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２．限定用法 The purpose of a defining relative clause is to clearly define who or what we are talking about. Without this information, it would be difficult to know who or what is meant. The woman who lives in apartment No. 34 has been arrested. The document that I need has 'important' written at the top. Children who (that) play with fire are in great danger of harm. The man who bought all the books by Hemingway has died. That's the boy (Ø , that, who, whom) I invited to the party. There's the house (Ø, that, which) I'd like to buy. He's the man whose car was stolen last week. They were sure to visit the town whose location (OR the location of which) was little known.
★ There were only a few (that) really interested him.
関係副詞 I'd like to know the reason (why) he decided not to come. (省略可) February is the month (when) many of my colleagues take skiing holidays. (省略可) I'm going to visit the city where I was born. Friday was the day when we met. She always had wanted to go to a place where she could speak her native tongue. (省略不可) If a relative adverb introduces a noun clause, it is called an indefinite relative adverb because it does not have an antecedent or does not refer to a particular word. In this case, the relative adverb introduces a noun clause that replaces a noun in the sentence. I don't know when they arrived.
※. which lasts for fifteen minutes. Tom is in a room with only one girl. who is talking to Tom? 1. (This gives us some extra information about elephants . not just one type or group).How he did it has always been an enigma. The problem was when the meeting was. is signing autographs. Do you know the girl. The artist. whose name he could not remember. most of whom I knew. Elephants. Where he bought the computer is not important. Dozens of people had been invited. Christians also believe that Jesus himself was not just a human being. and I often go home during the summer. whose most recent recording has had much success. because of the relative calm. The intermission. which are large and grey. most of whom enjoyed their experience. where many successful companies such as Microsoft and Boeing are located. able to make mistakes but sent and guided by God. can sometimes be found in zoos. -2- . comes halfway through the film. He likes shopping between one and three. (This tells us which elephants we are talking about). The singer. able to：分詞の非限定用法を用いている理由 人間は全知全能の神と異なり間違いを犯すから。仮に限定用法にすると 、 「間違いを犯 さない人間」という、一神教のもとでは認められない範疇が生じてしまう。 関係副詞 I come from the Seattle area. Many of those people. The reason why he came is a mystery. was one of the best he had ever seen. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. spent at least a year abroad. Elephants that love mice are very unusual. when most people are at home. ３．非限定用法 Non-defining relative clauses provide interesting additional information which is not essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence. Imagine.we are talking about all elephants. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean. 2. We asked him why he arrived so late.
which was a big surprise. I’ve just met Susan. b. which is most unusual. most of which he had read. who ran off. Chris did really well in his exams. a. who explained the problem. rather than someone or something mentioned within it. One of the girls. which fell apart in my hands. which we’d never been into. There were a lot of people at the party. I spoke to Fred. which many people hate. I picked up the model. rather than to just one word. b. b. My grandmother. d. many of whom I had known for years. who was carrying a small child. He was carrying his belongings. who was carrying a small child. He had thousands of books. who is dead now. got onto the train.a. Sometimes non-defining relative clauses are used to make a comment about the whole situation described in a main clause. a. but adds information. 5. We stopped at the museum. (non-defining relative clause) Non-defining relative clauses have a variety of uses in written English. came from the North of England. c.g: She called out to the man. under which she had often sat. (= the fact that they fell in love is unusual). g. they are often used to indicate that one event happened after another. can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the sentence. whose husband works in London. e. this information is not absolutely necessary in order to identify who or what we are talking about. (defining relative clause) I could see two girls standing on the platform. She’s studying maths. The girl who was carrying a small child got onto the train. (= the fact that he did well in his exams was a big surprise). The girl who was carrying a small child got onto the train. e.g: -3- . An elephant and a mouse fell in love. many of which were broken. (non-defining relative clause) Unlike in a defining relative clause. e. One of the girls. got onto the train. (defining relative clause) I could see two girls standing on the platform. Such relative clauses are often referred to as non-defining relative clauses. compare: I could see two girls standing on the platform. I could see two girls standing on the platform. The elephant looked at the tree. it does not define. As well as adding descriptive information. The relative pronoun which at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause. f.
g. unlike in defining relative clauses.e. He came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a t-shirt. which is used. never spoke to his parents again. who or whom are used. the pronoun cannot be left out when it is functioning as the object of the relative clause. e. was the first thing he had eaten in two days. who later died in hospital. which he devoured immediately. who/whom she had never met. was meeting her for lunch. (defining) He was a distant cousin she had never met. which was a stupid thing to do.: This new project. will cost several million pounds. e. who she had never liked. e. When the relative pronoun refers back to a thing and is the subject of the non-defining relative clause. who is used. When the relative pronoun refers back to a person and is the object of the non-defining relative clause.g.She felt really nervous about the interview. Note that.: Her previous manager. which is used. When the relative pronoun refers back to a thing and is the object of the non-defining relative clause. When the relative pronoun refers back to a person and is the subject of the non-defining relative clause. Edward's brother. whom is rather formal and would only be used in written English or formal spoken English. Register note.g. e.: This bar of chocolate. there is no zero relative pronoun.: The woman.g. which begins in September. As in defining relative clauses. which was understandable. He mentioned a book whose title I can't remember now. (non-defining) 関係詞節の仕組み 限定詞×名詞×関係詞 [主観] [客観] [定義] This is the boy that brought me the letter. has not yet been named. i. whom she later married. (defining) A distant cousin. cf: He was a distant cousin who/whom/that she had never met. retired six months ago. 関係詞の実質的考察 -4- .
but they are not essential: The desk in the corner. which is covered in books.関係詞 関係詞の種類 関係詞として登場するものは、実はすでに疑問詞としておなじみのものである。たとえ ば who は「だれ」 what は「なに」という意味でよく知られている。ところが who や what 、 などが疑問詞として意味を持つのは、誇張していえば例外的な場合だといえる。実はこれ らの言葉は、ある一定の種類の言葉を入れる「器」に過ぎない。しかもこれらの器は異な る色に着色された半透明のもので、その向こうにあるものが透けて見えるのである。これ らの言葉の本来の意味を次に示す。なお、that は疑問詞ではないが関係代名詞として登場 する。 関係詞 特定情報 不特定情報 主語 who whose whom which where when how what why that something somewhere sometime someone someone's someone ○ そのひと その人の* その人を､に そちらのもの その場所 そのとき やりかた ○ そのもの､こと 理由 ○ だれ だれのもの だれを どちら どこ いつ どのように ○ なに なぜ ～する所に(へ) ～するとき 疑問詞？ 主語 接続詞 なお、上記の 関係詞には、関係代名詞と関係副詞がある。 関係代名詞が主語の代わりをする場合、省略できない。 関係詞としての働きを有するもの Non-defining clauses: give extra information about the noun. is mine. "The desk in the corner is mine" is a good sentence on its own -. and that is not usually used in this kind of context. (We don't need this information in order to understand the sentence.we still know which desk is referred to.) -5- . Note that non-defining clauses are usually separated by commas.
we don't know which package is being referred to. Note that that is often used in non-defining relative clauses. I will read whichever manuscript arrives first. and they are not separated by commas. Without the relative clause. Yet the expertise mostly comes from a narrow range of specialists. A Department of Agriculture draft on organic-food standards. prompted more than 250.000 comments. where officials now invite online comments from outsiders when they draw up legislation on subjects like environmental protection. the place that makes the most advanced use of technology in promoting public participation is America. for example. Their destination is unknown. -6- .Defining clauses: give essential information about the noun: The package that arrived this morning is on the desk. As you might expect. ＝ Where they are going is unknown. Whoever broke the window will have to replace it. (We need this information in order to understand the sentence.) 関係副詞 The premier gave a speech where the workers were striking.
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