Constitution: Introduction: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies.

Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont) In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. DEFINITIONS: Constitution [n. constitution \ Lat.: Constitūtĭo - Arrangement] Constitutions [pl. constitutions < constitution] Homeopathic constitution:

[Homeopathic constitution < homeopathy + constitution] That description (arrangement) which fits the homeopathic type or archetype and totality. Those "descriptions" are being giving since the beginning of homeopathy (Hahnemann) and "constitute" the whole description of the image which fits a situation, type of a person or homeopathic remedy and totality. The constitution can be expressed in physical and psychological terms and is an holistic expression because the homeopathic remedy, expressing the constitution, is from an external source and has equal characteristics as the person with the "constitution". This should be equal to the homeopathic simillimum.

(CHAMBERS ENGLISH DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt) To set up; to establish; to form or make up; to appoint; to give being to


The act of constituting; the natural condition of body or mind; disposition; a system of laws and customs established by the sovereign power of a state for its own guidance; an established form of government; a particular law or usage; in chemistry, molecular structure, taking into account not only the kinds and numbers of atoms but the way in which they are linked. Constitutional: Inherent in the natural frame; natural; agreeable (adj.) to the constitution or frame of government; essential; legal; reigning subject to fixed laws; supporting the existing constitution. —n. a walk for the sake of one’s health. [Latin- constituere, constitutum — con intens, statuere to make stand, to place] (WEBSTERS NEW TWENTIETH CENTURY DICTIONARY) Constitute : (vt.) [L. constitutus, pp. of constituere, to set up, establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.] to set up (a law, government , institution, etc.); establish. to set up (an assembly, proceeding, etc.) in a legal or official form. to set up as; appoint; ordain; as, the students constituted him their spokesman. to make up; form; compose; be the components or elements of; as, twelve people constitute a jury. to make up or form of elements, material, etc.


[ME. constitucion; OFr. constitution; L. constitutio, from constituere, to establish; from com-, together, and statuere, to set.]

A setting up; establishment. an appointing. a making up; composition.

The way in which a thing is made up; structure; organisation; make-up.

The way in which a person is made up; physical or mental make-up; as, a man of strong constitution.

The way in which a government, state, society, etc. is organised.

The system of fundamental laws and principles of a government, state, society, corporation, etc., written or un written.

A document or set of documents in which these laws and principles are written down.

Constitutional : (adj.)

Of, pertaining to, or inherent in, the constitution of a person or thing; basic; essential. of, in, authorised by, subject to, dependent on, or in accordance with the constitution of a government, state, society, etc.

upholding the constitution. beneficial to or having the tendency to benefit the constitution; good for one’s health; as, a constitutional walk.

(ROGET'S THESAURUS) Constitution:

• •

Intrinsicality.—N. Intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence,inhesion, immanence; subjectiveness; ego; essence; essentialness, etc; essential part, essential stuff, substance, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, core, kernel, marrow, sap, life-blood, backbone, heart, soul, life, flower; important part, etc. Principle, nature, constitution, character, ethos, type, quality, crasis, diathesis. Habit; temper, -ament; spirit, humor, grain, disposition, streak, tendency etc. Endowment, capacity; capability, etc.; moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities, etc.; idiosyncrasy; idiocrasy; diagnostics.

The difficulty in defining the nature of constitution and constitutional remedies to which Whitmont refers in the opening paragraph of his essay on ‘Constitution and Disposition’ is inherent in the very meaning of the words, shown above in the definitions from Chambers and Websters Dictionaries.

To constitute is both to bring something into being, and the way in which that being is made up. A constitution can simultaneously be ‘the sum total of an individual’s characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation’ (or conceivably an even wider definition should the influence of past lives — or even the fundamental interconnectedness of all forms of life — be taken into account) as well as various more narrowly focused descriptions of the form elements or patterns that constitute the perceived totality of an individual at a defined space-time singularity, (ie. at a particular time and place within our linear conception of time). The difficulties to which Whitmont addresses his essay are not just those of the particularly homœopathic definition of the terms, but are in the nature of the difficulties posed philosophically and semantically by any attempt to describe particular contingent forms of a dynamic continuum, of which only a tiny part is apparent to our present level of perception. • • • • • The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name. Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth; Existence is the mother of all things. From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe; • From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions. • These two are the same in source and become different when manifested. • This sameness is called profundity. Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe. (Lao Tzu. Ch 1.) Since the Universe is holographic, one could well say ‘so what?’ — within the narrow definition is implicit the wider (and vice versa). But this does not address the problem highlighted by Whitmont: how can a differentiation be made between what is constitutional and what is not constitutional? How do we define the boundaries of the individual, particularly if we are attempting to tune our perception of the world to accord with systems theory? How can the term constitution be grounded and given a practical and useful role in medicine? How does it relate to concepts such as susceptibility, symptom totality, miasmatic inheritance

which determines the individuals reaction. 1986. to the stress of environment. It is in the early undiagnosable stages of illness that we must find the constitutional remedy. In this sense.and distinctions such as those between common and characteristic symptoms? BY STUART CLOSE: Constitution is that aggregate of hereditary characters influenced more or less by environment. emotionally and physically. p14) . but also the past and future. It is also used to differentiate between ‘types’ of patients by describing them according to various systems of classification.KENT: Physical constitution is the external disorder in the man. as does Margery Blackie’s statement. BY DR.J. by addressing the inner disturbance which gives rise to outward disease symptoms. ‘The constitutional remedy is a picture of the sum total of the strengths and weaknesses of the person. It is treating the patient’s susceptibility (which may include the propensity to repeated acutes and any existing chronic disease). the term constitution seems to be used most frequently when referring to ‘constitutional prescribing’ to indicate the consideration of a wider. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TERM 'CONSTITUTION': In homœopathy. the vital force. the previously manifest. mentally. it links in to the definition cited by Whitmont above. It treats the manifest. and also the potential to manifest.T. Constitutional prescribing does not simply address the present disturbance. Constitutional prescribing is not the same as chronic prescribing. deeper totality than that called for by an acute episode. since the patient does not have to exhibit any sign of chronic disease pathology to require a constitutional remedy.’ (Blackie. and in determining common and characteristic symptoms of disease. successful or unsuccessful.

p27) and has its uses — ‘According to the recognition of characteristic traits of a patient in an image of drug actions. either in the Organon or in Chronic Diseases. does he introduce a different dimension when he writes: ‘A medicine. as opposed to common. Most often. one speaks in homoeopathy of a lachesis case. but only in many different. cannot bring forth all of its condition-alterations in one person. and that many people exhibit symptoms which correspond to the symptom picture or ‘drug’ picture of each of these remedies. The four traditional temperament types (melancholic.’ Hahnemann himself makes no reference to constitutional prescribing or typing. The idea of constitutional typing arose long before homœopathy: ‘The conception of a patient in terms of healing agent is found even in Paracelsus … ‘stress in our drugs the cure and not the causes because the healing shows us the cause’. sanguine) used in medicine for centuries were elaborated and redefined . it has become a common habit for homoeopathic doctors to speak of the remedies as if they were the patients and vice versa. Only in paragraph 136. to have used the term constitution purely to describe the makeup of the individual. with several of the earlier homœopathic writers. the impression given is that he has in mind the physical form — all but one reference to constitution in the Organon refer specifically to the ‘discernible body constitution’ which is differentiated from ‘mental and emotional character’ as early as paragraph 5. It is perhaps from this standpoint that Whitmont's complaint about a lack of differentiation between constitutional and nonconstitutional factors arises. 1988. diverging body. There appears to have been a vogue for constitutional typing during the 19th century. 1935. phlegmatic. which deals with provings.Boger appears to regard the constitution as that which produces the characteristic. The originally practical therapeutic consideration becomes a fruitful discovery and division principle for constitutions. symptoms of the disease (Bannan. pviii) she states. … Unfortunately. 1842.’ (Hahnemann. choleric. p77). of a sulphur man or a phosphorus type.and soul-constitutions. 1994. over the years. during its proving in the healthy state.’ (Leeser. 1935. p26) However. like any model.’ (Leeser. ‘It has been found that certain remedies are indicated very frequently. In Kathleen Priestman’s introduction to Borland’s Homoeopathy in Practice (Borland. (b) §136) Early homoeopaths seem to have understood constitution largely in terms of the physical makeup of the body. the conception has also been misused. He appears.

p651 and Kent. Pende. 'In the undertaking of a constitutional therapy there is already the implication that the constitution is not an unalterable state. One who knows how to find a homœopathic remedy for sick people does not pause long to take the measure of the normal constitution of his patient. No two observers mean the same thing when they speak of a bilious condition or temperament. carbonitrogenoid. or pathology is but a misunderstanding of our homœopathic principles. as no two are sufficiently similar. The bilious temperament is too vague and too variable. in common with the later well-known stratification of mesomorphs.' (Leeser. Later divisions were proposed by A Nebel (carbonic. endomorphs and ectomorphs. phosphoric. who has changed from the normal to the abnormal constitution. Human beings are a thousand times more complex than the chess-board in the hands of most skillful players. even accurately. 1994. . …Temperaments are not caused by provings. p39) Foubister also warns against prescribing on constitutional type.’ (Gypser. tubercular and fluoric) and H Bernard ( many during this period. 1994. when observed by a genuine homœopathician to form even a common class. contrasting with later understanding such as that stated by Leeser. even when morbid. cold air. 1987. 1935. 1987. the form or shape. the tall or short. To twist these temperaments into our pathogenesis. Kretschmer. changes of weather. ‘The colour of the hair and eyes. to guide to a remedy. Kent was evidently aware of the tendency to constitutional typing as he cautions against it: ‘It is a fatal error to classify constitutions. warm air. …Nothing leads the physician to failure so certainly as classification. citing the various classifications of Czerny. and are not changed in any manner by our remedies. symptomatology. for he may be better or worse from motion. phosphoric. stating ‘The fact that anyone can be fitted into a type. including Edward von Grauvogl (1811-1877) who proposed the classification of body types into hydrogenoid. however wellindicated by symptoms found in persons of marked temperamental makeup. and oxygenoid.’ (Gypser. p377. exertion and so on to the end of our modalities. and fluoric) who based his types on embryological layer predomination. sulphuric. p650 and Kent. Ortega traces these from Trousseau’s concept of disease ‘diathesis’. There were also many classifications which were based on pathology. Emphasis added) Note that Kent regards the constitution (temperament) as essentially unalterable. Romero and Maranon. are not generally considered morbid. nor do they take any part whatever in the sick image of any given totality of symptoms. p272) And again.

Leeser traces this line of thought to its origin in his extensive exploration of the subject of constitution: ‘Hahnemann's theory of chronic diseases at first glance has nothing to do with the doctrine of constitutions. by the influence of the milieu. 1942. …[Their] ultimate aim … may be reduced to: the recognition. 1942. p170) Roberts bases his classification on the classical temperaments — nervous.’ (Roberts. and finally. the three . rather than remedy-based. fate. phlegmatic — but cautions against typing by remedy: ‘…the remedy indicated by the conditions of disturbed balance is the one that will most quickly restore the equilibrium. furthermore. bilious.’ (Roberts. however. Hahnemann expressly stresses that even the most robust constitution cannot remove a psora which has once succeeded in developing. the presentation of evidence. And still the three divisions of Hahnemann have become an important part of the conception of constitutional disease and therapy in the homœopathic school.does not mean that the remedy for that type is required at any given time. which somewhat reduce the heterogeneity of ailments and constitute entities with enough in common to make them more easily understood in their different ways of manifesting their anomalies. who sees some value in constitutional typing: ‘The homœopathic prescription is often biased by the temperament to the extent that certain temperaments bring out certain symptom pictures much more readily than do other so-called temperaments. p171) Ortega. according to Hahnemann. 1989. p26) This view is modified by Roberts. ‘The quest for the constitutional basis which modifies human suffering has been the task of all the great masters of medicine. Further. According to him only the form and manifestation of the psora will be modified by the constitution of the individual concerned. … Just so far as the temperaments as classified develop symptoms in their conventional lines may we depend upon them as guides in the selection of the remedy. mode of living and weather influences. p9-10) The difference in his approach stems from his understanding of constitutional types as being miasmatic-. This has its basis in that. sanguinous. the division into syphilis. 1980. takes a different slant on constitutional typing. the classification of the human species into modes of suffering. forming groups.’ (Ortega.’ (Foubister. regardless of the temperament. sycosis and psora is distinctly related to exogenous causes of disease. He regards Hahnemann’s classification of psora. In contrast. sycosis and syphilis as being his contribution to constitutional typology.

In such cases. 1935. while the prescriber systematically peels off layer upon layer of predisposing weaknesses by carefully prescribing each remedy based on the totality of symptoms in the moment. a classification principle which we have discovered as characteristic for the homœopathic conception of constitution. these must be taken into account in treatment intending to be completely curative. It is . As Yasgur states. to permit three uniform causes to become the principles of division and from this three types of disease relationships and anlages. p127) Hahnemann's miasms are extended to include all major disease diatheses as well as allopathic drugs and vaccines. p36) Close also regards Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as a major contribution to medicine. (Close. However. in his chapter on the General Pathology of Homœopathy. pp87121) In Vithoulkas' writing. opposed to Hahnemann's conception. So it seems likely. many people regard Vithoulkas as one of the prime exponents of constitutional typing by remedy. He does not appear to advocate any kind of constitutional typing. resulting from his method of presenting remedies by their 'essences' and describing them in terms of patient personalities. However.’ (Vithoulkas. complete cure will take a relatively long time. to categorise and deconstruct. divorcing the connection to constitution more evident in Leeser and Ortega. Whether or not this was his original intention is not clear. A further basis for this interpretation is found in that Hahnemann has prescribed definite drugs or groups of drugs for the three chronic evils. … This union to related drugs gives the triple division.forms of life damage are so fundamental that they bequeath definite predisposition to disease from generation to generation. ‘The most important contribution of Hahnemann's exploration into the miasms is the concept that there exist layers of predisposition which underlie the waxing and waning of temporary ailments. the term is generally used in the context of its strength (ie. It is in our nature to group and dissect. not patients. adding occupational or drug diseases to the three miasms to give four fundamental classifications. 1993. Underpinning the whole debate is the basic human tendency to classify experience into meaningful groupings in response to underlying form patterns. 1986. a strong or weak constitution) when describing the response of an individual to morbific influences. ‘Typing or classifying the ‘human animal’ is something which has been with us for thousands of years.’ (Leeser. he writes purely about the classification of disease.

p175) The recognition of ‘the manifest importance of the predisposing ‘terrain’ which virtually generates. p150) different patterns of connections will be perceived by different people — and all will be equally valid viewpoints of a part of that reality. Moreover he may fall prey to degenerative disease even though he is a good body builder. unthinking approaches as much as to intelligent and pragmatic interpretation.part of human nature to constantly strive to understand the world and our fellow man. it is open to formulaic. There is some confusion in the mind of some regarding good constitution and well built physique. But as with any set of data. Constitutional differences are the differences of response patterns to identical situations.) The difficulty with this definition is that it does not adequately reflect the dynamic nature of constitution. 1980. Emphasis added. New endeavours to think in constitutional terms are apparent in all the efforts made towards preventive medicine. 1994.’ (Whitmont. D in Capra. on the other hand a man with bad constitution is made sick by any infectious disease.’ (Yasgur. It is no wonder that ‘typing’ is so ubiquitous in the makeup of world cultures. 1980. the sickness’ (Ortega. 1983. Built is something more than the well formed body. characteristic patterns. at base. It is not affected easily by infringing the laws of health. a man can able to enjoy his life harmoniously without any hesitation and his vital operation as regard both sensation and function can freely employed for the higher purpose of our existence. In this field the analysis of risk factor is gaining increasing relevance. or at least moderates. It is also in large measure subjective: given ‘that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality’ (Bohm. In this state. prompts all attempts at constitutional typing. most chronic diseases originate in the patient’s constitution. in his inherited and evolving constitution. p45. It is evident that risk factor are to be found not only in the environment but particularly also in the individual person of the patient. CONCEPTION OF ‘CONSTITUTION’: It deals with the physical and mental makeup of an individual. Whitmont implies a fixity of . TOWARDS A REDEFINITION OF 'CONSTITUTION': Whitmont himself offers the following definition — ‘…constitution is the inherent tendency to respond automatically along qualitatively predetermined individual. Constitutions can be characterised by characterising these fixed response patterns. p12) is what.

rather as an artist may use another picture as one for his own creation. p112) However. middle age. we mean that each person has a specific. 1991. He does not write at any length about the nature of constitution. but while describing personality types typical of each miasm and deriving a situational analogy for each. He equates the miasms (with the addition of an acute miasm) to stages of life (childhood. If change does occur. . 1994. This body is not yet the creation and expression of the individuality seeking to embody itself therein … up until the change of teeth. while they may very well remain essentially constant over long periods of time (even a lifetime) are nevertheless capable of change. Twentyman takes the anthroposophical perspective.response patterns which. he devotes a large part of his later work to classification of disease.’ (Sankaran. p27). implying that they have moved from one constitution to another? Or implying that only the nature or dynamic of their constitution has changed? And what is an acceptable definition of change. mind and disease. The body is determined by hereditary forces and must present an obstacle to the soul seeking expression in this world. since there are no such things as completely ‘identical situations’? Sankaran’s views come in at this point. individual body. neurosis and psychosis (Sankaran. do we then say that a person’s constitution has changed. he emphasises that each case is invariably a combination of two or more miasmatic states. By this. In this he distinguishes between previous states which have left their still-visible imprint on the patient and presenting states in which what needs to be cured is the only reliable guide to the remedy. From this point of view we can envisage that a strong individuality will be able to transform the inherited traits for its own use in building the bodily instrument for its life work. He devotes a chapter in The Spirit of Homœopathy to the subject of ‘Treating the Present State’ in which he emphasises the need to treat the totality of the present. old age) and also to the psychiatric classifications of functional. this soul spirit entity is building its own body using the inherited body as a model. defining it simply — ‘Each person has a specific constitution. following Lesser and Ortega in regarding Hahnemann's miasmatic theory as the basis for his interpretations of disease as delusion. and throws a different light on the nature of hereditary predispositions: ‘The soul as individual entity enters into a body borrowed from the parents. youth. Jeremy Sherr's view is that the constitution is that which is calling out for the constitutional remedy.

It is a dynamic continuum subject to constant change while being similar in essence from the moment of conception to the moment of death.’ (Twentyman. in particular. A weaker individuality may not be so able to work upon these hindrances and may have to bear them. Whitmont’s complaint about a lack of useful yardstick (or method. emotional and intellectual make up of a person. But homœopathy is all about recognising and resolving paradoxes. Their very opposition can become a stimulus. 1986. The constitutional remedy is that which resonates most closely with the sum of the presently manifest imbalances within the individual's constitution. be it weight or number. however. a genuine challenge. and it is from this ancient but timeless treatise that an acceptable definition of constitution can perhaps be derived: — An individual's constitution is the sum total of that individual's being which is manifested at a particular moment in time. inheritance and experience up to that point have produced which. as well as the susceptibility to future imbalances from the perspective of the present. The difficulty in arriving at a comprehensive definition of ‘constitution’ is in representing a synthesis of all of them. but is greater than these. CHARACTERS OF CONSTITUTION: 1) It means the inherited and acquired physical. 1989. It comprises the form patterns which their life. 2) It is that which indicates the type to which the individual belongs. p12). by implication. This returns to Lao Tzu. there is no other than the body’s sensation. some to a greater extent than others.’ (Gutman. Our language lags some way behind in being capable of articulating them. you will not find. include the influence of past diseases and the malaises of the present.Even inherited handicaps can be used as obstacles to call forth further creative activity and in a deeper sense may even have been chosen for such a purpose. serving as directive. while simultaneously accepting the ultimately unique nature of every individual. This is not a new problem — Hippocrates stated that: ‘A measure. p295) All the above diverse viewpoints are valid at some level. on another. as later amended) on one level seems irrelevant. It includes the susceptibility to disease patterns (and hence remedy patterns). fulfilling the basic human need to ‘type’ and using the understanding gained by so doing with intelligence. .

Therapeutic study – while study this constitution and observing the sensory and functional phenomena which appeared to be matched by certain objective sign. 4) It is not modified under external or internal influence. a surprising discovery was made showing their frequent relation with three great homoeopathic remedies:- 3) . 2) A study of biochemical investigation made it clear that each morphological constitution was a related to a chemical status.3) It is constant and immetable. 9) These relationships vary according to the constitution under observation but they never undergo a fundamental change in the course of life. 6) The constitution of an individual is to place him in the genus to which he belongs. which appeared to be fairly well determined. 7) The constitution of the subject which is a static state. As they were at birth so they will remain. 11) So constitution is the state what actually exists. the only exception being orthodontics. 10) No treatment can modify them. IMPORTANCE OF CONSTITUTION: 1) Constitution is accurately signified by signs whose presence enables us to have a good knowledge of the whole psychological and morbid entity. 5) So it clearly understood that while constitution is constant factor in the individual. 8) The constitution of the subject is determined by observation. applied at a suitable age for correcting the deformity of the mouth in the fluoric subject. study of form particularly by examination of the relationship between the different parts of the body.

4) It is perfectly easy to recognize the objective signs of different constitution and to realise that they are invariable matched by certain hereditary manifestation and by physical. the carbon.  CARBONITROGENOUS CONSTITUTION: a) A slow oxidation resulting an overrange by metabolites. hydrogen and nitrogen. 6) The practical interest of this description about constitution is surely diagnostic and even prognostic but also therapeutic.a) Calcarea carbonica. dynamic and psychological possibility which are also revealed. oxygen. who describes towards 1870 three biochemic constitution. c) Calcarea flourica.VON GRAUVOGL. . b) Tissues do not absorb sufficient oxygen. 1) Carbonitrogenous constitution. 5) It helps to distinguish clearly between typological entitles and temperamental entitles. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION: A) The German homoeopath DR. c) There is hepatic insufficiency. 7) Thorough study about constitution seems to make easy the selection of a remedy. 3) Oxygenoid constitution. constituted by the four fundamental elements of living matter. perturbation of secretions. 2) Hydrogenoid constitution. b) Calcarea phosphoric.

retension of water in the cells. d) A retension of hydrochloride giving place to an infilrtrative condition. Thuja Occidentalis. hydropexic.. Examples: Natrum Sulfuricum. d) Retracted and emaciated. B) According to a French homoeopath DR. b) Rapid assimilation and disassimilation.LEON VANNIER 1) The carbonic type. Cuprum Met. 3) The fluoric type. & mucouses. Examples: Acid Nit.  THE CARBONIC TYPE: It is characterised by: Morphology: . c) Easy demineralisation.  OXYGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Over activity of oxydating power. b) Puffines. c) He is easily affected by humidity. swollen.Examples: Lycopodium.  HYDROGENOID CONSTITUTION: a) Slow intake of nutrition. Carbo Veg. 2) The phosphoric type. e) Hypohydric aspect with dryness of the skin.

• Stranger. Mentality: • Guided by the reason and the sense of responsibility. • Listens to and applies the advises given to them. Thorax long and flat forward from behind. • Vaulted. • • Predominance of the cranium. • Speaks very little and only about what he knows. • Reasonable. .General aspect : • Short limbed. • Thick Set. • Rigid articulation. •  THE PHOSPHORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Long limbed. • Developed in width. Respects order necessary and in matter. • Detector. • Stubborn. • Rachis supple. • Thick skeleton. • Square Or Sphere.

 THE FLUORIC TYPE: Morphology: • Leanness. • Dreamer.• Shoulder blade prominent. • Easy vanity or dominating. • Skin dry and cracked. • Saddle backed. • Care for elegance. • Imaginative. • Emotive. • Horror of reality. Mentality: • Nervous. • Sensitive. • Superficial. • Does not like neither regularity nor rule. of facts. • Distracted. • Intuitive. Mentality: . • Easily excited and soon depressed. • Asymmetric. • The lower belly fall infront.

All natural diseases are originally functional and then proceed toward pathological damage over time. • Capricious. There is always the merging of the susceptibility of an individual or group with a sympathetic pathogenic influence. • Easily vulgar. He taught that causation was of an interdependent origin rather then any one isolated factor. • Horror of rules and of solitude. • Restless. THE ESSENCE IS THE GESTALT OF THE DISEASE: Hippocrates was the first to write of the constitutional nature of the human organism. • Cannot continue.• Unstable. • Versatile. He taught that all diseases (excluding injuries) were initially general in nature and only become local to provoke a crisis at a latter stage. . • Disorderly. as well as environment conditioning factors. • Unforeseen and lively reaction but not durable. the nature of the disease state. • Brilliant but unstable. Therefore. • Cannot take any decision. The old master also taught that there was no such thing as a single cause in a natural disease. • Intuitive. • Rapid assimilation. the aetiological constellation includes the predispositions of the physical constitution and mental temperament. • Fantastic.

In this sense. Any negative changes in the human constitution and temperament are simply signs that may become part of the totality of the symptoms when characteristic. They are even more averse to the term "constitutional remedy". Vide Organon §5 (O’Reilly edition). Hahnemann used his knowledge of the Hippocratic Canon to understand the nature of the constitution. Kent’s constitutional medicine had nothing to do with giving remedies by classical constitutions or temperaments. "It will help the physician to bring about a cure if he can find out the data of the most probable occasion [Bold by DL] of a acute disease. the physician should take into account the patient's . In these investigations. The fundamental cause of a protracted wasting sickness mostly rests upon chronic miasms. enabling him to find out its fundamental cause [Bold by DL] . Taber’s Medical Dictionary defines the term "constitutional" as something that affects "the whole constitution" and is not "local". Hahnemann certainly made it clear that deep acting homoeopathic remedies affected the whole patient through the medium of the vital force. temperament and predispositions and their relationship to the signs.There are some who are averse to the use of the word "constitution" in any manner. This information forms the basis of understanding the patient (nature-inheritance) as well as the environmental conditioning factors that affect the development of symptoms (nurture-situation). This term was complementary to the "acute remedy". One does not give remedies for constitutions or temperaments per se. It was simply the remedy that was most suited to treat chronic diseases and miasms. befallments and symptoms. In truth. This term was introduced by James Kent to indicate a chronic or anti-miasmaticmedicine that affects the whole patient. The first instruction on homoeopathic case taking is for the homoeopath to record all the significant momenta of the complete case history. chronic medicines are certainly "constitutional remedies". the potential causations including miasms. and the most significant factors in the entire history of a protracted wasting sickness. which was more suitable for the transitory local phenomena associated with acute crisis. Kent spoke out against the use of classical constitutions and temperaments in Homoeopathy in his Lesser Writings. Something that is constitutional pertains to the "whole constitution". as well as the 7 attendant circumstances.

The mental and emotional character. Occupations. Sexual function. in chronic cases). One must understand "who" they are treating by constructing a complete psychological profile. Rubrics of this nature are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory as well as throughout many repertories. venous.). It also includes Hippocratic diathetic constitution (the scrofulous. The discernible body constitution (especially. acute and chronic causations (the aetiological constellation).1. Lifestyle and habits. a description of the physique (tall or thin." The significant factors of the entire medical history (the disease timeline). Discernible body constitution (especially in cases of protracted disease) [Bold by DL] 2. unstable. The 7 attendant circumstances are: 1. strong. and the 7 attendant circumstances form the basis of proper case taking (§5). Age 7. This implies more than merely recording unrelated mental symptoms. 2. In this statement Hahnemann uses the term "charakter". lymphatic. loose or tight tissue types. 4. rational spirit and intellect as well as the soul. 5. This category of symptoms includes a comparison of the physical constitution during a time of relative health with the negative changes brought on by diseases. nervous. Mental and emotional character (character of the Geist and Gemuet) [Bold by DL] 3. rheumatic constitutions. short or fat. On this solid foundation the objective signs. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms of the body and soul are recorded in detail (§6). This refers to the character of the Geist (intellect) & Gemuet (emotional disposition). Civic and domestic relationships (relationships outside and within the home) 6. etc). Rubrics related to these states are . This includes all the qualities related to emotional disposition. etc. etc. the chronic miasms. which means personality rather than just transient mental conditions. etc) and the state of the vitality (weak.

The critical times are conception. How a person chooses to live and what they like to do are very characteristic symptoms. these temperamental rubrics relate to the complete mind/body complex.found through the mental sections of most homoeopathic repertories. 7. It also is an area that reveals many occupational hazards that may produce diseases as well as maintaining causes that obstruct the cure. The sexuality of a human being is closely connected to their physical and emotional health. melancholic) are found in Hering’s Guiding Symptoms and Knerr’s Repertory. Stages of life are a very important part of time and progression in Homoeopathy. Some work well at both extremes of life. These are cardinal general symptoms. puberty. middle age. and old age. The frustration of the orgasm reflex and the human need for intimacy leads to physical and psychosexual disorders. The occupation that a person chooses is often characteristic of the individual's innate talents and desires. The occupation. Some cover problems unique to the female and others male. Investigating how a person lives often reveals indiscretions in diet. These symptoms offer great insights into the personality of the patient and their negative mental states. Hering recorded this is the section of the Guiding Symptoms called States of Life and Constitution. 3. These rubrics include family dynamics as well as social relationships. Age. 4. Dysfunctional relationships produce illness as well as forming maintaining causes that keep up the disease state. Civic and domestic relationships. How a person relates to their mate. These situational rubrics are a very important source of significant symptoms. and exercise as well as substance abuse and other areas that produce unneeded stress and strain. Some remedies work particularly well on babies while other are more suited to the elderly. children. co-workers and society offers many signs and symptoms. birth. 6. phlegmatic. 5. Sex and sexuality. childhood. adolescence. rest. sanguine. Some remedies are relatively more characteristic of females while some are more reflective of males. These areas can reveal important symptoms as well as being relevant to the case management procedures. Rubrics related to Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. friends. A person’s sexual ethics. Lifestyle and habits. Strictly speaking. . family relations.

8. On the basis ofthe study of the timeline. miasms and the 7 attendant circumstances the detailed study of the disease symptoms is continued. Felt by the patient himself. mental temperament and the 7 attendant circumstances are the foundation of homoeopathic case taking. the physical constitution. Without these internal and situational rubrics the totality of the symptoms is incomplete. temperament. Perceived by those around him. The disease-Gestalt is . 7. which are: 1. that is. constitution. sexual performance. This is very important if the homoeopath is to understand the layers by which complex chronic diseases have formed and recognize the reversal of the symptoms during cure. What is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy? Vide aphorism 6 of the Organon. essence.sexual fantasies. causation. befallments and symptoms. and 3. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its entire extent [Gr. Who are they? What do they look like? What is the mental and emotional character like? What kind of lifestyle do they have? What are their habits? How do they relate to other people? What are their family relationships like? How are they aging? What is their sexuality like? These areas of study include personal and group factors. Wesen. "The unprejudiced observer. nature. disease signs. The time and progression. and their sense of sexual satisfaction are a rich source of symptoms. together they form the only conceivable gestalt of the disease [Bolds by DL]. even the most sharp-witted one – knowing the nullity of supersensible speculations which are not born out in experience -perceives nothing in each single case of disease other than the alterations in the condition of the body and soul. being – DL]. causation. 2." The Esse is the alteration of the condition of the body and soul that make up the Gestalt of the disease (§6). which are outwardly discernible through the sense. It is very important that the homoeopath understand what makes up the essential nature of the characteristic symptoms of the disease state. Observed by the physician. the unprejudiced observer only perceives the deviations from the former healthy state of the now sick patient. On this solid foundation Hahnemann introduces the totality of the symptoms in aphorisms 6. That is.

befallments and symptoms. They form an inseparable whole because the innate constitution and temperament are the major conditioning factors in the experience of suffering." The inner essence of a disease (the suffering vital force) is invisible but the disease-Gestalt can be witnessed through the signs. infection. the instinctive vital force. acute and chronic miasms as well as the complete objective signs. This is the Esse in Hahnemannian Homoeopathy. 91. susceptibility. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. The mechanists tried to reduce the entire disease state down to a single cause or disease name. one symptom is no more the disease than one foot is an entire human being. predispositions. What is at the root of these disease phenomena? Vide aphorism 7 of the Organon. single and multiple causations. 92 & 175).composed of the symptoms that mark the progression from the state of health to the state of disease. Hahnemann was the first physician to fully integrate into medicine the innate constitution. As Hahnemann said. How is this alteration known? It is known by the essential nature of the totality of the objective signs.DL] of the disease. being . Hippocrates is normally thought of as the father of constitutional medicine but Hahnemann brought this study to its perfection in Homoeopathy. mental and emotional temperament. Leibes und Seelenbeschaffenheit). What is it that is altered when a person suffers a disease? It is the condition of the body and soul (Gr. The essence is the individualized nature of the complete experience of suffering (§6. one can know the essential nature of the mistuning of the vital force and find appropriate medicine. In this study Hahnemann included changes in the innate constitution and personality as well as the negative states brought on by the disease. Disease is the mistuning of this harmonious tone by a dissonant . The healthy state represents a harmonious tuning of all vital operations (§9). the spiritual. nature. inheritance. of the suffering of the life force. One cannot separate the susceptibility and predispositions of the mind/body complex from the disease suffered by the patient. that is. In this way. coincidental befallments and subjective symptoms. "The totality of these symptoms is the outwardly reflected image of the inner wesen [essence.

. laws of the organic constitution. to work". page 12. inherent in the natural frame. "constituted". which means constitutes: to set up. make something available". This term can be used in a variety of ways that have nothing to do with the human constitution. or inherent nature. quality. What is this whole the Hofrath is speaking of? Vide Organon. This. the bodily constitution. Homoeopathic remedies cure through their power to similarly alter the tuning of the human condition (§19). as nature. beschaffenheit (make up). "It was next to impossible for the them [the materialists] to acknowledge the nature of the spiritual-body organism as a highly potentized wesen. the complete whole. Turner’s Dictionary. Chambers Dictionary defines constitution as: the natural condition of the body or mind.dynamic influence (§11). comes from the Latin root. Introduction. temper. In this sense constitutional means. [Bold by DL]" (Organon of the Medical Art. constitution. however. which is usually translated into English as the word "constitution". and as an adjective it means. Beschaffenheit is usually translated as constitution in relationship to the Latin root "constiture" in homoeopathic works. the make-up of the body & soul. had to be determined and produced mainly (in fact almost solely) through dynamic (spirit-like) impingements and could not be produced differently. defines the German term. the spiritual-bodily organism. to appoint to give being to. temperament. THE SPIRITUAL-BODILY ORGANISM: Throughout Hahnemann's writings he uses the phrases. to form or make up. to acknowledge that the changes of its life in feeling and function. which one calls disease. It is the disease-tuned life force that manifests as the essence of the disease-Gestalt through the totality of the symptoms (§12). The primary action of a homoeopathic remedy over-tunes the disease and elicits a secondary healing response that retunes to the state of harmonious health. Beschaffen is a verb that means. The W. This is the Esse of Hahnemann’s treatment method. disposition. "to procure. published in Leipzig in the 1830s. etc. to establish. The root word "schaffen" means "to do. the unity of life. to make.) In the German text Hahnemann used the term. Beschaffenheit. our living human organism. condition. O'Reilly edition. constituere. The English word. does not reflect all the usages of the German term.

145. The genetic constitution represents the essence of the paternal and maternal lineages. construction or nature. The term "beschaffenheit" may have the following meanings in German. Pages 30. 75. This term "Leib" is not commonly used in modern German but in older times it meant the body with special emphasis on the abdomen. 90. 35. A quality of someone or something that is inherent or a characteristic trait that serves to define or describe its possessor. . 142. its constitution. This reference to the objective make-up of the 'center of the body' refers to the nature of physical constitution and vitality of the individual that is being investigated. 99. The vitalists and Mesmerists considered the vital energy to have two major centers of force. 103. The homeopathic usage is related directly to the practice of medicine not the common usage of a layperson on the street. Modern German may not clearly convey this meaning. 34. The term constitution is used at least 16 times in The Chronic Diseases. This area is a key center for storage of vitality in the organism. composition. the term Beschaffenheit may include any circumstance. 181. This shows how the term was used in Hahnemann's lifetime. 48. A medical term for inherent traits and qualities of the human being [constitution. Therefore. These are the energy of the spirit in the brain and pineal gland and the reserves of vital power stored in the abdomen. 243. 242. which means the congenital bodily constitution. make-up and qualities of the body and/or soul]. 143. Diathetic Constitutions In Aphorism 81 of the German Organon Hahnemann uses the term "angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen". which means ascertainable or recognizable bodily make-up. 3. condition or quality related to the physical constitution and mental temperament as well as dispositions.constitution. 1. 98. This represents the inherited diathetic constitution and temperament including all its predispositions. etc. The make-up or way something is composed or arranged. in aphorism 5 we find the term "die erkennbare Leibes-Beschaffenheit". The meaning of Beschaffenheit in English depends the context in which it is used. 101. For example. disposition and circumstance. 2.

the Geist (spirit) and Gemuet (emotional mind). India What is the "human organism"? Let’s look at the definition of "organism" in O'Reilly's glossary to her edition of The Organon of the Medical Art. "Organism: An organized or organic system. The human organism houses the mental. No part can suffer without all other parts. Dudgeon and Boericke.g. a whole which consists of dependent and interdependent parts. the functions and the affinities of the component part of all other parts. the ability to become more seasoned through provings). wesen) and the instinctive vital force (Gr. it comprises of the body. that is. 26)" Homoeopathy views the spiritual-bodily organism as a highly potentized essential being with spirit. "But the human organism in its living state is a complete whole.The interdependence of the mind/body constitution is as inseparable as the link between the essential nature (Gr. The human organism is more than just a body's accomplishments (e. Every sensation. 'Tolle Causum' they cry yet they do not yet realize that the cause of an event can never be at the same time. every manifestation of power. (§ 9. Hahnemann saw the unity of the organic whole while the orthodox school fell under the sway of reductionist pathology and disease names.. 11. emotional and bodily faculties. Appendix. mind. The Founder pointed out that the mechanist looks at the products of disease and mistakes them for the cause of the disease and the disease itself. B. which is more than the sum of its parts. Fending off malignities) and developmental capacity (e. Delhi. every affinity of the component parts of one part is intimately associated with the sensation. One does not appear without the other. Such relationships are called functional polarities and complementary opposites. This synergy of natural forces composes a whole human being. vital force and body. No part can suffer without all other parts sympathizing and simultaneously undergoing more or less change. Vide § 42 of the 1st Organon (1810). Hahnemann integrated the ancient Hippocratic . This bipolar phenomenon is innate in nature. Even in early Homoeopathy the constitutional view of the human organism was clearly defined and the local basis of disease refuted. Jain. a unity.g. the event itself.. Lebenskraft). page 194." (Organon of Medicine 5th & 6th edition.

References to this subject can be found throughout Hahnemann’s writings and the Paris casebooks. The Hofrath gives a complete portrait of Pulsatilla in the *Materia Medica Pura. "The employment of this. there is at the same time in the patient a timid lachrymose disposition. its branches in Paracelsus. This fruit carries the seeds for a new generation of healers and will be part of De Medicina Futura. physis. is most suitable when not only the corporeal affections of the medicine correspond in similarity to the corporal symptoms of the disease. page 345. diathetic constitutions and miasms into Homeopathy and brought them up to date for his time. in affections for which this plant is suitable in respect to the corporeal symptoms. as of all other medicines. 3rd edition. its trunk in Hippocrates. especially when the patient in his normal state of health was good tempered and mild (or even frivolous and good humouredly waggish) It is therefore especially adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments.teachings on temperaments. 1833. or at all events a mild and yielding disposition. and its fruit in Hahnemann. Hippocratic constitutional Temperaments: Samuel Hahnemann used temperamental portraits that include both positive natural qualities during the time of health compared with the negative changes brought on by diseases. This example includes the use of classical temperaments. on the other hand it is but little suitable for persons who form their . Hence the medicinal employment of Pulsatilla will be all the more efficacious when. He utilized such constitutional information within the totality of symptoms when prescribing his homoeopathic remedies. but also when the mental and emotional alterations peculiar to the drug encounter similar states in the disease states to be cured. or at least in the temperament of the subject of treatment. This dynamic view of mind/body constitution has its roots in Pythagoras. with a tendency to inward grief and silent peevishness. To appreciate this material the homoeopath must be familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage and its greatest practitioners as well as Hahnemann's original works. Although modern Homoeopathy has greatly expanded the psychological aspects of our materia medica few persons understand how Hahnemann used the terms constitution and temperament and their practical ramifications in the clinic.

he wrote that Claire Christallo (DF-5) was "disposed to scrofula" and called another patient "lymphatic". As one can see from the above quotes this information was included within the totality of the symptoms. For example. and are quick in their movements. Boenninghausen made it very clear in his writing that it was important to assess the physical constitution. Handley wrote that Hahnemann did not seem to use constitution. while on the other hand it is less suitable for those who "form resolutions with rapidity' and are "quick in their movements". He felt it was important enough to include in his case taking directions. Hahnemann's picture includes attributes of the natural constitution (timid lachrymose disposition. temperament or diathesis in his prescribing.resolutions with rapidity. This demonstrates that Hahnemann was the first to open the field of investigation into constitution and temperament in Homoeopathy. mental temperament and predispositions during case taking. Rima Handley noted in her Later Hahnemann that the Founder wrote in his casebooks that Mme del a Nois was "sanguine" and Eugene Perry was "choleric" Hahnemann also occasionally used the diathetic terms. which means "who": . positive and negative qualities. slow phlegmatic temperament). this is not the complete picture. Hahnemann's Paris casebooks show that the Founder used Hippocratic terminology. Pulsatilla is rarely indicated in those constitutions that make quick resolutions or move rapidly because this remedy does not normally suit that type of patient. even though they may appear to be good tempered. This portrait includes natural. Such data establishes constitutional portraits as well as the use of temperamental counter indications as elimination rubrics. In Judgment of the Characteristic Value of Symptoms (Lesser Writings) Boenninghausen wrote the following under the title Quis. Ms. [Bolds by DL]" The above quote is a constitutional portrait. silent peevishness). Negative changes in a formerly healthy constitution and temperament are part of the totality of the symptoms. good humouredly waggish) and negative emotions brought on by disease (inward grief. While it is true that Hahnemann did not give remedies because a person was "sanguine". Pulsatilla is "adapted for slow phlegmatic temperaments". This temperamental picture demonstrates several of the essential elements of the Pulsatilla proving. positive natural traits during a time of health and happiness (good tempered. mild.

In all these peculiarities whatever differs little or not at all from the usual natural state needs little attention. To this belongs first of all the sex and the age. but everything that differs in a striking or rare way therefrom deserves a proportionate notice. if a formerly obese. for the natural disposition rests on it. in so far as an appreciable difference has appeared in them. Therefore. the individuality of the patient must stand at the head of the image of the disease. he most certainly did introduce the idea of the Wesen (essence. the healthy state of the constitution is of little or no use while the changes from the healthy state to the state of illness are important. For example. Hahnemann’s essence is the Gestalt of a . Rima Handley also wrote that Hahnemann had no idea of the modern usage of constitution or essence. It is easy to see that Boenninghausen’s statements are intimately connected to aphorism 5 of the Organon and Hahnemann’s portrait of Pulsatilla in the Materia Medica Pura. To really understand this material the homoeopath must be somewhat familiar with the medical history of the vitalist lineage. correspond to only few remedies. Although Hahnemann did not use their method of so-called "essence prescribing". The greatest and most important variations are here found mostly in the states of the mind and spirit. then the bodily constitution and the temperament. but also of rare occurrence and." Boenninghausen made it extremely clear how to use this information in case taking and remedy selection. which must be scanned all the more carefully. if they are not only sharply distinct. This is most certainly true in the sense of "essence constitutional prescribing" advocated by a few Neo-Kentian practitioners in the 1970s.the proportionately more important they are to the selection of the remedy. both if possible. separated according to his sick and his well days i. emaciated and depressed these symptoms are striking and rare for that patient. The more striking or rare these negative changes are in the constitution and temperament . jovial person becomes thin. He wrote that those things that "differs little or not at all" from the healthy natural state require little attention but "everything that differs in a striking or rare way there from deserves a proportionate notice". therefore.e. Therefore."Quis? As a matter of course the personality.. nature and genius) in The Organon. This means that the homoeopath is to assess the changes from the state of health that are produced by disease. these symptoms can be used in the case and may help in finding or confirming a remedy.

also other indurations.disease as expressed by the characteristic symptoms of the mistuning of the vital force. Junker makes . if they were pregnant the foetus was usually killed. This Esse contains the essential nature of the totality of the characteristic symptoms that leads to the most suitable homoeopathic remedy. Junker noted that the suppression of the itch miasma tended to produce phthisis in young sanguine persons. This quote shows how the four classical temperaments and various diathetic constitutions condition the signs and symptoms produced by the suppression of psora. burning pains. with wasting away (cancer of the womb). the menses disappear prematurely. He observed that with young people of a sanguine temperament the suppression of itch is followed by phthisis. swellings of the bones and ulcers have been seen to follow the suppression of an eruption. This is the true Esse. and insanity in the melancholic temperament. with persons of sanguino-choleric temperament by swellings of the inguinal glands. 15-18. acute pleurisy and inflammation of the lungs. [Bolds by DL]" This quote clearly shows that constitution and temperament are primary factors in conditioning the nature of the symptoms developed after the suppression of the psora. hemorrhoidal colic and renal gravel. they were changed into a monthly haemoptysis. with fat persons by a suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. p. pseudopsora. This same is true with sycosis. in older women the uterus becomes ulcerated. Sometimes the suppression of the itch causes sterility. He further states that in autopsies the lungs have been found indurated and full of cysts containing pus. "A brief survey of the manifold misfortunes resulting thence is given by the experienced and honest LUDWIG CHRISTIAN JUNCKER in his Dissertalio de Damno ex Scabie Repulsa. and when the itch was driven away during their flow. dropsy in the phlegmatic temperament. in nursing women the milk is generally lacking. Phlegmatic persons in consequence of such suppressions suffered chiefly from dropsy. and with persons in general who are of a sanguine temperament it is followed by piles. syphilis and any other chronic miasm. He noted in the obese there was a tendency to produce suffocating catarrh and mucous consumption. Vide The Chronic Diseases. 1750. stiffening of the joints and malignant ulcers (called in German Todenbruche). Halle. page 17. attended with deep. the menses were delayed. Volume I. Persons inclined to melancholy were sometimes made insane by such repression. Hahnemann included the observations of Ludwig Christian Junker in the main body of text of The Chronic Diseases. also by inflammatory fever.

sanguine and melancholic) expands the study of constitution in Homoeopathy because it includes physiognomy and the natural groupings of human beings into four major and twelve minor mind-body types. these symptoms become more strange. general appearance of anything. moderate. esp. as well as the present state of the spirit. temperare. This 2. Physiognomy constitution and Temperaments: The use of Hippocratic temperaments (choleric. Let us look at the definition of the key terms. For example. gnomon-onos.physiognomy. the art of judging character from the appearance. Each innate constitutional temperament has its own unique reactions to stimuli. phlegmatic. . befallments and symptoms. Physiognomy is defined as: "Physiognomy. an interpreter. nature. and constitution. the phlegmatic (water-wet and cold) and melancholic temperaments (air-cool and dry) are usually aggravated by cold while the choleric (earth-dry and warm) and sanguine temperament (fire-hot and moist) are usually ameliorated by cold. In each of the 4 major biological constitutions the environmental and situational circumstances are modified by the nature of their innate temperament. For this reasons the same pathogen will affect the 4 temperaments and their 12 mixtures in a different manner. heredity. temperament.a direct link between suppression and the development of pseudopsora TB symptoms like consumption and phthisis. rare and peculiar. miasms and constitutional diathesis. compound.. a shortened form of physiognomoni-physis. predisposition. aspectGreek. These classical methods offer much insight into the nature of the innate constitution and temperament as well as potential diathesis toward particular signs. mind and body. from the face. What does temperament mean? The word temperament has different levels of meaning depending on usage. character. restrain. That Hahnemann understood how the mind/body temperament conditioned the signs and symptoms is shown by his inclusion of Junker’s observations in the main text of The Chronic Diseases. Temperament from Latin. 500 year old system is the oldest living tradition in western medicine." A homoeopathic physiognomist is an interpreter of natural temperament. to temper. If this is not the case.

a natural disposition. Constitution. a fit of anger. the nervo-phlegmatic. sanguine and melancholic or nervous temperaments. fire. Is this the Odes of Pythagoras and the theory of life as music? After all. the spiritual body organism. to exert self control. to be uncontrolled. composure. Pythagoras introduced the 7 note major scale (diatonic scale). water. air. phlegmatic. a mood. a natural temperament. These hold the keys to understanding the complete system. and the nervo-sanguine. a frame of mind. phlegmonervous and sanguino-nervous. the sangino-phlegmatic. The organism (musical instruments) supports the temperament (division of 12 notes of the chromatic scale-natural qualities). phlegmatic. Temper-noun. An equal temperament is a system of tuning by which the octave is divided into twelve equal intervals. the constitution of the body and/or mind. a mixture or balance of contrary qualities. The twelve minor types are mixtures of the major type. an innate or acquired disposition. nervo. the phlegmosanguine. the sanguino. Disease is the mistunement (verstimmung) of the life force that causes disharmony in the temperament (the scale of notes -the natural qualities) of the organism (the instrument). a proportioned mixture of qualities. the five elements (ether. sanguine and melancholy constitutions.choleric. The twelve note series of tones is called the chromatic scale. The four major constitutions are called the choleric. the phlegmo-choleric. Each of these temperaments represents . Even the word 'organism' is an archaic name for a musical instrument.Temperament means a state with respect to a predominance of qualities. They are the cholero-phlegmatic. the cholero-sanguine. the cholero-nervous. voice. Temperament is also a musical term for a system of compromise in tuning. which is tuned (German-stimmungtuning. an internal constitutional state. the make up of the soul and body are synonyms for the living whole represented by a complete living human being. the choleric or bilious. earth) and the Mappa Mundi (geometric map of the macro & microcosm)) into western culture. It is interesting to see that these major terms also have musical definitions. pitch and mood) by the vital force. temperament.choleric. Specifically it refers to the Hippocratic temperaments. The octave is a system of eight notes that make up the major or minor scale.

that is more frequently required by those persons who are of an anxious. The source of this information is the observation of the Hippocratic temperaments during the provings and recording which constitutions developed the most characteristic symptoms. deduced from the results of the careful experience of many years. etc. There are other references to disposition and temperament in Hahnemann’s writings. For very particular. (hepatic affections) I. I (4) is the second grade. zealous persons. II. "Some practical instructions may be of use. state. Patients addicted to use of much wine or coffee and to those of sedentary habits combined with considerable mental exertion. Nux Vomica. II. wicked irascible disposition. Among these may be mentioned. lecture on Nux Vomica. fiery. or of a spiteful. We find similar rubrics in Allen's . Ardent character or a disposition disposed to anger. II. the choleric. This was then combined with clinical confirmations in patients under treatment." When temperament is used specifically it means the Hippocratic constitutional temperaments. choleric persons with dark hair. zealous. Drug subjects. Debauches. venous constitution. hot temperament. Hering's Contribution When temperament is used in a general way it means the mental and emotional disposition. nervous disposition. II. Volume VIII. or of a malicious. Suits thin. thin. troubled with indigestion. irritable. who make great mental exertion or lead a sedentary life. page 223. sanguine and nervous melancholic. Hering created a separate section for constitution and temperament in his materia medica called Stages of Life and Constitution. spite or deception. II. always irritable and impatient. composure. Bilious temperaments. phlegmatic. Vide Materia Medica Pura. with tendency to hemorrhoids.a natural grouping of constitutional types that have similar mental and physical qualities. Vide Guiding Symptoms. melancholic people. Nervous. page 168. I. inclined to get angry or excited. "II. malicious disposition. of an irritable." In Hering's 5-point system of grading remedies II (5) is the highest grade. Hering expanded this temperamental portrait by adding the names of the Hippocratic temperaments and physical descriptions of the patient in the portrait. mood.

fair skin. Allen includes temperaments. befallments and symptoms are further investigated for those rubrics that are strange. This temperamental portrait includes natural temperament (bilious. including such matters as the individual’s fears and anxieties.7). coffee. fine. bilious. nervous anxious temperaments. Hering's proving collection and his clinical confirmations are the source of constitutional characteristics such as: Nux Vomica is well adapted to angry. etc). mental and emotional types should be taken into consideration. what is a phlegmatic temperament? How does Hahnemann’s statement that Pulsatilla is "especially adapted to slow phlegmatic temperaments" fit into the overall picture? The next chapter in our study contains a review of the essential rubrics of the phlegmatic constitutional temperament. Pulsatilla is well adapted to gentle. The above rubrics are an extension of Hahnemann's original portrait of Nux Vomica. Boenninghausen and Hering. and very sensitive nature. melancholic. . blond or red hair. indigestion. miasmic tendencies. drugs). One might ask. Phosphorus is well adapted to tall slender persons of sanguine temperament. as well as predispositions to regional symptoms (tendency to hemorrhoids. thin. impatient. This should help to put Hahnemann’s statements into perspective. (addicted to wine. lifestyle (sedentary or great mental exertion).6. physical descriptions (thin. An individual’s temperament also needs consideration. this means looking at whether they are generally happy. blond haired. spiteful. mental rubrics (angry. choleric. with quick perceptions. §5.6hhhssshhhhpes OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL TYPES: When choosing a treatment for someone. chilly. nervous dispositions with their traits). delicate eyelashes. Arsenicum is well adapted to the over anxious. rare and peculiar to the individual organism (Org. choleric persons. hepatic affections). blue eyed phlegmatic temperaments. These are all constitutional general rubrics. as they are only part of the totality of the symptoms. dark hair). dry.Keynotes under the title "adapted to". irritable. On this constitutional basis the signs. diathetic constitutions and symptoms in these rubrics. Such symptoms do not automatically lead to remedies by themselves. To utilize this method completely one must understand the teachings of Hippocrates as well as Hahnemann. diathetic constitutions (melancholic with venous constitution). habits. dark.

Digestive system. hair colour. B. Finds it difficult to control emotions. The best remedy for stomach pains is A. MAIN CONSTITUTION TYPES The Argent Nit. For example. Prone to bedwetting. Dislikes chilled foods. The Argent Nit. fat or thin. Always in a hurry and can be impulsive. Once you have determined a constitutional type it is easier to prescribe a more effective treatment. salt and cheese. May react badly to new situations like moving house.The Argent Nit. or C. if they are bright and alert in the morning. candy. Dietary factors: Likes chocolate. Alb. Often anxious and worried. their eye colour. The Arsen. child: Always moving around and never wants to sit still. hair type. confident. if they prefer to be in groups or on their own. if someone is suffering from stomach pains. The best remedy for the emotional aspects of a person is B and C. so B will be the best remedy. Readily laughs. long or short limbed. Remedy A would still have done some good being a known treatment for stomach pains but B would be more effective as it suits the symptoms and the person involved. Type . Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. such as how they respond to noise. Can be prone to insomnia due to worry. Type Appearance: Pale complexion. Tends to be extroverted to hide true feelings. under or overweight. Physical factors are also important. lazy etc. cries and loses temper. preferred type of clothing and so on. looking at whether the patient is short or tall. Eyes. The best remedy according to the person’s constitution is B. Types tend to have weak mucous membranes in their eyes. Ailments tend to the left side. looking older than actual age due to worry and tension.tearful. Prone to nervousness and can experience upset stomach when stressed. Mental and emotional aspects: Cheerful and impressionable. sad. Quick thinking and adept at solving problems. Then other factors that may affect the individual need to be looked at to ascertain whether or not these factors affect the condition itself.

Physical weaknesses: Digestive system. warm foods and drinks. asthma and colds) Dietary factors: Likes fatty foods. The Arsen. Easily upset by loud noise. may be prone to irritable bowel syndrome and feeling bloated. sensitive and quiet. Alb. Carb. Obsessive and compulsive behaviour. nose and throat. May become withdrawn due to fear of failure. Skeletal system. this can hide a hoarding mentality. Can be critical and intolerant. candy. Exhaustion. Alb. may manifest as back ache. Strong opinions. Can have a deep fear of being alone. Dislikes mess and being messy. alcohol and sour tasting foods. in particular coffee. Types. Respiratory system (coughs. Can worry overly about parent’s well being. Can pull out of plans early if they think it is not going to work 100%. Teeth. Perfectionist at work and at home. Mental and emotional aspects: Restless person. Skin. Digestive system. keeps room tidy. Type Appearance: Overweight or gain weight easily. Skin. Can be prone to mild depression when unwell. Mental and emotional aspects: Impressionable. Needs motivation to succeed in tasks. child: Highly sensitive and highly-strung. bloated and tired in appearance. May be greatly upset by cruelty to children and animals. Warm drinks and sweet foods are favoured by the Arsen. Often well groomed and stylish. Active imagination can create nightmares in dreams. delicate skin. Reassurance helps to improve condition. Physical weaknesses: Ears.Appearance: Usually thin or slim. Prone to depression. Fine facial features with fine. The Calc. Increasingly mentally and physically agile with age. Dislikes large amount of fluid. Frown lines can appear on the forehead. Pessimistic in nature with a need for constant reassurance. . prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Sluggish. especially concerning cleanliness and tidying-up. Can dwell too much on a particular problem. Can become exhausted after periods of exertion.

tearful and despondent then impatient. Placid and calm. be exhausted. Deep concentration on a task can create irritability. nose and throat are weak areas of the Calc. The Calc. Can jump from tears to joy then back to depression in the blink of an eye. May often have sores in corner of mouth. Does not like travelling great distances because of travel sickness. Not always willing to change habits and routines. Carb. windswept appearance. usually dark. such as vegetables and salads. dry skin that can crack easily. Slow to walk and talk and teeth are slow to develop. desserts. Expression may be tired and drawn and may also suffer from involuntary twitches of mouth or eyes. salt. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Slow metabolic rate. salt. The Graphites type like savoury foods. Type. child: Plump and overweight.Dietary factors: Likes dairy products. The Graphites Type Appearance: Prone to being overweight and has a large appetite. Dislikes sweet foods. The Graphites child: Feels the cold and gets chills quickly. Ears. Possible difficulty in . Dislikes fatty meats. Mental and emotional aspects: Takes time to work things out and solve problems. Carb. Flaky scalp. Dark to mid range colour hair. prone to suppression of grief. Dry lips. Scared of the dark and can be prone to waking up due to bad dreams. Physical weaknesses: Skin. Often lazy and may need encouragement with homework because may give up easily. Not an early morning person. seafood and hot drinks. have bad breath. Prone to dark circles under eyes. nose bleeds. Can have a rugged. Timid. iced drinks and ice cream. May have rough. eggs. Rapid and extreme mood swings. Blushes easily. Sighs a lot. Nails. Mental and emotional aspects: Very highly strung. styes in eyes and suffer from travel sickness. carbohydrates. chocolate. The Ignatia Type Appearance: Slim build. hesitant and anxious. Dry hair. Can fall over easily. Possible mood swings. candy. boiled food and boiled milk.

cool drinks. choughs. fixed expression.The Lachesis types often lick their top lip. Mental and emotional aspects: Very ambitious and creative. Physical ailments made worse when trying to sleep and lay still. Mind can become crowded with thoughts. May view self as sinful when religious. The Lachesis Type Appearance: May appear bloated or lean. The Ignatia type like dairy foods. causing outbursts of anger. May be sensitive to noise. Hyperactive and jealous of brothers and sisters. Strong. bad sleep and insomnia. Usually has pale complexion with occasional freckles. especially new babies.ending relationships and seeing this as a weakness. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Prone to bad dreams and nightmares. Prone to left-side problems. May experience headaches. Physical weaknesses: Circulation and nervous system. twitching and grinding teeth. Jealous and possessive. Responds well to encouragment. Coffee and cigarette addiction is common. sore throats and asthma. sore throat. varicose veins. sour and savoury food and carbohydrates. staring eyes. Dislikes sweet foods. Finds it difficult to function when stressed. can be hurtful to peers. May lick lips a lot. coughs and colds. Dislikes sweet drinks. Hyperactivity. Divorce of parents almost impossible to deal with. Dietary factors: Likes coffee (even though not good for them). dairy products. leading to headaches. Talkative. The Lycopodium Type . alcohol and seafood. May suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Common ailments include hysterical grief over bereavement. excitable and sensitive. Prefers not to be alone. sore throats. constipation. Suspicious of strangers. Endless list of problems caused by emotional trauma. crying and poor grades at school. palpitations and panic attacks. The Lachesis child: Full of spite. sour and savoury foods. The Ignatia child: Highly strung. carbohydrates. Strong. Dietary factors: Likes coffee. menopausal problems.

Deep fear of being alone and of the dark. creating mountains out of molehills. Hair may be fair to medium colour. The Merc. onions. kidney stones. Conscientious and achiever academically. Facial twitching. Finds trivial mistakes disproportionately irritating. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome. Dislikes strongly flavoured foods. Type Appearance: Medium build. swelling of glands and exhaustion.Appearance: Tall and lean with worry and frown lines on head.The Merc. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders. May explode with rage and anger. Anxious over important events. Physical weaknesses: Sore throat. Right-side problems. Mental and emotional aspects: A drama queen. The Lycopodium child: Insecure and shy. May be prone to chronic fatigue syndrome and Season Affective Disorder (depression during the darker winter). male baldness. Resentment and lack of trust in others may cause insecurity. though can be dominant and bossy with children they know. Sensitive skin with allergies being common. with grey translucent look. carbohydrates and citrus fruits. Prefers indoor pursuits over outdoors. The Lycopodium type men can lose their hair early. Susceptible to ear nose and . Skin on face may appear shiny due to moisture from perspiration. Sol. Dislikes cheese and strongly flavoured meats. Avoids commitment. child: Irritating behaviour. Insecure and hates change. garlic and seafood. Forgetful. Thinning hair in men. Poor memory with thought patterns becoming muddled in later life. Often look older than their years. Hates being contradicted. Shy and cautious. Dislikes criticism directed and self and taking orders. Mental and emotional aspects: May struggle internally with emotions. sore throats. Sol. May stammer. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods and warm drinks. prostate. Dislikes wearing light clothing.

sour and savoury foods and craves salt and most carbohydrates. guilt and loneliness. Can be addicted to sex. coffee. mur. May suppress feelings over lost loved ones. May have cravings for alcohol. which can lead to depression. Dislikes coffee and bread. Skin can be puffy and oily with frequent swelling. Smart appearance. May have dark circles under eyes. Type Appearance: Pear-shaped build in women. Loves animals. skin problems. type may be professional and career minded. Dietary factors: Likes cold drinks. Dry cracked lips. May look stressed and tense. Solid. mur. . Slow development. The Nat. mouth ulcers and cold sores. red eyes. anger. Can be very ambitious. May suffer from headaches under pressure. May become very depressed after relationship break-up. Suffer in silence rather than ask for help. Watery. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system. Impatient. child: Small for their age. premenstrual syndrome. Medium to dark hair. Failure is the worst thing that can happen. Face becomes flushed when angry or excited. strong and lean build in men. Mental and emotional aspects: Will suppress emotions such as.The Merc Sol may suffer from changes in the weather or SA The Nat. The Nux Vomica Type Appearance: Slim. Very good academically but can become extremely hurt if criticised at school. fear. palpitations and headaches. Finds it difficult to relax. Will possibly wish to cry but find self unable. Mental and emotional aspects: Can suffer from addictions and overindulgence. Depression.throat complaints. anorexia. Down to Earth with mind set on career. Ages prematurely. especially when young. The Nat. Intolerant of imperfection in others. mur. Well behaved. cigarettes.

Hernia and hay fever. May be prone to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. coffee and spicy foods. The Phosphorus type like mild cheeses and sour and savoury foods. May have temper tantrums. Feels better after sleep. Likes to be with people and centre of attention. Weakness of the lungs. carbonated drinks. Loves to receive attention. Fine skin. Dizziness. Physical weaknesses: Nervous system – especially fear and hypersensitivity. Can be hard work for partner. cheese and cream. Left-side problems. The Phosphorus child: Tall and slim with ling legs and arms. The Pulsatilla Type . spicy food. Coughs and colds. mild cheeses and sweet foods. Artistic and creative in appearance.Physical weaknesses: Digestive disorders from hangovers and overindulgence. Likes to be stylish. Strong fear of the dark. Dislikes the effects of some spicy food even though they like eating them. alcohol. Dietary factors: Likes fatty and rich food. Likes to be the centre of attention and like being cared for when upset or unwell. The Nux Vomica child: Irritable and easily bored. Short attention span. salt. alcohol. Dietary factors: Likes sour and savoury foods. Headaches. The Nux Vomica type may become dependant on drugs or alcohol. Can have fair to dark hair. Competitive as a teenager. Nervous. Good fun to be around but can become demanding. Migraines and headaches. Because they like to be rebellious they may become addicted to drugs or alcohol. affectionate and not afraid to show emotions. Needs reassurance regarding looks and image. Circulation problems. Mental and emotional aspects: Needs a lot of love and attention. Dislikes strongly flavoured fish and fruit. The Phosphorus Type Appearance: Tall and slim with long limbs. Expressive.

Often rests with hands behind head. often with brown eyes. Skin problems. Not assertive and can be indecisive. Varicose veins. in particular over cruelty to children and animals. Cries easily. Hates being contradicted. chronic fatigue syndrome and depression. spicy foods. tragic news or weepy movies. Can look younger than actual age. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. Physical problems mostly occur on left side. and very rich. Avoids confrontation. Headaches and migraine. Catarrh. Occasionally prone to obsessive or compulsive behaviour. Often sits with legs crossed. Can feel better after weeping. Gentle and kind appearance. Likes to be supported by others. but does not like it when others are fussing around. Conditions usually improve with exertion. Sensitive to changes in the weather. Tendency to be aggressive to loved ones. The Pulsatilla child: Fears the dark and dislikes bedtime. Can suppress guilt and anger. Mental and emotional aspects: Shy and easily embarrassed. The Sepia Type Appearance: Slim and tall. Physical weaknesses: All female reproductive problems. Mental and emotional aspects: Can be irritable and easily offended. Physical symptoms can fluctuate and change rapidly. The Pulsatilla types often rest with their hands behind their heads. Loves animals. Likes to look attractive and elegant. Kind and gentle and makes friends easily. Dislikes fatty foods such as cream and butter. Hair is fair and skin has a rosy complexion. cold foods and cold drinks. . Irritable bowel syndrome. Medium to dark hair. Other common ailments include constipation and haemorrhoids.Appearance: Can be slightly overweight. Prone to coughs and colds. Skin problems. Avoids crowds but fears being alone. Styes. Also laughs easily. as holds strong opinions. Blushes easily. Physical weaknesses: These include all menopausal problems. Cannot handle too much stress and tries to avoid pressure and deadlines. Becomes tearful and weepy when overtired.

Feels the cold. especially cheese and milk. Dislikes meet and dairy products. Not sporty as has little stamina. The Silicea type may have brittle nails and slow-healing skin. citrus fruits. Dislikes dairy products. Can be shy. The Sulphur Type . Feels the cold. Feels the cold and can become tired easily. Responsibility weighs heavily on the Silicea type. with a large forehead. The head can appear too large for the body. sour and savoury foods. Respiratory illnesses and weaknesses including chest infections and low resistance to coughs and colds. moves and new jobs. Can become overburdened and overwhelmed. Does not like being alone.Dietary factors: Likes spices. The palms of the hands feel sweaty to the tough and nails can be brittle. The Sepia type doesn’t like crowds but fears being alone. apart from large head. rich and strongly flavoured meets and fatty foods. The Silicea Type Appearance: Often thin or slim. The Silicea child: Can be smaller than children of a similar age. almost doll-like in appearance. fine features. Prone to constipation. sweet foods and alcohol. May stubbornly resist advice from friends and loved ones in order to hide true feelings. Dislikes very hot food. especially due to burnout from new projects. Exhaustion. Physical weaknesses: Problems with nervous system. Skin problems. Can become a bedwetter. Fear of failure can also spread into personal relationships. The skin of the lips goes grey and can be cracked. Slowness in healing and getting well. Headaches. Prone to mental exhaustion. Moody. Dietary factors: Likes cold foods such as salads and raw vegetables. Constipation. with petite appearance. Delicate. Mental and emotional aspects: Appears to have low confidence from a young age. The Sepia child: Greedy. Fear of failure may surface in form of being a workaholic. Usually tidy and well behaved. especially milk. Can be indecisive about taking on new projects.

Can be hyperactive in the evening. Dislikes most hot drinks. citrus fruits. heredity. salads and seafood. Hair may be course. Dislikes dairy products. temperament. fatty foods and stimulants such as coffee and chocolate. The Sulphur type enjoys sour foods such as citrus fruits. especially milk and eggs. spicy foods. May look untidy. Does not like showers.athy Constitution Types CONSTITUTION AND PREDISPOSITION: SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PREDISPOSITION: Hahnemann presents a complete system of constitution. We become diseased by them when our organism is just exactly and sufficiently disposed and laid open to be assailed by the cause of disease that is present and to be altered in its condition. hot. haemorrhoids and constipation. dry. Likes alcohol. "The-partly psychical and partly physical-inimical potencies in life on earth (which we call disease malignities) do not possess an absolute power to morbidly mistune the human condition. burning feet. Skin and lips can be prone to redness. Can be critical. Mental and emotional aspects:Mind can be cluttered. Has a very healthy appetite. Dietary factors: Likes sweet foods. The Sulphur child: Untidy looking. disposition. May lack willpower and self-esteem. body odour. Likes to argue. Might not complete ideas and projects. Aphorism 31 deals directly with the subject of the living organism and its disposition toward disease. Vide Organon. idiosyncrasy and susceptibility in his writings. Physical weaknesses: Prone to skin and circulation problems. bathing or washing hands. mistuned and displaced into abnormal .Appearance: May be slim with poor posture.

This is why pathogenic agents do not affect every person nor the same person all of the time. When left to themselves (without the use of remedies that are specific against them) these diseases go on increasing. He noted that the diseases found in the mother and father are often found in the offspring. "The true. "In the most blooming years of youth and with the commencement of regular menstruation. susceptibility is related to both constitution and temperament. coupled with a beneficial lifestyle for spirit. Therefore. they mount until the end of life. natural chronic diseases are those that arise from a chronic miasm. tormenting the person with greater and greater sufferings." Note 78. Vide aphorism §78 and its note 78. published his research on inheritance between the years 1809 and 1822. heart . Lamarck. Hence these inimical potencies do not make everyone sick every time. In the Sacred Diseases Hippocrates opined that most diseases are based on hereditary predispositions. He speaks of inheritance and predisposition in both the Organon and The Chronic Diseases. By 1828 Hahnemann was integrating information about inherited depositions in his dynamic healing system. Even with the best mental and bodily dietetic conduct." This aphorism points out that the susceptibility of the human organism is partly psychological and partly physical. To be susceptible the organism must be sufficiently disposed to specific inimical disease powers. The patient must be sufficiently susceptible according to the time and circumstances.feelings and functions. who is considered the founder of modern genetics. It has been well proven that physical and mental stress lowers the immunity and makes individuals and groups more susceptible to particular illnesses. Susceptibilities may be inherited as well as acquired. Without this sympathetic relationship there will be no disease.

Those afflicted appear in the eyes of their relatives and acquaintances as if they were completely healthy and as if the disease. First of all.. 3. He points out that mental and . congenitally through the mother's womb or by nursing and by heredity. latent and secondary or tertiary symptoms. He noted that the process of infection includes susceptibility. half-acute and chronic and recorded the symptoms in individuals as well as groups affected by the same miasm. implanted in them through infection or heredity. Inherited miasms produce predispositions in the offspring to particular disease states associated with the miasms. incubation period. 2. 1. Hahnemann notes three means of transmitting miasms. medicinal treatment.and body. a moment of infection. Hahnemann records the effects of stress as an activator of inherited and acquired chronic miasms. were completely vanished. he established a materia medica of antimiasmatic remedies in the Chronic Diseases. On this basis.e. Second. it inevitably comes to the fore again in later years and with adverse events and relationships in life. grief and worry. However. He makes it very clear that the miasms are infectious in their primary state. prodromal stage and primary. the more rapidly the disease increases and the more onerous its character. and especially through inexpedient. Third. Hahnemann was the first to suggest a complete theory of susceptibility and infection. He also taught that the microscopic microorganisms he called "animalcule" were the infectious agents of the contagious miasms. The more the life principle has been deranged through debilitating passions. i. [Bolds by DL]" This establishes several important features in homoeopathic pathology and philosophy. He classified miasms into three categories. Hahnemann stated that miasms are transmitted by infection or inheritance. the acute. by contact with the infected host. these chronic diseases often remain indiscernible for several years.

habits. is announced by the increase of the . predisposition and diathesis. The individual constitution and temperament is the most important feature in individualizing the symptoms of the chronic miasms. Who else has done such a deep study of factors related to the individual as well as to groups suffering from diseases of common cause and similar symptoms? Not only this. the transmission of the miasms through the generations. inheritance. and the increase of stress caused by modern civilization. These are the suppression of the symptoms of the miasms by allopathic means. as it were kept bound by a good bodily constitution and favorable external circumstances. as well as its breaking out into more serious ailments and maladies. Hahnemann established a special section of the materia medica to treat these chronic illnesses! Hahnemann’s writings demonstrate the important relationships between the congenital constitution. "The awakening of the internal Psora which has hitherto slumbered and been latent. This careful assessment of inheritance (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) is found in no other system of healing. hereditary dispositions. lifestyle as well as environmental factors like diet are the most important conditioning factors in the symptoms of the miasms. the mental temperament. Hahnemann's view of the global effects of universal chronic miasms is closely linked with his theory of pathogenesis.emotional stress greatly increases the damaging effects of the chronic miasms. and. The effects of stress on the human constitution and susceptibility to disease have been discovered by modern medicine but Hahnemann recorded the entire syndrome in 1828 and integrated it into homoeopathic philosophy and treatment. Vide page 102 of the Chronic Diseases. In his writings he mentions three factors in the evolution of degenerative diseases. In the Chronic Diseases Hahnemann pointed out that the physical constitution.

in and of themselves. deviate so greatly from one another. a homoeopathic remedy should be similar to the negative changes found in the constitution and temperament as presented by the signs. befallments and symptoms. and also by a numberless multitude of various other signs and complaints. Hahnemann repeats a similar refrain in aphorism 81 of the Organon where he discusses the influence of the congenital bodily constitutions (angebornen Koerper-Constitutionen).symptoms given above as indicating the slumbering Psora. through many millions of human organisms over the course of hundreds of generations. etc. the various errors in his education and habits. little by little. " It is. [Bolds by DL]" The diversity of human constitutions and the environments in which . his manner of living and diet. morals. thus attaining incredible proliferation. his hereditary disposition. This is all the more understandable when we consider the multitude of circumstances that have tended to contribute to the formation of this great diversity of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora). This is because the human constitution and temperament (Nature) are the most important influences in the development of disease signs and symptoms. diet. his employment. etc. The next most important factors are environment. to some extent. For these reasons. diet and stress (nurture). These are varied according to the difference in the bodily constitution of a man. [Bolds by DL]" Hahnemann wrote that the same disease state (such as psoric miasm) is varied according to the differences in "bodily constitution" and "hereditary disposition" as well as the patient’s turn of mind. his morality. as well as the indescribable variety of human congenital bodily constitutions. which already. understandable how psora could now unfold itself in so many countless disease forms in all the human race since this age-old infectious tinder has gone. his turn of mind. climate.

A diathesis is a permanent (hereditary or acquired) condition of the body that renders it liable to certain special diseases or affections. For hundreds of thousands of years the infectious miasms have been present either in endemic pockets or as universal epidemics. INHERITED AND ACQUIRED CONSTITUTIONS: The idea of a diathesis is very closely linked with the inherited constitutional predispositions to particular symptoms.. A constitutional state which mistunes the body. venous. A diathesis is an inherited or acquired condition of the organism which makes it susceptible to peculiar disease states.e. Thus a diathesis is a constitutional state that can be physical and psychological as well as inherited or acquired. diaasunder and tithenai-to place. It is no wonder that the symptoms produced by the universal miasms have been mistaken for manifold different diseases. scrofulous. is very closely linked with the inherited and acquired miasms and constitutional predispositions to particular symptom syndromes. Diathetic constitutions are a category of constitutional predisposition or susceptibility to certain disorders. From the Greek. and/or mind. leucophlegmatic. This word comes from the Greek for disposition or state. DIATHESIS. As the infectious agents of the miasms have been passed through millions of human beings over the course of hundreds of generations its symptoms have greatly mutated. i. psoric. What does Diathesis mean? The Greek term. 1. 2. The concept of diathesis is closely linked . a constitutional predisposition or tendency. The effects of the miasms have been found in the remains of the most ancient human beings and are found on every continent in every culture. diathesis. diathesis. etc. lymphatic. a constitutional predisposition toward certain disorders. sycotic. 3.human beings live are a major contributing factor in the development of the manifold symptoms of psora and the miasms.

Nat-m. Rhus-t. Fibre rigid. dulc.. Scrofulous.. MERC. nit-ac. Puls. people. bloated.. bapt.. Carb-v. Tubercular.. Rubrics related to constitutional diathesis include.. constitutions. Sep. Tall lean.. constitutions. Rheumatic. 1. For example. constitutions. constitutions. constitution... lax.. constitutions. calc-ar. constitutions. Plethoric. constitutions -am-c. Hering and Knerr recorded a large amount of material in their writings. thuj. GRAPH... Fibre. both predisposition and the inherited miasms in Homoeopathy.. constitutions.. aster. Cann-i. and their similar remedies. Sulph. Chin. thin people.. constitutions. Lean. constitutions.. This material is very cryptic to most modern homoeopaths yet those who have put this system to work find it practical and indispensable to daily practice." 2. kalm. Hep. Emaciated constitutions.... CALC. Hysterical. constitutions. murx. FERR.. Sil. Here is a sample of the types of rubrics included and a few examples. The source of this information is Hering's Guiding Symptoms in the section called Stages of life and Constitutions. phos. Gouty. ars. . BELL. Example: "Lymphatic. BAR-C. Hemorrhagic. Large fat... constitutions.. Lyc. Petr. CONSTITUTION (DIATHESIS): In this section Knerr gives rubrics of various diathetic constitutions and their remedies. Lymphatic. Bar-m.. aur-m. constitutions.. Dwarfish. Homoeopathic reference works have recorded a great amount of information on constitutional diathesis and dynamic remedies that reflect a similar state. Rubrics related to the bodily constitution include. arn.. Venous. Knerr's Repertory to Hering's Guiding Symptoms includes the following rubric in the general section. Apis. Asthmatic constitutions.

PHOS. Rubrics related to the Hippocratic temperaments and humours include... Cor-r... Caps. calc-p. Tubercular. Clem. ptel. Merc-d. SYPH. constitutions-agar.. nat-s... temperament.... Example: "Fibre. constitutions. Ip. bor.. constitutions. constitutions.. constitutions.. Mercc. plat. chion. Melancholic.. Syphilitic.constitutions..... cund.. chol.. Sil... Phos. berb. AUR. iris. NIT-AC.. CHIN. euph.... MAG-C.. constitutions. Petr. MERC. constitutions. lax.. KALI-C. bar-c. acon. lept. These are general symptoms of the constitution. ail. Benz-ac.." 3. sulph.. CALC. sep.... ant-c. Kali-b... Nervous. Sanguine constitutions. Phos. and their similar remedies.. A miasm can produce a number of diatheses depending on the constitution and temperament and .. diathetic states and miasms. Still. aec-t.. CHEL.. ant-t. sang. constitutions. ferr-i.. Sulph.... Puls. Phyt. Bilious." There are literally 100's of rubrics on this subject in the old materia medicas and repertories. Example: "Bilious. KALI-I. Example: "SYPHILITIC.. Ph-ac. Guai.. Sil. Thuj... hep. Phlegmatic. CARD-M.. spong. ars.. constitutions-Ars... Sars....." Rubrics related to the miasms include. Lach. mag-m........ Choleric. Sycotic constitutions.. Cocc. Merc-i-f. PSOS.. Bell. cann-i. Merc. Crot-h.. SABAD. Aesc. cinnam. Cham..... constitutions and their remedies. constitutions... MERC... Fl-ac. ambr... Mez.. Cancerous constitutions (mixed miasms). OP. NUX V. Psoric.. BRY..

Vide Sycosis. of Cantharides. miasms and diathesis. Hahnemann’s writing and the Paris casebooks include Hippocratic terms like the . This is because the fiery sanguine temperament that rules the warm/moist blood humour and the TB miasm both have an easy tendency to bleed. The Chronic Diseases. the footnote on page 150. I think we have proved beyond a doubt that Hahnemann had a deep understanding of classical constitution. He expects homoeopaths to understand that the term "constitution" simply means the whole living organism. He also introduced temperamental pictures that included both the natural traits of the individual when healthy compared with the negative changes brought on by illness. CONSTITUTION AND CONCOMITANTS: Hahnemann paid close attention to the constitution in both acute and chronic diseases. "The miasm of the other common gonorrhoea seem not to penetrate the whole organism. pseudo-psora TB miasm tends to produces a hemorrhagic diathesis while sycosis tends to an arthritic rheumatic diathesis. All chronic remedies are "constitutional" in this sense as they reflect the essential nature of the totality of the symptoms. susceptibility. inheritance. but only to locally stimulate the urinary organs. or of the Copaiva balm. or a small dose of Cannabis. according to their different constitutions and other ailments attending it.conditioning factors. If the individual is of a sanguine temperament and acquires the TB miasm the chance of dangerous hemorrhage is increased greatly. [Bolds by DL]" In this example Hahnemann suggests using the constitutional concomitant symptoms to help in the selection of a remedy. They yield either to a dose of one drop of fresh parsley juice. Such knowledge forms the basis of the homoeopathic view of constitution. susceptibility. temperament. diathesis and miasms. temperament. For example. when this is indicated by a frequent urgency to urinate.

London. B Jain. Beaconsfield Publishers. Madrid. New Delhi. Each of these temperaments is associated with positive and negative qualities and predispositions toward certain disease states. New Remedies. Foubister. B Jain. The Tao of Physics. Kent’s Minor Writings on Homœopathy. sanguine and nervous temperaments. 1842. Tutorials on Homœopathy. James Tyler. Birdcage Books. Wenda. Flamingo. (b) 1996 tr. B Jain. 1986. New Delhi. London. Close. Margery. 1994. Samuel. Kent. Douglas. Chambers English Dictionary. If one studies material of the first generation of homoeopaths they will find such references with their concomitant signs and symptoms. Beaconsfield. Homœopathy in Practice. Donald McD. William. The Organon of Medicine. Edinburgh. ed. New Delhi. 6th edition. Dudgeon (republished 1994). The Genius of Homœopathy. Beaconsfield Publishers. 5th edition. Klaus-Henning. 1983. Cambridge. New York. the Essence of its Remedies. Brewster O’Reilly. Bombay. Capra. Tokyo. Lectures on Homœopathic Philosophy. befallments and symptoms. B Jain. signs. W&R Chambers. Classical Homœopathy. phlegmatic. 1994. Beaconsfield Publishers. Fritjoff. Stuart. ed. Beaconsfield. 1993. Gypser. Beaconsfield. B Jain. They are also prone to particular diathetic states such as the venous. Robert. (a) 1922 tr. Homœopathy: the Fundamentals of its Philosophy. Clinical Cases. . New Delhi. Decker. 1987 (republished 1988). Lesser Writings. 1988. Hahnemann. Blackie. 1954 (republished 1994). C M Boger Collected Writings. Aphorisms and Precepts. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bannan.choleric. etc. 1989. WA. 1988. lymphatic and leuco-phlegmatic constitutions. Borland. Redmond. Melbourne. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Churchill Livingstone. Gutman. 1986. New Delhi.

1942 (republished 1994). Leeser. The Science of Homœopathy. Tao te Ching. 1935. PA. Proceso Sanchez. A Dictionary of Homeopathic Medical Terminology. Thorsons. Roget's Thesaurus of Synonyms and Antonyms. Notes on the Miasms. 1994. New York. The Spirit of Homœopathy. Ortega. Herbert A. North Atlantic Books. Dorset & Baber. Berkeley. . Greenville. tr. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. Jay. Edward C. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homœopathy. New Delhi. B Jain. Bombay. Homœopathic Medical Publishers. 1994. Textbook of Homœopathic Materia Medica. Floris Books. 2nd edition. CA. Rajan. 3rd edition. The Substance of Homœopathy.• • • • • • • • • • • • Lao Tzu. 1986. Twentyman. Edinburgh. Websters New Twentieth Century Dictionary. Van Hoy Publishers. Vithoulkas. Ralph. 1989. 1979. 1980. 1st edition. Whitmont. George. National Homœopathic Pharmacy. New Delhi. B Jain. Tophi Books. 1980. Unwin Paperbacks. Yasgur. Unknown (between 6-600BC). London. Ch’u TaKao (1959). 2nd edition. The Science and Art of Healing. Bombay. 1991. Psyche and Substance. Otto. Roberts. 1985. Wellingborough. Sankaran. New Delhi. London. 1988.

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