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Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:
[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.
(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to
The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.
[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]
A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.
The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.
The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.
The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.
The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.
A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.
Constitutional : (adj.)
Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.
upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.
(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:
Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.
The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.
To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance
the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing.’ (Blackie. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. which determines the individuals reaction. In this sense.J. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification. It treats the manifest. mentally. 1986. p14) . it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. emotionally and physically. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. to the stress of environment. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. BY DR. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. the vital force. the previously manifest.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. and also the potential to manifest. as does Margery Blackie’s statement.T. but also the past and future. successful or unsuccessful. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy.
1935. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. which deals with provings. during its proving in the healthy state. p26) However. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. pviii) she states. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . … Unfortunately. as opposed to common. p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. over the years. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. 1935. of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type. Most often. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. 1988. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies.’ (Leeser. diverging body.and soul-constitutions. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. p77). like any model. He appears. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. Only in paragraph 136. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. phlegmatic. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. but only in many different. 1842. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. the conception has also been misused. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. choleric. 1994.’ (Leeser.’ (Hahnemann.
1994. carbonitrogenoid.’ (Gypser. phosphoric. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable.by many during this period. Kretschmer. p272) And again. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid.' (Leeser. Pende.’ (Gypser. Romero and Maranon. the tall or short. even when morbid. 1994. 1987. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. endomorphs and ectomorphs. and oxygenoid. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. even accurately. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard (carbonic. are not generally considered morbid. to guide to a remedy. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. p651 and Kent. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. the form or shape. p650 and Kent. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type. 1935. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. symptomatology. cold air. phosphoric. for he may be better or worse from motion. citing the various classifications of Czerny. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. changes of weather. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. . warm air. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. as no two are sufficiently similar. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. 1987. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. …Temperaments are not caused by provings. sulphuric. p377. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis.
according to Hahnemann.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. rather than remedy-based. Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. In contrast. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering.’ (Roberts. forming groups. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. 1942. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. regardless of the temperament. mode of living and weather influences. the three . ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. fate. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-.’ (Ortega. however. This has its basis in that. 1989. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. the presentation of evidence. bilious. and finally. the division into syphilis. p26) This view is modified by Roberts.’ (Roberts. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. by the influence of the milieu. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology. Further. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school. sanguinous. furthermore. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. 1980.’ (Foubister. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. 1942. p171) Ortega.
It is in our nature to group and dissect. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division. 1993. It is . (Close. In such cases. So it seems likely.’ (Vithoulkas. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. opposed to Hahnemann's conception.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications.’ (Leeser. As Yasgur states. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. However. 1986. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years. However. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. not patients. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. 1935. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. he writes purely about the classification of disease. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. to categorise and deconstruct. complete cure will take a relatively long time. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution.
1983. p45. 1980. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. in his inherited and evolving constitution. In this state. D in Capra. Built is something more than the well formed body. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. Emphasis added. TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. at base. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations. p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution.’ (Whitmont. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. the sickness’ (Ortega. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. But as with any set of data. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. Whitmont implies a fixity of . CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. characteristic patterns. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. it is open to formulaic. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. p12) is what. 1980. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. or at least moderates. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. 1994.’ (Yasgur.
middle age. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. p112) However. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. youth. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. . If change does occur. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. 1991. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. p27). mind and disease. individual body. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy. By this. we mean that each person has a specific. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease. implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present.’ (Sankaran. 1994. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion.response patterns which. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states.
It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). on another. . This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. some to a greater extent than others. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. It comprises the form patterns which their life. 1986. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. by implication. fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. in particular. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. you will not find. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant.’ (Gutman. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. but is greater than these. a genuine challenge. p12). This returns to Lao Tzu. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. 1989. there is no other than the body’s sensation. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death.’ (Twentyman. however. be it weight or number. serving as directive.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution.
which appeared to be fairly well determined. the only exception being orthodontics. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign.3) It is constant and immetable. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status. As they were at birth so they will remain. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. 10) No treatment can modify them.
4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. oxygen. b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR.VON GRAUVOGL. c) Calcarea flourica. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. . 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles.a) Calcarea carbonica. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. b) Calcarea phosphoric. the carbon. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. hydrogen and nitrogen. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. perturbation of secretions. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic.
hydropexic. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. c) He is easily affected by humidity. Cuprum Met. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation. d) Retracted and emaciated. THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . 3) The fluoric type.Examples: Lycopodium. Thuja Occidentalis. 2) The phosphoric type. c) Easy demineralisation. OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. swollen. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin. Examples: Acid Nit. & mucouses. Carbo Veg.. b) Puffines. retension of water in the cells.
• • Predominance of the cranium. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Developed in width. • Thick skeleton. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. • Detector. Respects order necessary and in matter. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. . • Stubborn. • Reasonable. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Thick Set. • Vaulted. • Rachis supple. • Stranger. • THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Square Or Sphere. • Rigid articulation.General aspect : • Short limbed.
• Care for elegance. • The lower belly fall infront. • Asymmetric. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Saddle backed. • Distracted. • Horror of reality. • Dreamer. of facts. • Imaginative. • Emotive. • Intuitive. • Skin dry and cracked. • Easily excited and soon depressed. Mentality: . Mentality: • Nervous. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Sensitive. • Superficial. THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness.
Therefore. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Easily vulgar. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Versatile. . He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. the nature of the disease state. • Rapid assimilation. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. • Cannot continue. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. • Fantastic. • Capricious. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Intuitive. All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Brilliant but unstable. • Restless.• Unstable. • Cannot take any decision. • Disorderly.
Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. the potential causations including miasms. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. In this sense. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. the physician should take into account the patient's . One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . befallments and symptoms. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. In truth. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. as well as the 7 attendant circumstances. In these investigations. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs. Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition).
in chronic cases). a description of the physique (tall or thin. strong. Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. On this solid foundation the objective signs. unstable. the chronic miasms. Occupations. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. Age 7. 2. Sexual function.). etc). coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. 5. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation).1. loose or tight tissue types. etc. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. 4." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. etc. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak. This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. Lifestyle and habits. The mental and emotional character. nervous. short or fat. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. rheumatic constitutions. The discernible body constitution (especially. lymphatic. This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). venous. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. Rubrics related to these states are .
The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. and old age. children. Sex and sexuality. rest. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. adolescence. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. sanguine. The critical times are conception.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. How a person relates to their mate. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. A person’s sexual ethics. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. 3. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. middle age. 7. These are cardinal general symptoms. friends. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. childhood. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. The occupation. Civic and domestic relationships. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. family relations. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. Some work well at both extremes of life. Age. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. 5. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. birth. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. puberty. . 4. Strictly speaking. 6. Lifestyle and habits. phlegmatic.
disease signs. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. which are: 1. that is. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. 7." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). which are outwardly discernible through the sense. That is. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. constitution. The disease-Gestalt is . nature. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. The time and progression. causation. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. Felt by the patient himself. causation. temperament. essence. being – DL]. 2. "The unprejudiced observer.sexual fantasies. and 3. sexual performance. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. befallments and symptoms. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. the physical constitution. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. Observed by the physician. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. Wesen. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. 8. Perceived by those around him.
As Hahnemann said. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. predispositions. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution.DL] of the disease. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. the instinctive vital force. 91. befallments and symptoms. single and multiple causations. that is.composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. infection. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence. the spiritual. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering. The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). susceptibility. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . nature. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. of the suffering of the life force." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. being . How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. inheritance. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. 92 & 175). mental and emotional temperament. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. In this way. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy.
the bodily constitution. or inherent nature. does not reflect all the usages of the German term. etc. however.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. inherent in the natural frame. disposition. which one calls disease. to appoint to give being to. which means constitutes: to set up. to make. the spiritual-bodily organism. constituere. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. temperament. as nature. temper. constitution. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. laws of the organic constitution. comes from the Latin root. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. to form or make up. to work". The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). and as an adjective it means. Turner’s Dictionary. This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. make something available". O'Reilly edition. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. defines the German term. beschaffenheit (make up).dynamic influence (§11). the make-up of the body & soul. the unity of life. . Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). published in Leipzig in the 1830s. Introduction. our living human organism. Beschaffenheit. The English word. page 12. In this sense constitutional means. the complete whole. The W. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. to establish. "to procure. "constituted". Beschaffen is a verb that means. quality. This. condition. "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen.
Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 98. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. composition. 143. . 142. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. Pages 30. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions.constitution. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. 75. 90. Therefore. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. For example. 2. The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. which means the congenital bodily constitution. 242. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. its constitution. 34. disposition and circumstance. construction or nature. 243. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. etc. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. 101. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 48. 1. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". 103. 3. 145. 99. 35. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 181. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen.
(§ 9. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. Every sensation.. 11. the event itself. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. Delhi. page 194. B. vital force and body. One does not appear without the other. This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Lebenskraft). the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names. Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). every manifestation of power. No part can suffer without all other parts. mind.g. that is. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. Dudgeon and Boericke.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. a unity. it comprises of the body." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition. "Organism: An organized or organic system.. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted.g. Appendix. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. The human organism houses the mental. which is more than the sum of its parts. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. emotional and bodily faculties. Jain. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole. India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art.
there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. "The employment of this. 1833. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured.teachings on temperaments. Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. 3rd edition. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. page 345. References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. as of all other medicines. physis. and its fruit in Hahnemann. its trunk in Hippocrates. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments. its branches in Paracelsus. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their .
and are quick in their movements. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. mild. he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. silent peevishness). positive and negative qualities. As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". For example. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". This portrait includes natural. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. Ms. this is not the complete picture. even though they may appear to be good tempered. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief.resolutions with rapidity. which means "who": . slow phlegmatic temperament). temperament or diathesis in his prescribing. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms.
both if possible. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. therefore." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. Therefore. for the natural disposition rests on it. but also of rare occurrence and. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s. which must be scanned all the more carefully. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. jovial person becomes thin. Therefore. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . then the bodily constitution and the temperament. Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence.e. nature and genius) in The Organon. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing".the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit.. if a formerly obese. correspond to only few remedies. if they are not only sharply distinct. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . For example."Quis? As a matter of course the personality. In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. separated according to his sick and his well days i. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice".
swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. pseudopsora. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. This same is true with sycosis. the menses were delayed. page 17. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. burning pains. 15-18. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. the menses disappear prematurely. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. attended with deep. Volume I.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). also by inflammatory fever. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. Junker makes . This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. 1750. This is the true Esse. also other indurations. Halle. Vide The Chronic Diseases. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. p. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs.
Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. predisposition. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. general appearance of anything. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. as well as the present state of the spirit. If this is not the case. befallments and symptoms. miasms and constitutional diathesis. these symptoms become more strange. gnomon-onos. temperament. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. esp.physiognomy. from the face. the art of judging character from the appearance. to temper. and constitution. nature. mind and body. Let us look at the definition of the key terms.. heredity. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine. . Temperament from Latin. sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. an interpreter. compound. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. moderate. For example.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. character. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. This 2. rare and peculiar. restrain." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. aspectGreek. phlegmatic. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. temperare.
an innate or acquired disposition. Temper-noun. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. Constitution.choleric. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. the choleric or bilious. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). composure. water. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. the cholero-sanguine. the phlegmosanguine. pitch and mood) by the vital force. the nervo-phlegmatic. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. a mood. nervo. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. voice. a natural temperament. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. temperament. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. the constitution of the body and/or mind. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. air. Each of these temperaments represents . the sangino-phlegmatic. phlegmatic. the phlegmo-choleric. Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. to exert self control. a frame of mind. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. a natural disposition. a proportioned mixture of qualities. phlegmatic. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). the spiritual body organism.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. a fit of anger. the sanguino. the cholero-nervous. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. sanguine and melancholy constitutions. an internal constitutional state. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. fire.choleric. and the nervo-sanguine. the five elements (ether. to be uncontrolled.
Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. venous constitution. lecture on Nux Vomica. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. thin. II. irritable. composure. sanguine and nervous melancholic. mood. Among these may be mentioned. II.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. wicked irascible disposition. Suits thin. melancholic people. zealous persons. spite or deception. II. zealous. Nux Vomica. Vide Materia Medica Pura. or of a spiteful. that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment. inclined to get angry or excited. Volume VIII. malicious disposition. with tendency to hemorrhoids. For very particular. page 223. page 168. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. fiery. of an irritable." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. Nervous. Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. phlegmatic. the choleric. nervous disposition. (hepatic affections) I. choleric persons with dark hair. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. state. Debauches. II. etc. troubled with indigestion. always irritable and impatient. Vide Guiding Symptoms. "II. hot temperament. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . II. I. or of a malicious. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. I (4) is the second grade. Drug subjects. "Some practical instructions may be of use. Bilious temperaments.
. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. habits. §5. These are all constitutional general rubrics. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". drugs). The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. dark. dry. melancholic. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. fair skin. with quick perceptions. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. impatient. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. nervous anxious temperaments. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. irritable. etc). choleric. thin. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion). fine. blond haired. nervous dispositions with their traits). Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. delicate eyelashes. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. (addicted to wine. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious.7). Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. indigestion. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. chilly. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. spiteful. dark hair). rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. bilious. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties. and very sensitive nature. Allen includes temperaments. mental rubrics (angry. Boenninghausen and Hering. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids.6. miasmic tendencies. hepatic affections). physical descriptions (thin. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. choleric persons. On this constitutional basis the signs. blond or red hair.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. coffee. One might ask.
if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Readily laughs. B. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. such as how they respond to noise. Ailments tend to the left side. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. For example. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Digestive system. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. hair colour. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. under or overweight. Type . sad. preferred type of clothing and so on. so B will be the best remedy. confident. hair type. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. Dislikes chilled foods. Prone to bedwetting. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. or C. Often anxious and worried. Alb. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension. fat or thin. Physical factors are also important. long or short limbed. May react badly to new situations like moving house. lazy etc. The Argent Nit. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B.tearful. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. cries and loses temper. candy. Finds it difficult to control emotions. salt and cheese. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems.The Argent Nit. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Eyes. The Arsen. if they are bright and alert in the morning. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. their eye colour.
Perfectionist at work and at home. The Calc. Can be critical and intolerant. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Skeletal system. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. Carb. Types. alcohol and sour tasting foods. Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Fine facial features with fine. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. bloated and tired in appearance. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Teeth. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. warm foods and drinks. Exhaustion. sensitive and quiet. keeps room tidy. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Dislikes mess and being messy. Prone to depression. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. Easily upset by loud noise. Physical weaknesses: Ears. Respiratory system (coughs. nose and throat. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Alb. . Alb. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Skin. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. may manifest as back ache. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Skin. Strong opinions. in particular coffee. Sluggish. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. Digestive system. candy. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. delicate skin. Reassurance helps to improve condition. prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Often well groomed and stylish. The Arsen.
May have rough. carbohydrates. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. usually dark. seafood and hot drinks. Prone to dark circles under eyes. Type. Dislikes sweet foods. Slow metabolic rate. salt.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. Sighs a lot. Possible difficulty in . The Graphites type like savoury foods. Carb. child: Plump and overweight. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. Nails. Timid. hesitant and anxious. salt. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. tearful and despondent then impatient. Ears. Can have a rugged. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. iced drinks and ice cream. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. boiled food and boiled milk. desserts. Dry lips. candy. windswept appearance. be exhausted. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. Can fall over easily. chocolate. dry skin that can crack easily. Rapid and extreme mood swings. May often have sores in corner of mouth. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. prone to suppression of grief. Carb. Blushes easily. nose bleeds. Dislikes fatty meats. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Dry hair. Not an early morning person. Possible mood swings. Dark to mid range colour hair. Placid and calm. Physical weaknesses: Skin. eggs. have bad breath. such as vegetables and salads. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. The Calc. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Flaky scalp.
Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. Jealous and possessive. choughs. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. varicose veins. Dislikes sweet foods. sour and savoury foods. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. May lick lips a lot. Prefers not to be alone. sore throats and asthma. May experience headaches. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. can be hurtful to peers. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. The Lycopodium Type . constipation. sore throats. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. causing outbursts of anger. cool drinks. crying and poor grades at school. leading to headaches. coughs and colds. Dislikes sweet drinks. Talkative. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. The Ignatia child: Highly strung.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. carbohydrates. dairy products. palpitations and panic attacks. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Prone to left-side problems. May be sensitive to noise. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). May view self as sinful when religious. Hyperactivity. sore throat. excitable and sensitive. alcohol and seafood. Responds well to encouragment. twitching and grinding teeth. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. Strong. especially new babies. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. fixed expression. staring eyes.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Suspicious of strangers. bad sleep and insomnia. Strong. menopausal problems. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma.
The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. Anxious over important events. Sol. May explode with rage and anger. Right-side problems. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. Often look older than their years. prostate. Hates being contradicted. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. onions. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Insecure and hates change. Avoids commitment. Thinning hair in men.The Merc. Sol. kidney stones. Facial twitching. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Forgetful. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). Susceptible to ear nose and . Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. Dislikes wearing light clothing. male baldness. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. May stammer. Type Appearance: Medium build. with grey translucent look. sore throats. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Shy and cautious. Hair may be fair to medium colour. garlic and seafood. child: Irritating behaviour. The Merc. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. creating mountains out of molehills. swelling of glands and exhaustion. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. Conscientious and achiever academically. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome.
Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Watery. Loves animals. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. May suffer from headaches under pressure. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. Can be addicted to sex. Dislikes coffee and bread. mur. strong and lean build in men. premenstrual syndrome. May have dark circles under eyes. type may be professional and career minded. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. Slow development. Dry cracked lips. skin problems. Ages prematurely. Medium to dark hair. anorexia. Intolerant of imperfection in others. Solid. The Nat. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. mouth ulcers and cold sores. Well behaved. which can lead to depression. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. especially when young. Depression. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Can be very ambitious. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. red eyes. . The Nat. child: Small for their age. sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. fear. palpitations and headaches. Down to Earth with mind set on career. mur. May have cravings for alcohol. mur. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. guilt and loneliness. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as. cigarettes. May look stressed and tense. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim.throat complaints. coffee. Smart appearance. Finds it difficult to relax. Impatient. anger.
The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. Artistic and creative in appearance. coffee and spicy foods. Strong fear of the dark. Loves to receive attention. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Left-side problems. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. alcohol. cheese and cream. Expressive. spicy food. Coughs and colds. Likes to be stylish. alcohol. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Headaches. Circulation problems. Fine skin. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. salt. Can have fair to dark hair. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Feels better after sleep. May have temper tantrums. Dizziness. Migraines and headaches. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Can be hard work for partner. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Short attention span. Nervous. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. Competitive as a teenager. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. carbonated drinks. Hernia and hay fever. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Weakness of the lungs.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. mild cheeses and sweet foods. The Pulsatilla Type .
cold foods and cold drinks. Medium to dark hair. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids. Headaches and migraine. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Catarrh. Cries easily. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. Prone to coughs and colds. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Hates being contradicted. Loves animals. often with brown eyes. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. Gentle and kind appearance. Also laughs easily. Likes to be supported by others. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Often sits with legs crossed. Can suppress guilt and anger. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. . Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Varicose veins. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. Blushes easily. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired. Conditions usually improve with exertion. and very rich. spicy foods. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. Can look younger than actual age. Irritable bowel syndrome. as holds strong opinions. Skin problems. Often rests with hands behind head. tragic news or weepy movies. Can feel better after weeping. Skin problems. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Avoids confrontation. Sensitive to changes in the weather.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Styes. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Avoids crowds but fears being alone.
The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Can be shy. Can become a bedwetter. moves and new jobs. with petite appearance. Dislikes dairy products. especially due to burnout from new projects. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. fine features. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Exhaustion. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. Moody. Does not like being alone. The Sepia child: Greedy. citrus fruits. The Sulphur Type . The head can appear too large for the body. Delicate.Dietary factors: Likes spices. Dislikes very hot food. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. Feels the cold. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Usually tidy and well behaved. Skin problems. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. Headaches. Dislikes meet and dairy products. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Feels the cold. apart from large head. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. Not sporty as has little stamina. with a large forehead. almost doll-like in appearance. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. especially cheese and milk. especially milk. Slowness in healing and getting well. sour and savoury foods. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. Prone to mental exhaustion. sweet foods and alcohol. Prone to constipation. Constipation.
Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Can be hyperactive in the evening. Has a very healthy appetite. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. haemorrhoids and constipation. Can be critical. Likes alcohol. Dislikes most hot drinks. Hair may be course. temperament. May look untidy. May lack willpower and self-esteem. Likes to argue. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. Dislikes dairy products. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. heredity. Does not like showers. Might not complete ideas and projects. spicy foods. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. bathing or washing hands. hot. salads and seafood. citrus fruits. especially milk and eggs.Appearance: May be slim with poor posture. body odour. disposition. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. burning feet. dry. mistuned and displaced into abnormal . Vide Organon.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution.
When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. they mount until the end of life.feelings and functions. heart . Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. Therefore." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired." Note 78. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. "The true. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. Lamarck.
Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. a moment of infection. However. i. grief and worry. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. implanted in them through infection or heredity. 2. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state.e. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. On this basis. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years. prodromal stage and primary. incubation period. Third. the acute. medicinal treatment.. and especially through inexpedient.and body. 3. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. He points out that mental and . congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. were completely vanished. Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. First of all. by contact with the infected host. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. 1. He classified miasms into three categories. Second.
and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution. hereditary dispositions. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. inheritance. and. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. predisposition and diathesis. the mental temperament. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. is announced by the increase of the . Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. habits. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances.
thus attaining incredible proliferation. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. deviate so greatly from one another. morals. in and of themselves. These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). For these reasons. to some extent. climate. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . his morality. his turn of mind.symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. his manner of living and diet. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. befallments and symptoms. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen). " It is. etc. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. his employment. his hereditary disposition. which already. the various errors in his education and habits. diet and stress (nurture). and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. The next most important factors are environment. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. etc. diet. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. little by little.
. 1. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms. sycotic. 3. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. and/or mind.e. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. i. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. scrofulous. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. etc. a constitutional predisposition or tendency. A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . leucophlegmatic. diathesis. diathesis. 2. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. psoric. From the Greek. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms. venous. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. DIATHESIS. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. lymphatic.
Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. MERC. FERR. constitutions. CALC. murx. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. 1.. Fibre. constitutions. Carb-v. Petr.. aur-m. Hemorrhagic. Example: "Lymphatic. Sep. Hysterical. Lean. Gouty. constitutions. Rheumatic. Emaciated constitutions. Puls. constitutions. kalm. Paralytic. Fibre rigid.. constitutions.. aster.. constitutions. Asthmatic constitutions. Lymphatic. Tall lean. constitutions -am-c. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice. BELL... bapt.. GRAPH... Sil. constitutions. Venous.. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. and their similar remedies. constitutions. bloated. nit-ac. constitution.. ars. Plethoric. thin people.. For example. thuj. arn. phos.. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section.. Sulph.. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state... CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies.. constitutions. people. Scrofulous. Bar-m." 2.. BAR-C.. Apis. constitutions.. Cann-i. Hep.. Nat-m. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include. Rhus-t. Large fat. . constitutions.to both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy. Dwarfish. Lyc. lax. calc-ar.. Chin. dulc. Tubercular. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples... constitutions.
constitutions. hep...... ant-t. sep.." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories.. Mez.... CALC.. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and ... Sulph. constitutions. Sil. Clem.. spong. Phyt.. Choleric. temperament. NUX V. constitutions-agar. NIT-AC.. CHEL.. AUR.. Lach. Tubercular. Phos. constitutions and their remedies.. These are general symptoms of the constitution.. Cham.constitutions. Syphilitic. KALI-C.. Example: "SYPHILITIC. ant-c. mag-m.. Fl-ac. Sanguine constitutions.. Puls. Phlegmatic. constitutions-Ars. Sycotic constitutions. Mercc." 3. Caps. aec-t. sulph. Cocc. ferr-i... Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include.. plat.. nat-s. constitutions. Melancholic.. cinnam. PHOS. Example: "Fibre. Merc. SYPH. and their similar remedies. MERC... Guai.... bar-c. Cor-r. acon. Sars. iris. lax.. constitutions. constitutions. chion." Rubrics related to the miasms include.. Bell. KALI-I.. lept..... Bilious. ail.. Still.. cann-i... constitutions. CHIN. SABAD. Nervous.... OP... bor... Merc-d.... ambr.. Crot-h. sang... Ph-ac. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). Petr. MERC. Psoric. Merc-i-f.. ptel.. Kali-b.. Phos. chol. ars... Ip... diathetic states and miasms. Sil. calc-p.... Example: "Bilious. MAG-C.... constitutions. euph.... Aesc. cund. CARD-M..... PSOS.. constitutions. berb. BRY. Thuj. Benz-ac.
"The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy.conditioning factors. susceptibility. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. or of the Copaiva balm. temperament. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it. diathesis and miasms. or a small dose of Cannabis. inheritance. This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. Vide Sycosis. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. of Cantharides. susceptibility. temperament. the footnote on page 150. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. miasms and diathesis. The Chronic Diseases. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate. For example.
5th edition. Tokyo. 1987 (republished 1988). Robert. etc. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. 1994. Klaus-Henning. New Remedies. 1989. (b) 1996 tr. Close. 1986. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. 1983. Decker. Madrid. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Margery. B Jain. Beaconsfield Publishers. The Genius of Homœopathy. Kent. Dudgeon (republished 1994). 1986. Donald McD. W&R Chambers. Hahnemann. Blackie. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Cambridge. 1954 (republished 1994). B Jain. sanguine and nervous temperaments. Edinburgh.choleric. New Delhi. Classical Homœopathy. WA. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Douglas. signs. C M Boger Collected Writings. ed. 1842. . 1988. New Delhi. The Tao of Physics. Melbourne. Gypser. Lesser Writings. Birdcage Books. Capra. Chambers English Dictionary. Beaconsfield. Tutorials on Homœopathy. B Jain. London. New York. phlegmatic. B Jain. Beaconsfield. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. Gutman. 1993. Brewster O’Reilly. the Essence of its Remedies. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan. The Organon of Medicine. William. ed. Borland. Bombay. James Tyler. Stuart. London. Flamingo. Fritjoff. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. Redmond. Homœopathy in Practice. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Beaconsfield. Foubister. Samuel. (a) 1922 tr. Churchill Livingstone. 6th edition. 1988. B Jain. Wenda. Beaconsfield Publishers. New Delhi. New Delhi. Clinical Cases. New Delhi. Beaconsfield Publishers. befallments and symptoms. 1994. Aphorisms and Precepts.
London. New Delhi. New Delhi. Thorsons. Whitmont. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. 1979. 1994. New Delhi. North Atlantic Books. Dorset & Baber. The Spirit of Homœopathy. tr. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Unknown (between 6-600BC). 1988. Van Hoy Publishers. Berkeley. Herbert A. Ralph. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Yasgur. . Twentyman. Tao te Ching. 1st edition. 1980. Rajan. London. George. 1980. Unwin Paperbacks. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Bombay. Proceso Sanchez. PA. 1985. The Science of Homœopathy. Floris Books. Edward C. 2nd edition. CA. B Jain. Bombay. Ortega. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Wellingborough. 1986. The Science and Art of Healing. Vithoulkas. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Edinburgh. 2nd edition. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. New York. 1991. Tophi Books. 1989. The Substance of Homœopathy. Ch’u TaKao (1959). Notes on the Miasms. Greenville. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. B Jain. Leeser. 1994. 3rd edition. Sankaran. Psyche and Substance. Otto. 1935. 1942 (republished 1994).• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. Jay. Roberts.
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