Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

and also the potential to manifest. the vital force. mentally. It treats the manifest.’ (Blackie. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. the previously manifest.J. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. but also the past and future. In this sense. emotionally and physically. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. p14) . deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. 1986. BY DR. to the stress of environment.T. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. which determines the individuals reaction.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. successful or unsuccessful. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease).

‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. Only in paragraph 136. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. p26) However. … Unfortunately. like any model. over the years. p77). 1994. phlegmatic. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. as opposed to common.’ (Leeser. but only in many different. Most often. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. the conception has also been misused. 1935. 1935. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. which deals with provings. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. 1988. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. choleric. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions.’ (Hahnemann. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions.’ (Leeser. pviii) she states. during its proving in the healthy state. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. diverging body. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. He appears.and soul-constitutions. 1842. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual.

by many during this period. carbonitrogenoid. are not generally considered morbid. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. Pende. 1987. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. as no two are sufficiently similar. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. even accurately. p272) And again. Kretschmer. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. 1987. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. Romero and Maranon. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. p377. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. 1935. sulphuric. to guide to a remedy. the form or shape. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. the tall or short. for he may be better or worse from motion. p651 and Kent. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. phosphoric. even when morbid. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies.’ (Gypser. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. endomorphs and ectomorphs. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. . in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. and oxygenoid. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. cold air.' (Leeser. symptomatology. phosphoric. 1994. 1994. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. citing the various classifications of Czerny. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution.’ (Gypser. warm air. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. changes of weather. p650 and Kent. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis.

p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. the three .’ (Foubister.’ (Roberts. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. 1980. by the influence of the milieu. Further. regardless of the temperament. p171) Ortega. fate. 1942. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. sanguinous. furthermore. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. the division into syphilis. forming groups. 1942. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. however. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. rather than remedy-based. mode of living and weather influences. bilious. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease.’ (Ortega. the presentation of evidence. This has its basis in that. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. and finally. In contrast. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. according to Hahnemann.’ (Roberts. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. 1989.

a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. It is . A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. 1993. (Close. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. So it seems likely. It is in our nature to group and dissect. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. to categorise and deconstruct. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. complete cure will take a relatively long time. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. In such cases. As Yasgur states. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. not patients. However.’ (Leeser. However. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. 1986. 1935. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. he writes purely about the classification of disease. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie.’ (Vithoulkas.

the sickness’ (Ortega. Whitmont implies a fixity of . it is open to formulaic. But as with any set of data. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. or at least moderates.’ (Whitmont. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. 1983. at base. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. D in Capra. 1980. p12) is what. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. in his inherited and evolving constitution. characteristic patterns.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. 1980. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. 1994.’ (Yasgur. In this state. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. p45. Emphasis added. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. Built is something more than the well formed body.

This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. 1991. individual body. . and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. p27). p112) However.’ (Sankaran. youth. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. By this. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. middle age. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work.response patterns which. If change does occur. we mean that each person has a specific. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. 1994. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. mind and disease. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model.

It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. serving as directive. . But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. in particular. a genuine challenge. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. by implication. This returns to Lao Tzu.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. emotional and intellectual make up of a person.’ (Gutman. there is no other than the body’s sensation. but is greater than these. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. however. 1989. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. you will not find. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. p12). This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. on another. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual.’ (Twentyman. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. some to a greater extent than others. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. be it weight or number. 1986. It comprises the form patterns which their life. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs.

study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 10) No treatment can modify them. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. As they were at birth so they will remain. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence.3) It is constant and immetable. the only exception being orthodontics. which appeared to be fairly well determined.

 CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. . perturbation of secretions. b) Calcarea phosphoric. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution.VON GRAUVOGL. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. c) Calcarea flourica. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. oxygen. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. the carbon. hydrogen and nitrogen. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. c) There is hepatic insufficiency.a) Calcarea carbonica.

swollen. c) Easy demineralisation. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. 2) The phosphoric type. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . Examples: Acid Nit. & mucouses.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. retension of water in the cells. b) Puffines. Thuja Occidentalis. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. Carbo Veg.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. 3) The fluoric type.Examples: Lycopodium. hydropexic. Cuprum Met. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin.. c) He is easily affected by humidity. d) Retracted and emaciated.

• Rigid articulation. • Vaulted. • Reasonable. • Developed in width. • Stranger. • Detector. • Rachis supple. • Thick Set. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • • Predominance of the cranium.General aspect : • Short limbed. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Square Or Sphere. . • Stubborn. • Thick skeleton. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. Thorax long and flat forward from behind.

• Intuitive. of facts.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Imaginative. • The lower belly fall infront. • Care for elegance. • Sensitive. Mentality: • Nervous. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Horror of reality. • Asymmetric. • Distracted. • Superficial. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Skin dry and cracked. • Emotive. • Dreamer. Mentality: . • Saddle backed.

He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Fantastic. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Capricious. • Horror of rules and of solitude. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Easily vulgar. • Cannot continue. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Restless. Therefore. • Intuitive. • Rapid assimilation. • Disorderly. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time.• Unstable. • Versatile. . as well as environment conditioning factors. • Brilliant but unstable. • Cannot take any decision. the nature of the disease state. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism.

Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. the potential causations including miasms. In this sense. In these investigations. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. In truth. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. the physician should take into account the patient's . It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. befallments and symptoms.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease.

etc). rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul.). In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). 2. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. strong." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). nervous. etc. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). rheumatic constitutions. 4. a description of the physique (tall or thin. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). lymphatic. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. 5. The mental and emotional character.1. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. venous. Lifestyle and habits. Age 7. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. Sexual function. Rubrics related to these states are . The discernible body constitution (especially. in chronic cases). Occupations. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. loose or tight tissue types. etc. short or fat. On this solid foundation the objective signs. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. unstable. the chronic miasms.

How a person relates to their mate. Age. childhood. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. The occupation. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. 3. Lifestyle and habits. friends. rest. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. 5. Sex and sexuality. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. puberty. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. Strictly speaking. and old age. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. These are cardinal general symptoms. children. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. middle age. 4. family relations. . 6. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. A person’s sexual ethics. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. Some work well at both extremes of life. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. 7. Civic and domestic relationships. birth. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. sanguine. adolescence. The critical times are conception. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. phlegmatic. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state.

which are outwardly discernible through the sense. disease signs. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. causation. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. essence. Wesen." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). "The unprejudiced observer. being – DL]. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. 8. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. That is.sexual fantasies. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. the physical constitution. Felt by the patient himself. befallments and symptoms. Observed by the physician. Perceived by those around him. 7. 2. temperament. The time and progression. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. causation. nature. which are: 1. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. and 3. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. The disease-Gestalt is . that is. sexual performance. constitution. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline.

Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . In this way. 91. nature. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy.DL] of the disease. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. being .composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. the instinctive vital force. of the suffering of the life force. the spiritual. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. inheritance. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. mental and emotional temperament. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. single and multiple causations. As Hahnemann said. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. predispositions. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. that is. susceptibility. befallments and symptoms. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. 92 & 175). This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. infection.

temper.dynamic influence (§11). The English word.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). our living human organism. page 12. to work". to appoint to give being to. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. to form or make up. the make-up of the body & soul. etc. or inherent nature. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. constituere. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. defines the German term. "to procure. . This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). comes from the Latin root. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. the spiritual-bodily organism. quality. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. condition. beschaffenheit (make up). the unity of life. the complete whole. disposition. temperament. to make. The W. as nature. Introduction. In this sense constitutional means. Turner’s Dictionary. inherent in the natural frame. however. O'Reilly edition. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. the bodily constitution. which one calls disease. and as an adjective it means. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. which means constitutes: to set up. This. constitution. Beschaffen is a verb that means. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. to establish. Beschaffenheit. "constituted". laws of the organic constitution. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. make something available". had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently.

. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. 1. 3. 99. 103. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. Therefore. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. 143. 34. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 35. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. For example. 2. 75. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. 98. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 90. composition. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen.constitution. 243. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. construction or nature. its constitution. disposition and circumstance. 181. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. 101. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 142. 242. Pages 30. etc. 145. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. 48. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages.

The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. No part can suffer without all other parts. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. Delhi. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). it comprises of the body. Every sensation. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature.. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e.g. 11. the event itself. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. vital force and body.. Lebenskraft). which is more than the sum of its parts. Jain. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. that is. page 194. a unity. Appendix. The human organism houses the mental.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr.g. Dudgeon and Boericke. B. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. One does not appear without the other. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. every manifestation of power. (§ 9. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. mind. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. emotional and bodily faculties. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). "Organism: An organized or organic system.

1833.teachings on temperaments. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. "The employment of this. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. its branches in Paracelsus. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. and its fruit in Hahnemann. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. as of all other medicines. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. its trunk in Hippocrates. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. physis. 3rd edition. page 345. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras.

good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. slow phlegmatic temperament). which means "who": . This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. this is not the complete picture. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. and are quick in their movements. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. even though they may appear to be good tempered. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". mild. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. For example. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait.resolutions with rapidity. positive and negative qualities. Ms. This portrait includes natural. silent peevishness).

these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. for the natural disposition rests on it. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease.e. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. separated according to his sick and his well days i. which must be scanned all the more carefully. nature and genius) in The Organon. For example.."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing".the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . Therefore. Therefore. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. both if possible. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . jovial person becomes thin. if they are not only sharply distinct. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. if a formerly obese. correspond to only few remedies. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. therefore. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. but also of rare occurrence and. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit.

and insanity in the melancholic temperament. page 17. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. Volume I. Junker makes . He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. This is the true Esse. burning pains. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. 15-18. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. also by inflammatory fever. p. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. pseudopsora. 1750. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. the menses disappear prematurely. Halle. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. This same is true with sycosis. attended with deep. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. Vide The Chronic Diseases. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. also other indurations. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). the menses were delayed.

" A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. gnomon-onos. mind and body.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. as well as the present state of the spirit. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. If this is not the case.. these symptoms become more strange. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. general appearance of anything. heredity. the art of judging character from the appearance. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. temperare. . temperament. predisposition. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. phlegmatic.physiognomy. compound. an interpreter. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. to temper. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. from the face. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. For example. character. restrain. This 2. Temperament from Latin. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. and constitution. moderate. esp. rare and peculiar. nature. miasms and constitutional diathesis. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. aspectGreek. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. befallments and symptoms.

choleric. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). to be uncontrolled. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the cholero-nervous. nervo. the spiritual body organism. and the nervo-sanguine. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. water. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. fire.choleric. a fit of anger. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. composure. the five elements (ether. Temper-noun. voice. Constitution. the sangino-phlegmatic. phlegmatic. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. the sanguino.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. a frame of mind. an innate or acquired disposition. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. Each of these temperaments represents . The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. phlegmatic. a mood. to exert self control. an internal constitutional state. a proportioned mixture of qualities. the cholero-sanguine. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). a natural temperament. the nervo-phlegmatic. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. pitch and mood) by the vital force. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. the phlegmosanguine. the constitution of the body and/or mind. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. a natural disposition. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. the choleric or bilious. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. the phlegmo-choleric. temperament. air. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type.

zealous persons. Nux Vomica. I (4) is the second grade. inclined to get angry or excited. irritable. or of a spiteful. Drug subjects. II. II. troubled with indigestion. wicked irascible disposition. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. always irritable and impatient. I. Nervous. (hepatic affections) I. Among these may be mentioned. of an irritable. spite or deception. Debauches. melancholic people." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. hot temperament. etc. nervous disposition.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. Vide Guiding Symptoms. "Some practical instructions may be of use. phlegmatic. composure. Bilious temperaments. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. malicious disposition. with tendency to hemorrhoids. lecture on Nux Vomica. For very particular. thin. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. fiery. II. Volume VIII. Suits thin. venous constitution. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. Vide Materia Medica Pura. or of a malicious. sanguine and nervous melancholic. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. state. II. "II. choleric persons with dark hair. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. page 223. II. zealous. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. mood. the choleric. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. page 168.

dark. dark hair). what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". indigestion. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. chilly. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. and very sensitive nature. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious.6. drugs). mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). (addicted to wine. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. dry. One might ask. miasmic tendencies. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. choleric persons. physical descriptions (thin. §5. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. fine. . rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. These are all constitutional general rubrics. with quick perceptions. nervous anxious temperaments. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). Boenninghausen and Hering. blond haired. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. melancholic. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. irritable. delicate eyelashes. impatient. habits. etc). hepatic affections). To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. choleric. Allen includes temperaments. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. coffee. blond or red hair. thin. On this constitutional basis the signs. mental rubrics (angry. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. spiteful. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. fair skin. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. bilious. nervous dispositions with their traits).6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone.7).

The Argent Nit. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. B. Ailments tend to the left side. hair colour. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. For example. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. so B will be the best remedy. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. salt and cheese. fat or thin. if they are bright and alert in the morning. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Physical factors are also important. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Digestive system. or C. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Often anxious and worried. hair type. such as how they respond to noise. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. Readily laughs. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. candy. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Prone to bedwetting. Alb. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. confident.tearful. long or short limbed. lazy etc. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. looking at whether the patient is short or tall.The Argent Nit. cries and loses temper. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. sad. preferred type of clothing and so on. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. The Arsen. Dislikes chilled foods. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. under or overweight. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Type . their eye colour. Eyes.

candy. warm foods and drinks. Alb. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Often well groomed and stylish. Strong opinions. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Teeth. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Skin. Reassurance helps to improve condition. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. delicate skin. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Skeletal system. The Calc. keeps room tidy. may manifest as back ache. bloated and tired in appearance. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Alb. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. in particular coffee. Skin. sensitive and quiet. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. Exhaustion. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Fine facial features with fine. Perfectionist at work and at home. Prone to depression. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Respiratory system (coughs. alcohol and sour tasting foods. . Easily upset by loud noise. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. The Arsen. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Digestive system. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Sluggish. Can be critical and intolerant. Dislikes mess and being messy. Types.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. nose and throat. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Carb. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable.

child: Plump and overweight. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. salt. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. hesitant and anxious. Dark to mid range colour hair. prone to suppression of grief. Dislikes sweet foods. Carb. Sighs a lot. Prone to dark circles under eyes. such as vegetables and salads. usually dark.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. carbohydrates. Dry lips. seafood and hot drinks. Ears. iced drinks and ice cream. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. boiled food and boiled milk. have bad breath. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. dry skin that can crack easily. windswept appearance. Carb. Dry hair. The Calc. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Not an early morning person. desserts. Possible mood swings. salt. Timid. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Dislikes fatty meats. Blushes easily. Can have a rugged. Can fall over easily. eggs. Nails. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Flaky scalp. Type. Possible difficulty in . styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Placid and calm. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. nose bleeds. Rapid and extreme mood swings. May have rough. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. tearful and despondent then impatient. candy. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Slow metabolic rate. Not always willing to change habits and routines. be exhausted. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. The Graphites type like savoury foods. chocolate.

choughs. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Prone to left-side problems. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. palpitations and panic attacks. Talkative. dairy products. Dislikes sweet drinks. Strong. sore throats. staring eyes. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. menopausal problems. varicose veins. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. coughs and colds. excitable and sensitive. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Suspicious of strangers. May lick lips a lot. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Strong. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. The Lycopodium Type . Responds well to encouragment. sore throats and asthma. twitching and grinding teeth. sour and savoury foods. bad sleep and insomnia. leading to headaches. May experience headaches. especially new babies.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. carbohydrates. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Mind can become crowded with thoughts. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Hyperactivity. causing outbursts of anger. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. May be sensitive to noise. fixed expression. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Prefers not to be alone. can be hurtful to peers. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. crying and poor grades at school. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Jealous and possessive. May view self as sinful when religious.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. sore throat. Dislikes sweet foods. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. constipation. alcohol and seafood. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. cool drinks. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative.

Forgetful. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Hair may be fair to medium colour. child: Irritating behaviour. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. kidney stones. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Right-side problems. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Facial twitching. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. sore throats. May stammer. Conscientious and achiever academically. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Thinning hair in men. Avoids commitment. creating mountains out of molehills. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Shy and cautious. Type Appearance: Medium build. prostate. swelling of glands and exhaustion. garlic and seafood. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Susceptible to ear nose and . with grey translucent look. May explode with rage and anger. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Insecure and hates change. Often look older than their years. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Sol. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. male baldness. Anxious over important events. The Merc. Hates being contradicted. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy.The Merc. Sol. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. onions.

Watery. Well behaved. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. strong and lean build in men. Finds it difficult to relax. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Impatient. Ages prematurely. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Dislikes coffee and bread. palpitations and headaches. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. child: Small for their age. which can lead to depression. mouth ulcers and cold sores. The Nat. Can be very ambitious. mur. May look stressed and tense. anorexia. fear. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. premenstrual syndrome. May have cravings for alcohol. Depression. coffee. Solid. Slow development. skin problems.throat complaints. Loves animals. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. mur. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Dry cracked lips. May have dark circles under eyes. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. red eyes. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Can be addicted to sex. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. .The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. The Nat. especially when young. mur. Smart appearance. guilt and loneliness. May suffer from headaches under pressure. type may be professional and career minded. cigarettes. Medium to dark hair. anger.

Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Circulation problems. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Likes to be stylish. The Pulsatilla Type . Hernia and hay fever. Likes to be with people and centre of attention.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. coffee and spicy foods. Can have fair to dark hair. Dizziness. Expressive. alcohol. Fine skin. Loves to receive attention. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Short attention span. spicy food. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Can be hard work for partner. Coughs and colds. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. cheese and cream. Nervous. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. carbonated drinks. Feels better after sleep. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. May have temper tantrums. Artistic and creative in appearance. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Migraines and headaches. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. alcohol. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. Left-side problems. Competitive as a teenager. Strong fear of the dark. Weakness of the lungs. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. salt. Headaches.

Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Often sits with legs crossed. Also laughs easily. as holds strong opinions. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. tragic news or weepy movies. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Can suppress guilt and anger. Often rests with hands behind head. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Varicose veins. Prone to coughs and colds. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Blushes easily. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. spicy foods. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. but does not like it when others are fussing around.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Skin problems. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Loves animals. Catarrh. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. and very rich. Can look younger than actual age. Medium to dark hair. cold foods and cold drinks. often with brown eyes. Gentle and kind appearance. Avoids confrontation. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. . Irritable bowel syndrome. Can feel better after weeping. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Hates being contradicted. Styes. Skin problems. Headaches and migraine. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Likes to be supported by others. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Cries easily.

Slowness in healing and getting well. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Exhaustion. citrus fruits. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. with a large forehead. especially milk. Prone to mental exhaustion. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Not sporty as has little stamina. especially due to burnout from new projects. Does not like being alone. with petite appearance. sweet foods and alcohol. fine features. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Prone to constipation. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Constipation. Can be shy. Usually tidy and well behaved. Feels the cold. Headaches. Moody. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Can become a bedwetter. Dislikes very hot food. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Dislikes dairy products. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. especially cheese and milk. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Skin problems. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Delicate. The head can appear too large for the body. Feels the cold. The Sulphur Type . rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. The Sepia child: Greedy. sour and savoury foods. almost doll-like in appearance. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. apart from large head. moves and new jobs.

Hair may be course. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Dislikes dairy products. Vide Organon. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. haemorrhoids and constipation. temperament. May lack willpower and self-esteem. Does not like showers. heredity. citrus fruits. mistuned and displaced into abnormal .Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. body odour. dry. Has a very healthy appetite. Can be hyperactive in the evening. Can be critical. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. salads and seafood. bathing or washing hands. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Might not complete ideas and projects. spicy foods. Likes to argue. disposition. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. May look untidy. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. burning feet. hot. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Dislikes most hot drinks.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Likes alcohol. especially milk and eggs.

In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Lamarck. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. "The true. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances.feelings and functions. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. Therefore." Note 78. heart . This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. they mount until the end of life. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct.

[Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. On this basis. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. Second. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. medicinal treatment. He points out that mental and . Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. 3. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. He classified miasms into three categories. prodromal stage and primary. by contact with the infected host.. i. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. Third. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. a moment of infection. and especially through inexpedient. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. incubation period. First of all. grief and worry. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases.and body. implanted in them through infection or heredity. 1. were completely vanished. 2.e. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. the acute. However. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms.

and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. hereditary dispositions. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. is announced by the increase of the . predisposition and diathesis. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. inheritance.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. habits. the mental temperament. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. and. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases.

This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. diet and stress (nurture). diet. thus attaining incredible proliferation. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). his employment. For these reasons. in and of themselves. deviate so greatly from one another. his manner of living and diet. little by little. his turn of mind. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. which already. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. the various errors in his education and habits. to some extent. etc. etc. The next most important factors are environment. " It is. climate. his hereditary disposition. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. morals.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. his morality. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. befallments and symptoms.

diathesis. From the Greek. DIATHESIS. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. etc. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. 3. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. sycotic.. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics.e. 2. leucophlegmatic. venous. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. psoric. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. scrofulous. i. and/or mind. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. diathesis. lymphatic. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. 1. A constitutional state which mistunes the body.

constitutions -am-c. Puls. Nat-m. thin people. Hysterical. constitution.. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. Sep.. aster. bloated. constitutions. Sil. Petr. constitutions. Fibre. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples.. Emaciated constitutions. constitutions. FERR. constitutions. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. phos. constitutions. Dwarfish. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. Carb-v.. BELL. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Lyc. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. Lean. For example. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. Tubercular. calc-ar.. lax. constitutions. Cann-i. and their similar remedies. constitutions.. Fibre rigid... Sulph. aur-m... Paralytic. Hep.. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. thuj. Rheumatic. . Asthmatic constitutions.. MERC. nit-ac... constitutions. Venous. Apis. Gouty. Hemorrhagic. 1. Rhus-t. arn.." 2. BAR-C. bapt.. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Bar-m.. Chin.. Tall lean. constitutions. Plethoric... kalm. ars. Example: "Lymphatic.. GRAPH. constitutions. Large fat. CALC. Scrofulous. people. Lymphatic.. dulc. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice.. constitutions.... constitutions.

. constitutions and their remedies. and their similar remedies.. Sil.. Fl-ac. Ip. Cham. temperament. MAG-C.. NIT-AC.. Puls... cinnam. hep. lax. Sil. Benz-ac. Phlegmatic. PHOS... Phos. Still. Sanguine constitutions. Mez. Merc-i-f.. KALI-C." Rubrics related to the miasms include. ant-c. constitutions. Crot-h. constitutions. Merc. bor. ptel.... constitutions-Ars.. Psoric....... Kali-b. Clem.. constitutions.. KALI-I.... chion. SABAD. Phyt. sang. Lach. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . Nervous. Phos. CHIN. Cor-r. cann-i. euph. diathetic states and miasms. PSOS. ail.. Sars.. constitutions. ars....constitutions.. Example: "SYPHILITIC..... Bilious. BRY.. aec-t... MERC..... Bell. berb.. spong. Mercc. chol..... ant-t. CALC...... mag-m. CHEL.. Example: "Bilious. cund. constitutions. plat.. Sulph.. bar-c. sep. acon. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include." 3. constitutions. constitutions. Merc-d. OP.... Melancholic.. Choleric.. Guai. Syphilitic. ferr-i. Caps. Ph-ac.. Sycotic constitutions. SYPH... lept. sulph... NUX V..... Example: "Fibre.. Aesc..... These are general symptoms of the constitution. Cocc. Tubercular. Thuj.." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. Petr. constitutions. iris. AUR. ambr. CARD-M. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). nat-s. calc-p. MERC.... constitutions-agar.

CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. temperament. or a small dose of Cannabis. diathesis and miasms. The Chronic Diseases. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. For example. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. temperament. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. Vide Sycosis. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. of Cantharides. the footnote on page 150. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. susceptibility.conditioning factors. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. or of the Copaiva balm. miasms and diathesis. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. susceptibility. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. inheritance.

ed. Classical Homœopathy. the Essence of its Remedies. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. (b) 1996 tr. Beaconsfield. Capra. 1994. The Organon of Medicine. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Cambridge. Beaconsfield. B Jain. London. New Delhi. New Delhi. The Tao of Physics. Gypser. befallments and symptoms. Klaus-Henning. Margery. Wenda. Robert. signs. Homœopathy in Practice. William. 1994. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy.choleric. Birdcage Books. Foubister. Beaconsfield. 5th edition. Decker. Tokyo. 1842. London. New Delhi. Tutorials on Homœopathy. 1988. Beaconsfield Publishers. 1987 (republished 1988). WA. Borland. Stuart. 1983. Chambers English Dictionary. Beaconsfield Publishers. Beaconsfield Publishers. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Hahnemann. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Close. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. 1986. Dudgeon (republished 1994). 1986. Redmond. Clinical Cases. Aphorisms and Precepts. Gutman. B Jain. Churchill Livingstone. James Tyler. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Kent. Donald McD. B Jain. New Remedies. 1988. B Jain. etc. C M Boger Collected Writings. Blackie. Edinburgh. The Genius of Homœopathy. sanguine and nervous temperaments. New Delhi. (a) 1922 tr. New York. Brewster O’Reilly. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Bombay. 6th edition. Samuel. phlegmatic. Lesser Writings. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Madrid. Flamingo. 1993. 1954 (republished 1994). Douglas. New Delhi. B Jain. Melbourne. 1989. Fritjoff. . W&R Chambers. ed.

Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. B Jain. 1985. New Delhi. Bombay. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. 1935. Leeser. The Substance of Homœopathy. Floris Books. Otto. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Tao te Ching.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Whitmont. 1988. Jay. 1986. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. 2nd edition. 3rd edition. Edinburgh. Rajan. 1994. 1979. 1989. The Science and Art of Healing. The Science of Homœopathy. Notes on the Miasms. Ralph. 2nd edition. . 1st edition. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. 1980. Unknown (between 6-600BC). CA. Edward C. George. Twentyman. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Vithoulkas. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Thorsons. New Delhi. tr. Wellingborough. New Delhi. Dorset & Baber. New York. 1942 (republished 1994). National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Herbert A. Berkeley. Unwin Paperbacks. B Jain. 1980. Sankaran. Tophi Books. PA. Greenville. Ortega. London. London. Proceso Sanchez. 1994. Roberts. Yasgur. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Van Hoy Publishers. Bombay. North Atlantic Books. Psyche and Substance. 1991.

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