Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to

Constitution:(n)

The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.

Constitution:(n.)

[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. which determines the individuals reaction. It treats the manifest.’ (Blackie. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. p14) . INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy.J. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. mentally. the previously manifest. In this sense. successful or unsuccessful. and also the potential to manifest. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. to the stress of environment. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. the vital force. BY DR. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment.T. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). emotionally and physically. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. but also the past and future. 1986.

’ (Leeser. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. 1988. p26) However. Most often. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. He appears. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. pviii) she states. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. choleric. Only in paragraph 136. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . 1935. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. p77). during its proving in the healthy state. 1935. phlegmatic.and soul-constitutions. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. like any model. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. … Unfortunately. over the years. 1994. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. the conception has also been misused. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. but only in many different.’ (Hahnemann. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. 1842. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. which deals with provings. diverging body. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5.’ (Leeser. as opposed to common. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa.

when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. 1994. carbonitrogenoid. even when morbid.by many during this period. endomorphs and ectomorphs. 1987. citing the various classifications of Czerny. Romero and Maranon.’ (Gypser. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. sulphuric. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. warm air. 1994. p650 and Kent. Kretschmer. p272) And again. the form or shape. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. Pende. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. 1987. 1935. even accurately. p651 and Kent. symptomatology. to guide to a remedy. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type.' (Leeser. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. p377. phosphoric. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. cold air. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. changes of weather. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. and oxygenoid. as no two are sufficiently similar. are not generally considered morbid. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. the tall or short. for he may be better or worse from motion. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. .’ (Gypser. phosphoric.

and finally. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. bilious. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. fate. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. 1942. regardless of the temperament. sanguinous. by the influence of the milieu. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. Further.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. rather than remedy-based. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. forming groups. furthermore. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. according to Hahnemann. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. p171) Ortega. 1980. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. 1942. the three . Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. however. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition.’ (Foubister. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. In contrast.’ (Roberts. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. the presentation of evidence. the division into syphilis. mode of living and weather influences. 1989.’ (Roberts.’ (Ortega. This has its basis in that.

not patients. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. However. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years.’ (Leeser. 1993. So it seems likely.’ (Vithoulkas. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. complete cure will take a relatively long time. However. he writes purely about the classification of disease. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. (Close. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. 1986. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. to categorise and deconstruct. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. 1935. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. It is in our nature to group and dissect. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. As Yasgur states. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. In such cases. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. It is .

part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. it is open to formulaic. at base. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. 1983. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. Whitmont implies a fixity of . most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. 1980. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. But as with any set of data. 1980. in his inherited and evolving constitution. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. p45. the sickness’ (Ortega. D in Capra.’ (Whitmont. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. characteristic patterns.’ (Yasgur. p12) is what. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. 1994. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. Built is something more than the well formed body. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. Emphasis added. In this state. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. or at least moderates.

The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. By this. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. If change does occur. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. 1991.’ (Sankaran. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. p112) However. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. 1994. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. we mean that each person has a specific. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents.response patterns which. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. mind and disease. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. middle age. youth. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. p27). individual body. .

It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. 1986. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. on another. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. It comprises the form patterns which their life. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. serving as directive. . emotional and intellectual make up of a person. 1989. This returns to Lao Tzu.’ (Twentyman. by implication. you will not find. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). be it weight or number. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time.’ (Gutman. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. in particular. there is no other than the body’s sensation. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. but is greater than these. some to a greater extent than others. p12). But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. a genuine challenge. however.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant.

IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. the only exception being orthodontics. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state.3) It is constant and immetable. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . As they were at birth so they will remain. which appeared to be fairly well determined. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 10) No treatment can modify them. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject.

VON GRAUVOGL.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. c) Calcarea flourica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. hydrogen and nitrogen. b) Calcarea phosphoric. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. oxygen.a) Calcarea carbonica. perturbation of secretions. the carbon. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. . 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed.

Thuja Occidentalis. Carbo Veg. b) Puffines. 3) The fluoric type. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. Cuprum Met.. 2) The phosphoric type. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. d) Retracted and emaciated. hydropexic.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. swollen. retension of water in the cells. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. c) He is easily affected by humidity. c) Easy demineralisation. B) According to a French homoeopath DR.Examples: Lycopodium. & mucouses. Examples: Acid Nit.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type.

• Vaulted. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Stranger. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Developed in width. • Reasonable. • Detector. • Rigid articulation. • Thick Set. • Square Or Sphere. • Stubborn. • Rachis supple. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Thick skeleton. Respects order necessary and in matter. .

• Intuitive. • The lower belly fall infront. • Dreamer. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Emotive. Mentality: • Nervous.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Superficial. • Distracted. • Imaginative. • Easy vanity or dominating. of facts. • Horror of reality. • Saddle backed. • Asymmetric. • Skin dry and cracked. • Care for elegance.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Sensitive. Mentality: .

• Cannot continue. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Cannot take any decision.• Unstable. • Intuitive. • Disorderly. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. Therefore. • Versatile. • Easily vulgar. • Brilliant but unstable. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Fantastic. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Restless. as well as environment conditioning factors. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. the nature of the disease state. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Capricious. . • Rapid assimilation.

They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. In this sense. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. befallments and symptoms. In truth. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. In these investigations. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. the potential causations including miasms. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). the physician should take into account the patient's . This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local".

This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. strong. etc. 5. nervous. Age 7.). This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. lymphatic. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. in chronic cases). Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). the chronic miasms. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". rheumatic constitutions. Lifestyle and habits. etc. The discernible body constitution (especially. On this solid foundation the objective signs. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. venous. loose or tight tissue types. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile.1. short or fat. a description of the physique (tall or thin. etc). Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. Sexual function. 2. Rubrics related to these states are . It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. Occupations. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. unstable. The mental and emotional character. 4.

sanguine. The critical times are conception. Strictly speaking. 3. Some work well at both extremes of life. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. adolescence. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. 7. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. and old age. friends. middle age. Sex and sexuality. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. 4. birth.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. children. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. Age. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. puberty. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. childhood. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Lifestyle and habits. 6. phlegmatic. Civic and domestic relationships. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. A person’s sexual ethics. family relations. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. . The occupation. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. How a person relates to their mate. rest. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. These are cardinal general symptoms. 5.

the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. disease signs. 2. nature. Wesen. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. That is. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. 8." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. which are: 1. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. "The unprejudiced observer. being – DL]. sexual performance. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. causation. Felt by the patient himself. The time and progression. Perceived by those around him. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. the physical constitution. and 3. befallments and symptoms. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure.sexual fantasies. constitution. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. causation. The disease-Gestalt is . mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. essence. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. Observed by the physician. 7. temperament. that is. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL].

one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. As Hahnemann said.DL] of the disease. single and multiple causations. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). 91. of the suffering of the life force. 92 & 175). "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. susceptibility. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. the spiritual. the instinctive vital force. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . predispositions. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. befallments and symptoms. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. that is. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. being . acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. mental and emotional temperament. inheritance. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). nature. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. infection. In this way.

Turner’s Dictionary. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. and as an adjective it means. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19).) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. "to procure. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. the spiritual-bodily organism. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. laws of the organic constitution. the make-up of the body & soul. This. however. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. comes from the Latin root. Beschaffenheit. the unity of life. temper. etc. In this sense constitutional means. to appoint to give being to. beschaffenheit (make up). quality. the bodily constitution. Beschaffen is a verb that means. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. temperament. which one calls disease. . which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. to work". or inherent nature. O'Reilly edition. The English word. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. the complete whole. defines the German term. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. inherent in the natural frame.dynamic influence (§11). to form or make up. our living human organism. constituere. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). published in Leipzig in the 1830s. condition. disposition. Introduction. The W. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. to make. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. to establish. page 12. as nature. make something available". "constituted". constitution. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. which means constitutes: to set up.

The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. 242. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. 145. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 75. 103. 35. Therefore. 2. 98. 101. disposition and circumstance. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. For example. 99. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. Pages 30. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. construction or nature. its constitution. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 142. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. 48. 143. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. . which means the congenital bodily constitution. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. etc. 34. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. 3. composition. 90. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution.constitution. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 1. 243. 181. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime.

The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Dudgeon and Boericke. (§ 9. 11.g. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. Jain. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). the event itself. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time.. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. Every sensation. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. B. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . every manifestation of power. Lebenskraft). page 194. No part can suffer without all other parts. vital force and body. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted.. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. One does not appear without the other. emotional and bodily faculties.g. a unity. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). Delhi. that is. Appendix. The human organism houses the mental. which is more than the sum of its parts. "Organism: An organized or organic system. it comprises of the body. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. mind. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts.

This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. page 345. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. physis. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. 1833. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. "The employment of this. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. and its fruit in Hahnemann.teachings on temperaments. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. as of all other medicines. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. its branches in Paracelsus. 3rd edition. its trunk in Hippocrates.

Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. For example. this is not the complete picture. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. positive and negative qualities. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. even though they may appear to be good tempered. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. Ms. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. and are quick in their movements. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. slow phlegmatic temperament). This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. mild. which means "who": . This portrait includes natural. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine".resolutions with rapidity. silent peevishness).

correspond to only few remedies. if a formerly obese. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice.. both if possible. Therefore. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". for the natural disposition rests on it. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. For example. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. but also of rare occurrence and.e. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. Therefore. separated according to his sick and his well days i. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. nature and genius) in The Organon. jovial person becomes thin. which must be scanned all the more carefully. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. then the bodily constitution and the temperament." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. if they are not only sharply distinct. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. therefore.

He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. attended with deep. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. also by inflammatory fever. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). Vide The Chronic Diseases.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. p. Volume I. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. pseudopsora. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. Halle. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. This is the true Esse. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. the menses were delayed. also other indurations. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). the menses disappear prematurely. 1750. This same is true with sycosis. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. Junker makes . page 17. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. burning pains. 15-18.

mind and body.. general appearance of anything. For example. character. aspectGreek." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. to temper. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. gnomon-onos. moderate. an interpreter. the art of judging character from the appearance. temperament. If this is not the case. from the face. and constitution. these symptoms become more strange. rare and peculiar. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric.physiognomy. nature. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. This 2. miasms and constitutional diathesis. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. as well as the present state of the spirit. compound. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. befallments and symptoms. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. heredity. phlegmatic. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. . restrain. esp. predisposition. Temperament from Latin. temperare.

It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. Constitution. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. the sanguino. temperament. phlegmatic. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. a natural disposition. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. the cholero-nervous.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. water. Temper-noun. pitch and mood) by the vital force. a natural temperament. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. composure. fire. and the nervo-sanguine. a frame of mind. the cholero-sanguine. a fit of anger. the phlegmo-choleric. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. the phlegmosanguine.choleric. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). nervo. an internal constitutional state. the spiritual body organism. Each of these temperaments represents . the five elements (ether. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). an innate or acquired disposition. air. a proportioned mixture of qualities. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. the choleric or bilious.choleric. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the nervo-phlegmatic. voice. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the sangino-phlegmatic. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. a mood. phlegmatic. to exert self control. the constitution of the body and/or mind. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. to be uncontrolled. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning.

II. inclined to get angry or excited. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. II.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. Vide Guiding Symptoms. Among these may be mentioned. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. fiery. Bilious temperaments. spite or deception. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . mood. state. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. I. always irritable and impatient. "Some practical instructions may be of use. zealous. etc. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. (hepatic affections) I. phlegmatic. the choleric. "II. malicious disposition. choleric persons with dark hair. page 223. hot temperament. wicked irascible disposition. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. or of a spiteful. For very particular. zealous persons. venous constitution." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. of an irritable. page 168. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. Drug subjects. II. Nux Vomica. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. I (4) is the second grade. melancholic people. or of a malicious. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Nervous. Suits thin. lecture on Nux Vomica. troubled with indigestion. sanguine and nervous melancholic. Debauches. II. composure. thin. Vide Materia Medica Pura. irritable. II." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. Volume VIII. nervous disposition.

chilly. coffee.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. Allen includes temperaments. dark. melancholic.7). as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. and very sensitive nature. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. habits. blond or red hair. miasmic tendencies. indigestion. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. spiteful. These are all constitutional general rubrics. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). bilious. fine. Boenninghausen and Hering. hepatic affections). delicate eyelashes. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. nervous anxious temperaments. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. dark hair). One might ask. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. dry. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. nervous dispositions with their traits). lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). On this constitutional basis the signs. thin. etc).Keynotes under the title "adapted to". choleric. . choleric persons. physical descriptions (thin. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. irritable. §5. drugs). blond haired. (addicted to wine. mental rubrics (angry.6. fair skin. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. impatient. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. with quick perceptions. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments.

confident. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. preferred type of clothing and so on. B. Digestive system. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. lazy etc. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. hair type. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. if they are bright and alert in the morning. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Readily laughs. The Arsen. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. or C. cries and loses temper. Often anxious and worried. Type . Eyes. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Alb. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Prone to bedwetting. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Ailments tend to the left side. so B will be the best remedy. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. The Argent Nit. under or overweight. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Physical factors are also important. their eye colour. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. fat or thin. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still.The Argent Nit. Dislikes chilled foods. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. sad. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. long or short limbed. such as how they respond to noise. hair colour.tearful. salt and cheese. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. For example. candy.

Can have a deep fear of being alone. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Easily upset by loud noise. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Strong opinions. in particular coffee. alcohol and sour tasting foods. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Can be critical and intolerant. Skeletal system. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. The Calc. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Skin. Often well groomed and stylish. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Dislikes large amount of fluid. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. The Arsen. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Teeth.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Exhaustion. Alb. Types. sensitive and quiet. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. may manifest as back ache. candy. Alb. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Digestive system. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Fine facial features with fine. Perfectionist at work and at home. Sluggish. keeps room tidy. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. . bloated and tired in appearance. Respiratory system (coughs. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. warm foods and drinks. Dislikes mess and being messy. Skin. nose and throat. delicate skin. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Carb. Prone to depression. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen.

Dislikes sweet foods. Flaky scalp. Blushes easily. Placid and calm. windswept appearance. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Ears. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. eggs. Sighs a lot. child: Plump and overweight. desserts. hesitant and anxious. The Calc. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. chocolate. Dark to mid range colour hair. Nails. salt. Not an early morning person. tearful and despondent then impatient. prone to suppression of grief. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Timid. be exhausted. Dry hair. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. seafood and hot drinks. Can fall over easily. Can have a rugged. carbohydrates. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Slow metabolic rate. candy. salt. usually dark.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. boiled food and boiled milk. such as vegetables and salads. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Carb. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Type. Possible difficulty in . nose bleeds. Carb. Dislikes fatty meats. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. iced drinks and ice cream. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Dry lips. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Possible mood swings. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. May have rough. Rapid and extreme mood swings. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. have bad breath. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. dry skin that can crack easily. May often have sores in corner of mouth.

Dietary factors: Likes coffee. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). Strong. carbohydrates. staring eyes. sore throats. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. The Lycopodium Type . May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. menopausal problems. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Prone to left-side problems. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. excitable and sensitive. Responds well to encouragment. constipation. sour and savoury foods. causing outbursts of anger. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. May view self as sinful when religious. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. bad sleep and insomnia. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. sore throats and asthma. Prefers not to be alone. varicose veins. May lick lips a lot. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. sore throat. Jealous and possessive. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. alcohol and seafood. Dislikes sweet drinks. May be sensitive to noise. May experience headaches. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. coughs and colds. Dislikes sweet foods. palpitations and panic attacks. dairy products. fixed expression. choughs. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Talkative. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. crying and poor grades at school. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. especially new babies. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Strong. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. can be hurtful to peers. twitching and grinding teeth. leading to headaches. Suspicious of strangers. cool drinks. Hyperactivity.

Often look older than their years. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Shy and cautious. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Forgetful. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. Conscientious and achiever academically. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Hair may be fair to medium colour. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Susceptible to ear nose and . May stammer. Insecure and hates change. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. sore throats. prostate. Sol. Facial twitching. Anxious over important events. Thinning hair in men. garlic and seafood. male baldness. swelling of glands and exhaustion. The Merc. child: Irritating behaviour. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Type Appearance: Medium build. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Hates being contradicted. creating mountains out of molehills. with grey translucent look.The Merc. Dislikes wearing light clothing. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. kidney stones. Sol. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. onions. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. May explode with rage and anger. Right-side problems. Avoids commitment. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head.

Loves animals. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Impatient. The Nat. mur. anger. May have dark circles under eyes. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. Can be addicted to sex. strong and lean build in men. guilt and loneliness. Watery. anorexia. . type may be professional and career minded. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. premenstrual syndrome. mouth ulcers and cold sores. May have cravings for alcohol. Medium to dark hair. palpitations and headaches. May suffer from headaches under pressure. cigarettes. Dislikes coffee and bread. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Ages prematurely. red eyes. skin problems. child: Small for their age. May look stressed and tense.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. which can lead to depression. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. Slow development. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. mur. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. especially when young. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. coffee. Well behaved. mur. Smart appearance. Dry cracked lips. Can be very ambitious. fear. Solid. Finds it difficult to relax.throat complaints. Depression. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. The Nat.

Artistic and creative in appearance. Likes to be stylish. Weakness of the lungs. Competitive as a teenager. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Left-side problems. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Headaches. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. alcohol. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. alcohol. Migraines and headaches. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Loves to receive attention. Can be hard work for partner. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Circulation problems. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. spicy food. The Pulsatilla Type . coffee and spicy foods. Short attention span. Coughs and colds. Hernia and hay fever. Feels better after sleep. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Can have fair to dark hair. carbonated drinks. Dizziness. May have temper tantrums. Strong fear of the dark. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. cheese and cream. Nervous. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Fine skin. salt. Expressive.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored.

The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. tragic news or weepy movies. Often sits with legs crossed. Skin problems. often with brown eyes. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Cries easily. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Can suppress guilt and anger. Varicose veins. Prone to coughs and colds. . Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Catarrh. as holds strong opinions. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Blushes easily. Can look younger than actual age. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Skin problems. Loves animals. Gentle and kind appearance. spicy foods. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. cold foods and cold drinks. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. and very rich. Avoids confrontation. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Can feel better after weeping. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Likes to be supported by others. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Medium to dark hair. Conditions usually improve with exertion. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Also laughs easily. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Headaches and migraine. Often rests with hands behind head. Styes. Irritable bowel syndrome. Hates being contradicted.

The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. apart from large head. Usually tidy and well behaved. almost doll-like in appearance. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. with petite appearance. Not sporty as has little stamina. fine features. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. sour and savoury foods. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Slowness in healing and getting well. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. The head can appear too large for the body. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Skin problems. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Feels the cold. Feels the cold. Prone to mental exhaustion. especially due to burnout from new projects. citrus fruits. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Headaches. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Can be shy. Delicate. Dislikes dairy products. especially cheese and milk. Dislikes meet and dairy products. The Sepia child: Greedy.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Constipation. The Sulphur Type . Dislikes very hot food. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. with a large forehead. Moody. Does not like being alone. Prone to constipation. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. especially milk. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. moves and new jobs. Exhaustion. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. sweet foods and alcohol. Can become a bedwetter. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age.

Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Can be critical. hot. especially milk and eggs. burning feet. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Likes to argue. Does not like showers. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. Hair may be course. May lack willpower and self-esteem.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. heredity. Can be hyperactive in the evening. haemorrhoids and constipation. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. temperament. May look untidy. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. body odour. disposition. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. bathing or washing hands. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. citrus fruits. Dislikes most hot drinks. Has a very healthy appetite. Likes alcohol. salads and seafood. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. spicy foods. Dislikes dairy products. Vide Organon. dry. Might not complete ideas and projects.

By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. Therefore. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. they mount until the end of life. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease." Note 78. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. Lamarck. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings.feelings and functions. heart . This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. "The true.

He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. the acute. incubation period. 1. grief and worry.and body. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. 2. prodromal stage and primary. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. He classified miasms into three categories. He points out that mental and . implanted in them through infection or heredity. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. by contact with the infected host. 3. Third. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. First of all. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. On this basis. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. Second. i. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. were completely vanished. a moment of infection. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. medicinal treatment. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. However.e.. and especially through inexpedient. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance.

and. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. the mental temperament. is announced by the increase of the . "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. hereditary dispositions. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. inheritance. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. habits. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. predisposition and diathesis.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies.

diet and stress (nurture). etc. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . etc. in and of themselves. the various errors in his education and habits. to some extent. The next most important factors are environment. climate. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. his manner of living and diet. diet. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). thus attaining incredible proliferation. his turn of mind. morals. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. " It is. little by little. deviate so greatly from one another. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. his hereditary disposition. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. his morality. befallments and symptoms.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). which already. For these reasons. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. his employment. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone.

i. lymphatic. diathesis.e. etc. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. 3. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. 2. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases.. leucophlegmatic. venous. and/or mind. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . psoric. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. sycotic. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. 1. scrofulous. diathesis. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. From the Greek. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. DIATHESIS.

Nat-m. lax. phos. 1. Hemorrhagic... BAR-C. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice.. and their similar remedies.. Scrofulous. constitutions. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Rhus-t. Fibre. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Gouty. MERC.. constitutions." 2.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Bar-m.. people... GRAPH. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. Dwarfish.. Plethoric.. Lean. constitutions.. Tubercular. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state.. Sep.. Hysterical. FERR. aster. Apis. constitutions. For example. constitutions. constitution. Puls. constitutions. bapt... Example: "Lymphatic. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section... Petr. aur-m. calc-ar. constitutions.. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. Paralytic.. Lymphatic. Sulph. murx. kalm. bloated. ars. Venous. constitutions -am-c. Sil.. arn. BELL... nit-ac. . dulc. constitutions. Lyc. thin people. Tall lean. Emaciated constitutions. Carb-v. constitutions.. Rheumatic. Asthmatic constitutions.. Hep. CALC. Fibre rigid. Large fat... thuj. Cann-i. Chin. constitutions. constitutions. constitutions.

NIT-AC. ail..... Clem... KALI-I... sulph. Sars. PHOS.. Phos.. Melancholic. Example: "Bilious. constitutions. MAG-C. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . OP. calc-p..constitutions.. Puls. spong.. euph. ferr-i..... Kali-b. sep. Mercc." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories.. Nervous. Sycotic constitutions.... Thuj. Cocc. cund. bor. AUR.. ptel... ant-t.. constitutions... constitutions.. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). Example: "SYPHILITIC. Sil. chion. Bilious. These are general symptoms of the constitution. Aesc. SABAD. CHIN... constitutions. Fl-ac.. ambr. Phyt.. cann-i. Syphilitic... Merc-d.. Lach. CARD-M. Sanguine constitutions.. CALC.. CHEL... lept.... constitutions... sang. constitutions-agar. NUX V.. Cor-r. Benz-ac.... BRY. Phos. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include. aec-t.. nat-s. Phlegmatic. Petr. Bell. Example: "Fibre. Merc-i-f. Mez." Rubrics related to the miasms include.. temperament. mag-m." 3. Crot-h.. ant-c.. and their similar remedies... Ip. Guai. constitutions. Choleric.. Sulph.. PSOS. KALI-C... berb. SYPH. acon...... Psoric. Still. plat. hep. MERC. chol.. MERC. constitutions. iris. constitutions and their remedies. diathetic states and miasms..... constitutions. bar-c. cinnam.. ars... Merc. Cham... constitutions-Ars... lax. Sil.. Caps... Tubercular. Ph-ac.

temperament. For example. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. of Cantharides. or a small dose of Cannabis. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. Vide Sycosis. inheritance. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. susceptibility. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. miasms and diathesis. The Chronic Diseases. temperament. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. or of the Copaiva balm. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. the footnote on page 150. susceptibility. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms.conditioning factors. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. diathesis and miasms. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it.

Kent. Brewster O’Reilly. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. B Jain. 1986. Madrid. signs. 1994. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Fritjoff. New Remedies. Donald McD. etc. Lesser Writings. Clinical Cases. Flamingo. 5th edition. Melbourne. Beaconsfield Publishers. Decker. B Jain. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Borland. Beaconsfield Publishers. Tokyo. Blackie. Aphorisms and Precepts. Foubister. 1989. New Delhi. Edinburgh. ed. Samuel. Robert. London. .choleric. New Delhi. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Classical Homœopathy. Birdcage Books. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1988. 1842. W&R Chambers. Beaconsfield. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. James Tyler. Margery. 1986. Stuart. William. 1994. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. 1987 (republished 1988). New York. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. befallments and symptoms. Klaus-Henning. ed. The Tao of Physics. Wenda. Close. 1993. The Organon of Medicine. Douglas. 1988. Redmond. Beaconsfield. B Jain. Churchill Livingstone. the Essence of its Remedies. New Delhi. C M Boger Collected Writings. Cambridge. (b) 1996 tr. Chambers English Dictionary. Capra. London. Hahnemann. phlegmatic. Bombay. 6th edition. New Delhi. Homœopathy in Practice. Gypser. 1954 (republished 1994). Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Beaconsfield. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. WA. (a) 1922 tr. New Delhi. 1983. The Genius of Homœopathy. B Jain. Gutman. Beaconsfield Publishers. B Jain.

George. North Atlantic Books. The Science and Art of Healing. 1st edition. Leeser. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1935. Wellingborough. 1985. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Psyche and Substance. Unknown (between 6-600BC). Jay. London. Dorset & Baber. Tao te Ching. 1986. Berkeley. 1980. Bombay. Bombay. The Science of Homœopathy. New Delhi. Ortega. Edinburgh. 1991. . Whitmont. tr. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. 2nd edition. Ralph. 2nd edition. Greenville. Sankaran. 1980. Edward C. 1988. Otto. Thorsons. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Notes on the Miasms. Twentyman. Van Hoy Publishers. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. New York. Tophi Books. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. 3rd edition. 1994. B Jain. Rajan. PA. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Floris Books. Roberts. 1989. Vithoulkas. B Jain. 1994. 1942 (republished 1994). New Delhi.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. CA. New Delhi. The Substance of Homœopathy. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Unwin Paperbacks. Proceso Sanchez. 1979. Yasgur. Herbert A. London.

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