Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.
Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:
[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.
(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to
The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.
[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]
A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.
The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.
The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.
The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.
The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.
A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.
Constitutional : (adj.)
Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.
upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.
(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:
Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.
The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.
To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance
the vital force.J.’ (Blackie. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. In this sense. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. which determines the individuals reaction. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. and also the potential to manifest. successful or unsuccessful. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). to the stress of environment. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms.T. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. the previously manifest. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. mentally. It treats the manifest. emotionally and physically. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. BY DR.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. p14)
. 1986. but also the past and future. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person.
INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy.
choleric. p26) However. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. p77). In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. 1994. which deals with provings. 1935. during its proving in the healthy state. 1988. He appears. 1935. Only in paragraph 136. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers.and soul-constitutions. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. phlegmatic. diverging body. over the years.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined
. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. pviii) she states. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. but only in many different. … Unfortunately.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic.’ (Leeser. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. 1842. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. Most often. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. as opposed to common. like any model.’ (Hahnemann. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently.’ (Leeser. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. the conception has also been misused.
changes of weather. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. sulphuric. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. phosphoric. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. carbonitrogenoid. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. warm air. the tall or short. and oxygenoid. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. are not generally considered morbid. symptomatology. even accurately. 1994. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. 1994. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis.’ (Gypser. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. the form or shape. p377. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. 1987. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. as no two are sufficiently similar. citing the various classifications of Czerny. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. p272) And again. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. Pende. Kretschmer. 1935. phosphoric. p650 and Kent. for he may be better or worse from motion. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup.' (Leeser. even when morbid. 1987. cold air.by many during this period. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. p651 and Kent. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. Romero and Maranon. to guide to a remedy. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players.
. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. endomorphs and ectomorphs.’ (Gypser. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class.
the division into syphilis. Further.’ (Roberts. 1942. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. fate. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. the three
. sanguinous. mode of living and weather influences.’ (Roberts. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. however. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. the presentation of evidence. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-.’ (Ortega. by the influence of the milieu. forming groups. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. bilious. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. This has its basis in that. regardless of the temperament. according to Hahnemann.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. p171) Ortega. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. rather than remedy-based. furthermore. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. In contrast. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous.’ (Foubister. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. 1989. 1942. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. 1980. and finally.
’ (Leeser. However. 1986. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. 1935. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. complete cure will take a relatively long time. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. In such cases. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine.’ (Vithoulkas. As Yasgur states. However. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. not patients. It is in our nature to group and dissect. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. It is
. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. to categorise and deconstruct. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. 1993. So it seems likely. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. he writes purely about the classification of disease. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. (Close.
or at least moderates. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. Whitmont implies a fixity of
. p45.’ (Yasgur. 1994. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. 1980. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. p12) is what. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. Emphasis added. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. 1983. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. D in Capra. in his inherited and evolving constitution. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. the sickness’ (Ortega.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. Built is something more than the well formed body. But as with any set of data. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. 1980. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. it is open to formulaic.’ (Whitmont. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. characteristic patterns. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. In this state. at base. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder.
rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective.response patterns which. mind and disease. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. youth. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. By this. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. individual body. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. p112) However. p27). we mean that each person has a specific. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world.
. If change does occur. middle age. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents.’ (Sankaran. 1991. 1994.
. on another. be it weight or number. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. by implication. 1989. some to a greater extent than others. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. This returns to Lao Tzu. a genuine challenge. p12). however.’ (Twentyman. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. you will not find. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose.’ (Gutman. but is greater than these. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). in particular. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. 1986. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. serving as directive. It comprises the form patterns which their life. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. there is no other than the body’s sensation. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method.
10) No treatment can modify them. which appeared to be fairly well determined.
A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:-
. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists.3) It is constant and immetable. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body.
IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. the only exception being orthodontics. As they were at birth so they will remain. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign.
1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution.
There is hepatic insufficiency. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. hydrogen and nitrogen.a) Calcarea carbonica. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. the carbon.
CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR.VON GRAUVOGL. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical.
A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites.
. perturbation of secretions. c) Calcarea flourica. oxygen. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic.
b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. b) Calcarea phosphoric. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles.
Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. c) He is easily affected by humidity. hydropexic.Examples: Lycopodium.
THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology:
. c) Easy demineralisation. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. b) Puffines.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. 2) The phosphoric type.
A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. Carbo Veg. & mucouses. retension of water in the cells. HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. Cuprum Met. Examples: Acid Nit. d) Retracted and emaciated. Thuja Occidentalis.. 3) The fluoric type.
B) According to a French homoeopath DR.
• Vaulted. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Reasonable.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Developed in width. • Stranger. • Thick Set. • Thick skeleton.
• Rachis supple. • Square Or Sphere. • Stubborn. • Detector. • Rigid articulation. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows.
Predominance of the cranium.
. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. Respects order necessary and in matter.
• The lower belly fall infront. of facts. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Emotive. • Skin dry and cracked. • Sensitive. • Care for elegance.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Dreamer. • Asymmetric. • Superficial. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Imaginative. • Saddle backed. THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Horror of reality. • Intuitive. Mentality:
. Mentality: • Nervous. • Distracted.
Intuitive. • Horror of rules and of solitude.
. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Easily vulgar. • Capricious. • Cannot take any decision. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Fantastic. • Brilliant but unstable. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Rapid assimilation. • Restless. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Disorderly. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. Therefore.
THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism.
• Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Cannot continue. the nature of the disease state.• Unstable. • Versatile. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament.
enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . befallments and symptoms. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. the physician should take into account the patient's
. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". the potential causations including miasms. In truth. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. In this sense. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. In these investigations. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances.
This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. strong. 2. loose or tight tissue types. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). Sexual function. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". unstable.1."
The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. etc). acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). Rubrics related to these states are
. the chronic miasms. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. 4. in chronic cases). One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. nervous. etc. Lifestyle and habits. Occupations. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. The discernible body constitution (especially. etc.). The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). The mental and emotional character. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. a description of the physique (tall or thin. lymphatic. short or fat. venous. Age 7. 5. rheumatic constitutions. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. On this solid foundation the objective signs.
. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. phlegmatic. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. 6. friends. puberty. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. rest. Some work well at both extremes of life. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. children. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. 7. Sex and sexuality. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. 3. birth. Civic and domestic relationships. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. How a person relates to their mate. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. These are cardinal general symptoms. middle age. sanguine. A person’s sexual ethics. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. and old age. The critical times are conception. Age. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. 4. 5. Lifestyle and habits. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. family relations.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. adolescence. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. Strictly speaking. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. The occupation.
befallments and symptoms. Felt by the patient himself. The disease-Gestalt is
. the physical constitution. Perceived by those around him. and 3. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. "The unprejudiced observer. Observed by the physician. which are: 1. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. 2. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. The time and progression. being – DL]. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. nature. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. that is.sexual fantasies. That is. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. sexual performance. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. disease signs. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. 7. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. causation. 8. constitution. essence." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. Wesen. temperament. causation. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms.
The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). the instinctive vital force. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant
The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. the spiritual.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. susceptibility. infection. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. 92 & 175). of the suffering of the life force. 91. single and multiple causations. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. inheritance. mental and emotional temperament. befallments and symptoms. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. predispositions. In this way.DL] of the disease. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. nature. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. that is. As Hahnemann said. being .
Beschaffenheit. to establish. Beschaffen is a verb that means. and as an adjective it means. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. Introduction. The English word. quality.)
In the German text Hahnemann used the term. The W. our living human organism. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. temperament. the spiritual-bodily organism. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. the bodily constitution. the complete whole. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). This. or inherent nature. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. page 12. laws of the organic constitution. In this sense constitutional means. to make. the make-up of the body & soul. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. as nature. Turner’s Dictionary. "constituted".dynamic influence (§11). This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. comes from the Latin root. O'Reilly edition. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. condition. the unity of life. "to procure. to work". to appoint to give being to. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. disposition. to form or make up. etc. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. constituere.
. temper. however. beschaffenheit (make up). which means constitutes: to set up. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. which one calls disease. make something available". constitution. defines the German term. inherent in the natural frame. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12).
in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". 2. Pages 30. 48.constitution. 99. composition. disposition and circumstance. 90. Therefore. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. For example. 98. 243.
. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 101. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. 142. construction or nature. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. 34. which means the congenital bodily constitution.
The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 145. 75. etc. 103. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. its constitution. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. 181. 143. 35. 1. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. 242. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. 3. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism.
it comprises of the body. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). Appendix. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. which is more than the sum of its parts. No part can suffer without all other parts.. Delhi. Dudgeon and Boericke. 11. vital force and body. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic
. Jain. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. a unity. the event itself. emotional and bodily faculties. Lebenskraft). the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. The human organism houses the mental. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e.g.
"Organism: An organized or organic system. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being.. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. every manifestation of power. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. that is. One does not appear without the other. B. (§ 9. page 194. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Every sensation. mind.g. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time.
Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when.teachings on temperaments. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. its branches in Paracelsus. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. 3rd edition. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. physis. as of all other medicines. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. 1833. page 345. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. "The employment of this. its trunk in Hippocrates. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their
. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. and its fruit in Hahnemann.
mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. mild. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. this is not the complete picture. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". slow phlegmatic temperament). He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Ms. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. even though they may appear to be good tempered. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. silent peevishness). This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. For example. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". and are quick in their movements.resolutions with rapidity. positive and negative qualities. which means "who":
. This portrait includes natural. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient.
The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence.e. for the natural disposition rests on it. Therefore. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice".. both if possible. but also of rare occurrence and. nature and genius) in The Organon. separated according to his sick and his well days i. therefore. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. if they are not only sharply distinct. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a
. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. jovial person becomes thin. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing"." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. Therefore.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. correspond to only few remedies. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. which must be scanned all the more carefully. For example. if a formerly obese. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient.
This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. This same is true with sycosis. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. This is the true Esse. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. also other indurations. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). and insanity in the melancholic temperament. 1750. attended with deep. p. page 17. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. 15-18. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. pseudopsora. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. Halle. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. Junker makes
. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. the menses were delayed. burning pains. the menses disappear prematurely.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. Volume I. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. Vide The Chronic Diseases. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. also by inflammatory fever.
from the face. aspectGreek. restrain. gnomon-onos. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. This 2. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. and constitution. predisposition. Temperament from Latin. rare and peculiar. general appearance of anything. For example. an interpreter. miasms and constitutional diathesis. temperare. character. mind and body. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. compound.
. to temper. moderate. befallments and symptoms. these symptoms become more strange. temperament.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. phlegmatic. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. as well as the present state of the spirit. If this is not the case. heredity. nature. esp. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. the art of judging character from the appearance.physiognomy.. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy.
the constitution of the body and/or mind. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all.choleric. an innate or acquired disposition. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. a mood. Each of these temperaments represents
. the five elements (ether. pitch and mood) by the vital force. the spiritual body organism. composure. the cholero-nervous. the sanguino. a proportioned mixture of qualities. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. an internal constitutional state. to exert self control. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the phlegmo-choleric. and the nervo-sanguine. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. the choleric or bilious. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. fire. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. temperament. nervo. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. to be uncontrolled. a natural disposition. phlegmatic. the phlegmosanguine. voice. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. the nervo-phlegmatic. a natural temperament. Temper-noun. water. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale.choleric. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. air. a fit of anger. a frame of mind. the sangino-phlegmatic. the cholero-sanguine. phlegmatic. Constitution.
Nervous." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. We find similar rubrics in Allen's
. (hepatic affections) I. II.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. irritable. zealous persons. hot temperament. I (4) is the second grade. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. page 168. or of a spiteful. or of a malicious. II. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. the choleric. choleric persons with dark hair. II. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. phlegmatic. venous constitution. Debauches. II. lecture on Nux Vomica. melancholic people. wicked irascible disposition. inclined to get angry or excited. mood. malicious disposition.
"II. II. troubled with indigestion. zealous. state. fiery. sanguine and nervous melancholic. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Suits thin. For very particular. Bilious temperaments. "Some practical instructions may be of use. Drug subjects. page 223. Volume VIII. Vide Materia Medica Pura. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. of an irritable. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. I. thin. Among these may be mentioned. spite or deception. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. etc. nervous disposition. Nux Vomica. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. always irritable and impatient. composure." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. Vide Guiding Symptoms. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life.
The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. hepatic affections). dark hair). diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. habits. fine. blond haired. chilly. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. mental rubrics (angry. etc).7). choleric. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. nervous anxious temperaments. fair skin. delicate eyelashes. thin. One might ask. Boenninghausen and Hering. dark. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. These are all constitutional general rubrics.
.6. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). drugs). mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. (addicted to wine. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). and very sensitive nature. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. On this constitutional basis the signs. nervous dispositions with their traits). bilious.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. blond or red hair. indigestion. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament.6hhhssshhhhpes
OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. physical descriptions (thin. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. irritable. miasmic tendencies. Allen includes temperaments. impatient. choleric persons. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. spiteful. dry. coffee. with quick perceptions. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. §5. melancholic.
hair colour. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. Often anxious and worried. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. preferred type of clothing and so on. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. if they are bright and alert in the morning.tearful. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. candy. cries and loses temper. For example. B. fat or thin. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. such as how they respond to noise. Digestive system. Eyes. their eye colour. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Readily laughs. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. The Arsen. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Type
. or C. sad. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Physical factors are also important. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. Alb. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. The Argent Nit. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. so B will be the best remedy. under or overweight. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. confident. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Ailments tend to the left side. long or short limbed. lazy etc. hair type. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. Prone to bedwetting. Dislikes chilled foods. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. salt and cheese. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved.The Argent Nit.
Alb. Respiratory system (coughs. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Skeletal system. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. may manifest as back ache. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. sensitive and quiet. in particular coffee.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. The Calc. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. bloated and tired in appearance. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Dislikes mess and being messy. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. nose and throat. delicate skin. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. Skin.
Physical weaknesses: Ears. Teeth. Can be critical and intolerant. this can hide a hoarding mentality. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Types. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Fine facial features with fine.
. keeps room tidy. The Arsen. Carb. Exhaustion. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. candy. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. warm foods and drinks. Skin. Strong opinions. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Alb. Prone to depression. Digestive system. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Often well groomed and stylish. Perfectionist at work and at home. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Easily upset by loud noise. Sluggish. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure.
Flaky scalp. Slow metabolic rate. Carb. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Possible difficulty in
. child: Plump and overweight. Carb. usually dark. Timid. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. Blushes easily. Possible mood swings. have bad breath. hesitant and anxious. salt. Dry lips. chocolate. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Sighs a lot. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Placid and calm. candy. Not an early morning person. windswept appearance. May have rough. dry skin that can crack easily. Dislikes fatty meats. Dislikes sweet foods. nose bleeds. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Dry hair. Nails. prone to suppression of grief. Type. Dark to mid range colour hair. Rapid and extreme mood swings. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. carbohydrates. eggs. such as vegetables and salads. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. Can have a rugged. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Ears. be exhausted. seafood and hot drinks.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. iced drinks and ice cream. desserts. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. The Calc. tearful and despondent then impatient. salt. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Can fall over easily. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. boiled food and boiled milk. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods.
Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. crying and poor grades at school. Jealous and possessive. Suspicious of strangers. May be sensitive to noise. Hyperactivity. palpitations and panic attacks. sour and savoury foods. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). leading to headaches. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. causing outbursts of anger. choughs. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. menopausal problems. Strong. May lick lips a lot. constipation. carbohydrates.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Prefers not to be alone. fixed expression. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Prone to left-side problems. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. Responds well to encouragment. Strong. Dislikes sweet drinks. cool drinks. May experience headaches. coughs and colds. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. especially new babies. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. staring eyes. Dislikes sweet foods. can be hurtful to peers. varicose veins. sore throats. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. dairy products. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. bad sleep and insomnia. The Lycopodium Type
. sore throats and asthma. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Talkative. sore throat. May view self as sinful when religious. twitching and grinding teeth. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. alcohol and seafood. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. excitable and sensitive.
Forgetful. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. male baldness. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. kidney stones. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Dislikes wearing light clothing. prostate. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. swelling of glands and exhaustion. Insecure and hates change. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). child: Irritating behaviour. Often look older than their years. Facial twitching. Hates being contradicted. May stammer. onions. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Sol. May explode with rage and anger. creating mountains out of molehills. Susceptible to ear nose and
. Thinning hair in men. Hair may be fair to medium colour. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. The Merc. Anxious over important events. Right-side problems. with grey translucent look. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. garlic and seafood.The Merc. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. sore throats. Conscientious and achiever academically. Shy and cautious. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Sol. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Type Appearance: Medium build. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Avoids commitment.
type may be professional and career minded. Dislikes coffee and bread. cigarettes. palpitations and headaches. Depression. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. coffee. Can be very ambitious. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. fear. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help.
. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. Well behaved. skin problems. The Nat. mur. mur. May have cravings for alcohol. Impatient. Dry cracked lips. Slow development. red eyes. especially when young. May have dark circles under eyes. strong and lean build in men. Can be addicted to sex. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Intolerant of imperfection in others. anorexia. Solid. May look stressed and tense. guilt and loneliness. Watery. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Loves animals. anger. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. premenstrual syndrome.throat complaints. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Medium to dark hair. Ages prematurely. mouth ulcers and cold sores.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. child: Small for their age. mur. Finds it difficult to relax. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. May suffer from headaches under pressure. The Nat. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Smart appearance. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. which can lead to depression.
Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. cheese and cream. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Strong fear of the dark. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Headaches. May have temper tantrums. Short attention span. Artistic and creative in appearance. carbonated drinks. Coughs and colds. Feels better after sleep. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Competitive as a teenager. Weakness of the lungs. Likes to be stylish.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. salt. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. spicy food. Migraines and headaches. alcohol. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Circulation problems. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Can be hard work for partner. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Dizziness. Nervous. coffee and spicy foods. Can have fair to dark hair. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Hernia and hay fever. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. Left-side problems. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. mild cheeses and sweet foods. The Pulsatilla Type
. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Fine skin. Expressive. alcohol. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Loves to receive attention.
Likes to look attractive and elegant. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Also laughs easily. Conditions usually improve with exertion. tragic news or weepy movies. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Styes. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired.
. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Headaches and migraine. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Irritable bowel syndrome. Often sits with legs crossed. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Blushes easily. Avoids confrontation. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Can look younger than actual age. Loves animals. cold foods and cold drinks. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Skin problems. Cries easily. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. as holds strong opinions. Prone to coughs and colds. often with brown eyes. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Hates being contradicted. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Likes to be supported by others. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Catarrh. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Can feel better after weeping. Often rests with hands behind head. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. spicy foods. Gentle and kind appearance. and very rich. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Varicose veins. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Medium to dark hair. Can suppress guilt and anger. Skin problems.
Feels the cold and can become tired easily. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. The Sulphur Type
. Delicate. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. especially due to burnout from new projects. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. The Sepia child: Greedy. Does not like being alone. almost doll-like in appearance. Feels the cold. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. apart from large head. Can become a bedwetter. Usually tidy and well behaved. Feels the cold. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. with a large forehead. Can be shy. Exhaustion. especially cheese and milk. citrus fruits. Dislikes very hot food. especially milk. fine features. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. moves and new jobs. Skin problems. Dislikes dairy products. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Not sporty as has little stamina. Slowness in healing and getting well. with petite appearance. sweet foods and alcohol. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. The head can appear too large for the body. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. Moody. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Prone to mental exhaustion.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Headaches. Constipation. sour and savoury foods. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Prone to constipation.
Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Hair may be course. disposition. dry. haemorrhoids and constipation. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Can be hyperactive in the evening. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. burning feet. Vide Organon. salads and seafood. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. heredity. bathing or washing hands. Has a very healthy appetite. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. May look untidy. Dislikes most hot drinks. body odour. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Dislikes dairy products. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. temperament. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. especially milk and eggs. spicy foods. Might not complete ideas and projects.athy Constitution Types
CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. Likes alcohol. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Does not like showers.
Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Can be critical. Likes to argue. hot. May lack willpower and self-esteem. mistuned and displaced into abnormal
. citrus fruits.
who is considered the founder of modern genetics. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. "The true. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical." Note 78. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. they mount until the end of life. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. Lamarck. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. heart
. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. Therefore. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system.feelings and functions.
Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. the acute. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. However. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. 1. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms.and body. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions.e. 3. He classified miasms into three categories. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. Second.. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. implanted in them through infection or heredity. by contact with the infected host. He points out that mental and
. 2. medicinal treatment. incubation period. grief and worry. i. On this basis. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. First of all. were completely vanished. a moment of infection. and especially through inexpedient. Third. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. prodromal stage and primary.
lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. predisposition and diathesis. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. inheritance. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. is announced by the increase of the
. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. hereditary dispositions. the mental temperament. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. and. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. habits.
climate. " It is. The next most important factors are environment. his turn of mind. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. his manner of living and diet. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. little by little. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. deviate so greatly from one another. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which
. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. his hereditary disposition. diet and stress (nurture). etc. which already. diet. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). befallments and symptoms. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. in and of themselves. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. his employment. etc. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). morals. to some extent. the various errors in his education and habits. his morality. thus attaining incredible proliferation. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. For these reasons.
and/or mind. etc. 2. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. venous. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. diathesis. diathesis. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. sycotic. i. From the Greek.. The concept of diathesis is closely linked
. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. leucophlegmatic. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. scrofulous. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. psoric.e. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. DIATHESIS. lymphatic. 1.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. 3. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections.
aur-m. constitutions. constitutions. Nat-m. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice... Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. Chin. Carb-v. ars. Scrofulous. Puls. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. phos. Tall lean. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. constitutions.. murx. 1. CALC. calc-ar. BAR-C.... Apis. Emaciated constitutions. For example. constitutions. constitutions. Hysterical.. constitutions... Hemorrhagic.. MERC... constitutions. Rhus-t. constitutions. Asthmatic constitutions. lax. Lean.. thuj. Petr. constitutions. Sil. constitutions.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Lymphatic.. bloated... Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Fibre. kalm. constitution. Hep. Lyc. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. constitutions. Fibre rigid.. Bar-m.. FERR. GRAPH. arn. thin people. bapt... BELL.. people. Large fat.. Gouty.. Example: "Lymphatic. Rheumatic. nit-ac. and their similar remedies. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. constitutions.
.. aster. Dwarfish. Venous." 2. Tubercular.. Plethoric. constitutions -am-c. Sep. Cann-i. dulc. Paralytic. Sulph.. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section.
Phos. KALI-I. constitutions.. chion. constitutions-Ars.. OP...... ptel. Sil. sep. Phyt. CHIN.. ars. Cor-r.. Psoric. SYPH. aec-t... lept...... Merc-d. Nervous. ail. Guai.. constitutions. Bilious. PSOS... Crot-h. constitutions...... CHEL. KALI-C. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and
. acon. calc-p. Cocc." 3.. constitutions.. Example: "Bilious. sulph. bor.." Rubrics related to the miasms include.. ant-c.. Syphilitic.. berb. Clem.. Tubercular. cinnam. plat.. lax.. spong. temperament..... cann-i.. Benz-ac.... Phlegmatic. CARD-M. MERC. constitutions and their remedies.. ambr. Sil. nat-s. Aesc. Bell. diathetic states and miasms.. CALC. Choleric.." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. NUX V. Sanguine constitutions. Ph-ac. and their similar remedies. Melancholic.. Example: "Fibre. sang.. bar-c. Cham.. iris.. These are general symptoms of the constitution. PHOS... Mez.... cund.. SABAD. hep.. Sulph... NIT-AC. Petr. mag-m.. constitutions.. constitutions. ant-t. Phos.... AUR.. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms)... Example: "SYPHILITIC. Still. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. BRY. Puls. MAG-C.. constitutions-agar.constitutions. chol. Kali-b. Ip. Sars. constitutions.. Caps. Fl-ac.. Lach.. Sycotic constitutions..... Mercc. Merc-i-f. Thuj... MERC. ferr-i... constitutions. euph. Merc.
pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. susceptibility. of Cantharides.conditioning factors. temperament. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. For example. temperament. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. Vide Sycosis. diathesis and miasms. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. The Chronic Diseases. the footnote on page 150. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. susceptibility. or of the Copaiva balm. or a small dose of Cannabis. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the
. miasms and diathesis. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. inheritance. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it.
The Tao of Physics. Beaconsfield Publishers. Bombay. (a) 1922 tr. B Jain. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. 6th edition. London. James Tyler. Kent. Margery.choleric. William. Douglas. the Essence of its Remedies. Beaconsfield Publishers. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Gutman. B Jain. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Donald McD. New Delhi. New York. Clinical Cases. C M Boger Collected Writings. WA. 1983. 1994. BIBLIOGRAPHY:
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. 1993. New Delhi. Beaconsfield. The Organon of Medicine. ed. Brewster O’Reilly. befallments and symptoms. Robert. B Jain. Edinburgh. Homœopathy in Practice. Hahnemann. Beaconsfield. Tutorials on Homœopathy. Lesser Writings. Birdcage Books. Redmond. New Delhi. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. 5th edition. 1954 (republished 1994). Borland. 1988. New Remedies. Foubister. Gypser. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1989. Decker. etc. ed. Tokyo. 1987 (republished 1988). Flamingo. B Jain. Close. Fritjoff. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Madrid. Beaconsfield. Aphorisms and Precepts. Classical Homœopathy. Wenda. Cambridge. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. New Delhi. 1994. W&R Chambers. New Delhi. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Melbourne. (b) 1996 tr. Blackie. The Genius of Homœopathy. phlegmatic. Samuel. Stuart. Beaconsfield Publishers. 1986. 1988. 1986. Capra. Churchill Livingstone. Chambers English Dictionary. B Jain.
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