Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

BY DR. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). to the stress of environment. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy. which determines the individuals reaction.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. and also the potential to manifest.T. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. the vital force. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. successful or unsuccessful. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. but also the past and future. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy.’ (Blackie. p14) . 1986. In this sense. It treats the manifest.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. the previously manifest.J. the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. emotionally and physically. mentally. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease.

of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. choleric. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. p26) However. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. 1994. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. 1935. 1935. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. Only in paragraph 136. p77). He appears. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. as opposed to common. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. over the years. pviii) she states. phlegmatic. 1988. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions.’ (Leeser. which deals with provings. 1842. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. but only in many different. Most often. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. like any model. diverging body. the conception has also been misused.’ (Leeser.’ (Hahnemann.and soul-constitutions. during its proving in the healthy state.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. … Unfortunately.

Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. p651 and Kent. carbonitrogenoid.’ (Gypser. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. phosphoric. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. the tall or short. citing the various classifications of Czerny. Romero and many during this period. symptomatology. endomorphs and ectomorphs. even accurately. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. for he may be better or worse from motion. are not generally considered morbid. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. p650 and Kent. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. changes of weather. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. Pende. . No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. 1994. Kretschmer. phosphoric. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type.’ (Gypser. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs.' (Leeser. even when morbid. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. 1994. 1987. and oxygenoid. 1987. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. as no two are sufficiently similar. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. cold air. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. p272) And again. 1935. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. sulphuric. the form or shape. to guide to a remedy. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. warm air. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. p377.

And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. by the influence of the milieu.’ (Roberts. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. and finally. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. sanguinous. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. the division into syphilis.’ (Roberts. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. the presentation of evidence. This has its basis in that. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. the three . p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. rather than remedy-based. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. mode of living and weather influences. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. furthermore. bilious. p171) Ortega. forming groups. In contrast. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions.’ (Foubister. 1980. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. according to Hahnemann. 1942. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. 1942. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. fate. 1989.’ (Ortega. regardless of the temperament. however. Further.

not patients. However. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. So it seems likely. It is . A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. to categorise and deconstruct. 1993.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. It is in our nature to group and dissect. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. As Yasgur states. However. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. 1935. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. 1986. complete cure will take a relatively long time. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. he writes purely about the classification of disease. In such cases. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages.’ (Leeser. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. (Close. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy.’ (Vithoulkas. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear.

p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. Built is something more than the well formed body. p12) is what. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. at base. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. Emphasis added. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. In this state. or at least moderates. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. 1994. Whitmont implies a fixity of . most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. 1983. it is open to formulaic.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. p45. in his inherited and evolving constitution. But as with any set of data. 1980. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient.’ (Yasgur. the sickness’ (Ortega. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns.’ (Whitmont. D in Capra. characteristic patterns. 1980. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine.

1991. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. individual body. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. p27).’ (Sankaran. middle age. If change does occur. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. mind and disease. 1994. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. By this. youth. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. p112) However. . this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. we mean that each person has a specific.response patterns which.

Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. a genuine challenge.’ (Gutman.’ (Twentyman. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. in particular. serving as directive. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. be it weight or number. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. This returns to Lao Tzu. . you will not find. however. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. on another. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. p12). CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. but is greater than these. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. some to a greater extent than others. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. by implication. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. 1986. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. there is no other than the body’s sensation. It comprises the form patterns which their life. 1989.

5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 10) No treatment can modify them. Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. the only exception being orthodontics. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . which appeared to be fairly well determined. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence.3) It is constant and immetable. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. As they were at birth so they will remain. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity.

the carbon. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. b) Calcarea phosphoric. 3) Oxygenoid constitution.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. oxygen. 4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution.VON GRAUVOGL. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. hydrogen and nitrogen. perturbation of secretions. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter.a) Calcarea carbonica. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic. c) Calcarea flourica. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. . 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy.

c) He is easily affected by humidity. 3) The fluoric type. Examples: Acid Nit.. swollen. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum.Examples: Lycopodium.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. c) Easy demineralisation. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. & mucouses. Cuprum Met. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. retension of water in the cells. hydropexic.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . 2) The phosphoric type. Thuja Occidentalis. Carbo Veg. b) Puffines. d) Retracted and emaciated.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type.

Respects order necessary and in matter. • Rachis supple. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Thick skeleton. • Stranger. • Detector.General aspect : • Short limbed. • Square Or Sphere. • Vaulted. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • • Predominance of the cranium. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. . • Stubborn. • Reasonable. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Developed in width. • Rigid articulation. • Thick Set.

• Easy vanity or dominating. Mentality: • Nervous. • Skin dry and cracked. • Intuitive. • Care for elegance. • Imaginative. • Horror of reality. • Dreamer. • Superficial. • Saddle backed.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Distracted.  THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. Mentality: . • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. of facts. • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Asymmetric. • Emotive. • Sensitive. • The lower belly fall infront.

He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Cannot continue. • Capricious. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Easily vulgar. • Fantastic. Therefore. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Restless. • Disorderly. the nature of the disease state. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease.• Unstable. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Cannot take any decision. • Intuitive. • Rapid assimilation. • Brilliant but unstable. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Versatile. .

In truth. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. In this sense. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. the potential causations including miasms. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . the physician should take into account the patient's . Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). befallments and symptoms. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy".There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. In these investigations.

This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. etc. Occupations. in chronic cases). lymphatic. etc). rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. 2. Sexual function. Rubrics related to these states are . short or fat. The mental and emotional character. The discernible body constitution (especially. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). venous. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. Lifestyle and habits. It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). 4. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. Age 7.). strong. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". etc. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation). 5. a description of the physique (tall or thin. loose or tight tissue types. unstable. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. the chronic miasms. rheumatic constitutions. On this solid foundation the objective signs. nervous. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3.1. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile.

Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. 6. . phlegmatic. children. The occupation. Age. middle age. adolescence. How a person relates to their mate. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. The critical times are conception. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. 5. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. and old age. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. childhood. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. Sex and sexuality. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. birth. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. 4. family relations. Civic and domestic relationships. Some work well at both extremes of life. A person’s sexual ethics. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. friends. 7. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. 3. sanguine. Strictly speaking. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. Lifestyle and habits. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. puberty. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. These are cardinal general symptoms. rest. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain.

The time and progression. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. disease signs. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. constitution. "The unprejudiced observer. being – DL].sexual fantasies. Wesen. Felt by the patient himself. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. 8. nature. causation. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. the physical constitution. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. sexual performance. That is. that is. temperament. which are: 1. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. The disease-Gestalt is . and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. 7. Perceived by those around him. which are outwardly discernible through the sense. essence. Observed by the physician. 2. causation. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. befallments and symptoms. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). and 3. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6.

92 & 175). As Hahnemann said. inheritance. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. In this way. infection. befallments and symptoms. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). nature.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. the instinctive vital force. 91. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. the spiritual. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. of the suffering of the life force. single and multiple causations. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). mental and emotional temperament.DL] of the disease. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. being . One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. that is. susceptibility. predispositions. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr.

The English word. the spiritual-bodily organism. quality. etc. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. laws of the organic constitution. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. Turner’s Dictionary. comes from the Latin root. This. the make-up of the body & soul. "to procure. condition. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. our living human organism. Introduction. and as an adjective it means. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. make something available". In this sense constitutional means. The W. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. as nature. to appoint to give being to. disposition. which means constitutes: to set up. temperament. to form or make up. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". to work". or inherent nature. page 12. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. beschaffenheit (make up). This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. defines the German term. to make. . the complete whole. Beschaffen is a verb that means. Beschaffenheit. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). "constituted". to establish. O'Reilly edition. constitution.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. constituere. inherent in the natural frame. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. which one calls disease. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. the bodily constitution. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. the unity of life. temper. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12).dynamic influence (§11). however.

etc. 242. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 35. Pages 30. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. 99. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. its constitution. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". 2. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. construction or nature. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions. 48. composition. For example. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. 3. 181. 1. 101. . 98. which means the congenital bodily constitution.constitution. 142. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. 143. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 243. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. 90. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. 145. 34. Therefore. 75. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. disposition and circumstance. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. 103. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul].

that is. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. the event itself. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). Delhi. The human organism houses the mental.g. Every sensation. Jain. which is more than the sum of its parts.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. mind. vital force and body. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. (§ 9. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. page 194." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. Appendix. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. Dudgeon and Boericke. No part can suffer without all other parts. every manifestation of power.. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. "Organism: An organized or organic system. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. One does not appear without the other. Lebenskraft). a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts.g. a unity. B. it comprises of the body.. emotional and bodily faculties. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. 11.

This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. 1833. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. its branches in Paracelsus. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. and its fruit in Hahnemann. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. page 345. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. physis. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. "The employment of this. 3rd edition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms.teachings on temperaments. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. as of all other medicines. its trunk in Hippocrates. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments.

this is not the complete picture. positive and negative qualities. which means "who": . In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. and are quick in their movements. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. mild. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. even though they may appear to be good tempered. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution.resolutions with rapidity. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Ms. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. For example. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. silent peevishness). Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". slow phlegmatic temperament). temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. This portrait includes natural. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition.

For example. nature and genius) in The Organon. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. Therefore. but also of rare occurrence and. Therefore. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. therefore. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a ."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. jovial person becomes thin. which must be scanned all the more carefully. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. for the natural disposition rests on it." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. separated according to his sick and his well days i. then the bodily constitution and the temperament.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence.. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. correspond to only few remedies.e. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. if they are not only sharply distinct. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. both if possible. if a formerly obese.

Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. p. 1750. This is the true Esse. page 17. This same is true with sycosis. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. pseudopsora. attended with deep. also other indurations. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. Junker makes . the menses disappear prematurely. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. Vide The Chronic Diseases. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. Volume I. burning pains. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. also by inflammatory fever. 15-18. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. the menses were delayed.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. Halle.

as well as the present state of the spirit. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. befallments and symptoms. restrain. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. an interpreter. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. moderate. and constitution. heredity. temperament. This 2. to temper. temperare. from the face." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. compound. Temperament from Latin. nature. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. the art of judging character from the appearance. predisposition. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. esp. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. For example.. rare and peculiar.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. mind and body. miasms and constitutional diathesis. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. phlegmatic. . If this is not the case. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. aspectGreek. general appearance of anything. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. gnomon-onos. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. character.physiognomy. these symptoms become more strange.

sanguine and melancholy constitutions. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. a fit of anger. to be uncontrolled. the nervo-phlegmatic. the constitution of the body and/or mind. phlegmatic. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. the phlegmo-choleric. the five elements (ether.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. the sangino-phlegmatic. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. the spiritual body organism. composure. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. a natural temperament. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. Temper-noun. an innate or acquired disposition. to exert self control. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments.choleric. air.choleric. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). the cholero-sanguine. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. pitch and mood) by the vital force. voice. the sanguino. Each of these temperaments represents . temperament. nervo. phlegmatic. fire. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. the cholero-nervous. an internal constitutional state. a natural disposition. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. the choleric or bilious. the phlegmosanguine. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. and the nervo-sanguine. a mood. Constitution. a frame of mind. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. a proportioned mixture of qualities. water.

melancholic people." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. II. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. choleric persons with dark hair. lecture on Nux Vomica. nervous disposition. I (4) is the second grade.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. fiery. Nux Vomica. etc. phlegmatic. II. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. "Some practical instructions may be of use. mood. malicious disposition. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. page 223. Suits thin. Among these may be mentioned. Volume VIII. spite or deception. or of a malicious. or of a spiteful. composure. thin. Drug subjects. sanguine and nervous melancholic. hot temperament. zealous persons. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. II. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. page 168. with tendency to hemorrhoids. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. inclined to get angry or excited. Debauches. irritable. zealous." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. II. troubled with indigestion. "II. I. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. venous constitution. the choleric. of an irritable. always irritable and impatient. (hepatic affections) I. For very particular. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. wicked irascible disposition. Vide Materia Medica Pura. state. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. II. Vide Guiding Symptoms. Bilious temperaments. Nervous.

mental rubrics (angry. blond or red hair. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. dry. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). Boenninghausen and Hering. dark. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. hepatic affections). One might ask. .Keynotes under the title "adapted to". (addicted to wine. etc). what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament.7). with quick perceptions. dark hair). as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. miasmic tendencies. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. habits. drugs). nervous anxious temperaments. thin. blond haired. Allen includes temperaments. fair skin. irritable. fine. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. On this constitutional basis the signs. spiteful. coffee. indigestion. choleric.6. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. delicate eyelashes. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. choleric persons. §5. impatient. bilious. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. nervous dispositions with their traits). diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. melancholic. physical descriptions (thin. and very sensitive nature. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. These are all constitutional general rubrics. chilly. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious.

The Argent Nit.tearful. salt and cheese. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. candy. lazy etc. Finds it difficult to control emotions. Type . sad. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. so B will be the best remedy. B. Ailments tend to the left side. preferred type of clothing and so on. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. Prone to bedwetting. Digestive system. if they are bright and alert in the morning. Physical factors are also important. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. Often anxious and worried. Alb. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Eyes. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. May react badly to new situations like moving house. Dislikes chilled foods. under or overweight. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. such as how they respond to noise. hair colour. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. cries and loses temper. For example. long or short limbed. their eye colour. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry.The Argent Nit. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. The Arsen. confident. hair type. or C. fat or thin. Readily laughs.

May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Teeth. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Skeletal system. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Fine facial features with fine. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Can have a deep fear of being alone. alcohol and sour tasting foods. The Calc. Dislikes mess and being messy.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. nose and throat. . Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. may manifest as back ache. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Can be critical and intolerant. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Prone to depression. Reassurance helps to improve condition. this can hide a hoarding mentality. bloated and tired in appearance. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. keeps room tidy. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. sensitive and quiet. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. in particular coffee. Easily upset by loud noise. Exhaustion. candy. Digestive system. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Skin. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. Sluggish. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. warm foods and drinks. Strong opinions. Alb. Often well groomed and stylish. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Alb. Carb. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Respiratory system (coughs. Dislikes large amount of fluid. delicate skin. Skin. The Arsen. Perfectionist at work and at home. Types. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance.

Sighs a lot. Dark to mid range colour hair. Not always willing to change habits and routines. such as vegetables and salads. Nails. Carb. Physical weaknesses: Skin. tearful and despondent then impatient. usually dark. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. Placid and calm. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. Dislikes fatty meats. candy. Prone to dark circles under eyes. windswept appearance. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Slow metabolic rate. Dislikes sweet foods. hesitant and anxious. Carb. salt. Dry lips. The Calc. Ears. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. seafood and hot drinks. May have rough. Can fall over easily. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Possible mood swings. Possible difficulty in . Dry hair. Type. desserts. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. Not an early morning person. Flaky scalp. nose bleeds. prone to suppression of grief.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. chocolate. Can have a rugged. The Graphites type like savoury foods. iced drinks and ice cream. boiled food and boiled milk. be exhausted. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. child: Plump and overweight. salt. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. Blushes easily. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Timid. eggs. carbohydrates. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Rapid and extreme mood swings. dry skin that can crack easily. have bad breath. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly.

fixed expression. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. May view self as sinful when religious. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. menopausal problems. Prone to left-side problems.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. bad sleep and insomnia. crying and poor grades at school. Hyperactivity. can be hurtful to peers. constipation. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. sore throats and asthma. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. choughs. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Jealous and possessive. Strong. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. especially new babies. sore throat. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. carbohydrates. The Lycopodium Type . Mind can become crowded with thoughts. cool drinks. excitable and sensitive. causing outbursts of anger. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Strong. varicose veins. Talkative. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. Dislikes sweet drinks. May be sensitive to noise. coughs and colds. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). sore throats. alcohol and seafood. palpitations and panic attacks. May experience headaches.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Prefers not to be alone. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. staring eyes. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. Responds well to encouragment. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. Suspicious of strangers. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. twitching and grinding teeth. leading to headaches. Dislikes sweet foods. dairy products. May lick lips a lot. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. sour and savoury foods.

Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Facial twitching. Hates being contradicted. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. swelling of glands and exhaustion. garlic and seafood. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Sol. sore throats. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. May stammer. Susceptible to ear nose and . Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. The Merc. Sol. Dislikes wearing light clothing. onions. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. kidney stones. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. male baldness. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Often look older than their years. Insecure and hates change. Type Appearance: Medium build. creating mountains out of molehills. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. child: Irritating behaviour. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. Forgetful.The Merc. Conscientious and achiever academically. with grey translucent look.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Shy and cautious. May explode with rage and anger. Thinning hair in men. Anxious over important events. Hair may be fair to medium colour. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. prostate. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Right-side problems. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Avoids commitment.

Down to Earth with mind set on career. . strong and lean build in men. fear. Loves animals. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. Dislikes coffee and bread. which can lead to depression. mur. Intolerant of imperfection in others. coffee. mur. anorexia. especially when young. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. May have cravings for alcohol. Can be addicted to sex. child: Small for their age.throat complaints. The Nat. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Ages prematurely. cigarettes. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. Can be very ambitious. The Nat. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. premenstrual syndrome. anger. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. May look stressed and tense. skin problems. Dry cracked lips. red eyes. Solid. May have dark circles under eyes. Depression. type may be professional and career minded. guilt and loneliness. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Medium to dark hair. Slow development. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. mur. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. Watery. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Impatient. Finds it difficult to relax. palpitations and headaches. Well behaved. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. Smart appearance. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. May become very depressed after relationship break-up.

Fine skin. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Migraines and headaches. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Can be hard work for partner. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Feels better after sleep. May have temper tantrums. The Pulsatilla Type . Strong fear of the dark. Short attention span. carbonated drinks. Loves to receive attention. Likes to be stylish. Can have fair to dark hair. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Artistic and creative in appearance. Left-side problems. alcohol. Coughs and colds. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. alcohol. spicy food. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Weakness of the lungs. Nervous. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Expressive. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Headaches. Competitive as a teenager. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Dizziness. Hernia and hay fever. Circulation problems. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. salt. cheese and cream. coffee and spicy foods.

Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Gentle and kind appearance. as holds strong opinions. Also laughs easily. Hates being contradicted. . Varicose veins. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Blushes easily. tragic news or weepy movies. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Medium to dark hair. Headaches and migraine. and very rich. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Irritable bowel syndrome. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Can feel better after weeping. cold foods and cold drinks. Catarrh. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Often rests with hands behind head. Can suppress guilt and anger. Cries easily. often with brown eyes. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. spicy foods. Styes. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Often sits with legs crossed. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Avoids confrontation. Skin problems. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Loves animals. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Skin problems. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Likes to be supported by others. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Can look younger than actual age. Prone to coughs and colds. in particular over cruelty to children and animals.

moves and new jobs. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Delicate. Moody. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. apart from large head. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. The Sulphur Type . Not sporty as has little stamina. with a large forehead. The head can appear too large for the body. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Headaches. Prone to constipation. Constipation. Skin problems. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. The Sepia child: Greedy. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Prone to mental exhaustion. Feels the cold. Usually tidy and well behaved. especially cheese and milk. Can become a bedwetter. Dislikes dairy products. Does not like being alone. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. Feels the cold. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. sour and savoury foods. Slowness in healing and getting well. Dislikes meet and dairy products. especially due to burnout from new projects. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Dislikes very hot food. fine features. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. almost doll-like in appearance. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. sweet foods and alcohol. especially milk. with petite appearance. citrus fruits. Exhaustion. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Can be shy.

citrus fruits. Likes to argue. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Does not like showers. Has a very healthy appetite. body odour. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. May lack willpower and self-esteem. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. Dislikes dairy products. haemorrhoids and constipation. Dislikes most hot drinks. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. disposition. heredity. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. especially milk and eggs. Can be hyperactive in the evening. salads and seafood. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . spicy foods. Hair may be course. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. dry.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. burning feet. temperament. Likes alcohol. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. Vide Organon. bathing or washing hands. Can be critical. Might not complete ideas and projects. May look untidy. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. hot.

In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. Therefore. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. Lamarck. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. they mount until the end of life. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. heart ." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. "The true.feelings and functions. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time." Note 78. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease.

Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. grief and worry. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. Third. He points out that mental and . [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. incubation period. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. Second. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. On this basis. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. i. a moment of infection.e. He classified miasms into three categories.and body. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection.. were completely vanished. and especially through inexpedient. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. by contact with the infected host. congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. 2. prodromal stage and primary. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. However. implanted in them through infection or heredity. the acute. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. 1. medicinal treatment. 3. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. First of all. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases.

as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. the mental temperament.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. and. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. hereditary dispositions. inheritance. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. predisposition and diathesis. is announced by the increase of the . Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. habits.

Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). to some extent. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. his employment. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). etc. diet. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . morals. For these reasons. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. climate. " It is. his turn of mind. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. his morality. etc. in and of themselves. thus attaining incredible proliferation. The next most important factors are environment. which already. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. deviate so greatly from one another. diet and stress (nurture). his manner of living and diet. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. the various errors in his education and habits. befallments and symptoms. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. his hereditary disposition.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. little by little. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms.

e.. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. lymphatic. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. DIATHESIS. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. scrofulous. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. diathesis.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. sycotic. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. diathesis. 1. etc. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. and/or mind. leucophlegmatic. psoric. 2. i. venous. 3. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. From the Greek. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics.

Gouty. aster.. arn. constitutions. Tubercular. BAR-C. calc-ar... constitutions. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. aur-m. Bar-m. Rheumatic. constitutions. MERC. Fibre. Hemorrhagic. constitutions. and their similar remedies.. nit-ac. Plethoric. bapt. BELL. ars. Petr. . Asthmatic constitutions. Cann-i... murx. thuj. constitutions.. Sil.. phos... both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy.. dulc. 1. bloated. Lean. Emaciated constitutions. Tall lean. Nat-m. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. Apis. constitutions.. Scrofulous.. Rhus-t. Lymphatic.. constitutions.. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice.. constitutions.. Sep." 2. constitution.. constitutions. Venous.. Hep. Dwarfish. Carb-v. For example. lax. Puls. Lyc. constitutions..... CALC. constitutions. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. Example: "Lymphatic. FERR.. Paralytic. Chin. Fibre rigid. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section.. constitutions. constitutions -am-c. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. kalm. thin people. Hysterical. Sulph. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples.. Large fat. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. people.

bor. iris. Mercc... constitutions-Ars. KALI-I.. Merc-d. KALI-C. Merc.. AUR. bar-c.. Fl-ac. nat-s... CHEL. Crot-h. Guai. Clem... Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include. Phos. constitutions. constitutions.. ptel. cund... hep. and their similar remedies.. temperament.... Phos.... spong.. constitutions. berb.. Aesc.. plat. Phyt.. PSOS.." Rubrics related to the miasms include. Sycotic constitutions. NIT-AC... Bell.. Lach. Example: "SYPHILITIC.... Sil..... sang. Sars. SABAD.. cann-i. diathetic states and miasms. Merc-i-f... NUX V.. chol.. chion. MERC. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). These are general symptoms of the constitution.. Sanguine constitutions. Cocc.. Bilious. lax. sep. Example: "Bilious. acon. constitutions. BRY. ant-c. Cor-r.. Kali-b.. Puls." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. aec-t. Mez. constitutions........... lept.. cinnam.. ambr. Melancholic.. euph. Thuj... Petr. constitutions. ant-t.... Psoric. OP. Sil.... ferr-i. Sulph... constitutions.. Phlegmatic.. constitutions. Benz-ac. CARD-M. Caps.. ars. MAG-C.. Cham. constitutions and their remedies.. CALC... Still.constitutions. mag-m. MERC. Ip. ail..." 3. Example: "Fibre. Tubercular.. Choleric. sulph. constitutions-agar. PHOS.. Ph-ac. SYPH. Nervous. Syphilitic. calc-p. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and . CHIN..

[Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. miasms and diathesis.conditioning factors. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. or of the Copaiva balm. susceptibility. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. For example. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. Vide Sycosis. susceptibility. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. temperament. The Chronic Diseases. inheritance. the footnote on page 150. diathesis and miasms. of Cantharides. temperament. or a small dose of Cannabis. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice.

1987 (republished 1988). ed. New Delhi. C M Boger Collected Writings. New York. B Jain. Churchill Livingstone. Redmond. Cambridge. Clinical Cases. Classical Homœopathy.choleric. Lesser Writings. 1994. 1842. Chambers English Dictionary. Wenda. Beaconsfield Publishers. the Essence of its Remedies. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Birdcage Books. Bombay. Borland. James Tyler. New Delhi. New Remedies. Beaconsfield Publishers. New Delhi. The Tao of Physics. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. B Jain. Samuel. Capra. Gypser. 1988. Edinburgh. B Jain. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. New Delhi. London. 1986. Stuart. Klaus-Henning. Kent. Fritjoff. Brewster O’Reilly. 1954 (republished 1994). The Organon of Medicine. B Jain. befallments and symptoms. (b) 1996 tr. etc. 1988. Douglas. Beaconsfield. Tutorials on Homœopathy. 6th edition. Madrid. William. Robert. The Genius of Homœopathy. Close. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. 1994. Beaconsfield. phlegmatic. Decker. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Tokyo. Homœopathy in Practice. Aphorisms and Precepts. New Delhi. Melbourne. WA. Flamingo. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. 1989. ed. Gutman. W&R Chambers. signs. Margery. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Donald McD. 1993. Blackie. Beaconsfield. Foubister. Dudgeon (republished 1994). Hahnemann. Beaconsfield Publishers. (a) 1922 tr. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. . London. 1983. 5th edition. 1986. B Jain.

B Jain. Unwin Paperbacks. Herbert A. Edinburgh. Tao te Ching. . Roberts. Wellingborough. 1991. New Delhi. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. 1985. 2nd edition. Floris Books. Otto. Whitmont. 1935. New York. Bombay. Twentyman. 1980. Bombay. Yasgur. 1989. Thorsons. tr. B Jain. 1st edition. London. Leeser. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. London. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. Rajan. Ralph. Psyche and Substance. The Substance of Homœopathy. Jay. North Atlantic Books.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. 1979. New Delhi. New Delhi. 3rd edition. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. The Science of Homœopathy. Tophi Books. Edward C. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Unknown (between 6-600BC). 1994. Van Hoy Publishers. George. 1986. Dorset & Baber. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. 2nd edition. 1980. Berkeley. 1988. CA. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. 1994. Sankaran. 1942 (republished 1994). Notes on the Miasms. Vithoulkas. Greenville. PA. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. The Science and Art of Healing. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Ortega. Proceso Sanchez.

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