Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

which determines the individuals reaction. p14) . it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above.T. In this sense. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. to the stress of environment. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. and also the potential to manifest.J. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. It treats the manifest. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. the vital force. the previously manifest. BY DR. mentally. as does Margery Blackie’s statement.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. but also the past and future.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). successful or unsuccessful. emotionally and physically. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease.’ (Blackie. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. 1986.

In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. 1935. p26) However. 1988. p77). 1994. which deals with provings. as opposed to common. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. choleric. the conception has also been misused. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case.’ (Leeser. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. 1842.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. over the years. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. 1935. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. diverging body. like any model. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. during its proving in the healthy state. Most often. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person.’ (Hahnemann. He appears.and soul-constitutions. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. Only in paragraph 136.’ (Leeser. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. but only in many different. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. pviii) she states. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. phlegmatic. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. … Unfortunately.

and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as many during this period. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. to guide to a remedy. carbonitrogenoid. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination.’ (Gypser. . Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. Kretschmer. p377. the form or shape. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. even when morbid. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. Pende. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. p650 and Kent. phosphoric. Romero and Maranon. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. 1987. even accurately. 1935.' (Leeser. cold air. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. changes of weather. as no two are sufficiently similar. and oxygenoid. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. 1994. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. warm air. symptomatology. 1994. for he may be better or worse from motion.’ (Gypser. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. 1987. are not generally considered morbid. the tall or short. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. endomorphs and ectomorphs. p272) And again. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. phosphoric. p651 and Kent. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. sulphuric. citing the various classifications of Czerny.

1942. This has its basis in that. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. and finally. the division into syphilis. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous.’ (Roberts. 1980. the three . by the influence of the milieu.’ (Roberts. Further. p171) Ortega. bilious. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. forming groups. according to Hahnemann. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. however. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned.’ (Foubister. the presentation of evidence. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. p26) This view is modified by Roberts.’ (Ortega. In contrast. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. rather than remedy-based. regardless of the temperament. 1989. fate. mode of living and weather influences. furthermore. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. 1942. sanguinous.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time.

a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. So it seems likely. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages.’ (Vithoulkas. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. However. It is in our nature to group and dissect. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. 1935. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. not patients. However. (Close. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. to categorise and deconstruct. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie.’ (Leeser. he writes purely about the classification of disease. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. It is . 1993. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. complete cure will take a relatively long time. In such cases. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. As Yasgur states. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. 1986. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications.

Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. D in Capra. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. 1983. it is open to formulaic. or at least moderates. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health.’ (Yasgur. 1994. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. Whitmont implies a fixity of . Emphasis added. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. 1980. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. p12) is what. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. p45. characteristic patterns. 1980. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. the sickness’ (Ortega. In this state. But as with any set of data. Built is something more than the well formed body.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique.’ (Whitmont. in his inherited and evolving constitution. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. at base.

’ (Sankaran. individual body. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. mind and disease. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. youth.response patterns which. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. If change does occur. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. we mean that each person has a specific. . p27). but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. 1991. p112) However. 1994. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. middle age. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. By this. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change.

This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. It comprises the form patterns which their life. on another. but is greater than these. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. be it weight or number.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. . serving as directive.’ (Gutman. a genuine challenge. This returns to Lao Tzu. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. some to a greater extent than others. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution.’ (Twentyman. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. however. 1986. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. you will not find. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. there is no other than the body’s sensation. by implication. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. 1989. in particular. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). p12). as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs.

applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. As they were at birth so they will remain. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 10) No treatment can modify them. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. the only exception being orthodontics. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. which appeared to be fairly well determined. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body.3) It is constant and immetable.

7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. perturbation of secretions. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. c) There is hepatic insufficiency.VON GRAUVOGL. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. c) Calcarea flourica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. oxygen. . b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. the carbon. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. b) Calcarea phosphoric. hydrogen and nitrogen. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic.a) Calcarea carbonica.

Thuja Occidentalis. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. & mucouses. c) He is easily affected by humidity. swollen. d) Retracted and emaciated. Examples: Acid Nit.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . hydropexic. 3) The fluoric type. retension of water in the cells.. 2) The phosphoric type. Carbo Veg. c) Easy demineralisation. B) According to a French homoeopath DR.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. Cuprum Met. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum.Examples: Lycopodium.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. b) Puffines.

Respects order necessary and in matter. • Stranger. • Rachis supple. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Stubborn. . •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Rigid articulation. • Reasonable. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Vaulted. • Detector. • Developed in width. • Thick skeleton. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Square Or Sphere. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Thick Set.

• Skin dry and cracked.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Distracted. of facts. • Emotive. • The lower belly fall infront. • Asymmetric. • Care for elegance. • Intuitive. Mentality: • Nervous. • Easily excited and soon depressed. Mentality: . • Superficial.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Sensitive. • Saddle backed. • Imaginative. • Dreamer. • Horror of reality.

He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. Therefore. • Versatile. • Intuitive. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Cannot continue. • Restless. the nature of the disease state. • Disorderly. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism.• Unstable. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Fantastic. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Cannot take any decision. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Capricious. • Easily vulgar. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Brilliant but unstable. . • Rapid assimilation. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence.

Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. In this sense. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. the physician should take into account the patient's . They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. In truth. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". befallments and symptoms. the potential causations including miasms. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . In these investigations. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies".

rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. etc. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). Age 7. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). etc. 5. loose or tight tissue types. Occupations. the chronic miasms. a description of the physique (tall or thin. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). Sexual function.1. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. Rubrics related to these states are . On this solid foundation the objective signs. 2. nervous. The discernible body constitution (especially.). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). in chronic cases). venous. lymphatic. etc). 4. The mental and emotional character. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. strong. rheumatic constitutions. Lifestyle and habits. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. unstable. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". short or fat. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3.

these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Some work well at both extremes of life. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. Sex and sexuality. 3. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Lifestyle and habits. children. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. Age. How a person relates to their mate. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. puberty. birth. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. .found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. Strictly speaking. phlegmatic. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. The occupation. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. The critical times are conception. and old age. family relations. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. 4. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. adolescence. rest. 5. sanguine. These are cardinal general symptoms. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. middle age. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. childhood. A person’s sexual ethics. 6. friends. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. 7. Civic and domestic relationships. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet.

even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. being – DL]. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. sexual performance. which are: 1. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. causation. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. Perceived by those around him. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. 2. Felt by the patient himself. Observed by the physician. That is. disease signs. The disease-Gestalt is . "The unprejudiced observer. Wesen. befallments and symptoms. the physical constitution. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. nature. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. The time and progression. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. causation. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. temperament. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. and 3. 8. 7. constitution. that is. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline.sexual fantasies. essence.

What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). infection. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. 92 & 175). Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. In this way. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. befallments and symptoms. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. nature.DL] of the disease. mental and emotional temperament. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. that is. being . inheritance. 91. predispositions." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. susceptibility. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. single and multiple causations. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. of the suffering of the life force. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. the spiritual. the instinctive vital force. As Hahnemann said.

What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. etc. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. our living human organism. or inherent nature. and as an adjective it means. the unity of life. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. disposition. as nature. the complete whole. quality. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". beschaffenheit (make up). inherent in the natural frame. which means constitutes: to set up. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. the spiritual-bodily organism. to form or make up.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. laws of the organic constitution. Introduction. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. Beschaffenheit. temperament. comes from the Latin root. The W. This. O'Reilly edition. to appoint to give being to. the make-up of the body & soul. make something available". constitution. however. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. temper. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen.dynamic influence (§11). to work". "to procure. Turner’s Dictionary. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. page 12. the bodily constitution. Beschaffen is a verb that means. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. to establish. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. constituere. "constituted". In this sense constitutional means. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). to make. which one calls disease. defines the German term. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. The English word. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). . condition.

These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. disposition and circumstance. 98. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. For example. etc.constitution. 35. 142. 1. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. which means the congenital bodily constitution. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 75. 143. Pages 30. 242. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". Therefore. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. construction or nature. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. 3. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. 48. 243. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. . composition. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 99. its constitution. 101. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. 34. 145. 103. 2. 90. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". 181. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases.

"Organism: An organized or organic system.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts.g. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. (§ 9. a unity. which is more than the sum of its parts. Jain. Appendix. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. B. emotional and bodily faculties. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. Delhi. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Lebenskraft). "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. every manifestation of power. One does not appear without the other. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. Every sensation.. vital force and body. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. it comprises of the body. mind. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. the ability to become more seasoned through provings).. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810).g. that is. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. The human organism houses the mental. No part can suffer without all other parts. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. Dudgeon and Boericke. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . 11. the event itself. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. page 194. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art.

page 345. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. physis. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. and its fruit in Hahnemann. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras.teachings on temperaments. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . as of all other medicines. its branches in Paracelsus. 3rd edition. 1833. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. "The employment of this. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. its trunk in Hippocrates.

Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. and are quick in their movements. even though they may appear to be good tempered. silent peevishness). In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. mild. This portrait includes natural. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". this is not the complete picture. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. positive and negative qualities.resolutions with rapidity. For example. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. Ms. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. which means "who": . As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. slow phlegmatic temperament). While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms.

he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. both if possible. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". Therefore. Therefore.. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. separated according to his sick and his well days i. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. nature and genius) in The Organon. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. For example. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. but also of rare occurrence and." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. correspond to only few remedies. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. if a formerly obese. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . which must be scanned all the more carefully.e. therefore. jovial person becomes thin. if they are not only sharply distinct. for the natural disposition rests on it. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence.

Vide The Chronic Diseases. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. Halle. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. page 17. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. This is the true Esse. This same is true with sycosis. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. attended with deep. 1750. pseudopsora. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. the menses were delayed. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. p. burning pains. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Junker makes . Volume I. also other indurations. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. also by inflammatory fever. 15-18. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. the menses disappear prematurely. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed.

character.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. miasms and constitutional diathesis. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. befallments and symptoms. Temperament from Latin. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. to temper. phlegmatic. rare and peculiar. the art of judging character from the appearance. an interpreter. temperare. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. . For example. esp. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. general appearance of anything. If this is not the case. moderate. compound. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. This 2. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. predisposition." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. these symptoms become more strange. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. as well as the present state of the spirit. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. from the face. temperament. heredity. and constitution. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. restrain. aspectGreek. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament..physiognomy. nature. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. gnomon-onos. mind and body. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs.

the choleric or bilious. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. Temper-noun. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. voice. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. Each of these temperaments represents . An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. phlegmatic. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. and the nervo-sanguine. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. an internal constitutional state. to be uncontrolled. the spiritual body organism. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. the phlegmosanguine. to exert self control. air.choleric. the phlegmo-choleric. a natural temperament. fire. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. pitch and mood) by the vital force. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). Constitution. the constitution of the body and/or mind. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. a fit of anger. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. the cholero-nervous. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). the sanguino. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. a mood. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments.choleric. the cholero-sanguine. composure. temperament. the sangino-phlegmatic. phlegmatic. a frame of mind. nervo.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. the nervo-phlegmatic. a natural disposition. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. an innate or acquired disposition. a proportioned mixture of qualities. water. the five elements (ether. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument.

malicious disposition. lecture on Nux Vomica. zealous persons. mood. wicked irascible disposition. Debauches. state. of an irritable. Among these may be mentioned. phlegmatic.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. Vide Materia Medica Pura. always irritable and impatient. (hepatic affections) I. melancholic people. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. spite or deception. sanguine and nervous melancholic. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. composure. II. Suits thin. II. fiery. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. I. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. "II. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. the choleric. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . II. choleric persons with dark hair. or of a spiteful. or of a malicious. troubled with indigestion. inclined to get angry or excited." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. Drug subjects. For very particular. Nervous. Volume VIII. hot temperament. "Some practical instructions may be of use. II. Vide Guiding Symptoms. nervous disposition. thin. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. irritable. Bilious temperaments. II. I (4) is the second grade. zealous. page 223. Nux Vomica. venous constitution. page 168. etc.

. coffee. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. fine. chilly. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. drugs). blond haired. impatient. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. habits. choleric persons. dark. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. and very sensitive nature. nervous anxious temperaments. melancholic. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. Allen includes temperaments. delicate eyelashes. blond or red hair. spiteful. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. dark hair). Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann.Keynotes under the title "adapted to".7). choleric. On this constitutional basis the signs. this means looking at whether they are generally happy.6. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. These are all constitutional general rubrics. miasmic tendencies. nervous dispositions with their traits). hepatic affections). Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. One might ask.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). bilious. etc). as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. with quick perceptions. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. §5. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. indigestion. (addicted to wine. mental rubrics (angry. physical descriptions (thin. dry. Boenninghausen and Hering. thin. irritable. fair skin.

The Arsen. Often anxious and worried. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. such as how they respond to noise. Prone to bedwetting. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Finds it difficult to control emotions. The Argent Nit. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Type . hair colour. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. lazy etc. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. B. Digestive system. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. long or short limbed. Readily laughs.The Argent Nit. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. Physical factors are also important. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. hair type. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. cries and loses temper. Alb. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. fat or thin. sad.tearful. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. confident. preferred type of clothing and so on. Dislikes chilled foods. Eyes. if they are bright and alert in the morning. their eye colour. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. salt and cheese. under or overweight. Ailments tend to the left side. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. For example. or C. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. candy. so B will be the best remedy. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit.

child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Respiratory system (coughs. candy. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Often well groomed and stylish. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. in particular coffee. Carb. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. sensitive and quiet. Alb. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. warm foods and drinks. Perfectionist at work and at home. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. may manifest as back ache.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Sluggish. delicate skin. Skeletal system. The Calc. Easily upset by loud noise. Digestive system. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Alb. Can be critical and intolerant. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. nose and throat. Teeth. keeps room tidy. bloated and tired in appearance. Dislikes mess and being messy. Prone to depression. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Skin. Exhaustion. Strong opinions. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Fine facial features with fine. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. The Arsen. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Types. . Skin. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Reassurance helps to improve condition.

prone to suppression of grief. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Dry lips. eggs. The Calc. iced drinks and ice cream. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. such as vegetables and salads. Dislikes sweet foods. be exhausted. Dark to mid range colour hair. Can have a rugged. carbohydrates. Blushes easily. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. chocolate. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Slow metabolic rate. Sighs a lot. Placid and calm. seafood and hot drinks. Prone to dark circles under eyes. May often have sores in corner of mouth. desserts. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. dry skin that can crack easily. windswept appearance. Possible mood swings. nose bleeds. Dislikes fatty meats.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. boiled food and boiled milk. child: Plump and overweight. Carb. Timid. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. salt. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Possible difficulty in . tearful and despondent then impatient. Can fall over easily. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. candy. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. May have rough. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Carb. Nails. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. usually dark. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Not an early morning person. Physical weaknesses: Skin. have bad breath. Ears. salt. Not always willing to change habits and routines. hesitant and anxious. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Dry hair. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Type. Flaky scalp. Rapid and extreme mood swings. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build.

carbohydrates. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Suspicious of strangers. Dislikes sweet drinks. sore throat. Hyperactivity. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. May be sensitive to noise. menopausal problems. Prone to left-side problems. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. leading to headaches. Dietary factors: Likes coffee.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. May view self as sinful when religious. staring eyes. sore throats. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. palpitations and panic attacks. varicose veins. twitching and grinding teeth. bad sleep and insomnia. can be hurtful to peers. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. choughs. May experience headaches. especially new babies. constipation. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Talkative.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. causing outbursts of anger. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Prefers not to be alone. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). May lick lips a lot. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. fixed expression. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. Strong. coughs and colds. The Lycopodium Type . crying and poor grades at school. Responds well to encouragment. Jealous and possessive. Dislikes sweet foods. alcohol and seafood. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. excitable and sensitive. dairy products. sour and savoury foods. cool drinks. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Strong. sore throats and asthma.

The Merc. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Anxious over important events. sore throats. Insecure and hates change. kidney stones. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Shy and cautious. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Right-side problems. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Sol. with grey translucent look. swelling of glands and exhaustion. Sol. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Type Appearance: Medium build. creating mountains out of molehills. Forgetful. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. May stammer. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Avoids commitment. Conscientious and achiever academically. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Thinning hair in men.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. male baldness. prostate. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Hates being contradicted. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. garlic and seafood.The Merc. child: Irritating behaviour. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Facial twitching. onions. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Often look older than their years. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. May explode with rage and anger. Susceptible to ear nose and . Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen.

The Nat. premenstrual syndrome. fear. strong and lean build in men. May have cravings for alcohol. child: Small for their age. palpitations and headaches. Well behaved. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. Watery. Finds it difficult to relax. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Slow development. Solid. Can be addicted to sex. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. mur. red eyes. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. May suffer from headaches under pressure. coffee. Ages prematurely. which can lead to depression. skin problems. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. The Nat. mur. Dislikes coffee and bread. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. anorexia. May have dark circles under eyes.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. mur. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. anger. Smart appearance. Can be very ambitious.throat complaints. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Loves animals. Dry cracked lips. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. May look stressed and tense. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. especially when young. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. . Medium to dark hair. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. type may be professional and career minded. Depression. guilt and loneliness. Impatient. cigarettes.

Coughs and colds. Can have fair to dark hair. Weakness of the lungs. salt. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Left-side problems. spicy food. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. coffee and spicy foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. mild cheeses and sweet foods. alcohol. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Short attention span. The Pulsatilla Type . Migraines and headaches. Artistic and creative in appearance. Headaches. Feels better after sleep. Dizziness. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. carbonated drinks. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Nervous. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Can be hard work for partner. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Fine skin. cheese and cream. Competitive as a teenager. Strong fear of the dark. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. alcohol. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Hernia and hay fever. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. May have temper tantrums. Circulation problems. Likes to be stylish. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Expressive. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Loves to receive attention.

spicy foods. cold foods and cold drinks. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Also laughs easily. Likes to be supported by others. and very rich. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Headaches and migraine. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Skin problems. Blushes easily. Styes. Medium to dark hair. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. tragic news or weepy movies. Irritable bowel syndrome. Often rests with hands behind head. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Can look younger than actual age. Catarrh. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. often with brown eyes. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Sensitive to changes in the weather.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Varicose veins. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Gentle and kind appearance. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Hates being contradicted. Can suppress guilt and anger. Cries easily. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Skin problems. . Avoids confrontation. Often sits with legs crossed. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Prone to coughs and colds. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. as holds strong opinions. Loves animals. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Can feel better after weeping.

Can be shy. Can become a bedwetter. sour and savoury foods. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Dislikes dairy products. The head can appear too large for the body. Feels the cold. especially milk. moves and new jobs. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Delicate. Does not like being alone. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Dislikes very hot food. especially due to burnout from new projects. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. especially cheese and milk. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Slowness in healing and getting well. Prone to constipation. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Skin problems. Feels the cold. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. apart from large head. with a large forehead. Moody. The Sulphur Type . Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Exhaustion. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. Headaches. The Sepia child: Greedy. Prone to mental exhaustion. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age.Dietary factors: Likes spices. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Not sporty as has little stamina. fine features. Constipation. sweet foods and alcohol. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. with petite appearance. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. citrus fruits. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. almost doll-like in appearance. Usually tidy and well behaved.

salads and seafood. Has a very healthy appetite. Can be hyperactive in the evening. heredity. Can be critical. May look untidy. Likes alcohol. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. May lack willpower and self-esteem.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. dry. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Hair may be course. burning feet. Vide Organon. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . Likes to argue. Does not like showers. body odour. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. spicy foods. disposition. haemorrhoids and constipation. hot. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Might not complete ideas and projects.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. especially milk and eggs. citrus fruits. temperament. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. bathing or washing hands. Dislikes dairy products. Dislikes most hot drinks. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered.

"In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. heart . To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers." Note 78. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. "The true. they mount until the end of life. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses.feelings and functions. Therefore. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. Lamarck.

Second. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. prodromal stage and primary. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. by contact with the infected host. i.and body. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. incubation period. implanted in them through infection or heredity. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. He points out that mental and . half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. Third. grief and worry. However. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. the acute. 1. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. medicinal treatment. were completely vanished. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. He classified miasms into three categories. First of all. 2. a moment of infection. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. On this basis. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance.e. 3. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. and especially through inexpedient. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms..

The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. habits. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. predisposition and diathesis. inheritance.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. hereditary dispositions. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. is announced by the increase of the . and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. and. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. the mental temperament.

symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. his morality. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. the various errors in his education and habits. his employment. his manner of living and diet. " It is. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. his turn of mind. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). little by little. his hereditary disposition. diet and stress (nurture). as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. etc. For these reasons. to some extent. The next most important factors are environment. deviate so greatly from one another. climate. which already. thus attaining incredible proliferation. morals. diet. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. in and of themselves. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). befallments and symptoms. etc.

This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. 1. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. diathesis. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. and/or mind. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. psoric. scrofulous. leucophlegmatic. sycotic. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. 2. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. 3. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. DIATHESIS. i. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. From the Greek. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. venous. diathesis. diaasunder and tithenai-to place.. lymphatic.e. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. etc. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections.

. constitution.... Cann-i. Fibre rigid. CALC. Dwarfish. Hep.. Bar-m. lax. constitutions. phos. Lymphatic. Petr. Tubercular. people. Puls. . FERR. and their similar remedies. Carb-v. bapt. Apis.. GRAPH.. dulc. constitutions. Sil. constitutions... Scrofulous. Paralytic. calc-ar. Large fat. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section." 2... Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. constitutions. nit-ac. aster. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. For example. constitutions. BAR-C. aur-m. Venous. Lyc.. 1.. Chin. thin people. Sep. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state.. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. MERC. Sulph. constitutions. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice.. ars. constitutions -am-c.. kalm. constitutions. constitutions.. BELL. Tall lean. Nat-m. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Plethoric. Example: "Lymphatic. Asthmatic constitutions.. Hysterical.. Rhus-t. bloated. Hemorrhagic. constitutions. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. constitutions.. arn. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings.. constitutions. constitutions. Emaciated constitutions.. Rheumatic... Gouty. Lean.. murx.. thuj.

temperament.. and their similar remedies. PSOS. Guai. Cor-r. Phlegmatic.. MERC. sulph. MAG-C. Syphilitic. Tubercular... chion. NUX V. berb. Bilious. euph.. PHOS.. Mercc.. Phos. KALI-I. Kali-b. calc-p... Caps.... Phos. sang.. ambr.. Merc-i-f." Rubrics related to the miasms include. constitutions. constitutions... constitutions. bor. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and .... nat-s. Nervous. Phyt.. Psoric.. Sars. bar-c... Sulph. Sycotic constitutions. Sil... mag-m. ars.. acon. constitutions. AUR.. Example: "Bilious. BRY.. CALC. diathetic states and miasms. ail.. constitutions.. constitutions. Clem. lept. Example: "Fibre. ant-c... Merc-d." 3.. Benz-ac. Sil.. chol. cann-i. ant-t. constitutions. Cocc. NIT-AC. Cham. Ip.. constitutions-agar.. CARD-M. Melancholic... Mez. cund..... SYPH... Lach. sep... hep... Example: "SYPHILITIC. constitutions and their remedies. Still. lax. spong.. ptel. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.... Petr. plat. cinnam. Sanguine constitutions. Bell.constitutions. Ph-ac... aec-t. constitutions-Ars.... constitutions. Fl-ac..... Thuj.... Puls.. These are general symptoms of the constitution.... Merc...... ferr-i.." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. iris. CHIN.. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms).. KALI-C. SABAD.. OP. CHEL. Choleric.. Aesc. MERC. Crot-h.

"The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. susceptibility. Vide Sycosis. the footnote on page 150. of Cantharides. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. miasms and diathesis. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. For example. susceptibility. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . inheritance. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. or a small dose of Cannabis.conditioning factors. The Chronic Diseases. diathesis and miasms. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. or of the Copaiva balm. temperament. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. temperament. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly.

phlegmatic. Beaconsfield Publishers. Homœopathy in Practice. 1987 (republished 1988). Close. 1954 (republished 1994). Tokyo. Redmond. Margery. Aphorisms and Precepts. befallments and symptoms. Brewster O’Reilly. Douglas. W&R Chambers. 1988. B Jain. James Tyler. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Robert. Kent. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Capra. B Jain. ed. 1986. signs. Cambridge. Beaconsfield. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. New Delhi. New Delhi. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. New York. Melbourne. New Delhi. Madrid. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Donald McD. C M Boger Collected Writings. 1994. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Wenda. 1842. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Borland. Edinburgh. Lesser Writings. etc. Fritjoff. B Jain. London. Flamingo. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Clinical Cases. Bombay. the Essence of its Remedies. New Remedies. 1986. London. Beaconsfield. 1988. Klaus-Henning. B Jain. (b) 1996 tr. 1994. . ed. The Genius of Homœopathy. Beaconsfield Publishers. The Organon of Medicine. 1989. Foubister. Classical Homœopathy. Beaconsfield Publishers. Decker. 1993. Gypser. 6th edition. New Delhi. 1983. Stuart. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. New Delhi. Beaconsfield. WA. Samuel. Gutman.choleric. William. Blackie. The Tao of Physics. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. Birdcage Books. 5th edition. Dudgeon (republished 1994). lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. (a) 1922 tr. B Jain. Chambers English Dictionary. Hahnemann. Churchill Livingstone.

PA. New Delhi. Unknown (between 6-600BC). New York. London. B Jain. 1st edition. Bombay. Dorset & Baber. Thorsons. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. 1986. tr. CA. Whitmont. 1988. 1980. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Herbert A. Yasgur. Wellingborough. The Substance of Homœopathy. New Delhi. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Proceso Sanchez. Psyche and Substance. 1980. The Science of Homœopathy. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. Jay. Ralph. Vithoulkas. 2nd edition. 2nd edition. Notes on the Miasms. 1989. 1942 (republished 1994). Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Rajan. 1994. Floris Books. George. 1979. 3rd edition. Greenville. 1994. Twentyman. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Sankaran.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. 1991. Berkeley. Ortega. Bombay. B Jain. Otto. Edward C. New Delhi. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. 1985. Edinburgh. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. North Atlantic Books. Tophi Books. Roberts. The Science and Art of Healing. . Van Hoy Publishers. Tao te Ching. Ch’u TaKao (1959). 1935. Unwin Paperbacks. London. Leeser.

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