.

phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. the choleric or bilious. a natural temperament. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. fire. the spiritual body organism. the phlegmo-choleric. water. to be uncontrolled. the nervo-phlegmatic. the sanguino. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. an internal constitutional state. the cholero-nervous. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. to exert self control. a mood. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. air.choleric. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. temperament.choleric. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the constitution of the body and/or mind. a proportioned mixture of qualities. a fit of anger. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. the phlegmosanguine.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. and the nervo-sanguine. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. voice. a frame of mind. the cholero-sanguine. a natural disposition. Constitution. phlegmatic. nervo. the five elements (ether. the sangino-phlegmatic. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). composure. an innate or acquired disposition. phlegmatic. Each of these temperaments represents . The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). pitch and mood) by the vital force. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. Temper-noun.

phlegmatic. Vide Materia Medica Pura. malicious disposition. irritable. lecture on Nux Vomica. Volume VIII. the choleric. sanguine and nervous melancholic. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. I. "Some practical instructions may be of use. inclined to get angry or excited. Nervous. choleric persons with dark hair. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. For very particular. II. II. Suits thin. II. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. mood. zealous. venous constitution. melancholic people. page 168. Bilious temperaments. page 223. etc. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. Nux Vomica. fiery. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. always irritable and impatient. with tendency to hemorrhoids. spite or deception. zealous persons. I (4) is the second grade. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . state. wicked irascible disposition. of an irritable. or of a spiteful. or of a malicious. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. II. (hepatic affections) I. thin.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. composure. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. Vide Guiding Symptoms. Among these may be mentioned." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. Drug subjects. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. hot temperament. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. II. troubled with indigestion. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. Debauches. "II. nervous disposition.

Boenninghausen and Hering.6.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. physical descriptions (thin.7). nervous dispositions with their traits). bilious. delicate eyelashes. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. impatient. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. habits. (addicted to wine. chilly. On this constitutional basis the signs.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. dark hair). miasmic tendencies. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. §5. choleric. blond or red hair. indigestion. etc). irritable. spiteful. Allen includes temperaments. choleric persons. These are all constitutional general rubrics. blond haired. with quick perceptions. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. . befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. dark. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. melancholic. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. coffee. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). One might ask. thin. fair skin. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. dry. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). and very sensitive nature. nervous anxious temperaments. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. drugs). To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. mental rubrics (angry. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. hepatic affections). fine.

B. candy. hair type. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved.The Argent Nit. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. or C. The Arsen. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. if they are bright and alert in the morning. preferred type of clothing and so on. such as how they respond to noise. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. For example.tearful. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. under or overweight. salt and cheese. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. lazy etc. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. Digestive system. Often anxious and worried. Alb. Ailments tend to the left side. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Dislikes chilled foods. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Readily laughs. Type . fat or thin. cries and loses temper. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. confident. sad. hair colour. Eyes. The Argent Nit. so B will be the best remedy. long or short limbed. Physical factors are also important. Prone to bedwetting. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Finds it difficult to control emotions. their eye colour. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still.

alcohol and sour tasting foods. warm foods and drinks. . Skin. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Can have a deep fear of being alone. delicate skin. Easily upset by loud noise. Strong opinions. Perfectionist at work and at home. keeps room tidy. Prone to depression. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Skin. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Types. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Fine facial features with fine. Skeletal system. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Often well groomed and stylish. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Digestive system. in particular coffee. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Respiratory system (coughs. The Calc. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Physical weaknesses: Ears. bloated and tired in appearance. Alb. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. nose and throat. Exhaustion. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Dislikes large amount of fluid. sensitive and quiet. The Arsen. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Alb. Can be critical and intolerant. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. candy. this can hide a hoarding mentality. may manifest as back ache. Teeth. Sluggish. Carb. Dislikes mess and being messy. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Can dwell too much on a particular problem.

The Graphites type like savoury foods.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. The Calc. Flaky scalp. May have rough. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. be exhausted. windswept appearance. Not always willing to change habits and routines. hesitant and anxious. boiled food and boiled milk. iced drinks and ice cream. such as vegetables and salads. Type. salt. Can fall over easily. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Possible mood swings. Sighs a lot. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Blushes easily. Ears. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Slow metabolic rate. Physical weaknesses: Skin. seafood and hot drinks. Dry hair. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Placid and calm. child: Plump and overweight. Dark to mid range colour hair. chocolate. Carb. Dry lips. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Possible difficulty in . Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. nose bleeds. prone to suppression of grief. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Can have a rugged. Carb. usually dark. desserts. Dislikes sweet foods. Timid. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. eggs. Dislikes fatty meats. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. dry skin that can crack easily. tearful and despondent then impatient. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Rapid and extreme mood swings. Not an early morning person. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Nails. candy. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. carbohydrates. salt. have bad breath.

Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. May lick lips a lot. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. Strong. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. twitching and grinding teeth. coughs and colds. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. Suspicious of strangers. menopausal problems. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Responds well to encouragment. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. sore throats and asthma. Prefers not to be alone. especially new babies. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. cool drinks. varicose veins. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. sore throat. crying and poor grades at school. sore throats. leading to headaches. Jealous and possessive. carbohydrates. fixed expression. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. Talkative. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. causing outbursts of anger. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. palpitations and panic attacks. Prone to left-side problems. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dislikes sweet drinks. May be sensitive to noise. Dislikes sweet foods. Hyperactivity. May view self as sinful when religious. excitable and sensitive. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). bad sleep and insomnia. can be hurtful to peers. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. dairy products.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. choughs. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. staring eyes. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. The Lycopodium Type . May experience headaches. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. constipation. Strong. sour and savoury foods. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. alcohol and seafood. Finds it difficult to function when stressed.

The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. sore throats. creating mountains out of molehills. May explode with rage and anger. child: Irritating behaviour. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. male baldness. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. kidney stones.The Merc. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Susceptible to ear nose and . Insecure and hates change. prostate. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Thinning hair in men. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Conscientious and achiever academically. Sol. May stammer. garlic and seafood. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Shy and cautious. The Merc. Type Appearance: Medium build. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Facial twitching. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Right-side problems. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Often look older than their years. Sol. swelling of glands and exhaustion. onions. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Forgetful. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Hates being contradicted. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Avoids commitment. Anxious over important events. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. with grey translucent look. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats.

Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Depression. Dry cracked lips. red eyes. cigarettes. May have dark circles under eyes. Medium to dark hair. anger. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. mur. which can lead to depression. Dislikes coffee and bread. Down to Earth with mind set on career.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. child: Small for their age. Well behaved. especially when young. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. premenstrual syndrome. coffee. Smart appearance. Can be addicted to sex. May suffer from headaches under pressure. palpitations and headaches. May have cravings for alcohol. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. May look stressed and tense. type may be professional and career minded. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Ages prematurely. mur. Intolerant of imperfection in others. anorexia. Solid. fear. Can be very ambitious. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Watery. Loves animals. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. guilt and loneliness.throat complaints. The Nat. skin problems. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Impatient. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. mur. mouth ulcers and cold sores. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Finds it difficult to relax. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. The Nat. Slow development. . strong and lean build in men.

The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Likes to be stylish. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Migraines and headaches. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Nervous. The Pulsatilla Type . alcohol. Short attention span. Coughs and colds. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. alcohol. Dizziness. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Artistic and creative in appearance. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. coffee and spicy foods. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. cheese and cream. carbonated drinks. Can have fair to dark hair. Weakness of the lungs. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Headaches. May have temper tantrums. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. salt. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Competitive as a teenager. Hernia and hay fever. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. spicy food.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Circulation problems. Fine skin. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Loves to receive attention. Expressive. Left-side problems. Feels better after sleep. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Can be hard work for partner. Strong fear of the dark. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions.

Medium to dark hair. Prone to coughs and colds. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. often with brown eyes. Likes to be supported by others. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Often sits with legs crossed. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Can feel better after weeping. Catarrh. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Hates being contradicted. spicy foods. Styes. Often rests with hands behind head. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Irritable bowel syndrome. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Likes to look attractive and elegant. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Loves animals. Avoids confrontation. Also laughs easily. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Can look younger than actual age. Varicose veins. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Skin problems. tragic news or weepy movies. Headaches and migraine. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Gentle and kind appearance. but does not like it when others are fussing around. and very rich. Skin problems. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. as holds strong opinions. Cries easily. Sensitive to changes in the weather. . Can suppress guilt and anger. Blushes easily. cold foods and cold drinks.

Not sporty as has little stamina. Dislikes dairy products. especially due to burnout from new projects. Can become a bedwetter. especially cheese and milk. Can be shy. The Sepia child: Greedy. sour and savoury foods. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. citrus fruits. with a large forehead. especially milk. Prone to mental exhaustion. Feels the cold. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. with petite appearance. Headaches. Skin problems. Prone to constipation. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. apart from large head. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Exhaustion. Usually tidy and well behaved. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Moody. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects.Dietary factors: Likes spices. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. moves and new jobs. Dislikes very hot food. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. sweet foods and alcohol. The Sulphur Type . Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Feels the cold. The head can appear too large for the body. almost doll-like in appearance. Delicate. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Constipation. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. Does not like being alone. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Slowness in healing and getting well. fine features.

The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. haemorrhoids and constipation. burning feet. temperament. bathing or washing hands. heredity. Can be critical. Might not complete ideas and projects. dry.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. Dislikes dairy products. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. May look untidy. especially milk and eggs.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. salads and seafood. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Dislikes most hot drinks. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Likes to argue. disposition. Has a very healthy appetite. citrus fruits. body odour. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Hair may be course. spicy foods. Vide Organon. May lack willpower and self-esteem. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. Can be hyperactive in the evening. Does not like showers. hot. Likes alcohol.

It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. they mount until the end of life. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. Lamarck. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct." Note 78. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. heart . "The true. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. Therefore.feelings and functions. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament.

He classified miasms into three categories. were completely vanished. 2. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. 1. Third. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases.. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state.and body. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. First of all. On this basis. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. medicinal treatment. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. He points out that mental and . 3. the acute. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. i. prodromal stage and primary. grief and worry. Second. incubation period. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years.e. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. implanted in them through infection or heredity. However. by contact with the infected host. a moment of infection. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. and especially through inexpedient. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm.

is announced by the increase of the . the mental temperament. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. and. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. habits. inheritance. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. predisposition and diathesis. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. hereditary dispositions. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent.

This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. thus attaining incredible proliferation. his hereditary disposition. " It is. his morality. his manner of living and diet. For these reasons. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). morals. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. which already. deviate so greatly from one another. his employment. his turn of mind. climate. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. the various errors in his education and habits.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. diet. to some extent. etc. etc. in and of themselves. little by little. befallments and symptoms. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . The next most important factors are environment. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. diet and stress (nurture).

It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. From the Greek. leucophlegmatic. scrofulous. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. etc. psoric. 3.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms.e. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . DIATHESIS. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. lymphatic.. venous. and/or mind. i. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. diathesis. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. 1. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. diathesis. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. 2. sycotic. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states.

.. Venous. Asthmatic constitutions. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include... aur-m.. kalm. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. constitutions -am-c. Rhus-t. constitutions.... Scrofulous.. Fibre. Sulph. Emaciated constitutions. constitution.. murx. bapt. Lyc. CALC. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. bloated. For example. BAR-C. dulc. Rheumatic. Tubercular.. . constitutions. nit-ac. 1. Gouty. Sil. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions.. GRAPH. Large fat.. Hemorrhagic. constitutions. Fibre rigid. constitutions. Cann-i. BELL. phos.. Sep.." 2. thuj. Bar-m. Paralytic. Lean. constitutions. calc-ar. Apis. constitutions. constitutions. MERC. Carb-v. constitutions. constitutions.... arn. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. Dwarfish. Puls... Plethoric. Lymphatic. aster. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section.. thin people. and their similar remedies.. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. Chin. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Hep.. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Hysterical. constitutions. Nat-m. constitutions. Petr.. Tall lean. FERR. Example: "Lymphatic. lax. people. ars.. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings..

sang..constitutions. Example: "Bilious. euph. Clem. constitutions.... These are general symptoms of the constitution. BRY... constitutions. constitutions. Phos.. Thuj. ferr-i. Ph-ac. Example: "Fibre. bar-c. calc-p.... Still.. constitutions..." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories...... Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). Sil. Tubercular. Fl-ac. constitutions and their remedies. KALI-I.. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include... bor... CARD-M... MERC.. acon.. Psoric. Phos. hep.. Merc. ail......" Rubrics related to the miasms include. constitutions. Guai." 3. berb. cinnam. lept. constitutions. MAG-C... constitutions-agar..... ant-t..... PHOS. Phyt.. Cor-r. aec-t.... cann-i. CHIN. cund.. chion.. Syphilitic. Sanguine constitutions. Phlegmatic. Sycotic constitutions. temperament. constitutions. ant-c.. Merc-i-f. Cham. sulph... Lach. Sars. plat. Sulph.. Crot-h. Bilious. OP. diathetic states and miasms.. NIT-AC. SYPH. Choleric. Aesc. Example: "SYPHILITIC. nat-s. Nervous. iris. sep. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . ars. chol. KALI-C. mag-m.... constitutions. Kali-b. CHEL... Benz-ac.. constitutions-Ars. spong.. ptel. SABAD.. Cocc. Puls.... lax. Caps. Ip. CALC... Mercc. PSOS.... ambr.. Sil. Petr... NUX V... Mez. Merc-d. and their similar remedies... Melancholic. Bell. AUR. MERC..

"The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. or of the Copaiva balm. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. or a small dose of Cannabis. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. The Chronic Diseases. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. For example. temperament. diathesis and miasms. of Cantharides. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. inheritance. susceptibility. the footnote on page 150. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. temperament. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. miasms and diathesis. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . Vide Sycosis. susceptibility.conditioning factors. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism.

Gypser. Melbourne. Chambers English Dictionary. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Flamingo. Fritjoff. Borland. Robert. Foubister. New York. C M Boger Collected Writings. B Jain. Aphorisms and Precepts. Birdcage Books. Stuart. Lesser Writings. signs. Donald McD. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Margery. ed. Beaconsfield Publishers. 1987 (republished 1988). 1988. phlegmatic. Beaconsfield Publishers.choleric. B Jain. Redmond. Beaconsfield Publishers. Bombay. The Tao of Physics. (b) 1996 tr. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Beaconsfield. Hahnemann. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. the Essence of its Remedies. New Delhi. ed. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. sanguine and nervous temperaments. B Jain. Close. 1994. London. Beaconsfield. Cambridge. Beaconsfield. Blackie. Brewster O’Reilly. Douglas. Clinical Cases. etc. WA. Dudgeon (republished 1994). New Delhi. 1989. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. 1986. B Jain. 1986. Edinburgh. (a) 1922 tr. 1993. Wenda. Samuel. New Delhi. B Jain. Churchill Livingstone. Klaus-Henning. 5th edition. 1954 (republished 1994). New Delhi. Homœopathy in Practice. Classical Homœopathy. Decker. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Kent. Capra. William. New Delhi. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Gutman. Madrid. James Tyler. 1994. 1988. Tutorials on Homœopathy. 6th edition. The Genius of Homœopathy. 1983. London. Tokyo. . befallments and symptoms. New Remedies. 1842. The Organon of Medicine. W&R Chambers.

The Science and Art of Healing. Notes on the Miasms. Bombay. Greenville. Floris Books. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1988. 1985. Twentyman. Dorset & Baber. Sankaran. The Substance of Homœopathy. Ralph. 2nd edition. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. 1994. 1980. Wellingborough. Tophi Books. The Spirit of Homœopathy. New York. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Tao te Ching. 1986. Roberts. B Jain. Unwin Paperbacks. 1st edition. Yasgur. Vithoulkas. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Thorsons. Psyche and Substance. 2nd edition. Unknown (between 6-600BC). 1979. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. New Delhi. Herbert A. Rajan. Jay. . Proceso Sanchez. CA. 1942 (republished 1994). The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. Berkeley. tr. Otto. Ortega. Bombay. 1980.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. PA. 1989. Edinburgh. 1994. B Jain. Van Hoy Publishers. North Atlantic Books. The Science of Homœopathy. Edward C. 3rd edition. London. London. 1991. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. New Delhi. Leeser. Whitmont. 1935. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. New Delhi. George.