Claude Masse

o noRitnc: otnv Apl(aia ERRa6a

rENELH KAI E::EI\I::H THr nOl\lTIKHr rKElVHr KAI nPA::Hr

.I:aPPaAa~

EKJ.OrElr· .

CLAUDE MOSSE

o nOilitnc; atnV Apxaia Eilila6a

rENEIH KAI E::EI\I::H THI nOl\lTIKHI IKElIJHI KAI nPA::HI

IIEPIEXOMENA

EIEArnrH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11

1. 01 AIIAPXE:E TH:E EAAHNIKH:E IIOAH:E KAI H AIAMOpq.n:EH TH:E IAIOTHTA:E

TOY IIOAITH 13

I. 0 MYKHNAIKO~ rrOAITI~MO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14

l.l Tu OI-l11pml i':1t11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14

1.2 Ot UVUO'KUCPi':S 'to)v MUK11VcOV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14

1.3 H UVUK1:OptK" opvcvoxrn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15

2. H A«>YrrNI~H TOY TEAOn TOY 90u AInNA KAI

H rENNH~H TH~ rrOAH~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16

2.1 H e1tUVel-lcpaVtO'11 't11S ypucp"S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16

2.2 Ot 1tpcO'teS eK011AcOO'etS 't11<; 1tOAt1:tK"S /;;ro"<;. . . . . . . . . . . .. 18

2.3 To 1tupaOetYI-lU 'trov AS'lVcOV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18

3. 01 METAMOP«>Q~EI~ TQN EAAHNIKQN rrOAEQN

ArrO TON 80 EQ~ TON 60 AInNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20

3.1 H UYP01:tK" KpiO'11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21

3.2 H e~a1tAroO'11 'trov EU'lvrov O''t'l Meccvsto . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21

3.3 H KpiO'11 O''t'lV AS"vu: 0 ~OAroV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22

3.4 To 1tupaOetYI-lU 't11<; ~1tap't11S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23

3.5 H rupuvvic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25

4. H MEYPYN~H TH~ rrOAITIKH~ KOINOTHT A~:

H rENNH~H TH~ MEA~ TH~ ImTHTA~ . . . . . . . . . . . .. 26

4.1 0 O''tPU1:tro1:tKO<; 1tupayoV1:US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 26

4.2 To 1tUpUOetYI-lU rrov AS11vcOv: 11 e1tUvaO''tctcr11 1:OU KAetO'Si':V11 .. 28

4.2.1 To 1:t1-l0KPU1:tKO O'UO''t11~tU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 28

4.2.2 H 1tPOO'~ctcr11 'trov S11'tcOV O'1:tS O'UVeAeUO'etS. . . . . . . . .. 29

4.2.3 Ot l-le1:ctppUSl-liO'et<; 'tou KAetO'Si':V11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 29

4.3 0 OtKOVOl-ltKOS 1tupayov1:ctS: 11 e1tlV011O'11 roo XP"I-lU1:OS . . . .. 30

rr11Yi':S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33

© 1993 by Editions NATHAN, Paris

ThAOC; 1tpco'to'tU1tou: Le citoyen dans La Grece Antique ~Uyypa<PEUC;: Claude Mosse

© EK()OO'elS :Eu~~al..a, 1996

Z. rrllY"C; 18, 10681 AS"vu, TllA.: 210.33.01.251 Fax: 210.33.06.918 IIprotll EKOO<J11: Iouvto; 1996

Anayopsusraz KaBs OAlI(~ ~ flePIK~ avaumcoan rou {JI{JAiou ue onotovonnote tpono xwpir; tnv eyyparp'7 a&w rou sICMr'7.

~EAtOEC; 160, ~X"llu 14 x 21

ISBN 960-460-146-6, KA 80023

HAelCrpOVIIC~ (JeAI60noi'70''7: LEXIMA

MerarppaO''7: Ioxivvc IIu1tuKcov(Huv'ttvou

C/JIAOAOYUq smfleAsw: ~tUAtUV" TO'UAU

rSVIIC~ smf1.iAsla: Ncruou IIoAuxpovonouAou

H l-le'tUcppUOTJ tou 1tUpov'tOS ~1~Aiou e1ll80't"e11Ke U1tO 'to fUAA1KO Ynoopvsio I1oAmO'I-l0u.

2. IIn:E AIIOKTATAI H IAIOTHTA

TOY IIOAITH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 39

1. TA KPITHPIA rIA THN ENTASH ~THN

rrOAITIKH KOINOTHTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 39

1.1 0 U1tOKAetO'I-lOS 'trov 1-l'1 EAeuSi':proV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40

1.2 0 anOKA,EHJIlO~ eKE! vrov non e1tt1li1lovTUV ce optcusvsc

1lpaO"'t11ptO't11,e~ .

1.3 0 anOKA,etO"Il0~ reiv <jnroxo,eprov .

2. TA IIAAI:2:IA TH:2: IIOAITIKH:2: KOINOTHTA:2: .

2.1 H <jlUA,~ .

2.1.1 Ot troVlKll~ <pUA,Il~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.2 Ot oroPtKIl~ <PUA,Il~ .

2.1.3 Ot lleTU~olcll~ ,11~ <pUA,enK~~ opyavroO"l1~ .

2.2 H <ppa'pia .

2.3 0 1l~1l0~ .

3. H rENNH:2:H .

3.1 H 01l0"11 roiv YUVatKOOV crnv nOlc11 .

3.2 0 yallo~, OellllA,tO '11~ nOlctnK~~ xorvoiviuc .

3.3 0 nOA,hll~ 0",11v AO~va .

3.4 0 nOA,hll~ Il~ro 'ano 'I1v AO~va .

4.01 AAAOI TPOIIOI IIPO:2:BA:2:H:2: :2:THN

IIOAITIKH IdIOTHT A .

4.1 H npoO"~acrll crnv nOA,tnK~ t1ltO'I1TU us vouiuo rpozo .

4.1.1 IIapaxooPllO"l1 nOA,tnKOOv 1ltKatro~la,rov os a'tolla .

4.1.2 :2:UlcA,OytK~ napaxooPllO"l1 nOA,mKOOV otKatrolla'trov .

4.2 H npoO"~acr11 O"'I1V nOA,mK~ t1ltO'I1,a us napuvollo rpono .

4.2.1 Arouucc .

4.2.2 :2:UUoytKU .

IIllYIl~ .

3. TO «EnArrEAMA» TOY nOAITH .

I. 0 IIOAITH:2: KAI H OIKONOMIKH ZOH .

1.1 H O"XIlO"I1 ue '11 Yll .

1.2 Texvhe~ Kat nOA,he~ .

1.3 H nOlcll Kat 11 ellnOptK~ opaO"'t11ptO'I1,a .

2. H IIOAITIKH dPA:2:THPIOTHTA TOY IIOAITH .

2.1 H nOA,mK~ 1lpaO"'l1PtO'l1TU ce IltlX 1l11lloKpa'tia .

2.1.1 H O"UVIlA,EUO"l1 (eKKA,l1cria) 't"OU 1l~1l0U .

2.1.2 H Hlctaia .

2.1.3 H Boulc~ rrov Ilsvruxocirov .

2.1.4 Oi apXIl~ .

2.2 H nOA,mK~ 1lpaO"'l1PtO'l1TU cs IllU olctyapxia .

3. H :2:TPATIQTIKH dPA:2:THPIOTHTA TOY IIOAITH .

3.1 H nOlcl'teia rrov onlct,oov .

3.2 H nepin,roO"I1 '11~ AO~va~ .

3.3 Ta optn '11~ O",panronK~~ opacr'l1ptOnlTU~ 't"OU nOlchll .

4. H ElPH:2:KEYTIKH dPA:2:THPIOTHTA TOY IIOAITH .

4.1 H eUllVtK~ OP11O"Keia, OPllO"Keia nOlctnK~ .

40 41 41 42 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 51 51 52 53 53 53 56

61 61 62 62 63 64 64 64 66 67 67 68 69 69 71 72 74 74

4.2 H Opllo"KEUnK~ t;ro~ 't"OU nolch11· .

4.3 Oi yuvaiKe~ «nolche~» Kat 11 OpllO"Keia .

IIllyll~ .

4.

IIOAITEl: «ENEPrOI» KAI nOAITEl: «nA0HTIKOI». . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 85

I. H LTEPH:2:H TON IIOAITIKON dIKAIQMA TON .

1.1 H nruriu .,. . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Ot nOA,t't"tKe~ enavacr'taO"et~ .

1.2.1 H O"'taO"l1 't"OU 411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.2 H 1ltaKU~llpv11O"I1 nov Tpuncovru .

1.2.3 H ano<pa0"11 't"OU 322 .

2. H AMA<l>OPIA rIA THN IIOAITIKH ZOH .

2.1 dllll0Kpa'tia Kat O"ulllle't"OX~ .

2.2 H nOlctnK1l 'ta~11 .

2.2.1 Ot 'ta~et~ Ka'ta rov :2:olcrova .

2.2.2 H npolllceuO"I1 trov nOlcl'tlKOOV av1lpoov .

2.2.3 H e~lllcl~l1 't11~ nOlctnK1l~ 'ta~l1~ .

2.3 H na011't"tKo'tllTU 't"OU (51j/IOV: lluOO~ it npaYlla't"tKo'l1'ta; .

3. H ESEAI2H TH:2: IIOAITIKH:2: IAIOTHTA:2:

KATA TON 40 AIQNA .

3.1 Ot lle'tallop<pooO"et~ rev O"'tpa;eulla'trov «ov no~erov ',' .

3.2 0 «enayyeA,lla't"tKO~» xapaK't11pa~ 'tl1~ nOlctnKl1~ t;roll~ .

3.3 Nsn eniKev'tpa ev1lta<pllpov't"O~ .

IIllYll~ .

5.

H 0EnPHTIKH l:KE'YH rIA THN

nOAITIKH IAIOTHTA 107

I. H :2:YZHTH:2:H rIA THN IIOAITEIA .

1.1 0 «napoucoc» 1llalcOYO~ O"n~ 'Iatopie; 'tou Hp61l0't"Ou. . . . . .. 1.2 Ot O"ut;l1't1lO"et~ yta 'til 1l11~loKpa'tia Ka'ta 'to 1leu'tepo Ill000

't"OU 50u uuovu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Ot O"o<ptO"'tll~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. H IIATPIO:2: IIOAITEIA .

2.1 Ta npo'tuna: dpaKrov, :2:0lcroV, KlcetO"Ollv11~ .

2.1.1 dpaKrov .

2.1.2 :2:0lcroV .

2.1.3 KlcetO"Ollv11~ .

2.2 To Ollila nl~ natpioo (j1J/IOKpaTiar;: 0 'Apeonavmncoi;

rou IO"oKpa't11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76 77 80

86 86 87 88 88 89 90 90 92 92 92 94 95

97 97 99

100 102

107 108

109 111 113 113 113 114 115

116

3. 0 IIOAITH~ ~YM<I>nNA ME TI~ eEnpHTIKE~

KATA~KEYE~ " 119

3.1 0 IIAurOlva~ Kat l] AKaOl]l.tia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 119

3.1.1 H Ilo uteia " 120

3.1.2 Ot NO/lOI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 121

3.2 AptcrrorEAl]~ . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 123 3.2.1 0 optouo; rou 7tOAtrl]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 124 3.2.2 H avuAucrl] rOlV 7tOAtrWj.lUrOlv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 125

3.2.3 H tOaVtK~ 7tOAl] " 127

IITfYE~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 130

I:YMTIEPA:EMA 137

MIKPO AEEIKO T!!N 0E:EM!!N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 141

AEEIKO KYPI!!N ONOMAT!!N 147

XPONOAOrIKO:E TIINAKA:E 151

BIBAIorPAlIlIA 153

EIEArnrH

Ot EAA;rlvE~ sivm exstvot xoo smvononv tnv nOAtttKT], Kat ro~ AE~l1 Kat ro~ npa~l1. 0 OpO~ nOAmKT] npO€PXEtat UnOtl1v EAAl1VtKT] A€~l1n6A1S' ~tl1V npOO'na9Eta rou; VU OptO'Ot)V rt EVVOOUV J..LE tOV OpO UUtO, ot EAAl1VE~ €KUVUV Myo ytU J..Liu xotvomrn, J..Liu K01VWVla rwv nosiubv. H EnabU bEV UnOtEAOUO'E €VU Kpnro; onro~ O'T]J..LEPU, uAAa €VU O'UVOAO uno nOAAa J..LtKpa uorovoun KpUttbtU, nou O'UVb€OVtUV J..LE KOtvT] YAroO'O'U, 9pl1O'Keia Kat nOAtttO'J..LO, J..LEta~U rorv onoioiv ot nOAEt~ T]tUV tU KUAUtEPU b0J..Ll1J..L€VU xpuriSto, KaeE nOAl1 O'uVtO'tOUO'E AOt1tOV J..LtU nOAtttKT] EVOtl1tU non bt€9EtE btKOU~ tl1~ 9wJ..Lou~, VOJ..LOU~, Kat KUta KUVOVU nAT]Pl1 UVE~UPtl1O'iu O'E O'X€O'l1 J..LE tt~ aAAE~ nOAEt~. ~tl1V npuYJ..LUttKOtl1tU, 11 KUtaO'taO'l1 J..LnOpOUO'E VU sivut btaCPOPE1:tKT], Kuero~ OptO'J..L€VE~ nOAEt~ En€pUAAUV rnv l1YEJ..Loviu tOU~, cpUVEpa T] O'UYKUAUJ..LJ..L€VU, ctu; YEttOVtK€~ tou; nOAEt~ T] O'E EKelVE~ not) npoO'xropOUO'UV O'tl1 O't)J..LJ..LUXiu tOU~. H UutOVOJ..Liu rrov nOAErov bEV €nUUE vc UnOtEAet npuYJ..LU1:tKOtl1tU, O'tl1V oztoin nUp€J..LEVUV cpaVUttKa npoO'KoAAl1J..L€VE~, YEYOVO~ not) E~11YEt ytuti bEV npaYJ..LutonOtT]911KE not€ 11 noAmKT] EVOtl1tU too EAAl1VtKoU KOO'J..LOU, EKtO~ urto t«; nEpt1ttffiO'Et~ tl1~ O't)V€vroO'l1C; an€VUVtt O'tOV KOtvO E~rotEPtKO EX9po.

H EAAl1VtKT] nOAl1 UnOtEAEttat KUta xovovo uno to aO'1:tKO K€VtpO, O'uvT]9ro~ KOVta O'E 9aAUO'O'U, Kat KanotU EbUcptKT] smxputstn notKiAl1~ €K1:UO'l1~. Min tb€U O'XEttKa J..LE tOV tbUVtKO tuno EAAl1VtKT]~ nOAl1~ J..LnOpOUJ..LE vu napOUJ..LE uno tu; uvuO'KaCP€~ O'1:11V nEpwXT] tmv «nnoucuov» tl1~ Kntro hUAia~, tl1~ ~tKEAiu~ T] tmv nupaAirov tl1~ MUUPl1~ 9aAaO'O'u~. LltU1ttO'troO'UJ..LE €Wt Ott O'tt~ nOAEt~ ztou ot EAAl1VE~ apxtO'uv vc tbpuOUV uno tOV 80 atrovu

11

o noA.h:Yfr; atnv Aprola EA.A.dJa

n.X, 'CU eM<pT] 1l00paSOV'CUV ()"COUe; unoixouq KU'Ca 'CT] O'nYllft 'CT]e; iDpUO'T]e;, onv Iliu npoEK'CuO'T] ron ucrucou KEV'CPOU . .!lev unftpXe, DT]AUDft, DtUKonft 'CT]e; O'UVEXetUe; lle'CU~U 'CT]e; nOA.T]e; Kat 'CT]e; unuiElpou, Ku9cOe; T] nOAT] Ku'Ca KUPto Myo unO'CeAOUO'e to nOAtnKO Kat 9pT]O'KsunKO KEV'CPO IltUe; KOlVO'CT]'CUe; uv9pcOncov xou SOUO'UV xupto»; uno 'CU EO'ODU nou roix; nupdXe 0 KAftpoe; Y1le; non DtEge'Cuv. L'CT] O'UYKeKptIlEVT] nepimcoO'T] snpoxerto BeBuicoe; ytU VEee; nOA.ete; non tDpu9T]KUV uno enoiKOUe;, Ol onoiot emST]'COOO'UV 'CT]V UVUO'OO''CUO'T] roo rponou scofte; 'CT]e; nOAT]e; rou; O''CT]V «unspnovnu» neptoXft, npoO'nu9ffiv'Cue; vc DcOO'OUV 0" nutov Ilta O'uO''CT]IlUnKft 1l0p<pft . .!leDOIlEvOU llaAtO''CU on uu'Cft T] O'uO''CT]lluwnoiT]O'T], nou ft'CUV unO'CEA8O'IlU IlUKpae; e~eAtKnKfte; nopeiue;, ft'CUV eA.A.tnfte; O''CT]V nOAT] roue Kat uu'Cft uKptBcOe; T] EA.A.et'l'T] tcopponiue; uno'CeAOUO'e nOAu O'uxva 'CO nitto 'CT]e; UVUXcOpT]O'fte; roue. 00''C00'0, nupa 'CT]v EA.A.et'l'T] uu'Cft, O''CT]v onoiu 9u enuvEA90Ulle, BUO'tKO O''COlXeio nupullEVet 0 crevoc O'UVDeO'Il0e; uvallWU O''CO uO'nKo KEV'CPO Kat 'CT]V unat9po, Kat lle'CU~U 'CT]e; KU'COxfte; IlEpOUe; 'CT]e; YT]e; UU'Cfte; Kat 'COU «avftKetv» O''CT]V nOAtnKft KOtvO'CT]'CU.

H nprororomn OIlCOe; 'CT]e; eAAT]VtKfte; nOAT]e; DeV neptoptsO'CUV 0" nuro, LuviO''Cu'Co xupio»; O"CO Yeyovoe; on Ol uno<paO'ete; IlEO'u O"CT]v KOtvO'CT]'Cu uu'Cft AUIlBavov'Cuv nnpouciu OACOV, UKOIlT] Kat o» ouvft9coe;enpOKet'C0 1l0VO ytU 'CT]V EYKPtO'T] roivxpotnosrov IltUe; IltKpfte; lleto'l'T]<piue;, exeivorv non Ku'Cdxuv tov nAouw, 'CT] O''CpunconKft DOVUIlT], 'CT] 9pT]O'KsunKft e~ouO'iu. Ketti Kanotov rpono, oncoe; 9u DOUlle, T] totoptn rrov eA.A.T]VtKcOV nO,AeCOV O'T]IlUWDO'Cei'Cat uno 'CT] DteOpUVO'T] 'CT]e; lleto'l'T]<piue; uu'Cfte;, non O'UV'CeAEO''CT]Ke aA.A.O'Ce us ypftyopo Kat aA.A.O'Ce Ile BpUDU'CepO PU91l0, ECOe; OWU KU'CEAT]~e vu O'ullneptAaBet OAU 'CU IlEAT] 'CT]e; KOtVO'CT]'CUe;, onCOe; Eytve O''CT]V nepin'CcoO'T] 'CT]e; DT]1l0KpunKfte; A9ftvue; uno rov 50 ouovu Kat e~fte;. Me 'CT]V oAoKAftPCOO'T] 'CT]e; e~EAt~T]e; uu'Cfte; nou DtftpKWe Mo atcOVee;, 0 nOAi'CT]e; 'CT]e; A9ftvue; Eytve Ka'CoXOe; 'CT]e; e~ouO'iue; Kat 'Co «enaYYeAIlU» ton nOAi'CT] Eytve npuYllunKo'CT]'Cu IlExpt 'CT]V ftHU trov eA.A.T]VtKcOV nOAeIDV uno 'CT] MUKeDOviu, onots 11 nOAT] XaVet EVU uspo; 'CT]e; uorovouiuc 'CT]e; Kat 01 nOAi'Cee; IlEpOe; 'CT]e; KUptUPXiue; roix.

12

01 AllAPXEI: THI: EAAHNIKHI: llOAHI:

KAI H L~.lAMOP<ll!lI:H THI: IAIOTHT AI:

TOYllOAITH

To npOBAT]IlU rov unupxcOv 'CT]e; eA.A.T]VtKfte; nOAT]e; EXet npoKuAEO'~t nOA~Ee; O'U~T]'CftO'ete; lle'CU~U 'CIDV tctopucav. <Puive'Cat O'XeMv BeBUto on T] u<pt~T] O''CT] BuhuvtKft XePO'OVT]O'o rev uv9pcOncov eKdvIDV ~ou IltAOOO'uv 'CT] YAcOO'O'U non O''CT] O'UVEXetU 9u yiVet T] eA.A.T]VtKT], 'Con0ge'Cei'Cat O"CT]V upxft 'CT]e; DeO'CepT]e; XtAte'Ciue; n.X, 0 'Cponoe; us rov onoio Eytve T] DtdO'DUO'T] uu'Cft, Ku9cOe; Kat T] 'CUXT] 'C~V nAT]9uO'llcOV non Ku'Cdxuv npID'CO'CePU 'CT]v neptoXft noo ovoIlUSOUlle EAAaDU, ouvtcrouv EVU npOBAT]IlU non eivrn 8UO'KOAO vn emAu9d us BcBato'CT]'CU. Ynapxouv BeBuicoe; 'CU iXVT] nou a<pT]O'uv Ol En01KOt, T] spunvstu rou; OIlCOe; nupOUO'taset npoBAftIlU'CU. Y_ ~apxouv eniO'T]e; ot Dt1lYftO'ete; non UPEO'KOV'CUV vu UVU<PEPOUV Ot tDt?t ot EA.A.T]Vee; O'XenKa us 'CT]v npOEAsuO'ft roix, O'uxva OIlIDe; npoxsrrut yta UVUKU'CUO'KeUUO'IlEVee; tctopie; nou oxono dxuv VU DtKatOAOyftO'ouv lle'CUyeVEO''Cepee; <PtAoDO~ice; roue. Eve eivm 110- VO BEB~to: ~ unouO'iu svo; O'UYKeV'CpIDnKOU xpurouq Kat 0 O'XT]ll~nO'Il0e; KunOl~V mo ~T]IlUvnKcOV KEV'CPCOV os optousva; nsptoXee; 'CT]~ XcPO'OVT]O'?U, onou snpoxstro O'OV'COIlU vc uv9iO'et EVUe; AUllnpOe; nOAtnO'Il0e; nou OVOllase'Cat IlUKT]VUtKOe; uno 'Co OVOIlU WU KEV'CPOU roo, 'CIDV MUKT]VcOV 'CT]e; ApYOAiDUe; O''CT] BOpetoUVUWAtKft neptoxft 'CT]e; IIeAonovvftO'ou.

13

1

1

1. 0 MYKHNAiKO~ nOAITI~MO~

Ot YVWcrEt~ Ila~ crXEnKa IlE 'tOY nOAt'ttcrIlO auto ~acrisoV'tat mov Ev90ucrtacrll0 EVO~ rEPllaVOU EmXEtprllla'tia, rou EppiKOU LAiunv, yta 'to npw'tO AOYO'tEXVtKO spyo nou ypa<pTrlKE crnv EAAllVtK~ YAwcrcra Kat crWSE'tat cr~IlEpa: tu ODO IlEyaAa EmKa not~llaru nou ot 'EAAllVE~ anS010av crov Ounpo, rnv 1Auiba Kat rrtv 'Obr5(J(Jela. To nproto ano 'ta not~lla'ta au'ta OtllYEhat sva snsicoow ano 'tOY nOAEllo trov EAMvffiV, uno tnv apXllYeia roo AyaIlsllvova, ~acrtAta rev Muxnvov, svavriov Ilta~ nOAll~ 'tll~ A,cria~, 'tll~ Tpoiuc. LKono~ 'tou~ ~'tav va EKOtKll90uv 'tllv npocr~oAll nou dXE yiVEt crov aOEA<po roo Ayallsllvova, 'tOY MEvsAao, ano 'tOY yw 'tOU ~acrtAta 'tll~ Tpoinc, 0 o~olo~ an~yay~ 'tll crusu,Yo 'to~, 'tllV ffipaia EASVll. To OEU'tEPO OtllYEt'tat n~ nE~t1tE'tEtE~ EVO~ cno 't~u~ onvrpooo»; 'tOU AyallBllvova, roo ~acrtAta T11~ I9aKll~ Oouccsc, o osoioc, IlE'ta rnv Ka'taAll'l'll 'tll~ Tpoiu; xapll oro 'tExvacrlla ron IlE 'to ~UAtvO aAoyo nou 'ton09B'tllcrE IlBcra oru 'tdXll 'tll~ nOAwpKllIlSVll~ nOAll~, nEpt1tAaV~9llKE yta oSKa xpovta cru; 9aAacrcr~~ npotoo ~ava~pd, IlE'ta ano E~atPEnKa cruvapnamtKB~ oovovmostc, rnv nu'tpioa ron Kat 'tllV mcr't~ rou crusuyo I1llVEAOnll·

1.2 Or ava(JxaqJt~ twv MlJxt)vwv

o LAillav, 9sAov'ta~ va svrontcst tn ixvll ton ~yallsllvova Ka: nov ouvtpoqxov rou, ~EKivllcrE 'to 1874 avacrKa<pE~ crnv nEpwXll torv MUKllVWV Kat S<PEPE o-co <pffi~ 'ta speimc EVO~ oxupffillevou nvmctopou, 'ta<pffiV nou nEptdxav nAoucrw UAtKO Kat n?AUapt9lla xpucra nvruceiusvu, Ka9w~ Kat mV~Kio~~ cs Ilta, ypa<Pll nou ~noKpu1t'toypa<p~9llKE navffi uno uico uunvu apyo'tEp~. 0 LAtll~V nicr'tE'l'E on eiXE avaKaAu'l'Et 'to uvmcropo rou AyallEllvova. I'pnyopa Ollffi~ <pavllKE on 'ta npaYlla'ta OEV, ~'tav 'to~o anAa K,at II avayvfficrll tcov mvaKioffiv ~A9E va EVtcrXUcrEt tnv ano'l'll sxervov

14

nou all<ptcr~ll'tOucrav on ot ~PffiE~ tou OIl~POU Ote9E'tav ODvallll napOllota us exsivn noo anOKaAU'l'aV at avacrKa<pB~ nou Bytvav apyO'tEpa Kat cru; MUK~VE~ Kat os aAAE~ nEpwxe~ 'tl]~ Ilsxonovvncoo i) 'tll~ KEV'tPtK~~ EAMoa~.

Etotxotspu, II unap~ll Ilta~ ypa<pEWKpa'tia~ uno ypa<pEi~, at 0- noiot xpcrouonv AEn'tOIlEp~ apXEia AoytcrnKou xapaK't~pa, 9uIltSE neptccorepo rnv avaK'toptK~ opyavfficrl] optousvov Kpa'twv 'tll~ A va'toA~~, napa 'tll crXEnKa npffi'toyovll xorvoiviu nou ccvrcsOllacr'tE Ilecrffi rov ounptxrbv Enwv. Be~ata 0 natl]'t~~ otllY~9llKE Ilta tcropiu noo EPxo'tav ano 'to uuxptvo napEA90v IlEcra ano rnv npooopucf napaoocrll non dXE <p'tacrEt w~ n~ IlBPE~ rou. Ouo»; 0 oEcrllo~ IlE'ta~u roo «ounpucou» Kat 'tOU «IlUKllVatKOU xoouou» emvorov va eXEt Ota'tllPll9Ei apKE'ta KaM. E~aAAOU, ot E~EAi~Et~ ornv apxawAoyia anOKaAU1t'taV a<p' EVO~ on II smppof 'tOU uuKllVatKOU nOAt'ttcrIlOU uoxouvruv Kat EK'tO~ 'tll~ EAAaoo~, on ot «~acrtAd~» rmv uvcxroprov nurdrv Oxt IlOVO eAEyxav tu; napaYffiytKe~ opacr'tllPto'tll'tE~ cr'ta nAaicrta ron cvcxropou Kat trov Xffipuov zoo E~apnov'tav ano nuro, aAAa Ota'tllPoucrav Enicrll~ crxecsu; us 'tllv Kpnrr], rnv onoin Ka'teAa~av m9avo'ta'ta 'tOY 140 nuovo, IlE rnv Atvunro, 'tll Lupia Kat 'to Sunxo IlEPO~ 'tll~ uscoYEtaK~~ AEKavll~. A<p' srspou, IlE n~ apxawAoytKs~ npoooou~, ytvo'tav qxrvspo on optousva ano 'ta lluKllvatKa nvrnctopn xnrumpa<PllKav us ~iaw rpono npor; 'to 'tEAO~ 'tOU 130u ouovo, EVW EnEPX0'tav II Ka'tappEucrll roo uAtKOU nOAt'ttcrlloU, II XP~crll 'tll~ ypa<p~~ E~eAEt1tE Kat 0 nAll9ucrllo~ EAa't'tffivOmv. Y napXEt cr~IlEpa 'tacrll crXEnKonoillcrl]~ au'tou non yta IlEyaAo XPOVtKO Otamlllla Bsropoovtuv ffi~ 'to 'teAO~ roo IlUKllvatKOU nOAmcrllou Kat anOOt- 06'tav crnv a<pt~ll vsoo KUlla'tO~ Etcr~oAtffiV. LlEV E~a<pavicr'tl]Kav OAa rn IlUKllVatKa xsvrpo, EVW ixvl] 'tOU IlUKllVatKOU nOAmcrllou EnEsllcrav yta eve» atwva aKOllll. Qcr'tocro, at apxawAOYOt OEV Ena'l'av va anOKaAOUv «crKO'tEtVOU~ atWVE~» rnv nEpiooo nou

1

15

1

o no),J7:YfC; atnv Apxafa E}.,)"dba

IlScrOAUPEi ureo rnv KU"CUcr"CPO<pTj "CCOV KUptCOV IlUKllVUtKcOv K8- V"CpCOV 8CO~ "Cll «Y8VVllcrll» "Cll~ SAAllVtKTj~ reoAllS, nou ytU opiousvou; Tj"CUV IlUUOV Iltu «UVUY8VVllcrll» reupu IltU Y8VVllcrll, Ku8cO~ ot V8S~ SYKU"CUcr"CUcrSt~ PpicrKOV"CUV crs "Core08S<Jis~ nou sixuv Tjbll KU"COtK118si KU"CU "Cll IlUKllVUtKTj sreoxTj. To repOpAllllU bSV eivot ureAO Kat ureO"C8AS<JS UV1tKdIlSVO reOAAcOV btU<pCOVtcOv. E>u respwptcroops SbcO IlOVO os IlSptK8~ ySVtK8~ reupU"CllpTjcrStS.

2. H A<I>YnNI~H TOY TEAOY~ TOY 90'U AlnNA KAI H rENNH~H TH~ nOAH~

Aero reou UVUIl<PiPOAU ureoKuAure"Cs"Cat ureo n~ UPXUtOAOytK8~ UVUKUAU\jfSt~ eivm 11 "CUXU"Cu"Cll uvure"Cu~l1, ureo "CO "CEAO~ "COU 90u uuovo, rov uv8pcOTCtvCOV SYKU"CUcr"CUcrscov, reupuAAllAU IlS IltU VEU uvure"Cu~l1 rcov sllreOptKcOV UV"CUAAUYcOV, tbtuhspu IlS "COV xoouo "Cll~ AVU"COATj~, non repollllVUSt tnv sreuvsll<PuVtcrll "Cll~ XpTjcrll~ "Cll~ ypu<pTj~ Kat, ureo "CU IlEcrU "COU 80u cuovo, tnv s~ureAcocrll UPXtKU cr"CllbU1tKTj Mecovsto KUt ctn crUVEXStU crnv UVU"COAtKTj. Opioueve; ureo n~ SYKU"CUcr"CUcrStS UU"CES PpicrKOV"CUV, orecos dbUIlS, cs "Core08scris~ nou KU"CUAUIlPUVUV "CU IlUKllvUtKu KEV"CPU rnv sreoxTj rou ureoydou roo j.lUKllvutKoU reOAt"Ctcrj.lOU. AAAS~ nvmrroorrovtov yupco ureo tSPU Tj "CU<ptKU j.lvllj.lsiu cnoo crUVEPPsaV Ot VSKptKE~ npootpopsq. To UAtKO reou TjA8s oro <pcos uno ru; vSKporeOASt~, oreco~ Kat oi ibtS~ ot repocr<popE~, ureOKUAU\jfS rnv ureup~l1 j.ltUS reOASj.ltKTj~ xoivovtnc, OJ.lCO~ nup' 6AO non ot reOASj.ltcr"CES uuroi <puivs"Cat VU Tj"Cuv TCtO reAoucrtOt Kat TCtO tcrxupoi ureo sxeivouc non "COUS reSpt8pUUUV Kat KUUtSpyoucruv "Cll Yll, SV toutou; bSV ureTjpxuv j.lSyUASS btU<P0PES j.lS"CU~u "COUS Kat xupiox tinoru nco v« 8Uj.lisSt "Cll cruv8s"Cll bOj.lTj "CllS j.lUKllvutKTjS xorvorvicc.

Aev npsnst reO"CE VU ~SXVUj.lS on "Co j.lOVO non unopoous vo. KUVOUus eivm vn btu"CurecOvouj.lS ure08EcrSts us Pucrll "CU POuPu bSbOj.lEVU

16

01 anapxic; 7:YfC; E:V .. nvucnc; noN,C; TWI n blaf1,OPfPOJaYf 7:YfC; IOI07:Yf7:ac; 7:0D no),J7:17

"Cll~ UPXUtOAoyiu~. Kat ot ure08EcrSt~ UU"CES eivm cruXVU reupUKtvbUVSUj.lE~SS, sUsi\jfSt ~UCOV ~11YcOV nou 8u j.lreopoucruv vu n~ ureocr:llpt~ouv. Mnopoous oxrroco, IlS cruVS<Jll, VU crUYKpU"CTjcrouIlS K~reOtSS SK,bllAcocrSt~, noo 8u j.lreopoucruv ve SVtcrxucrouv 1tS u~08~crSts uU"CS~. APXtKU 11 sreUVSj.l<pUVtcrll "Cll~ ypu<pTj~, j.ltUs ypu<Pll~ opo»; btU<popsnKTjs Kat COS repos "Cll <pucrll Kat COS repos "Cll XPllcrll "CllS· EvcO 11 j.lUKllvuiKTj ypu<pTj, 11 YPUlllltKTj B, Tj"CUV cruUuPOypU<ptKTj, repoKSt"Cat "CcOpU ytU j.ltU UA<PUPll1tKTj ypu<pTj non Ot EAAllVSS bUVst(J"CllKUV ureo roo; <I>OiVtKS~, repocr8E"COV"CU~ KUreOtU <pcovTjsV"Cu ytU vc uxopouv vu KU"CUYPU\jfOUV "Cll YAcOcrcrU "COUS. H ypu<pTj uu"CTj, reoAU TCtO SUEAtK"Cll Kat SUXPllcr"Cll, bSV ureat"Cst IlUKPOXPOVtU SKj.lU811crll Kat repocr<pEpS"CUt ytU reOtKiAS~ xpTjcrSt~. E>u XPllcrtj.lS~crSt cruyxpo~co~ ytU ureoAoytcrIlOu~, ytU rnv EK<PPucrll "Cll~ <pcoVll~ roo reOtll"Cll, ytu "Cll bllj.locrwreoillcrll "CCOV VOIlCOV. Llsv dV,at "Cuxuio "Co ysy?VO~ ?1t j.luSi us "Cll ypu<pTj ySVVtE"Cat 11 STCtKTj reOtrycrll. T~ OJ.lllPtK~ reOtllllu"Cu, KAllPOVOj.lOt j.ltu~ j.lUKPU~ npoooPtKll~ reupubocrllS, Sj.lSAAS -U<pOU KU"CUYPU<PllKUV ureo Kureowv reOtll"CTj non ioro; ASYO"CUV 'OJ.lllPOS Kat soucrs ern SAAllVtKU reupuAtU "CllS MtKPUS Acriu~ ozo» sixuv unoucirrst, j.lS"CU rnv KU"CUcr"Cpo<pTj "CCOV j.lUKllvuiKcOv KPU"CcOV, EUllVSS nou sixuv EA8st ureo rnv EupcOrell- vc UreO"CSAEcrouv "CO 8Sj.lEAW "Cll~ yVcO<J11~ ytU roo; upXUtOu~ EUllVS~ KUt vn yvcopicrouv j.lSyUAll btUbocrll ce OAO "COV atyatUKO xoouo.

Avu<psp8TjKUj.lS Tjbll cr1t~ btu<pcovisS xoo EXOUV btXucrSt "Cll crllj.lSP~vTj KpmKTj crK~\jfll crXS1tKU IlS "Co recO~ unopst vu XPllcrtj.lOreo~l1cr~t 0 tcr:OPtKO~ "CU OJ.lllptKu Erell. Lllj.lucriu EXSt vu IlllV ~~XVUlls O;t repOK~t"Cat ytU AOYO"CSXVtKTj bllj.ltOUPytu zoo sixs cos 8sj.lu "Cll~ svuv reOASj.lO, repuYIlU1tKO Tj ocvrccmco rov onoio ~~KtVll~uV Ot E~AllvsS evuvriov .,,~ Tpotu~ AtyOU~' atcOvs~ voipt"C~pu. Ollco~, Ku8s AOYO"CSXVtKTj bllj.ltOuPytu resptExst EVU j.lEpOS UA118stu~. Kat nv 11 KOtVCOVtU nou resptypU<pSt 0 Dj.lllPO~ bSV eivm o~"Cs 11 j.lU,KllvutKTj, oreco~ Ilu~ ureoKuAums"Cat cno "CtS retvUKtbS~, oU"CS 11 cruYXPovll ron reOtll"CTj KOtvCOVtU, buvsiSs"CUt ev "Cou"COts (J"Cotxsiu Kat ureo "Cll j.liu Kat ureo rnv UAAll, Kat icrco~, oreco~ uno-

17

1

1

o no}.i1:17C; (J'i171' Apraia E}'}'dJa

bTJAcOVEt 0 ~LEyaAO<; tCJ1:0ptKO<; Moses Finley, uno 'C01)<; CYKO'CEtVOU<; eKElVOI)<; atcOVE<; nOI) npOTJ'Y~STJKUV 'CTJ<; yevvTJCYTJ<; 'CTJ<; nOATJ<;.

2.2 Oi :7tQrotE; Exbl1/.,roon; tl1; :7to/"tttxiJ; ~O)iJ;

Fur 'COI)<; AOYOI)<; UI)'Cou<;, So. EiXE EVbtmp8pov vn evronioooue n<; npcO'CE<; EKbTJAcOCYEt<; UI)'COu nOI) So. unopououue va unoKuA8CYOI)~E «noAmK~ ~ID~» ~8(j'U crnv 1Azaba Kat 'CTJV 'ObV(J(Jela. 'l:'CTJV 'lAzaba, sivoi TJ nEpi<pTJ~TJ CYKTJV~ nOI) unetKovi~E'Cat CY'CTJV ucynibU 'COl) AXtAA.8U Kat non UVUKUAEi ~tU KpiCYTJ Ku'Ca 'CTJV onoin 8PXOV'Cat uvn~8'CIDnE<; 860 uvnnS8~EVE<; o~abE<;' EniCYTJ<;, Ot CYI)~TJ'C~CYEt<; uno 'CTJV TJ'YECYiu 'COl) Ayu~e~vovu, 'COl) nporto» ~E'CU~U 'CIDV ~UcrtA.£IDV nOI) unO'CEAOUV 'CO 'l:1)~~OUAtO, nupol)CYiu 'COl) CYI)VOAOI) 'CIDV EAA~VIDV noAE~tCY'CcOV. 'l:'CTJV 'ObV(J(Jela, eivm TJ uvceop« 'CTJ<; A8~TJ<; bqflOC; 'CTJ<; I8aKTJ<;, 0 ozoio; nupicy'Cu'Cat Kt EKEi XIDpi<; EVEpYTJnKO pOAO cyn<; CYI)~TJ'C~CYEt<; nOI) <p8PVOI)V UV'Ct~8'CIDnOI)<; 'C01)<; ~VTJCY'C~pe; Kat 'COV TTJA8~uXO, ~ UKO~U Ot CYI)VEAEUCYEt<; 'COl) 'l:1)~~OI)AiOI), nOI) unO'CeAEltat uno 'C01)<; ~uCYtA.ei<; Kat 'C01)<; rBPOV'CE<;, CY'CTJV 0."10- pa 'CTJ<; 'l:XEpiu<;, 'CTJ<; nOATJ<; 'CIDV <PataKIDV. BA.8nOI)~E Aomov vu CYXTJ~U'Ci~E'Cat UI)'CO nOI) So. unO'CEA.8CYEt KOtVO XUPUK'CTJptcynKO 'COl) nOAmKOU CYI)CY'C~~UW<; 'CTJ<; nOATJ<;: TJ CYI)V8AWCYTJ WI) b1jflOV CY'CTJV uyopa, CY'CO K8V'CPO WI) aCY'CEID<;, W 'l:1)~~OUAtO nOI) UPXtKa nnipvst ~OVO 'COl) n<; uno<paCYet<; Kat unO'CEAEltat uno 'C01)<; yEpoV'CO'CEPOI)<; Kat tCYXI)PO'CEPOI)<;, 'C8AO<; en apXOV'CE<; (ot ~UcrtAEi<; nov O~TJPtKcOV EncOV) , E1tt<popnCY~L8VOt ~E 'CTJV EK'C8AECYTJ 'CIDV KOtvcOV unO<paCYEIDV Kat 'COV btUKUVOVtcr~O 'CIDV btU<pOpcOV UAAa CYI)'YXPOVID<; nOAe~tKOi Kat SPTJCYKwnKoi TJY8'CE<;, KUScO<; TJYOUV'Cat 'CIDV Sl)crtcOV, Kat E1ttnA80V KaWXOt btKucynK~<; E~Ol)cyiu<;.

2.3 To :7taQubuy"a rerv A611vrov

I'::.EV btuS8'C01)~E Ku~iu UKPt~~ nEptypu<p~ UI)'C~<; 'CTJ<; nOAmK~<; opyavIDCYTJ<;, O~ID<; 8VU KEi~EVO 'COl) 401) atcOVU, TJ 'A(}1]vaiwv IIoAz-

18

Tela, nOI) ~nobibE'Cat CY'C?V AptCY'C0'C8ATJ, uvu<pepEt ~tU nupaboCYTJ nOI) ,u<popu CY'CTJv EYKUStbPI)CYTJ 'CIDV uSl1VUtKcOv SECY~cOV KUt 8XEt tbtat'CEPO ~VbtU<P~pov. ITpay~un, TJ AS~vu nupOI)CYt(i~Et rnv E~~<; nporroromc: KU'CU 'tTJ ~I)KTJVUtK~ Enox~ nrov svo uno 'to. UVUK'tOpt~a K8V'tpU, AtYO'tEPO CYTJ~uvnKo uno 'tIDV MI)KTJvcOV Kat 'tTJ<; ITI)AOI), nOI) btE<pI)YE O~ID<; EV ~EPEt uno 'Ct<; KU'tUCY'tPO<pE<; 't01) 'tEAOI)<;,'tOI) 1301) u~cOvu. To nvrixropo, nOI) ~PtCYKO'tUV navID CY'tTJv A~pOnOATJ" Em~tIDCYE "Ito. ~EYUA.U'tEPO XPOVtKO btaCY'tlWU Kat TJ nOATJ XPTJcrt~EI)CYE ID<; KU'tU<pUYtO "Ito. 't01)<; EAATJVE<; nOI) EKbtcOKOV'tUV uno ~AAE<; nEptoxE<;. Ano EKEl npOEpXE'tat Kat TJ nupabOCYTJ 'tTJ<;, ~E'tU~tvTJCYTJ<; ~po<; 'to. VTJCY,ta Kat 'to. nupaAtU 'tTJ<; MtKpa<; Acrtu<; uno 'tTJV ASTJvu Kat, KU'tU 'tTJV KAUCYtKl1 Enox~, TJ I)nocy't~Pt~TJ 'tIDV <PtAObO~tcOV 'tTJ<; AS~vu<; Eni 'tIDV CYI)YKEKPt~EVIDV V~CYIDV Kat nupuAiIDV bta 'tTJ<; EniKATJCYTJ<; 'tTJ<; KOtv~<; tIDVtK~<; KU'tUYIDY~<;. Erot, TJ nePtypU<p~ uno 'COV CYI)'Y'YPU<pEU 'tTJ<; 'A(}1]vaiwv IIoAzrelac; 'tIDV UPX~iIDV SeCY~cOV 'tTJ<; nOATJ<;, 'tTJ<; apxaiac; nOAzreiac;, ~u<; U<P~VEt va I)nOSECYOI)~E 'tTJV unup~TJ ~tu<; E~EAt~TJ<; uno tnv UPXtK~ ~ucrtAtK~ .~~?I)CYiu EID<; n<; ~~OI)CYiE<; 'tIDV UPXOV'tIDV npo<; n<; UPXE<; 'tTJ<; U~XatKTJ<; Kat KAUcrtKTJ<; Enox~<;. 0 ~UCYtAta<; So. CY'tEp11STJKe UPXt- ~U 'tTJ CY't,~~~~~~t~~i:?~ ~~,~~~i,~, ~e2S,}~ce.§,~Q.~,"1.QP':,iirii:e,l.tQPMiQD, En~t'ra'C!1l!.Kucyn.1S.~OI)_g.l(l, nOI) UVU'tESTJKE e<pE~~<; CY'tOV encOVI)~O apxov'tu, KPU'tcOV'tU<; 'tEAtKa "Ito. 'tOY EUI)'tO 't01) ~OVO 'tTJ SPTJ~KEl)nK~l E~Ol)cyiu. TTJv ibtu Enox~, ot UPXE<; UI)'tE<; nOI) UPXtKa nruv tCYO~tE<;, So. nupUXIDpOUV'tUv E<PE~~<; "Ito. bEKU XPOVtu, xporo» ~E'tU~ATJSOUV CYE E't~CYtE<; (EVtUUcrtE<;). TO'tE So. npOCY't8STJKUV CY'tOI)<; rpsu; apxov'tE<; nOI) npO~ASuV uno 'tTJv nUAata ~UcrtAtK~ E~Ol)cyiu ot E~t SE~~OSE'tE<;, nOI) UVEAU~UV VU CYl)v'ta~ol)v 'La SECY~tu, n<; btK~cynKE<; uno<paCYet<; nOI) Eixuv tCYXU VO~OI), KUt vu 'to. bTJ~OCYtonotTJ~Ql)v. To CYUV,OAO 'tIDV EVVEU UI)'tcOv UPXOV'tIDV nOI) eKAEYOV'tUV E'tTJCYt(J)<; uno'tEAOI)CYE 'tTJV TJ'YECYiu 'tTJ<; nOATJ<;, eVcO Ot apxov'tE<; nOI) cxocopovrcv uno 'to. Ku8~Kov'ta 't01)<; CYXTJ~an~uv 'to 'l:W~OUAto WI) Apston ITaY0I), 't01) SECY~O<PUAUKU Kat UVcO'tU'COI) btKucynKOU CYcO~U'tO<; 'tTJ<; A811vu<;. 0 CYI)'Y'YPU<pEU<; 'tTJ<; 'AfJ1]vaiwv IIoAmiac; npoCYbtopi~Et On Ot apXOV'te<;, Kat KU'ta CYI)VEnEtU Ot Apwnuyi-

19

1

1

o no}Jr:1]C; (fT1]V Apraia EAM.(ja

'tE~, npOEpxoVtUV ano 'tOU~ apia'Wvc; Kat 'tOU~ nAoucnO'tEPOU~, IlE 'tOY nAOU'tO va Ka80pi1;;E'tat xupio»; ano 'tT]V tbtOK'tT]cria 'YT]~.

0a 8EAallE ~E~ata va npocdtopicoous ru; KOtVCOVtKE~ bOIlE~ 'tCOV npo:ncov aU'tIDV nOAECOV. E1ttKaAEcr'tTtKaIlE npOT]'YOUIlEVCO~ au'ta xou IlnOpEl va Ila~ bt8U~Et T] apxatOAo'Yia oro onusio onto. Ot «nptctot» Bsoipououv 'tOU~ euutou; 'tOU~ co~ ano'Yovo~~ nov Oll~PtKIDV T]PIDCOV, 'tOU~ onoiooc nuououv Kat IlE 'tOU~ ,0nat?U~ 1l0tP~- 1;;ov'tav n~ ibtE~ a~iE~. Ot 'ta<pOt Kat at a'Y'YEtO'YpaqnE~ Ila~ npootpepouv KanatE~ nAT]po<popiE~ crXEnKa IlE 'tOY rpoxo 1;;COTt~, :a onAa roue, 'ta nOAUnlla avnKEillEva zoo Tt8EAav va roo; nEp~~aAAouv. LlEV sivrn OIlCO~ napa EAaXtcr'ta cr'tatXEia Kat, 'to KUptO'tEPO, bEV Ila~ smrpsnouv va xcrcvoncooue nID~ EnpOKEt'tO va E~EAtX8El T] Ka'tacr'tacrT] Ka'ta rnv apxatKTt EnOXTt·

3. 01 METAMOP<I>n~EIE TnN EAAHNIKnN nOAEnN AnO TON 80 En~ TON 60 AlnNA

Av bEX'touIlE npa'Yllan on T] EAAT]VtKTt nOAT] KaVEt 'tT]V EIl<paVtcr~ 'tT]~ ern 'tEAT] tou 90u atIDVa, T] svvoic 'tOU nOAhT] 8a aVa1t'tUx8Et ap'Ya Kat IlEcra ano Ilta crEtpa KpicrECOV. H a:,acrucr'tacrT] 'tCOV 'YEYO- vorrov bEV sivct EUKOAT] Kat eivot crT]llavnKO va uno'Ypalllltcr'tEt 'to 'YE'YOVO~ on at E~EAi~Et~ bEV cruV'tEAO~V't~V nav'ta IlE 't~V ibtO PU81l0 os OAa tu IlEpT] roo EAAT]VtKOU xoouou. Ot nT]'YE~ Ila~, E~aAAOu, 'Yta n~ bta<popE~ nOAEt~ ElVat natKiAT]~ <pUcrECO~ ~at avtcrT]~ crT]llacria~. Kat 'to KUptO'tEPO, ru nEptcrcro'tEpa 'YE')'ovo'ta nou crT]llabEUOuv 'tOU~ tpsu; atIDVE~ 'tT]~ apxat~Tt~ EnO,XTt~ EXOU~ <P't~crEt os Ila~ IlEcrCO nT]'YIDv IlE'ta'YEvEcr'tEPCOV Ka'ta nOAAE~ bEKaEnE~, ionx; Kat Ka'ta nOAAOU~ atIDVE~. O<pElAOUIlE, 'Yta napabEt'Ylla, crov totopuco HpObO'tO nOAAE~ nAT]po<popiE~, cruxva uno 1l0P<PTt aVEK86- 'tCOV, crXEtlKa IlE r«; KUptE~ EAAT]VtKE~ nOAEt~. Tt~ nEptcrcrO'tEPE~ <pOPE~, OIlCO~, npoxsrnn 'Yta rov anOT]XO napabocrEcov xoo bT]IltOUP'YTt8T]KaV O'l'tlla Kat IlE oxono va unocr'tT]pi~ouv Ilta nOAtnKTt crU'YXpOVT] 'tT]~ EnOXTt~ 'tOU, 'tOU SOU uuovo,

20

Av, oxrroco, npocrna8TtcrouIlE va svrontoooue n~ ~acnKE~ usrn~OAE~ non EnT]pEacrav 'tOY EAAT]VtKO xoouo Ka'ta 'tT] btapKEta 'tT]~ apxatKTt~ EnOXTt~, outverct nco~, ano tou; napa'Yov'tE~ EKElVOU~ nou cruvE~aAav ern btEUPUVcrT] 'tT]~ nOAtnKTt~ xotvornrnq, npEnEt va bIDcroullE 'to npo~abtcrlla oro a'YPonKo npO~AT]lla. LlEV xcopEi all<pt~OAia on apxtKa IlOVO exsivot nou Ka'tElxaV tu; KaAu'tEpE~ 'YaiE~ ano'tEAoucrav 'tT]V nOAtnKTt xoivornm. To IlE'YaAU'tEPO IlEpoe ron a'YPonKou xupio»; nAT]8ucrllou Bpioxorov cs Ka'tacr'tacrT] E~ap'tT]crT]~. To noiT]lla roo Hcioooo "Epva xoi'Huepai, Eva ElbO~ 8pT]crKcunKou Kat rrypotuco» T]IlEPOAO'YtOU, anOKaAU1t'tEt 'toy E<PTtIlEPO xapaK'tTtpa 'tT]~ Ka'tacr'tacrT]~ 'tCOV 'YECOP'YIDV Kat 'tT]V anEtATt 'tT]~ bOUAEla~ nou ~apatVE 'toy <p'tCOXO 'YECOP'YO, non Tt'tav unoxpECOIlEVO~ va bavd1;;E'tat ano 'tOY nAoucnO'tEPO 'YEl'tOva ron npoxsiIlEVOU va E1tt~tIDcrEt. Ot IlE'ta'YEvEcr'tEPE~ n1l'YE~ uvuospocv Kt aU'tE~ 'tT]V E1tt~apuvcrT] 'tCOV XCOptKIDV IlE XPET] Kat 'tT] IlE'ta~acrTt roue ce Ka8Ecr'tID~ bOUAEla~ 'Yta ru XPET], xupio»; crnv nEpin'tcocrT] 'tT]~ A8Ttva~ 'tOU 'tEAOU~ 'tOU 70u ouovc, LliKata IlnopOUIlE va un08Ecouus on at XcoptKoi noroi nou ~picrKOV'tav ern optu 'tT]~ anOAU'tT]~ <p'tIDXEta~ bEV crUIlIlE'tElxaV crn~ crUVEAEucrEt~ 'tOU Mj10V noo npa'Ylla'tOnOtOUVtUV crnv a'Yopa, xcopi~ tbtahEpT] 'ta~T], Kat on ot ano<pacrEt~ nou Mcrllcuav 'tT]V xoivomru Aall~avov'tav ano cou~OUAta IlE IlEAT] 'tOU~ npouxov'tE~, cruvTt8co~ 'tOU~ 'YEpOV'tO'tEPOU~ ano roue «CU'YEVElq>. AKOIlT] Kat av 8ECOpT]nKa at xcoptKoi uuroi Tt'tav EAEu8Epat Kat bEV 'tEAoucrav uno Ka8w'tID~ bOUAEla~, onco~ at EiACO'tE~ 'tT]~ ~nap'tT]~, EV rourou; bEV Enauav va 1;;ouv uno 'tT]V anEtATt 'tT]~ unobouAcocrT]~ AO'YCO XPEIDV, 'Yta 'tT]V onoia Kavouv AO'YO at apxaiE~ nT]'YE~.

3.2 H ESaTtAw(JlJ rmv EAA1]VWV (J'tlJ MWOYEtO

AmTt aKpt~ID~ T] Ka'tacr'tacrT] E~T]'Yei 'tT]V 'tEpacrna EnEK'tanK1l xivnor] rrov EAATJVCOV cr'tT] MEcrO'YELO, non ~EKtVa nspinou ern

1

21

1

o no),JrlJC; (J7:IJV Apraia E).).a(ja

l.u~cra ron 80u ouovo. Ot apxaiES nllYES, cruxva O\jftflES, E7ttKaAOUvrut "Cll ctsvorntn EbUcpOUS, "Cll cr"CEvoxcopia, no» avaYKasE "COUS 'EAA11VES va flE"Cavacr"CEUOUV avasll"CCov"Cas ve« EbUCPll , BE~ata, EVb8xE"Cat va ureTtpxav Kat aAAOl Myot, OflCOS 11 ibpucrll rrov VECOV unoucuov os nEptOXES EUCPOPES yta 1:11V reapaycoyTt otrnprov (Nona haAia, KUPllVatKTt, Kpuiciu), Ka8cOS Kat "Co. oon flaV"CEUOUflE ano rnv Ka"CavOflTt "CCOV EbacpcOV flE"Ca~u "CCOV unotxorv, E7tt~E~atcOVOUV rnv ano\jfll on 11 avaYKll yta VEES yaiES an01:EAoucrE 10 ~acrtKO KiVll"CPO "CllS E~anAcocrllS, aKoflll Kat av unTtpxav Kat aAAOl Myot nou Enat~aV POAO crnv E7ttAOYTt "CCOV "Con08EO"tcOv (EcpObtacr~los os flE"CaAAa, EAEYXOS cr"Cpa"C11YtKcOV Tt sunopucdrv bPOflCOV), Au"Co nou EO"cpaAflEva anOKaAEhat EAAllVtKOS unouciouo; ObTtYllcrE AOlnov cr"Cll b1WtOUpyia VECOV nOAECOV os OAa "Co. flEO"OYEtaKa napaAta, nOAEtS xoo ElXav E~apXTtS "Cl1V E~TtS xapaK"CllptcrnKTt flOPCPTt KpcWUS: flta acrnKTt EYKa"Cacr"Cacrll us KEV1:PO rnv ayopa Kat "Co npocr8E"C0 npovouto "CllS unap~l1S AtflavtOU, rnv unat8po XcOpa noo flOtpaSOV"Cat Ot VEOt nOAhES, "Co. tspri, O""CO acr"Cu Kat orn optu "CllS unaiepou, us oxozo va cruvbE80uv Ol 8EOi us rnv KawX11 trov EbacpcOv,

Av ouo»; 11 EAAllVtKTt E~anAcocrll KaAu\jfE oucrtacrnKa tnv avayKll e~EUpEO"l1S VECOV yatcOv, bEV Ka"CacpEpE, ocroco, va E~aAEl\jfEt rnv avaYKll yta VEES yaiES, Kat xupio»; rnv aVtcrll Ka"CaVOflTt "CCOV EbacpcOV nou Ka"CabiKasE toix; fltKPOUS YECOPYOUS "CllS llnEtpCOnKTtS EAAabas ern CP"CcOXEta, av OXt cr"Cll bOUAEla. Ano rnv Ka"Cacr"Cacrll au"CTt npOEKU\jfE 11 xpicn, yta rnv onoin bEV EXOUflE napa flEptKa uoptctu napabEiYfla"Ca, non qxriverm OflCOS on EnAll~E "Co flEYaAU"CEpO flEPOS roo apxaiou EAAllVtKOU xoouoo.

3.3 H xQI,CJ'tl ornv AOfJva: 0 'EoAwv

flo. rnv A8Ttva bta8E"CouflE ns KaAu"CEpES -Tt ns AtyO"CEPO EAAtnElS- nAllpocpopiES. LUflcpcova us rov cruyypacpEa "CllS 'Aeryvaiwv IIo2rcdar;, 11 Kpicrll Ecp"CacrE oro anoKopucpcofla npor; "Co "CEAOS roo 70u atcOva: rnv EnOXTt EKElVll, Ot cp"Ccoxoi ElXav yivst bOUAOl rrov

22

nAoucricov, Ot ozoiot Ka"CElxaV "Co flEyaAu"CEpo flEPOS "CllS YllS. <PaivE"Cat va btaKpivEt bUO btacpopEnKES OflabES. Ano "Cll flia Ot bmiJLopOl, Eva ElbOS KaAAtEpYll"CcOv non unoXPeouv"Cav va anobibOUV 10 Eva EKW "CllS crUYKOfltbTtS cr"COUS Ka"Coxous "CllS YllS nou KaAAtEpyoucrav. Ano 1:11V aAAll flEpta unTtpxav Ol nsM.raz, cp"Ccoxoi xcoptKoi nou avaYKasov"Cav va XPEco80uv Kat anEtAOuv"Cav ce nspimroon nou bEV E~ocpAoucrav 1:0. XPgll roue, va reEPtEA90u~ os Ka1:acr1:acrll bOUAElas· Os npoc 1:11V npoEAEUcrll 1:COV EK1:1WOPCOV unapxouv nOAAa crK01:EtVa cnuein, 1:0 ~E~ato OflCOS stvm 11 cro~aPTt Kpicrll nou anElAllcrE 1:11V svorntn 1:11S nOAllS Kat tnv onoin Ka"CacpEpE va E~oflaAuVEt 0 VOfl09E"CllS LOAcov, apxov"Cas roo EWUS 594. Au"CoS oXt flOVO EbcocrE "CEAOS O""CllV Ka"Cacr"Cacrll roiv EK"CllflopCOV Kat anayopEUcrE 1:11V unobouAcocrTt roo; yta XPEll, Ka"CapycOvrr«; rou; nsptoptouoo; nou icrxuav yta ns yaiES rou; Kat nou crufl~OAtsaV 1:11V Ka1:acr1:acrll E~ap1:11crllS 1:COV KaAAtEpYll"CcOV au"CcOV, aAAa Eret1tAEOV napEbcocrE cr1:11V nOAll evo» KcObtKa ypa1t"CcOV VOflCOV, us cr"COXO 1:11V EcpapfloyTt "CllS Sucmoouvrp; us "COV ibto rpono yta OAOUS. 0 LOACOV bEV npOE~l1, rocroco, crE icrll uvcxn"CaVOflTt 1:COV yatcOV non bteKbtKOUcre flEpiba 1:COV aypo"CcOv, YEYOVOS xou bEV apYllcrE va npoKaAEcrEt VEES 1:apaxEs. 'OflCOS, EiXE xurnCPEPEt yta "Co aflEcro flEAAOV va avabtap8pcOcret 1:11V nOAmKl1 KOlvornrc os VEES ~acrEtS. Kat av aKoflll anocpuyouflE va rov 8EcoP11- coups cos tov 8EflEAtCO"CTt "CllS a811vatKTtS bllflOKpa1:ias, bEV naUEt va ano"CEAEl YEYOVOS on Ot A811vaiOl Tt"Cav ECPE~TtS icoi anEvavn o'rov VOflO. Mnopsi va unv Tt"Cav aKoflll «noAhEq> us tnv KUPtOAEKnKTt EVVOta, Tt1:av OflCOS EAEU8EPOt uv8pconot.

Ilptv uno rnv A9Ttva flta aAAllnoA11 ElXE yvoipicet flta nupouotn xptcn, non Ka1:EAll~E os Aucrll btacpopEnKTt ano aU1:Tt non EnE~aAE o LOAcov cr1:11V A8Ttva: npoxernn yta 1:11 LnUp1:11, 11 icropin 1:11S onoias napaflEVEt tbtahEpa atVtYflanKTt yta tov icropuco, roco non Ot ApXaiot upsoxovtnv va "Covisouv tov unObEtYflanKo aAAa

1

23

1

Kat 1l0Va8tKO xapaK1~pa "11~ nOA,l1~ aU1~~. H L1t!XP111 eixs t8pu9ei ano ~roptSi~, 10 1SA,W1aio pSUlla IlS1aVa<HWnKcOV <pUA,rov non cruvS~aA,aV cr111 8taIlOp<procr1110u SA,A,l1VtKOU nA,119ucrIlOU. LUIl<Prova IlS tu; napa86crst~ nou cvcoepoov at apxatOt ioropucot, Ot ~roptei~ xoo i8pucrav "11 Lnap111 IlS1S1pS\jIav 10U~ Ka10iKOu~ "11~ AaKrovia~ cs eiA,ro1S~, 811A,a8~ os un080uA,ou~ ayp01S~. LUIl<Prova IlS n~ i8tS~ napa86crst~, IlS1a cero n~ 1apaxs~ noo antiA,l1crav "11v SV01111a "11~ nOA,l1~, sva~ eurrveuousvot; VOIl09s111~, 0 AUKOUPYO~, 8talloipacrs tu s8U<p11 "11~ AaKrovia~ crs ioou; KA,~pOU~ non uno- 86911Kav crs svvsc XtA,ta8s~ Lnapna1S~. KA,~pou~ nou KaA,A,tSpyoucrav at tiA,ro1S~, Ot onoioi an01SA,Oucrav KatV~ t8toK111crta 0- A,rov trov Lnapna1cOv. 0 i8to~ VOIl09s111~ naps8rocrs crnv nOA,11111 vouoeeotc "11~ IlS "11 1l0p<P~ XP11crIlOU 10U Osoo rrov ~SA,<pcOv. LUIl<Prova IlS "11 vouoflecic aU1~, 11 s~oucria 1l0tpaL;01av cr1OU~ 860 ~acrtA,ei~ at onoiot nposPxov1av ano n~ 860 8uvacr1tis~ non un~pxav uno n~ anapxs~ "11~ nOA,l1~, crs sva crull~OUA,tO I'sPOV1roV, "11 yepoooia, IlS sixoot OK1cO IlSA,l1nOU opiL;oV1UV s<p' opou L;ro~~, Kat cr111 cruVSA,wcr11 10U A,aou rcou, sVcO crnv apx~ ~1av KupiapX11, cr111 cruvsxsta tixs 1l0VO yvroll080nK~ A,St1Oupyia Kat uxopoocs va 8taA,u9ti ano 10U~ ~acrtA,ti~ Kat 1OU~ ySpOV1S~. H tcr1OptK01111a 10U AUKOUPYOU, 0 iooc 8tallOtpacrll0~ «ov yatcOv, 0 XP11crIlO~ ~ MsyaA,l1 P111pa nou Ka90p.tL;s tu; crxscrSt~ IlS1a~U ~acrtA,srov, YSPOV1rov Kat cruVSA,wcr11~ 10U A,aou Ssv sna\jlav va 9S1OUV nOA,A,a npO~A,~lla1a yta 10U~ tcropucoix; Exouv 8ta1unro9si 8taoope; un09scrst~, us cxono va SPllllvSU10UV tu 8s8ollsva "11~ napa80cr11~ Kat va cruv8uacr10uv us n~ A,iys~ yVcOcrSt~ non 8ta9sroous uno aA,A,s~ n11Ys~ yta "11V ioropic "11~ Lnap111~. LS ySVtKS~ ypalllls~ all<ptcr~111Sl1at 11 an080cr111rov onnpnntucrbv 9WllcOV os svav 1l0VO VOIl09s111, onro~ nsptypa<ps1at ano 1OU~ cruyypa<pei~ 111~ KA,acrtK~~ snox~~ Kat reov IlS1aySVSO"1SProv snoxcOv. H811 xu- 1a "11v ApXat01111a un~pxav spro1~lla1a crxsnKa IlS "11v npoommK01111a 10U AUKOUPYOU Kat Ils111v snox~ Ka1a "11v onoin SL;l1crS. Ouoiox, 8sv mctsuouu» nA,sov on sytVS icoq 8tallsptcrll0~ «ov s8a<pcOv "11~ AaKrovia~, 0 onoioc 80crKoA,a 9a unopotxrs va 8ta111-

24

P119ei us 10 nspacrlla rcov atcOvrov. Mzopocue va un09scroulls on IlS1a "11v Ka1aK111cr11 uno 1OU~ Lnapna1s~ "11~ Mscrcr11via~, "11~ nA,oucrta~ ns8ta8a~ nou YSt10VSUSt Ils111 Acxcovin, Ot Ka1OtKOt "11~ onota~ sytvav StA,ro1S~, ot Ka1aK111IlSvS~ yats~ llotpacr111Kav s~icon IlS1a~u1rov VtK111cOv. Kat ciyoop« 101S, npo~ 10 1SA,0~ 10U 70u ~ n~ apxs~ 10U 60u atcOva, 8talloP<Pc0911Kav ot Osouo] nou, SK10~ ano 10V KA,l1POVOlltKO xapaK1~pa trov 800 ~acrtA,f:rov, sV1acrcrovtrn 0"10 YSVtKO crX~lla noo ~811 cruvav1~cralls crnv 19aK11 Kat cr111V nOA,l1 trov <I>ataKrov, onro~ Kat cr111V apxai:K~ A9~va: ot apxov1s~ (s8cO ot ~acrtA,si~), sva LUIl~OUA,to IlS nsptoptcrllsvs~ s~oucrtS~ Kat Ilia cruVSA,wcr1110U O17f1ov, nou cruYKaA,st.at crs crnaVtS~ nSpt7t1cOcrSt~ Kat Sev 8ta9s1St npaYllanK~ s~oucria.

3.5 H t1J~avvi.a

LS aA,A,s~ nSpt7t1cOcrSt~ 11 Kpicr11 Ka1SA,11~s cs sva <Patv0IlSVO nco <paivS1at va snat~s onucvruco pOA,O cr111V S~SA,t~111rov SA,A,l1VtKcOV noA,srov, scr1ro Kat av napSIlStvs 10mKa Kat XPOVtKa nsptoptcrllsYO: npOKSt1at yta "11v ropovvlo. Kat s8cO npsnst va SPIl11vsucroulls rn cr1atxsia "11~ napa800"l]~ non upeoxsnn va avanaptcr1a 10V ropcvvo ro~ 10V <ptA,680~0 nOA,l111 nou yta va yivst KUptO~ "11~ nOA,l1~ Ssv 8tcr1aL;st va cr111ptX1ei cr1OU~ mo <p1(j)XOU~ Kat, yta va 8ta111P119si O"111V s~oucria, s<paplloL;st "11v 1polloKpa1ia, cr<paytaL;oV1a~ 10U~ avnnaA,ou~ 10U Kat sm~aA,A,OV1a~ "11v unaKo~ cr10U~ 8tKOU~ 10U ona80u~. L111 <pav1acria rrov EA,A,~vrov 0 ropovvo; stvor o Ka1' s~OX~v avn-nOA,l111~, aU10~ xoo Ka1acrXSt "11v s~oucria "11~ nOA,mK~~ KOtv01111a~ Kat 10n09s1Sl1at SK10~ "11~ noA,sro~ zoo un080uA,cOvst. L111v npaYllanK01111a, 11 Ka1aO"1acr11 nruv otyoupa mo cruv9s111, Ka9cO~ 11 SA,Wcr111OU wpavvou ytv01av uson crs KA,illa xotveivtxrov aycOvrov aA,A,a Kat aV1t9scrsrov (HOU~ KOA,nOU~ "11~ aptcr1OKpanK~~ 1a~11~ nou KUptapxoucrs cru; nOA,st~. Tur va snavsA,90UIlS crnv A9~va Kat cr' aU1a nou Ila~ nA,11 pooopst 0 Hp08010~ Kat 0 cruyypa<psa~ "11~ 'A 81] vak» v Ilositeiax, qxriverm nro~ 11 ropcvvto 10U Ilstoto-cpnron ~1av an01sA,scrlla 10crO "11~

25

1

1

o nOAlrflC; ainv Aproia EAAa6a

8uO"apEO"KEtac; nou npOKaAWE 0 'ql:rUlanKOC; xapaKITtpac; ICOV ~lElappu8J-lio"ECOV IOU l:oAcova Kat TJ apvTJO"Tt IOU vu pu8J-liO"Et ITJV ayponKTt KpiO"TJ J-lE ava8tavOJ-l11111e; YTJe;, 00"0 Kat ICOV avn8EO"ECOV non E<pEpav aVltJ-lElconEe; KanOtEC; J-lEYaAEe; nptctoxprmxe; oucoYEVEtEe;, 0 ITEtO"iO"lpaI0C;, EnCO<pEAOUJ-lEVOe; ano ne; nEptO"laO"Ete;, 8tUITJ pcOVlac; 10Ue; VOJ-lOUe; IOU l:oAcova Kat 10Ue; to"XUOVIEC; 8EO"J-lOUC;, XpTJO"tJ-lOnoiTJO"E ITJV anOAU111 E~ouO"ia IOU yta vu napaO"XEl UAtKTt ~0118Eta 0"10V <pICOXO ayponKOnATJ8uO"J-l0. l:uyXPOVCOC; EviO"XUE ITJV EVOITJla ITJC; nOA11C; Kat WVOOUO"E ITJV UAtK111TJC; avanIU~TJ. H ~aO"tAEia IOU O"lwaw801Ei ITJV apXTt IOU J-lEyaAEiou ITJe; A8Ttvae;, nou ouvrouc 8a Emo"Kia~E OAEe; ne; aAAEe; nOAEte; Kat 8a EnE~aAE ITJV TJYEJ-lovia ITJC; 0"10V atyataKO KOO"J-lO, TJYEJ-lovia nOAtnKTt, nOAtnO"nKTt Kat otKOVOJ-ltKTt laU10xpova.

4. H AIEYPYNI:H THI: nOAITIKHI: KOINOTHTAI::

H rENNHI:H THI: IAEAI: THI: II:OTHT AI:

To EpyO ICOV VOJ-l08ElcOV Kat ICOV ruprivvov Kala ITJ 8tapKEta IOU 70u Kat IOU 60u uuovc EVlaO"O"Elat 0"10 KAiJ-la ITJC; ayponKTtC; xpiO"TJe; nou <paivElat 01t O"uvlapa~E ru 8EJ-lEAta ITJe; aptO"loKpanKTtC; xoivcoviuc Kat EnElpE\jfE O"ITJ J-la~a ICOV aypOlcOV ITJV npoO"~aO"TJ O"E mo an08EKIEC; O"UV8TtKEC; ~COTtC; Kat O"E J-lEyaAt)1EpTJ npoO"contKTt EAw8Epia. 'OJ-lCOe;, yta vn KalaV0TtO"OUJ-lE ncOe;, napaAATJAa J-lE ITJV anOKITJO"TJ aUITte; ITJe; EAw8Epiae;, O"VVIEAEO"ITJKE 10 nEpa~J-la O"E Evav nEptO"O"OIEPO Tt AtYOIEpO EVEpyO EAEYXO ICOV nOAtnKCOV urto<paO"ECOV, Tt aAAtcOe; ncOe; 0 6~/lOC;, 0 aO"TtJ-laVI0e; AaOe;, E<plao"E va yiVEt J-la~i J-lE rou; opiounx; avanoO"naO"w IJ-lTtJ-la ITJe; i8tae; KotVCOviae; nOAHcOv, ExEt J-lEyaATJ O"TJJ-laO"ia vn napEJ-l~aAOUJ-lE KanOtEC;

aAAEe; napalTJ pTtO"Ete;.

26

onco52D~Q!QabJE nlQ. .. 1I!JvCY, M-e-'F&Io~-Uru2...).li!UlP-la..WKP.a:ria{~:'(:,.: "" ,,';, \

n?~~l:lt5)"~0.':'._1t,'?~ .. ~q_1§..iXm! lJ,A.Q_Y_(J.Km_QJI~gJ~\!!.~~a_qsp.M!sgyJllY , '

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A,1180UIlE nsptocorepo 11' UlYti) V, YW,ti (ha88'W~IlE K~t n~ mo 1tA,OUcrtE~ 1tA;r1Po<popiE~, o» Kat at 1t1lYE~ Ila~ bEV stvm nnvrn unoA,U'l:C))~ a~tOmcrtE~.

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cruv8~aA,E crtll YPi)yoPll ava1ttu~l1 tll~ 1tOA,l1~·

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28

crll trov a1tO<pacrErov 1tOU dXE A,a~Et to LUIl~OUA,to tOU APEtoU Ilnvou, o-ro oaoio unopouonv vc crullllEtacrxouv, 01tro~ doallE, 1l0VO Ot «EUYEVEi~». Axour] nsptorrorspo ouo»; 80, 1tP81tEt icrro~ vn all<pt~aUouIlE yw rnv svvotn 1tOU 8btvaV at cruyypa<pd~ tOU 40u nuovu crn~ IlEtappu8llicrEt~ 1tOU 1tpaYllato1toillcrE 0 LOA,rov, oro npootoxo 'COU onoion 8~A,E1taV svnv a1to tOU~ tbPUt8~ tll~ 0111l0Kpatia~. Av 1tpaYllattKU O<pdA,Etat c' uurov 11 OtaKptcrll rev A811vairov avaA,oya us rnv nsptououncf rou; Katacrtacrll, auto OEV 1tp81tEt vn 8XEt crX8crll IlE n~ 1t0A,ttlK8~ tOU aVllcruxiE~, aUa otvoupc us crpunernxec, icrro~ Kat us <pOPOA,OytK8~ uvnouXiE~.

4.2.2 H j(QO(J~(Wl) tWV Ol)t6>v (JttS (JllV£A£lJ(J£tS

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4.2.3 Or !l£tUQQllO!ll(J£tS roo KA£t(JOEVl)

o KA,Etcr88vll~ ouo»; bEV E1tPOKEltO va EYKatacrti)crEl 1tpO~ o<pEM~ tOU utn vsu rcpovvin Kat, uv crtllpiXtllKE crov (5ijj10, 'CO 8KavE yw ve tOY E1tava<p8pEl crnv E~oucria, 01tro~ ava<p8pEl 0 cruyypa<p8a~ tll~ 'A8ryvaiwv Ilosneiac. ~EV 80, )la80U)lE 1tOt8 tt i)tav auto 1tOU

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o nasiinc; Cl7:YfV Apxaia E}..}..uba

eD911O"E uurov 'tOY yovo I-ltUl; uno tu; IlEyaAl)'tEpE~ oucovsvsie; «ov A911VeDV, 'tll~ oixovevstc; nov AAKIlEIDV10eDV, va ava'tpe\llEl 'tll OOIlTJ 'tll~ a911vatKTJ~ KOtvIDVia~, avallop<peDvov'ta~ 'tOY nOAt'tElaKO XeDPO, srot eDO"'tE va anOOeDO"El 1l1a O"ullnaYTJ ~uO"ll O"'tll 9EO"Il;KTJ urotntn 'tIDV nOAt'teDV, Ka9eD~ E<Pt:~TJ~ 9a Ka'tavellov'tav O"E Ot:Ka <pUAt~ non nEplAUIl~avav OTJIlOU~ ano n~ 'tPE1~ YEIDypa<plKe~ nEptOxe~ 'tllC; A'tnKTJC;, 'to UO"'tu, tu napUAla Kat rnv unat9po. 0 O"uyypa<pea~ 'tll~ 'A()1Jvazwv Iloliteku; ava<pepEl 'tOY POAO nou enat~av at AAKIlEIDVioE~ crnv 1!'teDO"ll 'tIDV 'tUPUVVIDV Yla va E~llYTJO"El 'tll geO"ll ron ({1l'Ye'tll ton 611/100» nou eAa~E 0 KAE10"gevll~· ITPOKEt'tat OIlID~ Yla 1l1a epunveic nou ovncrotxei ctov 40 ouova, orcv 11 1!'teDO"ll 'tIDV 'tUpUVVIDV napouO"la1,:o'tav ID~ viKll 'tll~ OlllloKpa'tia~, EVeD 0lllltoUPyoi 'tll~ unTJP~av 01 A911vaiat cpicroKpU'tE~ us rnv unoO"'tTJ Pl~ll 'tOU ~acrtAlu 'tll~ Lnup'tll~ Kxeousvr]. 'O,n Kl av tcrXUEl yta rc aina non eD911O"av 'toy KAEwgevll va ava'tpe\llt:l Ka't' au'to 'toy rpozo tu; oOlle~ 'tll~ nOAmKTJ~ KOtvIDvine, nuro nou lleVEl sivrn on 'to epyo 'tOU ouvicru eva doo~ Ka91epIDO"llC; 'tll~ lOlo'tll'ta~ roo A911vaiou noAl'tll· Kat auto unoOt:1KVUE'tat XIDpi~ all<pl~oAia ano 'to YEYOVO~ on rots, Yla va olaKptVov'tal at EAt:u9EPot KU'totKOl 'tll~ A9~va~ Kat 'tll~ unuiOpou, nou TJ'tav OIlID~ ~evat npo~ rnv nOAmKTJ xotvorrrm ('tExvi'tE~ nco EYKa'taO"'tu911Kav crnv nOAll Yla va aO"KTJO"ouV exsi 'to t:nuYYEAllu 'tOU~, ellnopat nou oEAEuO"'tllKav ano 'tOY 'tono ocro onoo avan'tuO"O"ov'tav KEpOO<pOPE~ O"uvaUaye~ K.An.), olalloP<PeD- 911KE 11 lOlo'tll'ta 'tOU pstoiicoo, roo ;evou KU't01KOU.

4.3 0 OlXOVO,"uxo; n:aQayovta;: 11 En:lvo11(J11 tOll XQtl~ato;

'E't0"1, <P'tUVOUIlE va E~E'tuO"oUIlE evav 'tEAEu'taio napuyov'ta, nco Yla IlEYUAO XPOV1KO OluO"'tlllla 9EIDPTJ911KE Ka90plO"nKo~: 'tOY 01- KOVOlllKO. ~EV unUPXEl all<pl~OAia on 11 nEpiooo~ nou EK'tElVE'tat uno 'tOY 80 eID~ 'tOY 60 ateDva un~p~E Yla tu; EAAllvlKe~ nOAt:l~ I-lia nEpiooo~ avu1!'tu~ll~ 'tll~ ~tO'tExvia~ Kat 'tIDV O"uvaAAayeDv.

30

APKd va 9Ull1l90UIlE 'tll O"llllaO"ia 'tll~ KEpaIlE1K~~, 'tIDV ropuirov aU'teDv ayydIDv zoo ~pE911Kav O"E oAa rc napuAla 'tl1~ Mscoydou. H Koprvlk»; apX1Ku, aUu xupio»; 11 A9~va, unTJP~av 0"11- llaVnKU xsvrpu napaYIDYTJ~ ayydIDv. Ta ayyda au'tu Ka'tu IlEYUAO IlEPO~ E~UYOV'tav Kat XPllO"illwav ID~ av'taAAaKnKo ElOO~ yta npoiovtu nou Ssv ole9t:'tav at EUllvlKe~ nOAE1~: IlE'taUa, O"t'tllPU Kat OOUAOl, nou yivov'tav OAO Kat mo anapal'tll'tOl, Ka9eDC; nav'tou o t:~ap'tllIlEvO~ ayponKo~ nA1l9uO"1l0C; EiXE apxiO"El va XElpa<pE'td'tat. 01 av'taAAaYE~ aU'tE~ ouvtoun 9a euvoouvrcv nsptccotspo ano rnv E<PEUPWll t:vo~ VEOU aO"uYKpl'tOU uscou: ron XPTJlla'to~. Azo 'tOY 70 uuovo, OP10"IlEVE~ EUllvlKE~ nOAE1~ uPX10"av va KO~ouv vouiouc. 'Exouv ota'tunID9Ei noUu EpID'tTJlla'ta O"XEnKu IlE tu uirtn 'tll~ t:<PEuPEO"ll~ aU'tTJ~, rnv ozoin oavEiO"'tllKav crrnv npaYllanKo'tll'ta ano 'to ~aO"iAEto 'tIDV AuoeDv. 0EIDpTJ911KE ID~ <pUcrtKTJ O"uvEnEta 'tl1~ E~eAl~ll~ 'tIDV O"uvaUaYeDv O"'tll MWOYEto. Auto wXupl1,:o'tav Ka'tu tnv Apxato'tll'ta Kat 0 <P1AOO"O<p0~ AP1- O"'tO'tEAll~. ITpEnEl OIlID~ va napEIl~uAOUIlt: Kat uUa mo O"uv9E'ta cine, nOAmKu, 1191KU xm KOlVIDV1KU O"U'YXpOVID~. 'OIlID~, una~ Kat 01lIltOUPYTJ911KE yta va KaA6\11t:l aU'tE~ n~ natKiAt:~ avuYKE~, 'to XPTJlla snpoxstto aVal-l<plO"~TJ'tll'ta va yivet, 'tOUAUX1O"'tOV Yla optO"IlEVE~ nOAE1~ onID~ 11 A9TJva, 'to xcr' E~OXTJV EPyaAdo ron sunopiou 'tOU~. Eivat AOlnov E~atPEnKu MO"KOAO va xpocoioptotst noiot; TJ'tav 0 uvrixruxo; uurrov 'tIDV atKOVOlllKeDV IlE'ta~OAeDV crnv E~EA1~1l 'tll~ xotvorvinq. ~lon, nOAu o"uxvu, 01 OPUo"'tE~ 'tIDV IlE'ta~OAeDV aU'teDV TJ'tav ~EVOl npo ; rnv nOAtnKTJ xoivornrc. 'OnID~ ElneD911KE Kat npo1l'YOUIlEVID~, 01 'tEXVl'tE~ Kat at ellnopOt EYKa'taO"'tu911Kav ctnv A9TJva AOYID 'tll~ avun'tU~ll~ 'tll~ aO"nKTJ~ nEpl<pEpElac; Kat 'tll~ au~avoIlEvll~ avaYKato'tll'ta~ va E~aO"<paAi1,:t:'tal 0 aVE<pOOlaO"Il0~ 'tll~ nOAll~ O"E O"t'tllPU xm O"E OOUAOUC; Yla EpyanKo ouvalllKO. TO'tE AOtn:OV nTJpE npaYllanKu IlEYUAll EK'ta- 0"11 11 napaYIDYTJ ayydIDv, IlEAavolloP<PIDV Kat O"'tll O"uveXEla EpU- 9pOIlOP<PIDV, UPX10"E ~avu 11 EKIlE'tUUWO"ll 'tIDV 0PUXElIDV 'tOU Aaupiou, l] KOnTJ 'tIDV npeD'tIDV a911VatKeDV VOlllO"IlU'tIDV, tu onoic E<pEpav o"'tl] Ilia 0\1111 'tl] 1l0P<PTJ 'tll~ A911VU~ Kat crnv UUll rnv

1

31

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KOUKOU~UYtU, to (JUIl~OAO Tll~ (Jo<piu~ Tll~ 9c:u~. Kat nUAt OW))~, l] uv9l](Jl] uu't"TJ trov C:llnOptK<DV KUt ~tO't"C:XVtKWV opu(J't"l]ptO't"TJ't"cov Ssv npoKuAwc: 't"l] YEVVl](Jl], onco~ C:WW9l]KC: (JUXvu, IltU~ «u(JnKTJ~ 't"u~l]~ C:llnOPCOV Kat ~tO't"C:XVWV» nou 9u KU't"EAllYC: vn uno(JKC:Ai(Jc:t tnv nUAatU Upt(J't"OKPU't"tU, soocov nurol ot Ellnopot TJ ~tO't"EXVC:~ TJmv KU't"U IlC:YUAO IlEPO~ ~EVot npo; rnv nOAmKTJ xoworntc. 0 Apt(J't"O't"EAl]~ UVU<pEpc:t on 0 KAC:tO"9EVl]~, IlE(Jco 't"l]~ 1lc:'t"uppu9Ilt- (JTJ~ 't"OU, EOCO(JC: nOAmKU OtKatWIlU't"U Kat (JC: ~EVOU~, UKOIll] Kat (JC:

OOUAOU~. Auto OIlCO~ Oc:v npEnc:t vn u<popu nupu (JC: EVUV IltKPO Upt91l0 uv9pwncov nou C:YKu't"u(J't"u9l]KUV ornv A9TJVU AOYCO 't"l]~ uvumu~TJ~ 't"l]~.

Ot nAl]po<popic:~ IlU~ sivm no AU C:AAWc:i~ yta UAAC:~ nOAc:t~, yta vu IlnoPE(JOUIlC: vc otu't"unw(JoullC: hKUpC:~ un09E(Jc:t~. Ttn 't"l] ~nup't"l], yvcopi/,:OUIlC: on l] C:VU(JXOAl](Jl] 1lC: Ku9c: c:ioou~ C:lln?ptKTJ TJ ~tO't"C:XVtKTJ opu(J't"l]Pto't"l]'t"u unuyopc:uo't"uv (J't"OU~ ~nupnu't"c:~ non unmC:Aou(JuV rnv xotvornrc roiv noAt't"wv. Tiu n~ UAAC:~ nOAc:t~, ozoo otu9E't"OUIlC: KUnOtC:~ uno(Jnu(JllunKE~ nAl]po<popic:~, otu<puivstut eire on l] KU't"U(J't"U(Jl] TJ't"uv nupollotU 1lC: uU't"TJV 't"l]~ A9TJvu~, eire on rc ilEAl] 't"l]~ nUAatU~ nptoroxputiuc f.AEyXOUV (JuvTJ9co~ n~ C:llnoptKE~ opu(J't"l]Pto't"l]'t"f.~, nupuxcopwv't"u~ 't"f.~ os U't"OIlU non 't"f.AOUV uno Ku9w't"w~ c:~uP't"l](Jl]~. 'O(JO ytU 't"OU~ 't"c:xvhc:~, (JXc:06v xovro» npoxsmn ytU ~EVOU~ npo; rnv nOAmKTJ xoivorntn, l] onoia nupsuevs (J't"C:vu (Juvoc:oC:IlEVl] us rnv tOtOK't"l](Jiu yl]~·

Auto UKPt~W~ sivot non otaKpivc:t rnv A9TJvu, Kat i(JCO~ Kat KUnotC:~ UAAf.~ nOAf.t~ onco~ UU't"TJ no\') TJ't"UV UVotX't"E~ npo; 't"OV E~CO KO(JIlO: ytU VU UV11Kc:t KunotO~ crnv nOAmKTJ xotvotntu OC:V TJ't"UV nAEOV unupuhl]'t"l] l] toioxtnotn yl]~. En poxsrto , o-rnv A9TJvU 't"OUAUXtO"'t"OV, ytU IltU (JuvEnc:tU rrov IlE't"pCOV 't"OU ~OACOVU, 0 onoio; c:iXC: c:nuvu<pEpc:t crnv A't"nKTJ ocoix c:ixuv nouAl]9c:i (JKAU~ot UAAOU, xcopi~ vu 't"OU~ nupuxcopTJ(Jc:t yuif.~, Kat xupiox; 't"COV IlE- rpov 't"OU KAC:tO"9EVl], nou Ol]llwuPYl](JUV rnv laovouia, tnv teorntn unEvuvn (J't"OV VOIlO Kat OtU 't"OU VOIlOU OACOV exsi VCOV noo TJ't"uv ilEAl] evoc 0TJIlOU, 't"l]~ C:OU<PtKTJ~ nc:pwXTJ~ non htvc: l] ~u(Jl] 't"l]~ nOAmKTJ~ tOto't"l]'t"u~.

32

IIHrm;

H O"UVE/."c;uO"Tt nov Axaubv O"'t"Ttv Tpotn

sneaaeVOV1:0 <5i Aaoi. ~(jre 88vea elm ueuoaocov Mlvawv, nirpY!e; SK YAarpvpije; aid viov spxo{levawv. {Jorpvoov <5i netovtoi sn' av8eazv eiaptvoiaiv, ai {liv t' 8v8a aAle; ttenotnauu, ol oi rs 8v8a. we; rwv 88vea nOAAa vewv iino tcoi KAlazawv ~iovoe; ttpotuipotbe {Ja8dy!e; louXOWV1:0 IAa06v de; ayop1v. uet« <5i oipunv "Oaaa &Mel orpvvova' levoi, AlOe; ayyeAoe;. oi 0' ayipovro. rerp1xel 0' ayop1, uno <5i arevaxi(ero yoia Aawv i(ovrwv, o{laOOe; 0' ~v. svvia oi arpeae; K1pvKee; Boooivte; sp1rvov, ef nor' aBrije; aroiai', aKovaezav oi olOrperpiwv {JaalA1wv. anovoij 0' e(ero AaOe;, sp1rv8ev <5i Ka8' eopae; tuuxuuievoi KAayyije;. ava oi «peiosv 'Aya{li{lvwv 8ary! axiintpov 8XWV, to {liv "Hcaurto; touu: revxwv ... rep 0 y' bpeuuiuevo; ene' 'Apveioiat {lery!voa. «w rpiAOl qpwee; Aavaoi, 8ep6.novree; 'Apnoc, ... »

~'t"O Ilf.'t"u~u 0 <J't"pu't"o~ E't"Pf.XC: vc llu/,:c:u't"C:i. 'Onco~ stvct ru (JIlUptU uno nUKvu IlC:Ai(J(Jta noo OAO Kat xmvouptu ~yu{VOUV uno KOU<PUAtU(JIlEVO ~pUXO Kat onv 't"(Jullmu nsrouv nuvco (J't"U Uvot~tunKU AOUAOUOtU, Kat nc:'t"ouv KonUOtU(J't"u UAAU c:ow Kat UAAU exsi, srot xt un' UU't"OU~ nATJ9l] nOAAU npoxcopOU(JUV ern (JUYKEV't"PCOen, OIlUOC:~ OIlUOC:~ uno rc KUpU~tU Kat uno n~ (JKl]VE~, C:llnpo~ uno 't"l] XUIll]ATJ UKpOytUAtU. A VUIlC:(JU 't"OU~ Ilta <pCOVTJ <pouv't"COVf., ucvmrooopoc roo ~{u, nou 't"OU~ E(Jnpcoxvc: vn npOxcopTJ(Jouv. Kt sxaivot Ilu/':c:uov't"uv. E~pu/,:f.l] (JUVEAC:U(Jl] xt l] yl] ~OYKOU(JC: uno KU't"CO, KU9w~ ot crputtrors; Ku90v't"uv, Kat vivovrcv ~oTJ llc:yUAl]. EVVEU OtUAUAl]'t"UOC:~ <pcovu/,:ov't"u~ npo(Jnu90u(Juv vu 't"OU~ (JUYKPU't"TJ(Jouv, IlTJnco~ KUno't"C: (J't"UIlU't"TJ(Jouv n~ <pCOVE~ xt UKOU(JOUV 't"OU~ ot09pc:<p't"ou~ ~U(JtAtUOC:~ 't"OU~. ~l]Kw9l]KC: rots 0 ~U(JtAtU~ AyUIlEIlVOVU~ KPU't"WV't"u~ 10 oxrprrpo 't"OU. To (JKTJn't"po curo c:iXC:

KOUPU(J't"c:i vn ro <pnu~c:t 0 'Hcctcroc ... ~' nuro uKoullnwv't"u~

1

33

1

exsivo; 'UDpa lliA.11O"8 Kat cin8 0"'t01)~ Apveloix; «AyamWEva naA.tKapta Anvco], crOV'CPO<pOt 'COl) Ap11 ... ».

'OIlTtPOI), 1Alae;, B, 86 - 110

'Hv b' r, ra~le; r~e; a.pxaiae; nOAzreiae; r~e; npo Apoxovtoc touioe. Ttu; j1.iv apxae; lw()[awaav aptotivonv tcoi nAovrivbryv. ~pxov bi to j1.iv npdrtov bla Bioo, ueui 6i toiita oexosuui», Meyurtoi 6i Kai tcptiruu rwv apxwv ~aav j3amAeue; tcoi nOA8j1.aPXOe; tcoi o,pxwv. rourwv 6i npdnry j1.iv r, roB j3aalA8we; -oinn yap ~v tuitpux;-, &vr8pa b' enuwteotn nOAej1.apxia bla ro yeviaeal nvae; rwv j3amA8wv ui nOA8j1.la j1.aAaTCOUe;. oeeV teal rov "kava j1.eremfj1.lfIavro xpdae; KawAaj3ouarye;. Tdwwia b' r, roB O,pxovroe;. of j1.iv yap nAdove; eni Meoovxoc, eV101 b' eni :4xaarov ooa! yeviaeaz uunnv. reKj1.~pIOV 6' enzrpipovalv on of evvia o'pxovree; oj1.vuovalv tbonep eni'AKaarov ui OPKla nOI~aeIV, We; eni rourov r~e; j3amAdae; napaxwpryaavrwv rwv K06Pl6WV avri rwv 60eezawv rep o'pxovn 6WPeWV. Toiito j1.iv ouv onoiepox; nor' [Xel, j1.IKPOV o,v napaAAarrOI role; XpOVOle;. on 6i rdwwia rourwv eyivero rwv apxwv, onueiov tcoi ro j1.ryMv rwv ttatpicav rov o'pxovw otouceiv, dxmep 6 j3amAeue; «o: 6 nOA8j1.aPXOe;, aAA' anAWe; ui enieew. 610 teal veoxrti yiyovev r, apx~ j1.eyaAry, role; enzeirole; au~ryeelaa. eeaj1.oeiwl M nOAAole; batepov 8re(JlV itpieryaav; ij6ry teat' eVlavrov olpoouevcov rae; apxdc;, onco; avaypalflavree; ra eiaj1.la rpvAarrwaz npo; r~v rwv aj1.rplaj3ryrovvrwv «piaiv. 610 tcoi uovn rwv apxwv OUK eyivero nAelWV iviouaku; .

H oPyavrocr11 roo apxaiou nOA.t180Ila"CO~, roo npoY8vEcr'C8P01) ano 'COv ~paKov'Ca, Tt'CUv 11 8~Tt~. Tou; apxov'C8~ 'COI)~ otoptsav ano r«; OtKOYEV8t8~ torv EUY8vroV Kat «ov nA.ol)crirov. H 811'Ccia "COu~ O"'t11v apXTt Tt'Cav tcro~ta Kat upvorspn OtapKoocr8 Ilta 08Ka8'Cia. Ta onouomotspc Kat naA.atO'C8pa a~trolla'Ca Tt'Cav ron ~acrtA.ta, roo nOA.EllapXol) Kat "COl) apxov'Ca. To naA.ato'C8pO ano rc a~trolla'Ca

34

au'Ca nrov 'Co ~acrtA.tKO -Ston unTtPX8 aVEKa88v- 080'C8PO 08 Ka'Ca cstpd npocr'CE8TjK8 "CO a~irolla 'COl) nOA.EllapXOI), yta rov A.Oyo on uspucoi ~acrtA.ct~ 08V anOOctx8TjKav ucovoi yta nOA.81l0. Ttu 'CTjV iota orrin KaA.8crav ot A8Tjvaiot rov 'Irovo, otuv Tj avaYKTj 'CO 8nE~aA.8. T8A.81)'Caio npocr'CE8TjK8 'CO a~irolla 'COl) apxov'Ca. Ot n8- ptocotspoi ano rou; crl)'Y'Ypa<pct~ tcrxupisov'Cat on ooro 8W1l08E'CTt8TjKE 'CTjV EnOXTt "COu MEoov'Ca, EVro aA.A.ot 'CTjV EnOXTt roo AKUorou. Kat yta va "CO anooct~oI)V, EmKaA.Oov'Cat "CO YEYOVO~ on ot EVYEa UPXOV'CE~ OPKisov'Cat nro~ 8a EKnA.Tjprocrouv n~ EVOPKE~ I)nOxpErocrEt~ '(01)~ «omo; Eni roo Axdo-ron», Storr, Ka'Ca 'CTj yvroIlTj '(01)~, sni 'CTj~ ~acrtA.Eia~ EKEiVOI) a<pTjcrav ot anoyovot 'COl) Koopou va anocrnacr'Coov ano 'CO ~acrtA.tKo a~irolla ru xpovouio nOI) ,EiXav napaxroP118Ei crov upxov'Ca. 'OnO'CE Kat va EYtvE ouo»; unto, Tj XPOVtKTt ota<popu etvoi IltKPTt. 'On, Ollro~, 'CO a~irolla 'COl) apxov'Ca tOp08TjKE upvotspn ano 'CU aA.A.a 000 anOOEtKvOE'Cat Kat ano 'CO YEYOVO~ nro~ 0 apxov'Ca~ OEV coxei Kallia unTjpEcria uno n~ na'CponapaOO'CE~ (onro~ yivE'Cat IlE 'COv ~acrtA.tu Kat rov nOA.EllapXO )', ana 1l0VO, Ent11:pocr8E'CE~. Ti' unto Kat Tj apXTt au'CTt OEV anE~Tj a~toA.oyTj napa os IlE'CaYEvEcr'C8PTj nEpiooo, orcv EvtcrXo8TjKE IlE tu; Emnpocr8E'CE~ OtKatooocriE~. Ot 8WIl08E'CE~ 'CEA.O~ upxtcrav va 8KA.Eyov'Cat ocr'CEpa cero nona xpovta, oruv mn Tj avaOEt~Tj trov apxrov ytvo'Cav ava E'CO~, IlE rov oxono va OTjllocrtEool)v n~ uno<pacrEt~ nOI) ouvrdocovmv uno al)'Coo~ Kat EiXav tcrXO VOIlOI) Kat va n~ Ota<pl)A.acrcrol)v yta rnv EKoiKacrTj trov ota<poprov «ov noA.trrov. Tt' au'Co etvoi Kat 'CO 1l0VO a~irolla nOI) OEV OtTtPKEcrE nO'CE nEpav 'COl) E'COI)~.

'AptO"'tO'CEA.OI)~, 'Aeryvaiwv lloAzreia, ill, 1- 4

L1evrePOV M rcOv AVlCOVPYOV nOAl'feVwirWV tcai VeavIKwwrov 6 r~e; y~e; avabaaj1.0e; earl. L1elv~e; yap ovarye; avwj1.aAiae; tcai nOAAcOv al(;,[ryuovcov xai imopcov enzrpepoj1.ivwv rff nOAel, toii M nAovrov ttavttuui-

35

1

1

o no:1h:1J~ (J7:1JV Apraia E:1:1aJa

(JlV sie; oAiyove; (JVVeppV1]KOrOe;, f5fJP1V tcoi cpeOVOV tcoi «oxoopviav Kai rpvcpryv tcai ra wvrcov eil npeafJvrepa xoi f.lei(CO voanuata nosneku; nAOVWV tcoi neviav, e(eAavvcov, ooveneure rryv xwpav imaaav el; psaov eivrae; tcoi l(Jodrypove; roze; fJiOle; yevouevooc, ro c5i nponeiov aperfi psiuivtoc, we; aAA1]e; eripcp npo; etepov OUK oV(J1]e; bwcpopae; ouc5i avwor1]We;, nAryv o(J1]V aZ(JXPwv lfIoyoe; Opi(el tcoi KaAwv enazvoe;. 'Enaycov bi rep AOYCP to epyov eVelf-lC rryv f.liv aAA1]V toi; neptohcou; Aoxcovucnv ipiauopioo; KArypove;, rryv c5i ei; to a(Jw rryv Eniioinv (JvvreAov(Jav eVW(.l(JX1Aiove;. toaoinot yap eyivovro KA~pOI Enoptuirwv.

Astnspo EPYO roo AUKOUPYOU, Kat 'to mo 'tOAf.tllPO an' oAa, eivrn 0 avaoaO'f.to~ 'tll~ Yll~. Yn~pxs rote <po~sp~ evicornrc Kat EPXOvruv ornv nOAllnOAAoi aK't~f.tOVS~ Kat unopot, snsto~ rn nAou'tll Bixav ouooropsutsi ctoo; Aiyou~. Ti' cuto, nOASf.tWv'ta~ rnv avatO'xuv'tia Kat 'tOY <peOVO Kat 'to EYKAllf.ta Kat 'tllV 'tPU<PllAO'tll'ta, Kat ru 860 uUa vocnuutn 'tll~ nOAt'tBia~ noo etvot naAatO'tspa Kat O'o~apo'tspa, 'tOY nAOU'tO Kat 'tll <p'twxsta, EnStO's OAOU~ cvs~atpE't(()~ roue nOAlrS~ va tu ~UAOUV oAa O''tll f.tEO'll yta va yivst avaoaO'f.tO~ Kat va souv f.ts'ta~u rou; 6Aot toot Kat us ton aspioocio, SmOtWKov'ta~ va nportsuouv crnv aps't~, onv va f.tllV un~pxs Kaf.ttU UAAll avuf.tsO'u 'tOU~ ota<popu Kat nvtcorntu napu au't~ nou opiSSt 11 f.t0f.t<P~ ron KaKOU nOAlrll Kat 0 Enawo~ rou KaAou nOAi'tll. Kat Kuvov'ta~ npu~ll 'to EPYO ron uoipuos rnv unoAotnll AaK(()vtK~ Yll O'S tpurvtn XtAtUOS~ KA~pOU~ ym rou; nsptoixoix, xt uutnv non ano'tsAouO'S 'tll Lnup'tll O'S evvui XtAtUOS~, ym'ti rocot Eywav ot KA~pOt torv Lnaprta'twv.

IIAou'tuPXou, BiOI llapaAA1]AOI, Aincoiipyoc, VIII, 1- 5

Eevl1(Q)ripae; yap yevOf.liv1]e; r~e; fJ01]eeiae; rep el(J(iyeaeal WV ev&eze; tcoi bcnif.lnelV WV enAeOva(ov, e( avaYK1]e; fJ rov vouiauato; enopi-

36

(Je1] xp~(Jle;. Ou yap eufJa(Jrwcrov eKa(Jwv rwv xaui cpvmv avavxaicov, blO ttpoc rae; aAAayae; totoinov ti (Jvvieevw npo; (Jcpae; aurove; bu)oval tcoi Aaf.lfJaVeIV, 0 rwv XP1](Jif.lcov auro OV elXe rryv xpdav eUf.leraxelpl(JwV npo; to (~v, olov (JlO1]poe; xoi apyvpoe; tdi» e'i tt WIOVWV eiepov, to f.liv npdrtov anAWe; opweiv f.leyieel teal (Jraef.lep, to bi rdevrazov xoi xapaKr~pa emfJaAAOvrcov, fva anoAv(Jrt r~e; f-lCrpry(Jecoe; auwve;. 0 yap xapwcr~p erie1] wv noaoii (J1]f.leZOV. l!0pl(Jeivwe; ovv ~b1] vouiauoxo; eTC r~e; avaYTCaiae; aAAay~e; Ikitepov eloo; r~e; xp1]f.lail(JilK~e; eyivero, to TCan1]Al1COV, to f.liv npdrtov anAWe; iaox; YIVOf.leVOV, elta bl' ef.lne1piae; ~b1] tervuoinepov, noeeV «ai nwe; f.lerafJaAA0f.leVOV nAeZ(JWV notnae: ldpboe;.

Erot, oruv 11 stO'ay(()y~ rrov StOWv nou Bixav avuYKll, KaeW~ Kat 11 s~ay(()y~ rrov StOWv nou nAsovasav, uPXtO's va yivS'tat ano mo an0f.taKpuO'f.tEVS~ nspwXE~, rots Ka't' avuYKll uPXtO's va XPllO'tf.tOnotairm 'to vouiouu. Aev ~'tav SUKOAO va f.ts'ta<pspeouv oAa rn avaYKaia, yt' auro O'Uf.t<pwvllO'av f.ts'ta~u tou; va oivouv Kat va naipvouv O'rt~ O'uvaAAays~ KUrt Xp~O'tf.tO Kat 'tau'toxpova SUXPll- 0''t0 ym 'tt~ ~wnKE~ avuYKs~, on(()~ yta napuostYf.ta O'iOllPo ~ aO'~f.tt ~ Kurt nnpouoto. L'tllV apx~ KaeOptO'av 'to f.tsyseo~ Kat 'to ~upo~ xt EnSt'ta roo so(()O'av Kunow totalrspo yvwptO'f.ta, yta va anaUayouv uno n~ O'UXVE~ f.ts'tP~O'St~, 'to onoio optotrpcs (()~ an68st~ll 'tll~ a~ia~ roo. Aqio» Aomov smvO~ellKs 'to voutoua yta n~ avuYKs~ rev O'uvaUaywv, napouO'tuO''tllKS xt UAAO Bioo~ 'tll~ 'tSXVll~ anOK'tllO'll~ nAOU'tOu, 'to AtaVtKO eunopto, noo iO'(()~ apXtKU va ywo'tav us anAO rpono, upvotsp« ouo»; EYWS mo nspinAOKO, s~at'tia~ 'tll~ sf.tnstpia~ stou unayopsus ano nou Kat nw~ ea anOKOf.ttso'tav 'to f.tsyaAu'tspo KEpOO~.

'AptO''tO'tEAOU~, llOAlrl1Ca, A, 1257 a 31-1257 b 5

37

1

TInl: ATIOKTATAI H IAIOTHTA TOYTIOAITH

Ei8allE npollyoullevrot; IlE zotov rpono, myu myu, 11 8tEuPUVO'l1 trov 8tKatrollU'Crov sxefvorv nou O'uve9E'Cav rov OfjIlO, Kat IlUAtO''Ca, crnv nEpiTC'CroO'l1 'Cllt; A9Yt vat; , 11 ev'Ca~l1 ~evrov O''COtXEirov O''COV Ofjllo, O'uve~aAE O''CO va anoK'CYtO'Et 9E'CtKO nEpwxollEVO 11 svvour tou nOAirrl Kat va opictsi rot; sxeivo; nou avYtKEt crnv nOAll , crnv «oivcovia rwv nOAlrl:OV, Kat IlE rnv t8tO'Cll'CU ron au'CYt O'uIlIlE'CeXEt, lleO'ro trov O'UVEAEUO'EroV ron O~IlOV, O'E noro non IlnoPOUJlE va unoKaAeO'oUJlE nOAtnKYt 1;;roYt, 811Aa8Yt -JlE'Cu 'CO 'CeAOt; Iltat; O'u1;;Yt'Cll- 0'11t;- O''Cll AYt'l'l1 anocpuO'Erov 8EO'IlSU'CtKWV yta 'CO O'UVOAO 'Cllt; noAtnKYtt; xotvorntuq.

IIpoeXEt 'Cwpa, nprv ano 'Cll IlEAe'Cll rov nAatO'irov non 80IlOUouv 'Cllv nOAtnKYt xotvornru Kat «cv o8wv lleO'ro rrov onoirov IlE'Ca~t~a1;;o'Cav Yt anOK'Cto'Cav 11 t8to'Cll'Ca ron nOAhll, va unEv9ulliO'oUIlE 'Ca notKiAa Kpt'CYtpta zoo, 0''Ctt; 8tUCPOPEt; nOAEtt;, Ka90pt1;;av rnv ev'Ca~l1 O''CllV nOAtnKYt xotvotntu.

1. T A KPITHPIA rIA THN ENTAEH ~THN IIOAITIKH KOINOTHTA

Ta Kpt'CYtPta yta rnv ev'Ca~l1 O''CllV nOAtnKYt xorvornru napouO'ia- 1;;av O'l1llav'CtKet; 8tacpopet; ano nOAll O'E nOA,l1 Kat Ka90pi1;;oV'Cav ouO'taO''CtKu lleO'ro ron anoKAEtO'Il0U 'Cllt; Iltat; Yt 'Cllt; UAAllt; 0llu8at; ron nA 119uO'llou.

2

39

2

o nOAl7:I]e; OTI]V Apraia EAAacla

Ilpszet vn um:v8u)licrou)lc on 'to nOAt'ttKO mD)lU OcV 'tuun~,o'mV)l~ 'to crUVOAO 'tOU nAl]8ucr)lOu. A; u<PTtcrOU)lc npoc 'to nnpov KU'tU )lSpOe; 'to npO~Al])lU roiv YUVatKeDV, cro ~noio ,8u cnuvsA80~)lc. ~c )liu nOAl] onroe; l] A8Ttvu, unTtPXuv, sicroc uno roo; Aenvotoo; nou crUYKPO'tOUcruv 'to nOAtnKO creD)lU, ot ~ev?t KU'tatKat, O,t usroucot Kat at crKAU~Ot. ~CV urropoope vc sxtumcoops us UKPt~ctU 'tOY upt8)lO rcov 'tcAcu'tuirov: ot unoAoytcr)l?i noo npo;dvoV'tat crTt)lcpU sivat OAOt on08cnKoi. Mnopoous ouor; AOytK~ VU sxn)lTtcrOO)lc on onTtP~Uv cnoxse; KU'tU ne; o~oice; uvnn~ocrroncouv,'tO SVU tpiro, uv OXt 'to uico 'tOO nAl]8~cr)l00 'tl]~ Arrucn«. ~'tl] ~nupm, cK'tOe; uno )ltU )lcw\jIl]<piu nOAttrov ~c nAl]pl] OtKatro~U'tU, roix; ~nupnu'tce;, onTtpxuv u<p' evoc ot cAcu8cpo~ nAl]80cr)l~t 'tl]e; A~Kroviue;, at rtapioucot, xou c~up'teDv'tu; uno 'tl]~ u~Xl] 'trov, 000 ~UcrtASroV, UVTtKUV croix AUKcoat)lOVwue;, K~8roe; O)l~e; ~oocr~v crne; otKSe; rou; nOActe; OcV crO)l)lc'tcixuv cr'tl] Al]\jI~ xotvrov un,o<pucsrov. Atp' c'tspooonTtPXuv ot dAro'tce;, c~up'tl])lcv~t ycropYOt noo KUAAtcpyOUcruv ne; yuice; tmv ~nupnu'trov" n ~u'tucr'tucrl] trov ': noirov 8s'tct cruv8c'tu npO~ATt)lU'tU, Ot ApXatot ouro; woe; 8cropooouv roe; OOUAOOe;. AUou, crne; onoAotnce; ncpwxee; tou cUl]VtKOU KOcr)lOO, ~uVU~picrKOU)lc ne; CUO uo't~e; )lOp<pse; ?ooAdue;: 'tl] 000- Adu - c)lnopcu)lu U8l]VUtKOU 'tunoo l] 'tl] OOUActa ton 'tOnoo trov ctAeD'troV, nou otuKpivctat uno tnv npeD'tl] )lOP<PTt roe; npoc 'to ycyovoe; on uoopoixrs oXt os )lc)lovro)lSVU u'tO)l~ nou dX~v uyop~erst UAAU os nAl]80cr)loue; nco dxuv CrOVOAtKU uvux8ct cs KU'tU-

, , r

cr'tucrl] c~up'tl]crl]e;. Evu uno tu npro'tupxtKU Kpttl]ptU ytU 'tryv

unoK'tl]crl] npocr~ucrl]e; crnv toto'tl]'tu ron noAt'tl] nrov AOtnOV vu SXct ycvvl]8d Kuvcie; cAcu8cpoe;.

1.2 0 a:7tOx/"EUJ!-'O; Exdvrov :7tO'U E:7ttbi:bovtav OE OQtO!-'EVE; bQaotfJQtotfJtE;

To KPt'tTtPW 'tl]e; cAcu8cpiue; icrxoc ytU OAce; tu; nOActe;. Ouox, os optcr)lSVce; uno UO'tEe;, cK'tOe; uno rou; OOUAOOe; KUt rou; c~uP'tl]-

40

Ildx; ostotcttitoi I] IcllOrl]Ta rov nOAl7:1]

)lSVOOe; unOKAdov'tuv uno rnv nOAt'ttKTt xorvornto Kat ot s)lnopot Kat ot 'tcxvhce;, at oPucr't11PtO'tl]'tce; rrov ozoioiv xpivovrov roe; UVU~tce; yta EVUV noAhl]. L'tl] ~nup'tl] unuyopcoo'tuv croix «1- coix» vu cntoioov'tut cs uUce; opuml]pto'tl]'tce; cK'tOe; uno ne; nOAc)ltKSe;. ~U)l<provu us 'tOY Aptcr'tO'tEAl], cr'tl] eTt~U snpcnc vc Exct Kuvcie; otUKO\jlct ytU otucr'tl])lU OEKU srrov ne; ~W'tcXVtKEe; opucr'tl]Pto'tl]'tce; ytU vn uzopscst vu UcrKTtcrct nOAt'ttKu OtKateD)lUru. To iow icrxoc UVU)l<pi~OAU Kat os nOAAEe; uUce; nOActe;, ozo» KU'tU ouvsnstu 'to KPt'tTtPW 't11e; EV'tU~l1e; crnv nOAt'ttKTt KotVO't11'tU covosomv us rnv tOWK'tl]criu Yl]e;, Ycyovoe; nou, onroe; cioU)lc, Tt'tuv o KUVOVUe; KU'tU ru npeD'tu XPOVtU 'tl]e; ol])lwopyiue; rrov nOAcrov.

TtAoe;, os optoucvs; nOActe;, unat'touv'tuv EVU cAaXtcr'tO cnincoo nAou'too yta vn SXct KuvdC; npocr~ucrl] crnv toto'tl]'tu roo noAhl]. Auto icrxuc crnv ncpimrocrl] 'tl]C; MucrcruAiue;, 'tl]e; Tsro, 'tOO Pnyiou, 'tl]e; Kopivdou Kat KUnotrov uUrov nOAcrov. Auto 8u tcrxucrct Kat crnv A8~vu, )lc'tu rnv ~'t'tu uno roo; MUKc06vcC; 'to 322.

Ot otu<poponotTtcrcte; UO'tEe; uuptupouv tnv unoucin svornn«; 'tOO cAAl]VtKOU xoouoo os nOAt'ttKo cnincoo, Ku8eDe; Kat on Ku8c nOAl] unO'tcAoucrc nurovouo Kpdtoc. ~ocr'tuxeDe;, 11 KU'tucr'tucr11 rorv otu8scrt)lrov n11YeDV oCV )lUC; emrpsnst vu ne; AU)l~UVOO)lc nuV'tU onO\jll], Kat 8u XPctucr'tct cruxvu vc uvu<pcp80u)lc )lOVO oro nupuoctY)lU 'tl]e; A8~vue;, ci'tc ytu'ti sivut 'to mo yvrocr'to, eire ytu'tt yt' uO'tTtV OtU8E'tOU)lc ncptcrcro'tcpce; nAl]po<popice;.

2. TA nAAI~IA TH~ nOAITIKH~ KOINOTHTA~

To Ycyovoe; on l] cUl]VtK~ nOAl] nupoucrtU~c'tUt roe; utu xotvorn'tu nOAtteDV ocv cnuctvsi on l] xorvorntu uU'tTt ocv eivoi OO)ll])lEvn )lEcrU os nAUtcrtU, optousvu uno tu osroin nUpUnE)lnOOV crc crXEcrl] crOYYEVctUe; nsptocorspo Tt AtyO'tcpo <puv'tucrnKTt, cVeD UAAU evrcccovrm ctnv opyuvrocrl] 'too XeDpoo.

2

41

2

o nO},,{T:YfC; (IT:YfV Apxaia EAAdoa

Eivnt unuputtnto va npoodtoptotst 6n 0 SnllVtK6~ opo; CPVA~ bSV crllllatVst ott Ot EA,A,l1VS~ StXav apXtK!1 xorvorvucf oPyavrocrll aVaA,oYll us au'tT] nou Ot av8pronoAOYOt OVOllaSOuv <pUA,S"CtKT] xowrovio, AA,A,a Kat a<pOl) anocra<PllVtcr'tel 'to cnucvnxo coro cnusio, ysyov6~ napallEVSt ott 0 opiouo; uorou non evvoououv ot EA,A,l1VS~ IlS 'tOY 6po CPVA~ bSV stvm Ka86A,ou npo<pavT]~. Ilpenst Sntcrll~ va A,11<p80ov un6'l'11 Ot bta<popE~ IlS'ta~o «ov lWV1KWV CPVAWV Kat rrov 6WP1KWV CPVAWV, cru; onoie; snEllsvav tbtahspa Ot ApXaiot EA,A,l1VS~. Ln~ npons~ aVT]KaV Ot A811VatOt Kat 'to IlsyaA,Orspo IlEPO~ «ov vnouov 'tOU Avyuiou, Ka8cO~ Kat nOA,M~ n6A,st~ nov napaA,irov 'tll~ Mucpnr; Aoicc, ot Ka'tOtKOt rcov onoirov tcrxuptsov'tav ott sivm an6yovot too Iovo, roo llu8tKOO ~acrtA,ta 'tll~ A8T]va~. Ot broptKE~ <puM~ nSptSA,all~aVav rou; nA,118ucrlloo~ sxsivoix; non IltA,Oocrav 'tll broptKT] btaA,SK'tO Kat ~PtcrKov'tav xopio»; crnv Ilsxonovvnoo, tnv KpT]'tll Kat os optousvn vnoui.

2.1.1 Ot t(OVtxt; qJ'UAt;

To cnunvnxorspo IlEPO~ rorv YVcOcrsrov non bta8s'toullS yta tu; uovuca; <PUA,E~ npoEPxs'tat an6 a811vai:Ks~ nllyE~. H epunvsic roo; bSV eivoi nav'ta SOKOA,l1, <paivs'tat 61lro~ ott Ot <puM~ unT]pXav uno tors nou SIl<Paviss'tat 11 n6A,11 Kat 6n crUYKEv'tprovav 'to crOVOA,O trov IlSA,cOV 'tll~ nOA,tnKT]~ xotvorntnq. Tnv napallovT] trov Ils'tappu8lltcrsrov ron KA,stcr8Evll, at A811vaiot T]'tav aK61l11 Xroptousvot os rsccspu; <pUA,E~, toix; rSA,EOV'tS~, roix; OnA,l1'ts~, tou; AtytKOPcl~ Kat 'tOU~ Apyabcl~, Ssv yvropisoullS 61lro~ noioc cxot~cO~ T]'tav 0 p6A,0~ toix; IlEcra o'rnv n6A,11. LUIlIlS'tclXav criyoupa otu; KOtVE~ A,a'tpsis~, ana 11 ~acrtKT] roix; tcox; A,st'toupyia T]'tav va s~acr<paA,isouv 'tll cruIlIlS't0XT] crov orputo, Ot ibtS~ ovoucotsc unapxouv Kat os aA,A,s~ troVtKE~ n6A,st~. Mepixe; <pOPE~ 6Ilro~, ot tsoosp«; <pUA,E~ <pEPOUV bta<popsnKE~ ovouuotsc, T] aKollll os opiousvsc troVtKE~ n6A,st~ ~picrKoulls E~t T] Kat OK'tcO ovouctc <pUA,cOV (ern MiA,l1'tO, ctnv Ecsco). H bta<poponoillcrll au'tT] uno-

42

43

2 0 nOAirYfr; O"7:Yfv Apxaia EHu6a

VTJ, OTJAaO~ tOW EOU<ptKcOV ,.LOVaorov nou OtEKOtKoucrav ~E~airo~ KanotoV KotVO <pavtacrttKO npoyovo, aAAa npoopisovtav v« EKnATJpcOcrouv Ota<popEnK8~ AEttOupyiE~ ce crX8crTJ IlE ru; apxtK8~ <pUA8~, EtOtKOtEpa va E~acr<paAisouv rnv «avallt~TJ», yta va XPTJctuonouicooue rnv 8K<ppacrTJ tOU AptcrtOt8ATJ, IlEta~U -:rov,Otaooporv crucrtanKcOv crtotXctrov tOU a9TJVatKOU nOAtttKOU crrollatoe. E~aAAou, snpoxetto va anotEA8crouv to nAaicrto EVtO~ rou onoiou 9a EKtUAtcrcrOtav TJ nOAtnK~ sro~ rov A9TJvairov, seocov TJ OATJ opyavrocrTJ tTJ~ nOATJ~ Kat ot Bsouoi tTJ~ crtTJpisovtav E<PE~~~ crtTJ OEKaOtK~ opyavrocrTJ nco Ka9t8procrE 0 KAEtcr98VTJ~· '0- nro~ ypa<pEt 0 D. Roussel, anOt8AWav yta rou; A9TJvaiou~ «crxoActa nOAmK~~ sro~~ Kat KotvrovtKOtTJta~».

2.2 H q>~a:q~i.a

H oputpiu <patVOIlEVtKa 98tEt AtYOtEpa npo~A~llata, OtOtt TJ unap~TJ <ppatptcOv ucpropstrci cs nOAA8~ nOAEt~, ~OTJ ano rnv apx~ tTJ~ apxatK~~ Enox~~, Kat auto to YEYOVO~ OEixVEt on anOtEAOUV Ilta IlOP<P~ crUYKpOtTJcrTJ~ yta rnv nOATJ: IlE rnv Etcrayroy~ crtTJ qiputpin, ytVotav KavEi~ 1l8AO~ Kat tTJ~ nOAmK~~ KotVOtTJta~. H A8~TJ opurpic np08PXEtat nno rnv tvoowpronai:~~~ npo- 8AWcrTJ~ A8~TJ cppa:rep, nou ava<p8pEtat os Ilta crUYYEVtKTJ crXWTJ (jrater crta AanVtKa, frere crta yaAAtKa). 1l0AU yp~yopa, Ollro~, crnv EAATJVtK~ YAcOcrcra TJ ~toAOytK~ crUYY8VEta ano009TJKE us tOY opo dbe2cpoC;, EVcO to phrater nvnqispotuv c' auto noo ot av9pronoMyot anoKaAouv ta~tvOlltK~ crUyy8VEta. llpaYllatt, ot <ppatpiE~ EIl<PavisOVtat ro~ cruva9poicrEt~ «OtKOYEVEtcOV», aAAa EnicrTJ~ Kat xupio»; ro~ crUYKpOt~crEt~ Evcrrollatroll8vE~ crnv opyavoxm tTJ~ nOATJ~. Ilpoccvdx yta rnv A9~va Ota98toullE tt~ nsptocorspec nATJPo<popiE~ crXE'tlKa IlE n~ AEltOUpyiE~ tTJ~ cpurpir«; Kata t11V KAacrtK~ Enox~· Ot <ppatp~E~ npoTJyouvta~ tTJ~ IlEtappu9lltcrTJ~ tOU KAEtcr98VTJ Kat otatTJpTJ9TJKaV Kat usro, YEyovo~ nou unoOTJAcOVEt tTJ crTJllacria torv AEltOUpytcOV tOu~.

Knrn tnv KAacrtK~ Enox~, Ot oputpie; OtaOpallansav oixnn-

44

JIdJr; anotcuiuu Yf z6z67:Yf7:a 7:OV nosiin

cruco POAO crE Ka9E npa~TJ nou crXEnsOtav IlE tTJ sro~ tOU nOAltTJ:

Y8VVTJcrTJ, IlUTJcrTJ trov E<P~~roV, yallo~, uto9wia, KTJOcta. E7ttnA80V, napa to YEYOVO~ on OEV ~tav opyavroll8vE~ yupro ano Ilta AatpEia KOtV~ yta OAa ru 1l8ATJ tTJ~ <ppatpia~, anOtEAoucrav, oxrroco, to nAaicrto yta 'tOV soprcouo Ilta~ ano n~ cnuuvrncotspe; ytoPt8~ 'tOU 9PTJcrKwnKou TJIlEPOAOyiou, rn Anctoupiu, Kata rnv onoiu anooioovtav tt1l8~ crov <Dpatpto L1ia Kat tTJ <Dpatpia A9TJva. H 8Vta~TJ crtTJ <ppatpia anOtEAoucrE npoon09wTJ yta tTJV 8Vta~TJ crnv nOAmK~ xotvornru, roco yta 'tOU~ avopE~ oco Kat yta n~ yuvaiKE~.

rvropiSoUIlE Ott un~pxav <ppatpiE~ Kat anOU, EKtO~ ano rnv A9~va, crtTJ Xio, tTJ MiATJto, tTJV Tnvo Kat tTJ L1~AO, nOAEt~ troVtK8~ onro~ Kat TJ A9~va, nou ytoptasav Kt aUt8~ ru Anuroupta. L1EV 9a unopouonue ollro~ va npocdtoptcoous nEpatt8pro tt~ AEt'tOUpyiE~ roix. Ocov a<popa navtro~ crnv A9~va, eivm suouV8~ on Ot <ppatpiE~ ouvtcrouonv ev« ano tu ~acrtKa nAaicrta opyavrocrTJ~ tTJ~ nOAmK~~ KOtVOtTJta~.

2.3 0 biU.tOS

ME rnv svvour 'tOU O~IlOU npocrEyyisoullE Ilta mo crUYKEKptll8VTJ npaYllattKOtTJta, yta rnv onoiu Ota98tOUf.lE noAU mo aKpt~d~ nATJPo<popiE~, toUAaXtcrtOV yta tTJV nEpintrocrTJ tTJ~ A9~va~. Ano tTJV Enox~ llaAtcrta rov IlEtappu91licrErov ron KAEtcr98VTJ, 0 O~IlO~ anOtEAoucrE tTJ ~acrtK~ Eoa<ptK~ nspupepetn, Kat TJ Eyypa<p~ croo; KataMyou~ tOU O~IlOU ouvicrooce rnv Kat' E~OX~V npa~TJ npocr~acrTJ~ crnv tototTJta tOU noAhTJ. LtTJV A9~va un~pxav nspinou EKatO O~IlOt. Ka9E A9TJvaio~ IlEta to ovoun 'tOU npocr9Ers 'to ovoun tOU O~IlOU crov onoio aV~KE. To xapaKtTJptcrttKO auto ~tav KATJPOVOlltKO. Kata tTJV apXtK~ KataVOIl~, Ka9E A- 9TJvaio~ ctXE Eyypa<pct crov O~IlO onon xuroucooos Kat crov ozoio ~ptcrKOtaV TJ natptK~ tOU nsptooctn. ME rnv ava7ttu~TJ, Ollro~, tTJ~ nOATJ~ Kat tTJ OtEUPUvcrTJ tOU nOAmKou crcOllato~ -aKOIlTJ Kat IlEta tOY KAEtcr98VTJ OEV un~p~E crunoytK~ napaXcOPTJ-

2

45

o nOAi1:1}1; atnv Apraia EAAd6a

2

en 'tOU OtKatWJ..la10~ 10U nOAh11, EK10~ ano "11v nEpin1mcr111mv IIAa1atEmV J..lEn! "11v Ka1acr1:poqnl "11~ nOA11~ tou; crnv apx~ 'tOU IIEAonovv11crtaKOU noAEJ..lOU- aAAa xupio»; J..lE "11 J..lEyaAu1EP11 Ktv11nK01111a rrov yatWV ano 'tOY 40 uuovu Kat J..lE1a, EnmjfE va 1au1i1;;E1at Ka1a anOAu10 tpoxo 11 nEpwx~ "11~ na1ptK~~ nsptoucria~ J..lE 10V O~J..lO 10U Ka8E noAh11. rvmpi1;;ouJ..lE on Ka1a 'tOY 40 uuovu un~pxav nAoucrwt A811vaiot nou Ka1E1xav nsptoucin crs ota<popou~ O~J..lOU~ Kat xcroucooccv Ka1a xcvovc J..lEcra cro acr1u, xmpi~ ocroco va nvnxouv cr10V O~J..lO 'tOU acr1Em~. IIpEnEt 1EAO~ va unEv8UJ..licroUJ..lE aKOJ..la J..lta oop« "11V tOtat1EP01111:U nou xapaK1~Pt1;;E, crnv apx~ 10uAaxw10v, "11V tOt01111a 10U A811va~ou nOAh11 , 11 onoic OEV cruvoE01av ~Ol1 ano 10 1EAO~ 10U 60u mrovc J..lE "11v Ka10x~ nEpwucria~. Ttn 'tOU~ nOAhE~ sxsivou; nou OEV otE8E1av Y11, nOAu nsptocorepo an' o,n yta 10U~ aAAou~, 11 EV1a~11 cr10V O~J..lO OEV crxEn1;;01av anapah111a J..lE 10V 10no 111~ npayJ..lanK~~ 10U~ Ka1otKia~.

o O~J..lO~ otE8E1E n~ crUVEAEUcrEt~ 10U Kat 'tOU~ apXOV1E~ 'tOU, ,0 cr11J..lavnK01Epo~ ana 10U~ oxoioo; ~1av 0 o~~tapxo~. ~taopal-lan1;;E oucrtacrnKo POAO cr10V Ka80ptcrl-l0 rorv uno\jf11<Pimv noo 8a crUI-ll-lE1dxav ornv KA~pmcr11 rrov apxwv Kat O"1:11V EmAoYT] «ov POUAW1WV. Xoipb; va an01EAel crnv KupWAE~ia Eva nAaicrw 111~'flp11crKEunKT]~ 1;;mT]~ trov nOAHwv, 0 OT]I-lO~ napEvEpatVE cr10V Ka80ptcrl-l0 reov nOAt1WV nou KaAouv1av va opycvdxroov n~ I-lEyaAE~ YWP1E~ Kat, av oro Eoa<po~ 10U ~nT]pXE Kanow tEPO, crUI-lI-lE- 1dXE cr111 Aa1pda 10U T]pma T] 'tOU 8eau crov onoio T]1av a<ptEpm-

I-lEVO 10 tspo.

AU1a T]1aV ru nAaicrta cruYKp0111cr11~ "11~ nOAmKT]~ KotV0111- 1a~. IIpEnEt 1wpa va Ka80picroUI-lE ru; ooou~ I-lEcra ano n~ onoie; T]1av ouva1T] 11 npocrpacr11 cr111v KotV01111a amT].

3. H rENNHl:H

H YEVV11cr11 an01EAoucrE npaYl-lanKa "11V xuptu 006 npocrpacr11~ crnv nOAmKT] KotV01111a. AmOl-la1m~ 1i8E1at Eva totahEpa en-

46

IIWI; attotctaxai t; 16107:1}'W 7:0D nOAhl)

unvruco EPW111l-la, outo "11~ crXEcr11~ rev yuvatKWv I-lE "11V KOtvO"l1"a aU1T].

Opionus npo11youI-lEvm~ "11V nOA11 m~ J..lia KOtvo1111a nOAHwv, 0l1AaOT] aV8pwnmv non l-lotpa1;;Ov1at "11V apXT] "11~ AT]\jf11~ ano<paceorv, Ot yuvaiKE~ Aomov OEV sivm «noAhE~», I-lE "11V evvoio non EOtvav cr10V opo ot EAA11vE~, soocov OEV crUI-ll-lE1EXOUV c' aU10 non an01EAEi "11V ouotc "11~ nOAmKT]~ tOt01111a~. Tau10xpova ouo»; nai1;;ouv cr11J..laVnKO poli,o cr111 J..lE1apipacr11 aU1T]~ "11~ nOAtnKT]~ tOt01111a~, npaYl-la non onunivet on aVT]KOUv crnv nOAmKT] KotV01111a. Kat naAt 8a Xp11crtl-lonOt~crouI-lE 10 napaOEtYl-la "11~ A8~va~.

LUJ..l<pmva I-lE "11V apxaia napaoocr11, anoot061av crov IIEptKA~, 10V av8pmno nou KUptapxd crnv nOAmK~ 1;;m~ "11~ nOA11~ 10V 50 cuovo, Eva~ VOJ..lO~ non npocrOtOpt1;;E n~ npoun08EcrEt~ yta "11 ouva101111a npocrpacr11~ crnv tOt01111a 'tOU nOAh11: EnpEnE va EXEt YEvv118Ei xuvsi; ano yovEi~ «noAhE~». IIoAAoi avapm1~811- xov yta ru aina nou oO~Y11crav 'tOY IIEptKA~ crnv uw8E111cr1110u V0I-l0U au'tOu 'to 451 n.X. EXEt crucrXEncr1d J..lE "11 OtaVOI-l~ rrov crt111pWV Kat J..lE "11V npocrna8Eta va zsptomcrei 0 apt8J..l0~ rrov urouoiv non OtKaWuv1av I-lEpiow. EXEt, Enicr11~, Ota1unm8d 11 anO\jf11 on 0 av8pmno~ aU10~ nou svoripxoivs 'toy 8pial-lPO "11~ 011J..lOKpa1ia~ ~8EAE va paAEt 1EAO~ crn~ OtaOEOOI-lEVE~ npaKnKE~ rrov uptcroxpurtxrov atKOYEVEtWv, crUI-l<pmva I-lE n~ oxoie; vuu<pEuov1av ~EVE~ yuvaiKE~ yta va 0111-lWUPY~crouv srot E~m1EptKa oiK1ua aU11AEyyu11~ npo~ "11v nOA11. Kat npaYJ..lanKa, at 060 mo OtaKEKptl-lEVat avopE~ O"1:11V urropia "11~ A8~va~ Ka1a 'to npdrto I-lWO roo 50u atwva, 0 E>EJ..ltcr'tOKA~~ Kat 0 Kiurovcc, dXav YEVV11- 8d ano ~EVE~ 1-l111EPE~, Kat 0 iow~ 0 IIEptKA~~ 8EmpoucrE m~ npoyovo rou, ano "11 I-lEpta "11~ 1-l111Epa~ 10U, "11V KOP11 tou 1Uprrvvou "11~ LtKUWva~. Onoin xt av stvm 11 npoEAwcr1110u VOJ..lOU curou, dXE m~ ouvsnstn 11 EV1a~11 O"1:11V nOAmK~ KOtv01111a va

2

47

2

o nOAfr17r; (Jr17v Apraia EHaoa

a<popci roco croo; avopc:e; ceo Kat cr«; yuvaiKc:e;, aKOfla Kat av au'to epunveooruv us Ota<popc:nKO rpono yta rnv Ka8e nc:pin'troen, Ka8we; Ot yuvaiKee; anoKAeiov'tav ana tou; rozoo; onou Aafl~avov'tav ot ano<pacrete; Kat roe; npoe; 'to VOfltKO rou; Ka8C:()1;we; 8eropoov'tav onroe; ot aV~AtKot.

3.2 0 ya"o~, 6E"H,to tl1~ 3tOAtttXft~ XOtvrovi,a~

H yuvaiKa ~ptcrKO'tav os aflWTj c:~ap'tTjcrTj ana 'toy crosuyo 'tTje;, ana 'tTj crnYfl~ non 0 'tC:Awmioe; rnv napaAafl~avc: ana tu xspta tou na'tspa ~ ron KTjOeflOVa 'tTje;. 0 uovoc vojnuo; yafloe; ~'tav sxsivo; non svovs svav nOAhTj us tnv KOPTj svo; noAhTj. Ka8c: aAATj svrocrTj OC:V avayvroptso'tav vouuoi Kat ru natota non yc:vviouvruv ana na'tspa A8Tjvaio Kat flTj'tspa ~SVTj npoe; rnv nOAmK~ xoivorntn 8eropoov'tav voi)«, OeV eiXav otKairofla cr'tTjv na'tptK~ KATjpOVOflta Kat OC:V unoAoyiSov'tav roe; noAhee;. Aev 8a npsnc:t, oorooo, va mcr'tS\jfOuflC: on 0 vouo; aU'toe; ~'tav anOAu'ta cre~acr'toe; Ka8' OATj 'tTj OtapKeta rov 800 uuovrov roo anoydou 'tTje; A8~vae;.

o iOlOe; 0 IIc:ptKA~e; OeV Mcr'tacrc: va OeX'tei roe; vouuio yto ton 'to natM non sxuvs us rnv nepi<pTjflTj stnipn Aonnotc, zoo ~'tav ~SVTj, Ka8we; xntuyotuv ana 'tTj MiATj'tO. ~'to 'teAOe; ron Ilsxonovvnouncou nOAsflou, 0 onoio; crofl<prova ps rov tcropuco E>ouKuoiOTj crTjflaOeO'tTjKe ana rnv unOxwpTjcrTj 'tTje; nOAmK~e; cruvdoTjcrTje;, Xpetacr'tTjKe va 'te8c:i C:K vsoo os tcrxo 0 vouoq, non eiXe nscret crc: ax pncrtn, EnicrTje; opovnouv va flTj owcrouv avaopOfltK~ wxo crov VOflO, m8avo'ta'ta enetO~ 0 nOAC:flOe; dXC: c:m<pspc:t cnuovnK~ fldrocrTj crov apt8flO tmv nOAt'tWv Kat OC:V unopouos Tj nOATj va cr'tc:pTj8d rou; YlOUe; ana A8Tjvaioue; na'tSpee;, aKOflTj Kat av Tj flTj'tspa rou; OeV aV~Ke crnv nOAmK~ xorvornro. Kntn 'tTj otapKeta ron 40u mrovc, 0 vouo; napSfletVe sv wxo aAAa, ana rou; OtKaVtKOOe; Myoue; nou flae; napaoioov'tat, flav'tc:oouflC: on nana un~pxc: KanOlOe; rponoc napaKafl\jf~e; rou, Erot e~1lYehat 'to ye-

48

Ildx; anotcuiuu 17 IOlor17ra rou nOAfr17

yovoe; on xpc:tamTjKe cruxva va ava8eropTj80ov ot Ka'taAOYot torv nOAt'tWv, npayfla nou ytVo'tav -ozex; fla8aivOUfle ana rov ~Tjflocr8svTj- flscra cr'ta nAaiena ron O~flOU.

3.3 0 3tOAi,tl1~ ornv A6ftva

~'tTjV A8~va, Aomov, nOAhc:e; nrov ru natota noo YC:VVlOov'tav ana na'tspa A8Tjvaio nOAhTj Kat flTj'tepa KOPTj A8Tjvaiou nOAi'tTj, Ot onoiot eVW8TjKav VOfltfla fle yaflo. Ynapxouv 800 OPOt nou npocrotopisouv rnv toto'tTj'ta au't~, aar6r; Kat nositnc, 0 opoq aar6r; XPTjcrtflOnOlOov'tav Kat cro 8TjAUKO, ~ aar1, yta va OTjAWcet 'tTj yuvaiKa nou dXe yeVVTj8ei A8Tjvaia. AV'ti8e'ta, 'to 8TjAUKO ron nositnc; OeV C:fl<PaviSC:'tat napa cre nOAo crnavtee; nc:pm'twcrete;. Yn08s'touflC: Aomov on us 'toy opo aar6r; OTjAWVe'tat sxsivo; nco aV~Ket crnv a8TjVai:K~ xorvoivin, c:vw roe; nOAir1Jr; OTjAWVe'tat 0 A8Tjvaioe; nou eflnAsKc:'tat crnv nOAmK~ opacrTj.

Erct, Ot yuvaiKc:e; aV~Kav crnv a8Tjvai:K~ xotvoivin, ana anoKAc:iov'tav ano rnv nOAmK~ xorvornru. To natoi nco c:iXC: yc:vvTj8ei ana yovc:ie; acr'tooe;, oeKa flepee; flC:'ta 'tTj yevvTjcr~ rou, napoumas0'tav ana rov na'tspa rou ern flSATj 'tTje; <ppa'tpiae; crnv onoia nvrpcs. H napoucriacrTj au't~ cr'tTj <ppa'tpia ano'teAOOos rnv npa~Tj avayvwpWTje; roo natotoo ana rov na'tepa, Ka8we; OeV un~pXe tors ATj~tapxc:io. H eyypa<p~ croix; Ka'taMyoue; roo O~flOU vtvorcv nOAo upvorspc. ~ofl<prova us rov cruyypa<psa 'tTje; 'A()1Jva[wv llOAlTelar;, crnv TjAtKia rev OeKaoK'tw snov uovo, Ot vsot nou dXav yeVVTj8d ana A8Tjvaioue; yovde; c:yypa<pov'tav moue; OTjflO'tc:e;: «Kuru 'toy Xpovo 'tTje; c:yypa<p~e; roue, ot OTjflO'tc:e;, a<poo owcrouv OPKO, ano<paivov'tat ota \jf~<pou: npw'tov, eev SXOUV rnv ananoOfleVTj ana rov VOflO TjAtKia -cs nc:pin'trocrTj apVTjnK~e; ano<pacrTje; enavsPxov'tat naAt crnv 'ta~Tj roiv naiSorv- Kat OC:O'tepOV, av sivut C:Ae08c:pOt Kat SXOUV 'tTj vouun] ysvvncn. Onoio; Ka'ta\jfTj<ptcr'td ana roo; OTjflO'tee; roe; flTj eAc:08epoe;, unopei vu KaVet s<PWTj cro OtKacr't~plO. Ot OTjflO'tee; eKAeYOUV tors ana 'to crwfla roo; nev'tc: avo pee; yta va unocr'tTjpi~ouv rnv

2

49

2

o nOAi-r:lJr:; (JT/7V Apraia EAJ",ai5a

Ka'tllyopia. Kat av IlBV 'to DtKacr'tTJPlO xpivst on DBV EXBt 'to DtKaiwlla 'tll~ B'Y'Ypa<PTJ~, 'to Kpu"CO~ rov reouAUBt W~ DOUAO. Env OIlW~ KBpDic)8t 'tll DiKll, ot DllIlO'tB~ eivm ureoXPBwllEVOt va rov B'Y'YPU\jIOuv» (XLII, 1). Tnv BreOXTJ 'tll~ cruV08CJll~ 'tll~ 'A01Jvafwv Ilosneiac. Ot VEOt IlB'tu rnv B'Y'Ypa<PTJ roo; o<pBtAav yta DUO Xpovta va reapaKOAOUOTJcrouv 8va BiDO~ mpanWnKTJ~ BKreaiDBucrll~, nporo» BtcrXWPTJcrouv, crnv llAtKia torv eixoot B'tWV, ctnv reOAmKTJ xotvornrc. AU'tTJ 11 reBpioDo~ rmv DUo B'tWV, 11 B<pll~Bia, nvnnpocrwre8UB rnv repocraplloYTJ crnv repaYllanKo'tll'ta 'tll~ reoAll~ roiv reaAatWV 'tBAB"COUPYtWv IlUllcrll~, IlB n~ onoie; 0 8<Pll~0~ nspvoocs areo rnv B<pll~8ia crnv Ka'tucr'tacrll roo reoAhllllB reATJPll DtKatWucro, Aoro; TJ'tav ouvormxn 0 tpono; IlB "COV onoio Ot AOllvaiot AUIl~avav rnv tDto'tll'ta ton reoAhll Ka'tu tnv KAacrtKTJ BreOxTJ.

IIw~ TJ'tav tu repuYlla'ta aAAou; YreuPXBt crllllavnKTJ 8UBt\jlll reAll pooopuov oro 081la auto. Mnopouus OIlW~ va ureo08croullB on cs reoU8~ reOABt~, xupio»; areo rov 40 atwva, ot areapahll'tB~ repoi.ireo08crBt~ yta va eivct VOlltllll Ilta Y8VVllcrll Kat va areOK'tU'tat 11 repocr~acrll crnv reOAmKTJ tDtO'tll'ta TJ'tav ot iDtB~ IlB 'tll~ AOTJva~. Qcr'tocro 0 Apw't0't8All~, cru Tlosnuai, ~B~atWVBt on os optousve; reOABt~ Aall~uvB'tat ureO\jlllll reOAmKTJ tDtO'tll'ta roo rea't8pa 1l0VO, 'YBYOVO~ nou Bret"Cp8reBt croix; voOou~ va 8XOUV repocr~acrll crnv Ka'tucr"CUcrll «ov reOAt"CWv IlB reATJ Pll DtKatWllato, Kat on ureTJPxav aKOllll Kat Dll1lOKpanK8~ reoABt~ crn~ onoie; upxoucs 1l0VO 11 reoAtnKTJ tDtO'tll'ta 'tll~ 1l11't8pa~. ~BV Sivst OIlW~ Kav8va cruYKBKptll8VO reapUDBtYlla yta rnv reBpire'twcrll au'tTJ. Apxeitrn 1l0VO va nnpumpncst on enpoxstto yta ota'tU~Bt~ reBptcr'tacrtaK8~ non ouvosovtuv IlB rnv 8AABt\jlll reOAt"CWv areo voutur] YEVVllcrll Kat IlB uuro nou ot EAAllvB~ OVOllasav oAlyavOpwreza, Kat on areo 'tll crnYIlTJ nou ureTJPXB Kat reUAt a<pOovia reAllOucrllOU, areO~UAAov'tav «repw'ta BKBi vot non TJ'tav yiot DOUAWV, EreBt'ta sxsivoi non nrov reoAhB~ areo 'tllllll't8pa roo; Kat 'tBAtKU 11 tDtO-

50

Ildx; anotcuiuu 17 li5107:17'a rov nOAirlJ

'tll'ta "COU reoAhll reapaxwpBho uovo os BKBivou~ non Bixav Kat roo; DUO yovBi~ roue reoAhB9> (III, 1278/a).

4. 01 AAAOI TPOnOI npO:EBA:EHE :ETHN nOAITIKH IAIOTHTA

H Y8vvllcrll areo'tBAoucrB Aomov rnv KUpta ooo repocr~acrll~ ctnv tDto'tll'ta "COU reoAhll. Qmocro, ureTJPxav Kat UAAOt rponot, vojuuot Kat 1111.

4.1 H n:Qi)(J~aO"t) O"tt)v n:OAtttXi] t()ultt)ta ,",E vO'"'t'"'o tQon:o

Kat reUAt, orew~ sivat coouco, 11 AOTJva Oa Ila~ XPllcrtllBucrBt w~ reapUDBtYlla, Kupiw~ ava<poptKu IlB rnv areoK'tllcrll 'tll~ tDto'tll'ta~ ron reoAhll areo IlBIlOvwIl8va u'tolla.

4.1.1 ITuQUxwQ1](J1] 3tOAttlXWV bLXUUll,U'ttwv (J£ UtOpLU

Eiuco-rs apKB'tu KaAu BVllllBPWIl8VOt crXBnKu IlB "COv rpono reou unopouonv va reapaxwPllOouv reoAmKu DtKatwlla'ta crB 8vav 1111 AOllvaio, XUPll crn~ BTCtypa<p8~ Kat cs svcv DtKaVtKO Myo "COu ~1l1l0cr08vll, av Kat DBV uoop« crov tDto aAAU ce KureolOv AreOAMDWPO, rou onoiou 0 rea't8pa~ BiXB Brew<pBAllOBi areo Ilta reroio BUVOtKTJ reapaXWPllcrll. A~ DOUIlB rt A8Bt: «YreuPXBt, Ka't' aPXTJv, 8va~ VOIlO~ nou 8XBt BTCt~AllOBi crov Aao: areayopBUB'tat va xutncrnosi AOllvaio KureolOv non DBV DtKalOU'tat va yivst reoAhll~, B<pOcrOV OBV 8XBt reapucrXBt KUreOta B~8xoucra urellPBcria repo~ rnv AOTJva. ETCtreA80V, areo 'tll crnYIlTJ nou cruYKa'ta'tBOBi 0 DTJIlO~ Kat reapaXWPTJcrBt "CO zpovojuo uuro, yta va areoK'tTJcrBt tcrxu VOIlOU 11 reapaxwPllcrll aU'tTJ, repEreBt va BTCt~B~atWOBi cr'tll cruv8A8Ucrll 'tll~ BreollBvll~ 1l8pa~ uno 8~t XtAtUDB~ AOllvaiou~ "COUAUXtcr'tov ~lB llucrnKTJ \jill qioqio pia. Ot repu'tuVBt~ avaAall~uvouv va "COreoOB'tTJcouv n~ KUAreB~ Kat va reapaDwcrouv 'ta \jill <pOMA rtn xporo» DtBWDUcrouv Ot ~8VOt. Ka08va~ O<pBiABt va xpivst, aVB~up'tll'ta Kat

2

51

2

o nOAirytC; atnv Apxaia EUaba

Ka'ta O"uvcioY]O"Y], av EKciVOt; non E'tOtjlaSov'tat va xevoov A9Y]vaio reoAhY] asisEt au'tYt rnv EUVOta». 0 vouo; repOBpAEreE EreiO"Y]t; 'tY] ouva'to'tY]'ta repoO"pOAYtt; 'tY]t; ota'taSY]t; CDt; reapaVOjlY]t;, av 0 otKatouXOt; OEV Yt'tav astot; va areOK'tYtO"Et rnv toto'tY]'ta roo reoAi'ty]. Mia aAAY] ota'tasy] anayopEuE orov reoAhY] noo BytVE npocouru OEK'tOt; va avaAapEt jlta U'l'y]AYt AEt'toupyia Yt Kareota reOAtnKYt apxYt, Kat jlOVO O"'ty] OEU'tEPy] YEVta Kat uno rnv repoure09wY] on YEvvYt9Y]KE areo A9Y]vaia jlE'ta areo VOjltjlO yajlo, unopouos 0 ytot; svo; vGOreOAl't'l va areOAajlpaVEt reAYtPy] reOAtnKa otKatcDjla'ta. ~tamO"'tcDvOUjlE, AOtTCOV, noco SYtAO eOEtXVE Y] oY]jlOKpanKYt A9Ytva yta 'ta reOAtnKa otKatcDjla'ta Kat ue n <pEtocD ru reapaXCDpOUo"E 0"10 jlEjlOVCDjleVa uropn.

4.1.2 ~vAAOytxfJ :7ta~axw~l1O"l1 :7tOAtttxwV btxaUollcXtwv

AKOjlY] mo EsatpEnKet; Yt'tav Ot reEptTC'tcDO"Ett; Ka'ta nt; osoie; reapaXCDpounav reOAtnKa otKatcDjla'ta O"UAAoytKa. HoY] ava<pepajlE rnv reEpire'tCDO"y] 'tCDV IIAa'tateCDv nou areeK'tY]O"av rnv toto'tY]'ta roo Aunvctoo reoAhY] jlE'ta rnv Ka'taO"'tpo<pYt 'tY]t; reoAY]t; rou; areo roo; AaKEoatjloviout; crnv apxYt 1:OU Ilsxonovvnouncoo reOABjlOu: 10- xsivot non ote<puyav 'tY] O"<payYt Bytvav OEK1:Oi ctnv A9Ytva Kat otajlotpaO"'tY]Kav O"'tOUt; oYtjlOUt; Kat nt; <pUABt;. ~'tY]v areo<paO"Y] oivsrm ejl<paO"Y] O"1:OV EsatpEnKo xapaK'tYtpa ron O"UYKEKptjleVOu jl8'tpOU.

Ilprrvurm, otnv, 0"1:0 'teAOt; 1:OU Ilsxonovvnotcxo» reOAejlOU Kat jlE'ta rnv areo'tuxia 'tY]t; O"'taO"Y]t; 'tCDV OAtyapXtKcDV, areOKa'ta- 0"'ta9Y]KE Y] oy]jloKpa'tia, 0 Aaot; apvYt9Y]KE 'tY]V repo'taO"y] 1:OU oY]jlOKpa'tY] 0paO"upouAOU va 0090uv reOAtnKa otKatcDjla'ta O"1:OUt; jlE1:OiKOUt; non dXav POY]9Yto"Et crnv reaAY] Ka'ta 'tCDV OAtyapXtKcDV. Kat jlOVO Aiyo upvorsp« EKOO9Y]KE areo<paO"y], O"Ujl<pCDva us rnv onoiu Y] reapaxcDpY]O"Y] 'tow reOAlnKcDV otKatCDjla'tCDv nsptoptso'tav jlOVO O"'tOUt; jlE1:OiKOUt; exsivou; non EiXav POY]9Yto"Et O"'tY]V areEAcu98pCDO"y] 1:OU opoopioo 'tY]t; <l>UAYtt;. Mere 'tY] XPovoAoyia au'tYt, Kat OEOOjlBVOU on enpoxsrro yta EsatpEnKet; reEptO"'taO"Ett;,

52

Ilcoi; anotcuitai yt IblorytTa rou nOAiryt

OEV EreavaAYt<P9y]KE rsrotn O"UUOytKYt reapaxcDpY]O"Y] reOAtnKcDv ot KatCDjla'tCDV.

4.2 H :rq~oO"~uO"t) O"'tt)v n:OAl'tlXi] l()lO'tt)'tU 11£ n:uQUV0I10 'tQon:o

4.2.1 AtOlllxcX

EixajlE Ytoy] rnv cuKatpia va ava<pEp90ujlE O"'ty] Suvntotntu area'tY]t; us rnv onoin evat; jlY] reoAhY]t; f.lTCOpOUo"E va yiVEt OEK'tOt; oro reOAtnKo O"cDjla. 'Evuc otKaVtKOt; Myot; rou 40u atcDVa sivct unoKaAurenKOt; CDt; npoq 'to gejla «oro, Ka9cDt; ava<pepEt recDt; evat; reAouO"tot; sevot; jlreOpouo"E va Esayopao"Et 'tY] jlap'tupia av9pcDreCDv nou repoO"epxov'tav 0"'t0 otKaO"'tYtPto yta va to"XUPtO"1:OUV on exouv O"U'Y'YEVtKYt O"xeO"Y] jlasi 1:OU. ~EV ureapXEt ajl<ptpoAia on, reapa rnv ureapsy] auO"'ty]pcDV VOjltKcDV ota'taSECDV Kat O"opapcDV Ktv06vCDV 0"10 reEpire'tCDO"y] reapapaO"Ytt; rou; (ureoptpaO"jlot; 0"10 Ka'taO"'taO"y] SouAciat;), 't8'tOtEt; area'tEt; nrov m9aV8t;, av oXt O"UXV8t;, crnv A9Ytva.

4.2.2 ~VAAOytXcX

AU't8t; ouo»; eivm jlEjlOVCDjleVEt; reEptTC'tcDO"Ett;. ~E O"UUOytKO EreireE- 00, Y] areOK'ty]O"Y] reOAtnKcDv otKatCDjla'tCDV us reapaVOjlO rpozo Yt'tav ouvsnstn reOAtnKcDv ava'tapaxcDv. 0 AptO"1:O'teAY]t;, ern IIOAlrlKa 1:OU, ava<pepEt rnv m9avo'tY]'ta au'tYt, aAAU OiVEt CDt; reapaoEtyjla jlOVO rnv reEpire'tCDO"y] 1:OU KAEt0"98Vy] non «EVO"CDjla'tCDO"E cru; <pUAet; reOAAOUt; seVout; Kat OOUAOUt; nou xaroucouonv crnv A9Ytva». Eivoi m9avo -ono»; cireajlE YtoY]- on 0 KAEt0"gevY]t;, yta va unopscet va EmpaAEt nt; jlE'tappu9jlio"Ett; 1:OU, EwYtyaYE 0"'t0 reOAtnKo O"cDjla seva O"'totXcia, nou ciXav repoO"EAKUO"'tci crnv A9Ytva rnv EreoXYt 'tCDV Ilstotcr pa'tioCDv.

Ot veonosrce; aU1:Oi Ka'taVEjlYt9y]Kav areo 'tOY KAEt0"gevY] O"1:OUt; 0YtjlOUt; Kat nt; vss; <pUA8t; non ciXav npootputu oY]jltoupyY]9Ei Kat OEV otaKpivov'tav mu areo roo; aUout; A9Y]vaiout;. H reEpiTC'tCDO"y]

2

53

2

o nOAb:1]C; atnv Apxa[a EAAdba

aU"CTt "Cl]S A9Ttvas an:on;A-ci IWva01K() n:apUOEtYj..la. Avriflst«, l] n:apaXcOpl]<Jl] n:OA-mKcOV OtKat(()j..lU"C(()V <JE ~SVOUS Kat <JE OOUA-OUS j..lE"CU an:o <J"CU<Jl] <paiVE"Cat on Tt"Cav Uj..lE<Jl] ouvsnstn "Cl]S EYKa9iOpU<Jl]S "Cl]S tupuvviouq, "COU Ka9E<J"CcO"CoS n:OU ot EA-A-l]VtKSS n:OA-EtS YVcOpt<Jav Ka"Cu tov 70 Kat 60 mrovo; Kat n:OU En:aVEj..l<pavisE"Cat <JXE06v nuvtou Ka"Cu rov 40 uuovo, I:ns apxaiES n:l]ysS 0 rupcvvo; n:apou<JtuSE"Cat (()S EKElVOS n:OU, yw va Ka"CaA-U~Et "Cl]V E~ou<Jia, Un:O<JXE"Cat va otaj..lOlpu<JEt ns yaiES Kat va Ka"CapyTt<JEt ru XPSl], Kat <J"Cl]piSE"Cat oXt j..lOVO <J"Ca <p"C(()XO"CEpa <J"CpcOj..la"Ca "COU Mf-l0V aA-A-U Kat <J"COUS OOUA-OUS, non rou; j..lE"Ca"Cpsn:m <JE veonositec. To YV(()<J"CO"CEPO n:apUOEtYj..la au"CTtS "Cl]S n:paKnKTtS sivm, Ka"Cu rov 40 uuovo, sxsivo rou rupdvvou Atovootoo "C(()V I:upaKou<JcOv. 0 t<J"COptKOS ~tOO(()POS 0 I:tKEA-tcO"Cl]S j..las n:A-l]po<popd on, a<pou SytvE l]ys"Cl]S "Cl]S j..lEyUA-l]S <JtKEA-tKTtS n:OA-l]S "CO 406, 0 Atovuotor; npoS~l] crnv Ka"Cu<JXE<Jl] "Cl]S nspiouotm; "C(()V EX8pcOv "COU Kat uoipo<JE j..lSpOS "C(()V n:EPWU<JtcOV nou Ka"Ca<Jxs9l]KaV <JE an:EA-EU9EPOUS OOUA-OUS, ol ozoiot ovouricrrpcov veonositai. f\A-A-Ol rupuvvot exeivn "Cl]V En:OXTt sKavav "CO iow, on:(()S 0 n:Epi<pl]j..loS KA-sapxos an:o "Cl]V HPUKA-EW roo Ilovrou, 0 onoio; OXt j..lOVO an:EA-w8sp(()<JE "COUS OOUA-OUS "C(()V avnn:uA-(()v "COU Kat "COUS j..lE"CS"CPE\jIE <JE noA-hES, aA-M aVUYKa<JE En:i<Jl]S ns KOPES "C(()V n:A-ou<Ji(()v va n:upouv (()S <JusuyOUS roix; n:pcOl]v OOUA-OUS roue, To iow exove, svuv atcOva apyo"CEpa, 0 rupuvvo; NU~l]S "Cl]S I:n:uP"Cl]S, yw rov oztoio o t<J"COptKOS IIoA-u~wS ava<pspEt on «E~OP.t<JE "COUS n:oA-hES, ensA-W9SP(()<JE "COUS OOUA-OUS Kat roue SO(()<JE yta <JUSuyouS ns yuvaiKES Kat ru; KOPES "C(()V tOWK"Cl]"CcOV "COUS»· H n:Epi7t"C(()<Jl] "Cl]S !:n:up"Cl]S n:apoU<JtusEt, (()<J"CO<Jo, Kun:Ola tOtat"CEpO"Cl]"Ca Kat TtOl] A-iya xpovta nptv 0 ~a<JtA-tUS KA-wj..lsvl]S EiXE n:apaX(()PTt<JEt n:OA-mKU OtKatcOj..la"Ca -usou <JE KA-ij..la <JUYXU<Jl]S Kat ava"CapaXTtS- <J"CouS n:EpwiKOUS, rou; EA-EU9EPOUS exsivotx; AaKEOatj..loviouS n:OU Tt"Cav OJ..l(()S ~svol npor; rnv KA-Et<J"CTt oj..lUOa "C(()V «l<J(()V» Kat E~ap"Cl]j..lSVOl an:o au"COUs.

ea 8SA-aj..lE ~s~ata va npoo'Stopicouue aKpt~S<J"CEpa "CO tt <JUvs~atvE cru; UUES n:OA-EtS. ea Tt"Cav En:i<Jl]S XPTt<Jtj..lO va cvcesp-

54

90Uj..lE crnv n:Epin:"C(()<Jl] "C(()V an:OtKtcOv, Kat xupio»; "Cl]S !:tKEA-ias, onou OXt j..lOVO <Jns !:upaKoU<JES, rnv En:OXTt "COU ~WVU<JWU, aA-M <JXE06v nuvrou l] <JUj..lj..lE"COXTt crnv n:OA-mKTt KOtvO"Cl]"Ca Tt"Cav n:OA-U mo a<J"Ca8TtS Kat a~s~atl]. !:uj..l<p(()va us "COV eouKuoiol], 0 AA-Kt~tUOl]S, "Cl]V n:apaj..lovTt "Cl]S EK<J"Cpa"CEias <J"Cl] !:tKEA-ia "Co 415, uno<J"CTtptSE: «Ot n:OA-EtS EKd stvoi n:0A-UUV9p(()n:ES, j..lE n:A-l]9u<Jj..l0 uno"CEA-OUj..lEVO uno aVUj..ltK"Ca E9vOA-OytKU <J"COlXEia, Kat ot n:OA-t"CEWKSS j..lE"Ca~oA8S on:(()S Kat ot Eyypa<pss VS(()V n:OA-t"CcOv yivov"Cat EUKOA-a. Kat yt' uuto, En:EtOTt Kavds OEV at<J9UVE"Cat on npoxstrm yta "Cl]V n:paYj..lanKTt "COU n:a"Cpioa, KavEis OEV SXEt n:poj..ll]9w"CEl on:A-a yta va onspuomcrei "COV iow rov snuto "COU, OU"CE vtu va <pPOV"Ci<JEt yw "Cl] j..lOVtj..ll] EYKa"Cu<J"Ca<JTt roo <J"Cl] XcOpa aU"CTt» (VI, 17, 2 - 3). 0 AA-Kt~tUOl]S avnn:apa9s"CEt "C11V Ka"Cu<J"Ca<Jl] au"CTt <JE EKdvl] "Cl]S A9Ttvas, ozoo 11 n:OA-mKTt KOlVO"Cl]"CU Tt"Cav <J"Ca8EPTt.

Kat yw "COV Myo coro j..ln:OpOUj..lE va otaj..l0P<PcO<JOUj..lE <Ja<ps<J"CEpn sucovo yta "Co «En:uYYEA-j..la» "COU n:oA-hl] <J"Cl]V apxaia A8Ttva.

2

55

2

o rco}.iT:1'fr; (J7:1'fV Aproia E}.}.aoa

'Opliovioi be npoc; njv Xp~(JlV nOAirlJV rov 8(; af.1.cporipwv nOAlrCVV «ai f.1.1 Baiepoo f.1.0VOV, olov naxpoc; ~ pntpoc, oi be «oi toirt' eni nAiov (lJrov(JlV, olov eni tuumoo; 0150 ~ rpels ~ nAelOvs. olru» be 0Pl(of.1.ivwv noutuaix; «ai naxiws, anopovai rlVes rov tpitov bceivov ~ tetoptov, tuix; earaz nasitnc, Fopyuu; f.1.iv ovv 0 Aeovrlvos, ui f.1.iv laws anopwv ra 0' eipcoveoouevoc, eCPlJ, Kaeanep OAf.1.0Vs eivoi too; uno rwv OAf.1.0- nOlwv nenotnusvoix, oinoi tcai Aaptaaioix; too; uno rwv OlJf.1.lOVPYWV nsnotnusvoix; eivoi yap rlvas saptaotunoix; earl 0' anAovv. ei yap f.1.GreIXOV Kara rov t31Jeivra OlOplaf.1.0V r~s nouteioi; ~aav noA'lraz. tcoi yap oMi ovvarov ecpapf.1.0rrelV to eK nosito» ~ eK nOAirloos eni rwv npdncov oixnativuov ~ tctiativtcov.

~'tl]V npa~l] roe; nOAhl]e; opiss'tat sxsivo; non KU'tays'tut uno yovst; non Kat Ot Mo etvoi nOAhse;, OXt 1l0VO 0 nU'tEpUe; ~ 1l0VO l] 1ll]'tEpU. AAAOt ouo»; Sl]'tOUV SltlnAEOV vu sivat nOAhse; IlExpt OUO ~ tps«; ~ Kat nsptccotapot npovovot. Ano 'tOU'tOV ouo»; 'tOY covoatuco optouo ron nOAhl], ySVVtE'tat os IlSptKOUe; l] unopic moe; unEK'tl]O's rnv tOto'tl]'tu roo nOAhl] uu'toe; 0 rpito; ~ rerupro; npovovoc, I't' nuto Kt 0 ropyiue; 0 Asovrivoc, unopwv'tue; ioro; uAAa Kat etprovsuousvoq, sine nroe;, onroe; rc youota rn Ku'tucrKwasouv Ot youoonowi, srot KUt roo; noAi'cse; 'tl]e; Anptor«; roo; KU'tucrKwasouv ot spya'tse;, oton uspucoi eivm KU'tucrKwucr'tEe; Auptouirov. Kat rooro sivnt unAo: nv ot npoyovot crulllls'tsixuv crnv nOAmK~ sro~, onroe; 'to opioups, ~'tuv nOAl'tSe;, oton OSV 9u ~'tuv Suvcrov vn SCj>aPllocr'tci 0 opiouo; roo nOAl'tl] roe; sxsivou non EXSt ysvvl]9si uno nu'tEpu Kat 1ll]'tEPU nOAl'tSe; ytU exsivoix; non nportot Ku'COiKl]crUV ~ iopucruv rnv nOAl].

'Aptcr'to'tEAoue;, Ilosituai, I", 1275 b 20 - 35

56

H E"f'Ypmptl crov KU'tUAOYO 'tOlV ()l]1l0trov

"EXel 0' r, vvv tcatturtcau; r~s nasitek»; rov& rov tponov. MeriXOV(JlV f.1.iv r~s nOAzrdas oi e~ af.1.cporipwv veyovote; aarwv, eyypacpovraz 0' els too; OlJf.1.oras ()1C'rwKai&Ka erlJ veyovote; 'Orav 0' eyypacpwvral, OlalfllJcpi(ovral nepi avrwv of.1.oaavres of OlJf.1.oraz, npdnov f.1.iv el 00- KOVCJl veyovevai r1v r,AlKiav r1v bc toii VOf.1.0V, Kav f.1.1 M~w(Jl, anipxovral naAlV els naloas, 6evrepOV 0' ei eAeVeepOs iati xoi yiyove xaui totx; VOf.1.Ovs. "Ettett' av f.1.iv anOlfllJcpiawvraz f.1.1 elvoi eAeVeepOV, 0 f.1.iv ecpilJCJlvels to olKaar1plOv, ol M OlJf.1.oraz xainvopoo; olpoiivuu nevt« (ivopas e~ aurwv, Kav f.1.iv f.1.1 M~rl oucaiox; eyypacpeaeaz, nWAel toiitov r, nOAls. eav oi V1K1au, rols OlJf.1.0ra1s enavaYKes eyypacpelV. Metii be toiita OOKlf.1.a(el ro~s eyypacpivras r, fiOVA1, lcav tu; M~rl vednepo; oKrwKai&K' erwv eivoi, (lJf.1.101 too; OlJf.1.oras too; eyypalflavras.

H cruYXPOVl] 1l0pCjl~ 'COU nOAt'tSUIlU'COe; eivut l] UKOAOu9l]. AUIl~avouv uspo; cr'tl] OWiKl]crl] 'tl]e; nOAl]e; ocot YSVV~9l]KUV uno yovcie; non dxuv Kat Ot 860 nOAtnKa OtKUtWIlU'tU. Ot VEOt syypaoovtm crov KU'taAoyo trov Ol]llo'twv orov crullnA l] procoov 'CO OEKU'tO oyooo E'tOe;. Kntri rnv syypUCjl~ uu't~, Ot Ol]llo'tse;, uCjlou owcrouv OPKO, unoCjluivov'tat ota \jf~Cjlou: npw'tov, scv mcrsuouv on EXOUV rnv ununOUIlEVl] uno 'tOY VOIlO l]AtKiu -cs nspin'trocrl] UpVl]nK~e; unoCjlucrl]e; snuvEPxoV'tat naAt crnv 'ta~l] rrov nuiorovKUt osu'tspov sav etvoi sAsu9spot KUt EXOUV 'tl] vouurr] yEVVl]crl]. Onoio; KU'tU\jfl] qnctsi uno rou; Ol]llo'tse; roe; Ill] sAsDespoe;, unopsi vn KaVSt ECjlScrl] cro OtKUO"t~pW. Ot Ol]llo'tse; SKAEYOUV rots uno 'to crwllu rou; nEv'ts avopse; yta vc unocr'tl]pi~ouv rnv KU'tl]yopiu. Kat nv IlSV 'to OtKUcr't~PW xpivst on OSV EXSt 'CO otKuirollu 'tl]e; syypuCjl~e;, 'to Kpuroc 'tOY nouAast roe; OOUAO. Euv ouo»; Kspoicrst 'tl] OiKl], Ot Ol]llo'tse; sivor unoxpsrollEvOt vc 'tOY syypa\jfouv. Mstd un' uu'ta, l] BOUA~ uno~aAASt os EASYXO roue sYYC;YPull~voUe;, Kat uv 9srop~crst Kanowv uno curou; vsotspo rmv OSKUOK'tW srrov, sm~aAAc;t npoctiuo croix 0l]1l0'tse; Ot ortoiot 'COv SVEYPU\jfUV.

'AptO''CO'tEAoue;, 'AelJvaiwv lIoAzreia, XLII, 1- 2

2

57

2

o nolh:rtr; atnv Apxaia Ellaba

brelO1 0' bcMOlJ toinui» ovopa, avanlJ01aac; ouror;; e/JAaarp1Pel teat' epoB raxu teal nOAAa teal peyaArt rfl rpwvfl, dxmep teal vBv, iuipiopa piv cVv learlJyoplJasv ovoiva napaarousvo; ours rwv olJporwv ours rwv aAAwv noAlrwv, napSlCeASUSrO os toi; OlJPOralr;; anoljllJrpi(saOaz. a~LOBvror;; os uo» ava/JaAiaOal dr;; r1v iotepoiav OU], re r1v tbpav tcoi ro plJosva pOL nopeivoi to rs npfiyp' iupvco npoonetttcncevai, 'iva toou» t' e~ovaia yiVOlB' onoaa /JOUAOlro learlJyopqaallCai iuunopo; sf rzvar;; exOl napaaxiaOal, kuoi t:' bqivolr' anoAoy1aaaOal ev iuuiai toi; olJporazr;; tcoi rour;; olxeioo; iuiptopci; napaareaiku: tcai 0 ti vvoinaov nepi epoB, tootou; ~OeAOV eppivslV" obto; cVv piv eyw npovlCaAOUPlJv ovosv erppovrzasv, r1v os ljIqrpov sueur;; Mioov toi; napoiai rwv OlJpOrwv, our' anoAoyiav oVOepiav epoi oour;; our' eAsyxov ovoiv' alCpl/Jq notnaac. oi os rourl{) aoveauirce; avanlJ01aavrsr;; eljllJrpi(ovro. xoi Ijv piv atcotoc, of oi Aap/Javovrsr;; OUO tcol cpei; ljI1rpovr;; hcaato; napa rourov evi/JaAAov de; rov ,eaOimcov. anueiov Oi" oi piv yap ljIlJrplaauevoi OV nAeiovr;; if tpuucovt' Ijaav, at os ljIqrpOl ~plOp10lJaav nAeiovr;; if e~1lCovra, wars navrar;; ~pfir;; bcnAayqvaz. taii raBe' dx; aAlJOq Aiyw, teal orz our' 8000lJ ~ ljIqrpor;; ev iinoatv nseioo; r ' eyivovro rwv ljIlJrplaouevcov, tuunopo; vp'iv napi~opaz. avp/Jaivsl oi uoi nepi rourwv rwv piv rpiAWV if rwv aAAWV 'AOlJvaiwv plJosva iuipiopa nopeivo: Ola -a: r1v wpav teal Ola to plJosva napa1CaAiaaz, aiaoi; os ro'ir;; ~Ol1ClJlCOazv ps xpqaOal iuiotoatv. a ouv ou ovv~aovral 'i~apvOl ysviaOal, toirta yiyparp' auro'ir;;.

MOAte; <prova~av ro ovouc uou, re8't"UX't"11K8 op8we; au't"oe; Kt UPXt- cr8 vc 8K't"0~8U8t svnvtiov uou ~ptcrtSe;, 118 buva't"~ <po)V~, oreroe; aKpt~roe; 't"ropa. L18V nnpouotnos xnvsvcv Ilup't"upa yta vn 't"8KIl11- puocst ru; Ka't"11yopi8e; 1Ou, OU't"8 uno roue b111l0't"8e; OU't"8 uno too; uUoue; reoAh8e;, aUu nupmcivoocs rooc b111l0't"8e; vc uou brocrouv apv11nK~ \jI~<po. Eyro t;~'t"11cra vn ava~A118ei 11 biK11 yta rnv snoIlEV11, roco 8~at't"iae; 't"11e; ropae;, oco Kat btOn b8V ure~pX8 KavEvae;

58

JIdJr; anotcuitat IllblO,rtW ,ov no siin

vu uou reapama8ei, Ka8roe; to t;~'t"11lla dX8 repOKU\jI8t ~a<pVtKU, srot oxrrs vc unopsi au't"oe; vc bta't"urerocr8t oce; Ka't"11yopi8e; ~88A8 Kat vc nupouotnoet IlUp't"Up8e;, o» dX8. Eyro reUAt 8a unopouou vn areoAoY118ro 8vroTCtOV OAroV trov b111l0't"rov Kat vu nnpouotcoro roe; IlUp't"Up8e; rou; cruyy8vde; uou, E~UAAOU dXa rnv rep08w11 vu cr8~acr't"ro OreOtab~reo't"8 areo<pacr11 xt uv SreatpV8 11 cruvEA8Ucr11 yta usvo; Aoro; b8V sbrocr8 Kallia cr11llacria cs oou 8Yro repo't"8tVa Kat uoipcos allecrroe; rou; AWOUe; yta \jf11<po<popia ern reapov't"a IlSA11 10u b~1l0U, xropie; vu uou 8TCt't"pe\jl8t vn areoAoY118ro Kat vc repoxrop~cr8t os A8TC't"01l8P~ eA8YXo. Ot ureocr't"11ptK't"Se; 10U re8't"UX't"11Kav· op8wt Kat \jf~<ptcrav. 'Hrov KtOAae; crKO't"Ubt Kat aU10i ereatpvav bUO Kat tpsu; AWOUe; ° Ka8evae; Kat rou; eptxvav crov IltKPO KUbO. Areob8t~11 areo't"8Aei 10 Y8yovoe; on ooot \jf~<ptcrav b8V ~'t"av nsptccorspot areo rpuivrc, 8Vro 1l8't"p~811Kav reuvro areo 8~~V't"a \jf~<pot, repUYlla reou Ilae; 8~ereA11~8 OAOUe;. Kat 8a crae; nnpouotdoro IlUp't"Up8e; yta vc b8h8 on Aero 't"11V aA~88ta, on b8V 86811K8 cr8 OAOUe; btKairolla \jf~<pou Kat on ~pe811Kav nspurcorspe; \jf~<pOt are' oooo; \jf~<ptcrav. ~ull~aiv8t vu unv Ilreopro vn crae; nupoootnoro roe; Ilup't"upa yt' au't"u Kureowv uno rou; <piAOUe; uou ~ rou; UreOAOtTCOUe; A811vaioue;, Kat 8~at't"iae; 't"11e; ropae; Kat 8re8tb~ b8V 8iXa KaAecr8t xnvsvcv. ea Xp11crtIlOreOt~crro ouo»; roe; IlUp't"Up8e; roue ibWUe; rou; av8proreoue; reou 118 abiK11crav. L18v 8a unopsoouv vn apv1180uv au't"u reou sxro ~b11 ypU\jf8t yt' uutoix;

L111llocr8Evoue;, Ilpo; Ev/JovA10lJv, 11-14

to yap aovouceiv toiit' earlv, or;; av naloonOlq'wl1Cai daayu err;; te too; rpparepar;; teal olJporar;; too; vie'ir;;, tcai rar;; Ovyaripar;; e1Colorp dx; avroB obotu; toi; avopaazv. ttu; iuiv eraipar;; ~oovqr;; 8VSIC' exopev, ttu; os naAAa1Car;; rqr;; TeaO' ~pipav Ospaneiar;; roB oibuaioc, uu; os yvvaiTear;; roB xoioonouioiku yvnciox; xai rwv evoov rpuAa1Ca tuatnv exelV.

2

59

2

o nOAir17t:; atnv Apraia EAA.dba

o yallo~, aAArocr"Ce, noro aKpt~eD~ si vat, va areona KareOtO~ nme>ta, va eyypacpet rou; ytOU~ ron crou; Ka"CaA6you~ "CY]~ cppa"Cpia~ ron Kat roo 8i}llou Kat va nnvtpsust n~ KOpe~ "COU, ro~ 8tKS~ roo. EXOUlle n~ stnipe; yta va Ila~ npocoepouv Y]80vi}, n~ reaUaKi8e~ yta va nsptzotouvmt Ka8y]lleptva "Co creDlla Ila~ Kat n~ crusoyou~ yta va Ila~ 8ivouv voutun reat8ta Kat va eivrn mcroi cpoAaKe~ roo oxmo» Ila~.

~y]llocr8svou~, Kaui Neaipoc, 122

60

I

TO «EIIAffEAMA» TOY IIOAITH

I

L"CY]V apxaia eUY]VtKi} reoAy], "Co va siom reoAhY]~ Ssv cri}llatVe 1l0VO on areo"CeAei~ IlSpO~ roo crUVOAOU, aUa Kat on crulllle"CSXet~ crnv KOtvi} sroi}. Aurr] Y] KOtVi} sroi} eK8y]AeDVe"Cat cs rpin ereireeSo: "Co reoAt"CtKo Ka"C' apxi}v, 8Y]Aa8i} "CY] Ai}\jfY] areocpacrerov non coopoov crw crOVOAO "CY]~ KOtVo"CY]"Ca~, to crpcruoruco, 8Y]Aa8i} "CY]v alluva "CY]~ KotVo"CY]"Ca~ aresvavn cs Ka8e m8avi} erei8ecrY] areo e~ro"CePtKO eX8po, Kat "CSAO~ "Co 8py]crKcunKo ereiree80, 8Y]Aa8i} "CY] crxscrY] lle"Ca~o rov lleAeDV "CY]~ KotVo"CY]"Ca~ Kat rrov 8eeDV, areo rou; onoioix cvnusvsrm Y] reapoxi} euspveotdrv Kat repocr"Cacria~. H cruflflewXi} tmv reoAt'!eDV ctu tpin au"Ca ereiree8a "CY]~ KOtvi}~ rou; sroi}~ vrvocov ue ~acrY] KareOta xpmipi«, xou 8tscpepav cero reoAY] cs reOAY] , svro ot yuvaiKe~, crnv reepire"CrocrY] non areOKAetOv"Cav areo "CY]V reOAt"CtKi} Kat cr"CpanronKTJ sroi}, crufllle"Cetxav nvri rooroo cr"CY] 8py]crKcunKi} sroTJ.

0a repoKaAoocre, icrro~, Ka"CareAY]~Y] ro yeyovo~ on Y] OtKOVOIltKTJ sroi} Ssv avacpsPe"Cat crou; rouei; "CY]~ reOAt"CtKi}~ 8pacr"CY]pto"CY]"Ca~. Ilpsnst Oflro~ repeD"Ca va npoooiopiooous ru ahta au"Ci}~ "CY]~ areoucria~.

1. 0 rrOAITHI: KAI H OIKONOMIKH ZUH

I1POKet'!at yta repo~Ay]lla non SXet repoKaMcret reoAAs~ crusY]"Ci}osu; lle"Ca~o rorv cnuepwov tcropuobv. Ilpezst va repocrrea8i}crouus va 8ta"CureeDcroufle KareOtOu~ optouoix;

3

61

3

o nOAiT:'lr; atnv Apxafa EAAaOa

Ava<psp9i]KaIlS rep011Y0UIlEvro<; ClTll crXE011 avallwa crnv reOALnKi] tOtOTllTa Kat rnv KaTOXi] yatWV. IIavTOu, os OAll rnv EKTacrll TOU SAAllVtKOU KOcrIlOU, 11 tOtoKTllcria Yll<; areOTsAoocrS areOKAStcruco zpovouio rrov reOAtTWV. AKolla Kat crs Ilta reoAll orero<; 11 A9i]va onou, areo rnv sreoxi] TOU KAstcr9tVll TOUAaXWTOV, 11 tOtoKTllcria Yll<; OSV areOTSAci areapahllTll repotire6ewll yta va eivor KareOto<; reOAhll<;, 1l0VO ot reoAhs<; urropouv va sivm tOtoKTi]TS<; Yll<;. XpstaSSTat StOtKi] areo<pacrll areo rnv SKKA noiu TOU 0i]1l0U yta va reapaxroP119ci TO otKairolla Tll<; liYKT17artC;-TO otKairolla areOKTllcrll<; Yll<;- cs Evav ~EVO. AUTO crllllaivst on cr«; nsptccorepec snllVtKE<; re6ASt<; at reoAhs<; eivoi crnv reAsto\jfll<Pia TOU<; tOtoKTi]TS<; Y11<;, reou sits tnv SKIlSTanSOovTat allwa she cpxoovnn crnv eicrrepa~l1 rorv etcrOOllllaTrov. Eivrn ~E~ato on ureapxet ota<popa avallwa crnv xotvorvucf KaTacrTacrll TOU IltKpoKaAAtePYllTi], reou KaAAtSPyei Eva i] 060 sKTapta crTOU<; AO<pOU<; Tll<; ATnKi]<;, Kat TOU lleyaAo - tOtoKTi]Tll, reou set areo tu ewooi]llaTa reou reapayet 11 spyacria rmv OOOAroV, orero<; TOV reeptypa<pst 0 Eevoqxov crTOV OZKOVO/-llKO TOU. Ouox, crTll 0111l0KpanKi] A9i]va, Kat ot 060 eivm IlEAll Tll<; reOALnKi]<; KOtVOTllTa<;. Anoo, 11 uvicornr« aUT11 oro Ka9wTw<; Tll<; tOtoKTllcria<; repoKaAWe cro~apE<; xpiosu; Kat llaAtcrTa KaTa TOV 40 cuovc repaYllanKE<; macret<; reou sreE<pspav avaOtavolli] Tll<; y1l<;. Ilovroo ouo»; ~ava~picrKoulls rnv iota crXE- crll IlSTa~O Yll<; Kat reOALnKi]<; tOtOTllTa<;, Kat otnv aKollll, 6rero<; crnv respiTCTrocrll Tll<; A9i]va<;, ureapxouv reoAhs<; Xropi<; Yll, 11 Yll OeV reaOet va Bsoipsitm ro<; croll~oAo Tll<; reoAll<;, reapa ro<; «usrro reapayroyi]<;», orero<; 9a AEyallS XPllcrtlloremwvTa<; Tll crlllleptvi] opoAoyia.

H KaTamacrll rev TeXVtTWV eivnt TeAeiro<; Ota<popsnKi]. Avorpepcus i]011 rnv areayopcucrll reou ~apatvs n<; ~toTSXVtKt<; OpacrTll-

62

To «enayyeAf.ta» rou nOAfTl7

ptOTllTS<; os OPWIlEVS<; reOASt<;, onoo Erepsres, orero<; crTll ei]~a, va EXSt Kavei<; OtaKO\jfSt yta OEKa TOUAaXtcrTOv XPovta Tt<; opacrTllptOTllTS<; aUTE<; yta va avi]Ket oro reOALnKO crwlla. ~TllV A9i]va, avn9tTro<;, unopouos KareOto<; va stvor Kat Texvhll<; Kat reoAhll<;. ~S Eva areocrreacrlla areo ru 'Anouvnuoveouata TOU Esvoqxovru, 0 <PtAOcrO<pO<; ~roKpaTll<; ava<pEpSt on 11 sKKAllcria TOU 0i]1l0U areoTSAciTat areo «yva<pel<;, crKUTel<;, T8KTova<;, XaAKel<; Kai Bllreopou<;». Ouox, aKollll Kat crnv A9i]va, Kat reoM neptccorspo crn<; aUe<; reOAW;, ot ~toTeXVtKE<; opacrTllptOTllTe<; OeV areoTsAoocrav acrxoAia 1l0VO ttov reOAtTWv. Ot ~EVOt -crrnv A9i]va Ot 1l8TOtKOt- i]Tav KaTa IlsyaAo IlEPO<; ayystoreAacrTS<;, At90~00t i] IlSTanoupyoi. Ot areoAoytcrlloi yta rnv KaTacrKeUi] optousvorv IlVllllcirov Tll<; AKPOreOAll<;, StOtKa TOU EpeX9siou, sivoi areOKaAurenKoi ro<; repo<; aUTO. ~tarctmwvoulls on spyaSovTav llaSi, oro ioto epYOTa~to Kat yta TOV iOto Iltcr90, reoAhe<;, IlETOtKat Kat OOOAOt, SVW ot TeACUTaiot xpnrououv areo TOV Iltcr90 TOU<; 1l0VO Ta areapahllTa yta tnv sm~irocri] TOU<;. Ot sreayyeAllanKE<; OtKOVolltKE<; opacrTllptoTllTS<; OeV eiXav, Aomov, Kallia crXEcrll us rnv oPyavrocrll Tll<; reOAll<;·

OAa oou ava<pEp911Kav rep011Y0U!!Evro<; icrxuav reOAU nsptccotepo yta n<; SllreoptKE<; OpamllptoTllTS<;. Yrei]pxav reOAAoi reoAhs<; crnv A9i]va reou KEpOtsaV rn TOU Bioo OtaTllPwvTa<; ellreOptKo KaTacrTlllla cruv ayopa i] oaveiSovTa<; xpi]llaTa os Sllreopou<;. Ouox TO sunopto Kat Ot cruvaAAayt<;, av Kat npoo'mtsuovtuv areo TOU<; VOIlOU<; Tll<; reOAll<;, npoxstuevoo va Otacr<paAisSTat 11 Ota<paVSta, Kat areOTeAOocrav rellyi] scoorov IlS Tll 1l0p<pi] oacrllWV reou etcrrepaTTOvTav KaTa rnv sicoco Kat E~OOO areo ro AtllaVta (TOU Ilstpmn, ana Kat Tll<; Kopivtlou Kat OAroV rmv IlsyaArov reapaAtrov reoAsrov), Bpioxovrcv cruvi]9ro<; ern XEpta trov ~EVroV (npoc Tl1V reOALnKi] KOtVOTllTa), roiv sunoprov areo Tll ~upia, rnv AiyuTCTO, Tll <I>OtviKll, i] Kat areo 0 ptcrllEVe<; sunopuce; reoASt<; orero<; i]Tav 11 <I>wKata, IltXPt rnv KaTacrTpO<pi] Tll<; areo TOU<; Ilspcsc, 11

3

63

3

o no},IrYfC; (TrYfV Apxaia EAAaOa

aKOIlT] T] MaCiCiaAia Cine; apxse; 'COU 40u cuovc.

Kat sOcO ota1ttCi'CcOvoUIlS -Ils s~aipSCiT] 'CT]V KaAA.tSpysta 'CT]e; YT]e;, zo» yrvotuv nSptCiCio'CSpO aVnAT]n'C~ IDe; CiXSCiT] IlS 'CT] <pUCiT] Kat tou; 8wue;- on Ot OtKOVOlltKSe; opaCi'CT]pto'CT]'Cse;, aKOIlT] Kat av npaKnKa s~aCi<paAtsaV 'CT]v S1tt~iIDCiT] 'CIDV nOAt'CcOv, snatSav nOAu IltKPO POAO Ci'COV Ka80ptCill0 'CT]e; nOAmK~e; tOto'CT]'Cae;, Ka8cOe; unaKouav ~OT] CiS nOAt'CtKSe; OOIlSe;.

2. H IIOAITIKH A.PA~THPIOTHTA TOY IIOAITH

H nOAt'CtK~ opaCi'CT]pto'CT]'Ca ano'CsAci, s~ OPtCiIlOU, 'CT]V npcO'CT] opaCi'CT]pto'CT]'Ca 'COU nOAhT] IlSCia Ci'COV KOCiIlO 'CIDV SAA.T]VtKcOV nOASIDV. QCi'COCiO, T] opaCi'CT]pto'CT]'Ca aU'C~ OSV SXSt nav'Ca 'CT]V iota eupurntu OU'CS ru iota xapaK'CT]ptCinKa, Kat s~ap'Ca'Cat ano 'Co av 'Co Ka8ccr'CcOe; 'CT]e; nOAT]e;, 'Co nositeoua, eivct OT]1l0KpanKO ~ OAtyapXtKO.

2.1 H ~OAtttXit bQa(Jtl1Qtotl1ta (JE ,"na bl1~oxQati,a

L'Ca llOAl'CZKa, 0 <ptMCiO<pOe; AptCi'CO'CSAT]e; opiSSt rov nOAhT] IDe; SKctVOV non ({CiUIlIlS'CSXSt Ci'CT]V aCiKT]CiT] 'CIDV S~OUCitcOV 'COU OtKaCi'C~ Kat ron apxov'Ca», npOCiOtOpisov'Cae; aIlSCiIDe; on Cine; apxir; nSptAall~aVSt Kat SKciVT] ron IlSAOUe; 'CT]e; SKKAT]Ciiae; 'COU 0~1l0U, Kat «oro yta va Ka'CaCi'C~CiSt 'COV optouo ron S<papIlOCitIlO CiS OASe; ne; 1l0p<pse; nolneiac, Kat xopio»; Ci'CT] OT]lloKpa'Cia.

2.1.1 H ullvti.,EllUfJ (EXXAfJUtU) roo bft~Oll

ITpaYllanKa, Ci'CT] 0T]1l0KpanK~ A8~va 'COU 50U Kat 40u a~cOva, OAOt Ot nOAhse; unopoov va Ciulllls'CaCiXouv Cine; CiUVSAWCiSte; 'CT]e; SKKAT]Ciiae; ron 0~1l0U, nou npaYlla'COnOtOUv'Cat onpcvru eopse; 'COV Xpovo, 'CSCiCiSpte; <popse; ov« npU'C,avsia, no~ eivoi T] ~poVtK~ nspiooor; 'CIDV 35 ~ 36 T]IlSPcOV xuru 'CT]V onoiu Ot nsvnvrc

64

To «enayyeAfJ.a» rov nOAlrYf

~OUASU'CSe; Iliae; ano ne; S~t <puMe; avnnpOCicOnSUav OAOUe; 'COUe; aAA.OUe; Kat OtapKcOe; CiUVsOpiasav. H CiUVSACUCiT] (SKKAT]Ciia) 'COU 0~1l0u sivut KupiapXT] Kat CiUST]'Ca ne; npo'CaCiSte; xou uno~aAAOnat ano 'Co LUIl~OUAtO, OT]AaO~ 'CT] BOVA1 icaV llevraKoaiwv, IlS nsv~v'Ca IlSAT] ano Ka8s <PUA~, tu ortoin sKMyov'Cat Ka8s Xpovo. Ozotoorptots IlSAOe; 'CT]e; SKKAT]Ciiae; roo 0~1l0U Ilnopci va ST]'C~CiSt 'COV Myo Kat va npO'CeiVet KanOta rpozonoinon Ci'CT]V npo'CaCiT] 'COU LUIl~ouAiou. Mere 'CT] CiUS~'CT]CiT], T] npo'CaCiT] Kat ot rpozozoi~Ciete; uno~aAA.ov'Cat os \lfT]<po<popia. H ano<paCiT] Aall~aVe'Cat ota TI']c; nAetO\lfT]<piae; Kat T] \lfT]<po<popia yivsrut us ava'CaCiT] 'CIDV XeptcOv. ita tov CiT]lleptVo av8pIDno, T] A~\lfT] 'CIDV ano<paCieIDV 8s'Cet svn CiUYKeKptllSVo npO~AT]lla: ncOe; ~'Cav Suvcrov va e~aCi<paAise'Cat on Aall~avonat uno\lfT] OASe; Ot \If~<pOt, Kat llaAtCi'Ca orov, on IDe; Ci'CT]v nepi1t'CIDCiT] 'CT]e; ano<paCiT]e; yta 'CT]v 'CUXT] 'CT]e; MunA~vT]e; Ka'Ca 'CT] OtapKSta ron ITeAonOVVT]CitaKou noMIlOU, T] ano<paCiT] Aall~avo'Cav ue IltKP~ nAetO\lfT] <pia; Ilpenst va <pav'CaCi'COUlle on Ot XtAtaOee; A8T]vaiot non sCineUoav Cine; KepKioee; 'COU M<pou 'CT]e; ITvuKae;, onou Kat yivov'Cav Ot CiUVeAeUCiete;, eixav aU~T]IlSVT] CiUveiOT]CiT] roo all<Pipponou xapaK'C~pa 'CIDV ano<paCieIDV. Exouv 'Ce8ci ePID'C~lla'Ca CiXenKa us 'COV apt81l0 'CIDV nOAt'CcOv zou napa~piCiKov'Cav Cine; CiUVeAeUCiete;. ita 'COV 40 nuovn, T] XIDpT]nKo'CT]'Ca 'CIDV KepKioIDV SXet eKnllT]8ci Ci'Ca 8.000 ~ 9.000 a'Colla. rVIDpiSOUus e~aAA.ou on yta optouevs; \lfT]<po<popiee; anat'COuv'Cav anap'Cia ano S~t XtAtaOee; \lfT]<po<popoue;. ea snavsA80Ulle napaKa'CID Ci'CO npO~AT]lla 'CT]e; npaYllanK~e; CiUlllle'COX~e; 'CIDV nOAt'CcOv Cine; CiUVeAeUCiSte;. Tevovo; napallSVet on KaVOVtKa CiUYKeV'CpcOvov'Cav Ile- ptKSe; XtAtaOse; a'Colla, eVcO T] Ciuv8ccrT] 'CIDV naptCi'CallsvIDv OtS<pepe avaAoya Ile ne; nePtCi'CaCiete;, 'CT]V enox~ rou s'Coue; (ot YSIDpyoi ueroxwoovruv AtyO'CePO Ka'Ca 'CT] OtapKeta 'CIDV yeIDpytKcOv epynotrov ~ rov XetllcOva, otcv Ot OPOIlOt ~'Cav 06Ci~a'COt) Kat ru npoe; CiUS~'CT]CiT] 8slla'Ca.

Aoo» ytvo'Cav T] \lfT]<po<popia, T] ano<paCiT] xapaCiCio'Cav cs Ilta ns'Cpa, nou <ppovnsav va eK'Ce8ei cs xotvf 8sa, yta va IlnoPSCiODV OAOt va eVT]IlSpID80uv CiXenKa. Exouv ~pe8ei eKa'COv'CUOee; ano-

65

3

3

o no}Jc17r:; a7:11v Apxaia EAAdJa

<pam::t~ 'tTj~ a8TjVatK~~ C:KKATjO'ia~ 'tOU O~IlOU 1WU apxi/;;ouv 1lC: rnv sK<ppaO'Tj «800~C: 'tfj ~OUAfj Kai np br,J-lqJ ... », Avmpspotuv c:niO'Tj~ 'to ovouc C:Kc:lVOU non c:iXC: Kavc:t rnv nporuor], exsivorv non c:lXav C:VOC:XOllsvro~ xporstvst 'tpononot~O'c:t~, stet cOO''tc:, av 'to IlS'tPO ans~atvc: Ka'taO''tpc:mtKO ~ av'tiec:'to npo~ tou; VOIlOU~, va IlnOpc:l va Ka'tT]')'opTj8d 0 unc:08uvo~. Ttu rnv nc:pin'troO'Tj au't~ npo~A8- novruv O'UYKC:KPtIlSVC:~ VOlltKS~ OtaotKaO'ic:~.

Ot ano<paO'c:t~ 'tTj~ C:KKATjO'ia~ tou O~IlOU ceopouccv roco o rnv c:~ro'tc:ptK~ nOAmK~ 00'0 Kat O'n~ scorrspuce; un08sO'c:t~, 'to. OTjIl0crta spya, tnv c:m~oA~ sKmK'tTj~ <popoAoyia~ nOAsIlOU, rnv c:tcrayroy~ Kanota~ vsa~ Aa'tpda~. Kurri 'tOY 50 mrovn, ot nOAhc:~ OC:V allc:i~oV'tav yta 'tTj O'UIlIlC:'tOX~ roix; ornv C:KKATjO'ia 'tOU O~IlOU. Ano 'tOY 40 utmvu ollro~, Ka8tc:pc08TjKC: 0 Ac:yollC:VO~ BKKArWWCHll<:OC; iuailoc, non C:~Olloirovc: Ka't' uurov 'tOY rpono 'tTj O'UIlIlC:'tOX~ O''tTjV C:KKATjO'ia 'tOU O~IlOU 1lC: 'tTj Ac:noupyia 'tOU OtKaO''t~ 'tTj~ HAtaia~ ~ 'tOU IlSAOU~ 'tTj~ BOUA~~.

2.1.2 H HAtala

LOIl<Prova 1lC: rnv napaooO'Tj, Tj OTjIlLOupyia ron AatKOO OtKaO"'tTjpioo 'tTj~ HAtaia~ anootoo'tav O''tOV LOArova. L'tTjV npaYllanKo'tTjrn, yvroPiSOUIlC: 1l0VO on 0 pOAO~ 'tTj~ yivatut totahc:pa cnucvnKO~ ana 'tTj O'nYIl~ nou, 'to 461, 0 OTjIlOKpa'tTj~ E<ptahTj~ 'tTj~ napaxropc:l n~ Ac:t'tOupyic:~ nou IlSXPt rots ovnxcv O''tO uptcroKpanKO O'UIl~OOALO 'tOU Apc:LOU Ilrryou, Ot TjAtaO''ts~ C:KAsyov'tav Ka8c: XPOVO 1lC: KA~PO usou ana 'to O'OVOAO rrov nOAt'tcOv TjAtKia~ avro rrov rpuivt« srdrv Kat snpc:nc: va ocOO'ouv OPKO on OC:V 80. npoO'~aAouv 'to nOAhculla Kat 'to otKairolla 'tTj~ tOLOK'tTjO'ia~. Arto rou; TjAtaO''ts~, 1lC: vsa KA~proO'Tj, O''tC:AC:XcOvov'tav 'to. OtKaO''t~pta non oiKaSav, os uvdrruto ~a81l0, tOtronKs~ aUa Kat OTjIlOO'tc:~ un08sO'c:t~, Ka8cO~ Ka8c: A8Tjvaio~ unopoocs va npootryst os OiKTj onotovotprors Bsoipoucs on anC:tAooO'c: rou; VOIlOU~ ~ OC:V c:iXC: <pspc:t os nspa~ rnv anoO''toA~ non 'tOU c:iXC: ava'tc:8c:i 1lC: \jfTj<po<popia roo O~IlOU. Ttu 'tOU~ TjAtaO''ts~ Ka8tc:pc08TjKC: ana 'tOY IIc:ptKA~

66

To «endYYeAf-la» 7:0V nOAl7:17

o npcO'to~ J-llaBoc;, nou ano-rC:AooO'c: aIlOt~~ yta 'tTj O'UIlIlC:'tOX~ oru; O'UVC:AC:OO'c:t~ 'tOU OtKaO''tTjpiou. L'tTjV Krollrooia 'tOU 1lC: 'thAO I:cp~KSC;, 0 nOtTj't~~ AptO"'to<pavTj~ OtaKrollrooc:i 'tTj Sucouovi« trov A8Tjvairov Ot onoiot, yta va c:tcrnpa~ouv 'tOY Iltcr80 rorv rpuov O~OAcOV (nspizou ro IltO'O 'tOU Iltcr800 c:VO~ c:pya'tTj non OOOACUC: ctu OTjIlOour spya), sO'nc:uoav ana 'to nproi otuv O'uvc:pX0'tav KanoLO SucoO''t~pLO, 1lC: rnv C:Anioa va C:KAc:yOOV.

2.1.3 H BOlJAiJ rerv Ilevruzooterv

Tnv iota nspinou c:nox~ ~ Aiya Xpovta upyotspu, Tj uiaiiooopia, OTjAaO~ Tj aIlOl~~ yta 'tTj O'ullllC:'tOX~ O'n~ OTjIlOcrtC:~ opaO''tTjpto'tTj'tc:~, c:nC:K'ta8TjKC: Kat ern IlSATj 'tTj~ BOUA~~ «ov Ilsvrrncocirov. Ot ~OUACU'tS~ snatpvav nsv'tC: O~OAOO~ rnv TjIlSpa Kat Ilia opaXIl~ (s~t O~OAOO~) Ka'ta 'tTj OtapKc:ta ron svo; oC:Ka'tou ron sroo; non nrcv npu'tavc:t~. Ot npu'tavc:t~, OTjAaO~ ot nc:v~vm ~OUAC:U'tS~ 'tTj~ iOta~ <pUA~~ non uvnapootonscuv 'tOU~ aAAOU~ yta 35 ~ 36Ilspc:~, nposopcuav Ka'ta n~ O'UVC:AC:OO'c:t~ 'tTj~ C:KKATjO'ia~ 'tOU O~IlOU, xc'ts8C:'tav n~ nporcos«; O''tTjV TjIlc:p~O'ta ota'ta~Tj Kat, uno rnv npoc:opia ron c:mO''ta'tTj nou optso'tav Ka8c: uspo, OtaO'<paAtsav Ka'ta Ilia svvotu 'tTj OtaKU~SpVTjO'Tj 'tTj~ nOATj~.

2.1.4 o. a~xt;

Ot apxov'tC:~ opisov'tav Ka8c: XPOVO 1lC: C:KAOy~ ~ KA~proO'Tj. Ac:v c:lXav OAot ot nOAhc:~ npoO'~aO'Tj oru; apxs~, sirs yta'ti un~pxav npoOn08sO'C:l~ zoo uoopocouv O''tO c:tcrOOTjlla, sits yta'ti, C:K rov npaYlla'trov, O<pc:tAaV yta sva s'to~ va a<ptc:pro80ov c:~ OAOKA~POU cr«; un08sO'C:t~ 'tTj~ nOATj~. Eivm m8avo Tj IltO'80<popia va c:iXC: c:nC:K'ta8d Kat os OPtcrIlSVC:~ ana n~ apxs~. Ouox ot cnuovnxoreps; apxs~, c:tOtKa Tj apx~ ron O''tpa'tTjyoo Kat 'tOU 8TjO'aupo<poAaKa, OC:V allc:l~ov'tav, Kat yta 'toy Myo unto 'tt~ avaAall~avav 1l0VO ot c:onopot nOAhc:~, Tj IlC:LO\jfTj<pia rov «nAouO'irov», non SOOouv ana 'to. c:tO'oo~lla'ta nou tou; ans<pc:pav ot yaic:~ ~ 'to. c:pyaO''t~pta nou ots8c:'tav. H Iltcr80<popia C1ts'tpc:nc: Aomov O'c: llc:yaAo 0.-

3

67

3

o no)'i'rrtr; atnv Apxafa EAAaba

pt91l0 nOAt'tWV va O"OIlIlE'tEXOOV crnv nOAmK~ 1;;ID~. Auto O"oyXPOVIDe; ESllYct 'to YEyovoe; on 11 tOto'tll'ta 'tOO nOAhll OEV ~'tav anAWe; Ilta Ka'taO"'taO"l1, aAAa anO'tEAOUO"E Ilta AEt'toopyia. Ot SX9poi 'tlle; 0111l0Kpa'tiae; xursxptvov EnavEtAllllllEva 'tll Ilt0"90<p0- pia, onoO"'tllpi1;;ov'tae; on EOVOOUO"S rnv oxvnpiu 'tlle; lla1;;ae; 'tIDV A911vaiIDv noAt'twv. Liyoopa nav'tIDe; <paivs'tat on xapaK't~pt1;;E rnv a911vatK~ 0111l0Kpa'tia.

2.2 H n:OAt'ttxit bQa(1'tt)Qto'tt)'ta (1£ '_'ta OAtyaQXta

Ot EAAllvse; ovolla1;;av OAtyapXtKa 'ta Ka9EO"'tw'ta exeivu O"'ta 0- noia 11 EsooO"ia, ~ apx1, coopotxre 1l0VO croix oAiyov~. ~oO"'toxwe; OEV YVIDpi1;;oOIlE Ka90Aoo KaAa oroi»; 9EO"IlOUe; 'tIDV OAtyapXtKWv nOAEIDV Kat OEV IlnopoullE va O"Xlllla'tiO"oOIlS Ilta tOEa napa 1l0VO IlEO"a ano 0pWIlEVSe; ETCtypa<pEe;, ne; avaAuO"Ste; 'tOO AptO"'to'tEAll cru Ilosituai Kat aO'ta nco YVIDpi1;;oOIlE yta rou; O"napnanKOUe; 9EO"IlOUe; xapll O"'tOV EEVO<pWV'ta Kat 'tOY ITAou'tapxo. To xapaxrnptcnxo Iltae; OAtyapXtK~e; nOAlle; nrov, Ka't' apx~v, 'to yEyOvo; on OptO"IlEVEe; 1l0VO KOWIDVtKEe; Ka'tllyopiEe; Ka'tctxav rnv nOAmK~ tOto'tll'ta, ot tOtoK't~'tEe; Ylle; ~ ot nAouO"tot, onoto Kt av ~'tav 'to ctOOe; 'tlle; nEptooO"iae; roue, ~ iO"IDe; Kat ot «euveveic». XapaK'tllPwnKO OIlIDe; 'tlle; OAtyapXiae; ~'tav sniO"l1e; Kat 'to yEyOvo; on ao't~ 11 nOAmK~ tOto'tll'ta ztou O"'tllpt1;;o'tav O"E nEptoptO"nKa xprrnpto, OEV O"~llawE anapahll'ta nIDe; nutoi non rnv xnrstxav uoxououv npaYllanK~ ESooO"ia. H aAAtWe;, aKollll Kat crnv nEpin'tIDO"l1 nou on~pxav O"OVEASUO"Ste;, OSV O"0YKaAouv'tav napa os O"naVtEe; nEptTC'tWO"Ste; Kat OEV ctxav rnv KopiapXll EsooO"ia, rnv onoiu aO"KouO"E Ka'ta xnvovn Eva nEptopWIlEVO O"OIl~OUAto. Ao't~ ~'tav 11 nEpin'tIDO"l1 'tlle; Lnap'tlle;, onou 11 Tepooaia unopoixrs va OtaAUO"Et'tll O"oVEASOO"l1 'tIDV Lnapna'twv, rnv )iniAAa, 'tlle; ozoiuc at apIlOOtO'tll'tEe; nEptopi1;;ov'tav crnv STCtKUPIDO"l1 'tIDV ano<paO"sIDv 'tlle; npw'tlle;· 0 tcropucoc EEvo<pwv'tae; ava<pEpSt, os O"XEO"l1llS Ilta ouvouootn zoo Aiyo EAEt\jfS va ava'tpE'VSt 'to O"napnanKo nOAt-

68

To «enayyeAf.la» rov nOAfr:rt

nKO O"UCJ'tlllla, rnv unapSll Iltae; «lltKp~e; 0"0VEAEOO"119> zoo, O"E nEpin'tIDO"l1 opallanKwv yta rnv nOAll nEptO"'taO"EIDv, 9a avnKa9tO"'tOUO"E 'tll O"oVEAEOO"l1 'tIDV nOAt'twv, av Kat OSV nEptEAall~aVE napa Ilta IltKP~ IlEto'Vll<Pia ao'twv. AAAOU, yta napaOEtYlla O"ne; nOAEte; 'tlle; Bouottuc, 'to O"OIl~OUAto naipVEt ne; O"l1llavnKEe; uno<paO"Ste; Kat 11 O"oVEAEOO"l1 'tIDV nOAt'twv EXSt na911nKo pOAO. 0 rpono; EKAoy~e; 'tIDV IlEAWV nutrov 'tIDV O"OIl~OOAiIDV OtE<pSPE ano nOAll O"E nOAll· AAAO'tE EnpOKEt'tO yta apXOV'tEe; non anoO"upovtnv ano rn Ka9~KOV'ta roo; (O"ne; nOAEte; 'tlle; Kp~'tlle;), 0"0V~9IDe; OIlIDe; rn ~Ol1onapxov'ta IlEAll ESEAEyav ru YEa IlEAll 'tOO 0"01l~00- Aioo, av Kat IlEptKEe; <pOpEe; 11 apX~ ao't~ ~'tav KAllPOVOlltK~. L'tllv Koptvllo, 'to 0yoov'tallsAEe; O"OIl~OUAto Ils'ta~i~a1;;E Eva IlEpOe; 'tlle; ssooO"iae; 'too O"E Eva IltKpO'tEPO O"OIl~OUAto, unto 'tIDV OK'tW npo/JOVAWV. Lne; ~atIDnKEe; nOAEte;, 'to O"OIl~OUAto ano'tEAouv'tav ano 'tEo"o"Epa 't1l~lla'ta nou O"OVEPxov'tav svaAAas yta Eva rernpto 'too E'tOOe;. To O"UVOAO 'tIDV recouprov 'tlllllla'tIDV ano'tEAouO"S 'to KOpiapxo orouo; EVW 11 O"OVEAEOO"l1 'tIDV nOAt'tWV EiXE IllloallWO O"XESov pOAO.

Knrri O"OVE1tEta, OtaTCtO"'tWVOOIlE on 'to «EnayysAlla» 'too nOAi'tll O"ne; OAtyapXtKEe; nOAEte; OEV noopoucs napa O"E Ilta IltKP~ IlSto'Vll<Pia ano sxsivoo; nou otE9E'tav 'tll oova'to'tll'ta ao't~. H IlEto'Vll<pia ao't~ unopst va npoO"otopt1;;o'tav Ka'taO"'tanKa, onIDe; crnv nspiTC'tIDO"l1 OptO"IlEVIDV nOAEIDv, ~ aV'ti9E'ta uxopoixre va eivm TCtO aO"a<p~e;, avaAoya Ils 'toy rpono EKAoy~e;. Iluvtou 0- IlIDe;, 11 A~'Vll 'tIDV ano<paO"EIDv OEV ucopouos O"'tllv nAsto'Vll<Pia EKctVIDV ztoo ano'tsAouO"av rnv nOAtnK~ xoivornm.

3. H ~TPATIQTIKH APA~THPIOTHTA TOY IIOAITH

o(]

.. it) H n:oAt'tfta 't(J)V On:At'tOOV

To TCtO otaOEoollEVO ano rn KPt't~Pta non Ka90pt1;;av rnv EV'taSll crnv nOAmK~ xorvorntu O"ne; OAtyapXtKI~e; nOASte; ~'tav 11 OnAt-

69

3

3

o nOAhYfC; atnv Apxa[a EUd15a

nKij ucovorntu, ol1Aa01] U ouva'C0111'CU 1roV nOAt1COV va E~a(J(pa- _ AiSOUV nAUPU onAtcYb,lO. Ava<pep9ijKallE ijoll cru; O"uvEnetee; atJ10U ~O"IlEVOt toropucoi anOKUAEO"av «onAtnKij EnavuO"'CUO"l1»,

011A~ 111~l)lQ..liEnum=~nQ n~tKE2::Z:.§~~~':..?"Xlllla1touon "11e; <paAayyae; nou EytvE Ka'Ca 'Cllv;dpXatKll E~ Ot crpa-

rtorrs; E<pEpav 9ropaKa, KpUVOe; Kat KVllll~TKp~lg_t2gJ0' 0"10 XEpt 10 OOpU Kat "11 0"1pon~~il_~?:~i~~<-~_~5_~Z':~!!:~~~ne; s0Yyj5a:q5iKf~'''anetKOvrcrEt~:'-i10txisov1av O"uvij9roe; O"E rsocsp«;

O"itp·e~.·~Ko1i6~··~~·~~Uxlle; nrov va anro9ijO"ouv 10V Ex9po, yta va napalletVOUV KupiapxOt 10U nEoiou IlUXlle;· Ka1u "11 otul?~a 10U 70u atcDva, 'Co otKaiO)lla O"UIlIlElOxije;0"111 <puAaYia~~~ apxiK<iurco18AouV'CUV 1l0VO a1Co~8>C ~'i~·~·api(J::co·Kpa1:{a~l.§!~:u~ 9 KE·cre-oXou· .. ·-6croi··~·1i:op·o~;.av .. v(t1i_p·O·~1ieE'ij1'OUV·6rCAa (oi 'Cu

11 _~ .. ~ _ __ ~ __ .. _ .. l:l: __ _ _ _ .. _ , , ; .. _. ,

. _-) / onAa napEX OIlEVOt), 1'§'Y..Q".Q~"nQI)O"uvepu~1: (m!lQYt1KQ..Q"1.TIY_Qya-

eJ:'\i~;0 '( .. n1U~l] '11e; tOEae;'l1~ tcY~.~~:E,~S)~ton, OnOt~1(1.~vj1~V1J Ka~a/ .... 'q' 'yroy~-~-1inipioucrta"~ou~, OAOt Ot onAhEe; ij1~,,_~H9.~9~.~~.t§ixav

OAOt iO"a8iKiitro~a1-a'0"1(i'X(i~lipg::'" .

"Lia7ioAl~iKd; oApt~'C~'CEAlle; avaKaAEi IlE Eva Eiooe; V00"1aA-: yiae; aU1ij "11V «nOAtteta rev OnAt'Crov», noo Ka1u "11 yvrollll lOU

/ ij1av 10 KaAU1epO ouva10 noAheUlla. Ilpoxsrrut e~UAAOU yta

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4.2 H 6Q1)(J)tf'Utueft ~(Oft to'U 3tOl.,tt1)

A ya<psp8~Kalls ~OTJ ctu; repa~Ste; nou mcrozoiofouv 1:TJ voutuo- 1:TJ1:a, Kat coe; SK 1:0U1:00, Kat 1:TJ IlSAAOYnK~ repocr~acrTJ ron reatOWU <Y"CTJY reOAmK~ tot01:TJ1:a. 0 rea1:epae; reapoocriass 1:0Y yw 1:0U cr1:a lleATJ 1:TJe; <ppa1:piae; 1:00 Ka1:a 1:TJ OtapKSta Iltae; 1:SAS1:~e; nou xsptsAall~ayS 1:eAWTJ 8ucriae; Kat crullreocrw. H croIlIlS1:0X~ cro crollreooto are01:SAoucrs, Ka1:a 1:TJY apxai:K~ sreox~, eyost~TJ 1:TJe; oupusrox~e; cr1:11Y reoAmK~ KOW01:TJ1:a. H dcroooe; 1:00 IlSAAOynKOU reoAi- 1:11 cr1:11Y s<pll~sia covooeoorcv areo1:sAswopyise; zoo ots~ayoY1:ay Ka1:a 1:TJ OtapKSta 1:TJe; ywp1:~e; 1:COY opurpuov, 1:11e; ywp1:~e; 1:COY Aaaroupioiv, repoe; nll~Y rou <Ppa1:pwo Liia Kat 1:TJe; <Ppa1:piae; A8TJyae;. 0 yeOe; ayopae; 80criass 1:01:S eva uspo; 1:TJe; KOIlTJe; ton cr1:TJY Ap1:SIlTJ. 0 OpKOe; 1:COY S<P~~COY nco crcOSS1:at os Ilia a8TJyai:K~ sTCtypa<p~, uuptupai on TJ eioooor; cr1:TJY reoAmK~ sco~ nnoteAOUcrS sreicrTJe; Kat 8PTJcrKwnK~ repa~TJ. Aoo» dXay ocOcrSt 1:0Y OPKO, ot e<PTJ~ot yuptSay OAa ru tspa 1:TJe; A1:1:tK~e;, Kat Ka1:a 1:TJ OtapKSta 1:TJe; OtSWUe; resptoOOo 1:TJe; s<PTJ~dae; nou, oro 1:eAOe; ton 40u uuovo; Ilreopd vc 8scopTJ8d coe; eva dooe; «cr1:panCOnK~e; 8TJtsinc», reapi<Y"CaY1:o os OASe; ne; SKOTJAcOcrSte; 1:TJe; 8PTJcrKsonK~e; sco~e; 1:TJe; reoATJe;·

Aoo» SYTJAtKtCOY01:ay, 0 reOAl1:TJe; O<pStAS vc crullllS1:eXSt cr«; ywp1:ee; repoe; nll~Y 1:COY 8scOY 1:TJe; reOATJe; Kat 1:COY TJPcOCOY, 1:COY 8YTJ1:cOY sxstvev xou dxay 880reOtTJ8d Kat nou 1:a ota<popa 1:1l~untn roo reOAtnKOU crcOlla1:0e; Aa1:pWay, Ilecra cru reAaicrta 1:TJe; <pOA~e;, 1:00 0~1l00 ~ 1:COY ota<popcoy 8PTJcrKwnKcOY SycOcrSCOY. Ot

76

To «enaYYeAp,a» rov noAir1'J

mo reAoucrWt reOAl1:Se; XPTJlla1:0001:0ucray ne; ywp1:ee; a01:ee;: scOa yta ne; 8ucrise;, reposwtllacria 1:COY XOPCOY yta ne; opallanKee; reapacr1:acrSte;, 0llllocrta crollreocrta K.Are. Ot crOystcr<popee; a01:ee; OYOllasoY1:ay AelT:OvpyieC;, Kat SKdYOt zoo ne; ayaAall~ayay ouvayo» yiSOY1:aY os ysvvawocopia Kat a<p80yia ... OXt xcopie; vu areO~AereOUY cr1:TJY ayaYYcOptcrTJ SK uspou; 1:COY crullreOAt1:cOY rooc. Ot reoAl1:Se; O<pStAay vc crollIlS1:exOUY cru; ywp1:ee; a01:ee;, oreCOe; O<pStAay vc crollIlS1:exOUY Kat cr1:TJY reOAmK~ SCO~, cr1:TJY A8~ya 1:00AaXtcr1:0Y. L1:TJY A8~ya sreicrTJe;, Ilecra cr1:a reAaicrta 1:COY 8Op1:cOY repOe; nll~Y roo LitOYocroo, Ka8tspc08TJKS 0 8scr1l0e; rou BeOJplKOV, TJ XPTJlla1:0001:TJcrTJ 1:COY 8Wlla1:COY, ztou crKoreo dxs vc STCt1:pereS1:at crs OAOUe; TJ reapaKOAOu8TJcrTJ '!:COy reapacr1:acrsCOY OpallanK~e; reoiTJcrTJe; nou vivovruv ODO <popee; 1:0Y XPOYO, 1:0Y Iuvouupio (A~vmu) Kat oro 1:eAOe; ton Mnpriou (MsyaAa Atovixnn), H reapoooiu oro 8ea1:po are01:SAoucrs repaYllanKa Ilta reoAmK~ opa<Y"CTJpt01:TJ1:a, Kat otKaicoe; IlreopoUIlS vc reoulls on ru MsyaAa Atovuoto nrov «utu repaYllanKa rea1:ptconK~ ytOP1:~».

4.3 Ol y'Uvat)tf~ «3tOl.,ttf~» )tat 1) 6Q1)(J)tda Mtn anTJ O\jfTJ 1:TJe; 8pTJcrKdae; 1:TJe; reoATJe; a~isst 1:TJY repocrox~ Ilae;: TJ 8pTJcrKda ~1:ay cr1:TJY repaYllanKo1:TJ1:a TJ 1l0YTJ alltycOe; reoAmK~ Opa(HTJPt01:TJ1:a ztou ~1:ay ayotX1:~ crne; YUYaiKSe; Kat crne; KOpSe; '!:COy reOAt1:cOy. Kt sOcO 8a acrxoATJ80UllS IlS 1:0 reapaoStYlla 1:TJe; A8~yae;. A ya<psp8~Kalls ~OTJ crne; Ywpee; KoreeASe; non u<patyay ro reereAo nou xpocoeporcv cr1:11Y A8TJya Ka1:a 1:TJ ytOP1:~ 1:COY Ilaya8TJyaicoy. Yre~pxay Kat anse; opacr1:TJpt01:TJ1:Se; 8PTJcrKsunKOU xapaK1:~pa ztou are01:SAoucray SyacrXOATJcrTJ 1:COY YWpcOY ~ aKOlla Kat 1:COY IltKpcOY KOPt1:crtcOY: yta reapaOStYlla ot 1:SAS1:ee; 1:TJe; ywp1:~e; 1:COY Bpuuprovimv, reou ~1:ay a<ptspCOlleYTJ cr1:TJY Ap1:SIlTJ, Ka1:a 1:TJ OtapKSta 1:TJe; oreoiae; IltKpa xopiroto, vtousv« IlS Xt1:cOya Kl1:ptYOU XPcOlla1:0e;, «excvcv 1:TJY apKoMa» crs Ilta 1:SAS1:~ IlUTJcrTJe; yta 1:TJY oreoia OSY YYCOpisOUIlS reona.

Kupio»; OIlCOe; Ot reaY1:pSlleYSe; YOyaiKSe; crullllS1:dxay IlS svspyo

77

3

3

o nositnc; O"!YJV Apraia EAAaOa

'tpono O"'tl] 9Pl]O"KSU'ttKTJ 1;;roTJ 'tl]e; nOA,l]e;. H YlOp'tTJ non U<pOpOU0'8 unoKA,8tcr'ttK<1 cr«; YUVUiK8e; TJ'tUV 'tU 080'1l0<pOptU, npo; 'ttIlTJV 'tl]e; ~TJIll]'tpUe;, YlOp'tTJ noo ~piO'KOUIl8 0'8 nOA,A,Se; nOA,8te;. L'tl]V A9TJvU ylOp'tU1;;o'tuV 'tOY IlTJVU OK'tW~plO. Ot YUVUiK8e; rev nOA,t'twv O'UYK8V'tPWVOV'tUV O''tl]VIIVUKU, 'tOY rono rrov O'UV8A,8U0'8roV 'tl]e; 8KKA,l]O'iue; 'tOU 0TJIlOU, Kat opt1;;uv 8K8lV8e; non 9u l]Youv'tuv 'tl]e; ylOp'tTJe;. Tl]V npw'tl] IlSPU, Ot yuvuiK8e; 1l8'tS<p8PUV crou; ~rolloue; uvnxsiusvc 'tU onoin 8lXUV U<pt8PW0'8t rnv npOl]youIl8Vl] Xpovtu. H 08U't8Pl] IlSpU TJ'tuv IlSpU vncteinc, 8VW l] rpitr] TJ'tuv UV'ti88'tU IlSpU euoopicc, KU'tU rnv ortoin npootpspovtnv 9uO'i8e; O''tl] 98U Kat 0\ yuvuiK8e; nou O'Ull1l8'tdxuv O'uvu9poi1;;ov'tuv 0'8 SVU 1l8YUA,0 tsA,8'tOUpytKO O'ullnocrto. Ot UVOp8e; 08V dxuv 'to otKuirollu vc nnpU~piO'KOV'tat, onroe; llu9uivOUIl8 uno Iliu Krollrooiu ron Aptcro<pUVl], 118 8~uip8O'l] ~8~uiroe; 'tOY 9ucrtuO''tTJ, non 8~u<puvt1;;o'tuv uIlsO'roe; u<pOU OA,OKA,TJproV8 'to spyo rou. Evue; OtKUVtKOe; Myoe; 'tOU 40u atWVU UnOKUA,U1t't8t 'tOY P0A,O nou snp8n8 VU OtaOPUIlU'ti0'8t l] YUVUiKU ron uPXOV'tU - ~UcrtA,tu, 8VOe; uno roue ~UcrtKOUe; upxo- vre; 'tl]e; nOA,l]e;, KU'tU 'tl] OtuPK8tU «ov Av98O''tl]pirov, nou YlOp'tUSOV'tUV crnv A9TJVU 'tOY IlTJVU <l>8~poUUplO. H YlOp'tTJ TJ'tUV cqnsProIlSVl] O''tOV Atovuoo, xm tr] 08U't8Pl]IlSPU 'tl]e; YlOp'tTJe; l] yuvuiKU ron upxov'tu-~ucrtA,tu 8K't8A,OU0'8 IlUO''ttKSe; 't8A,8'tOupyi8e; «cro OVOIlU 'tl]e; nOA,l]e;», ozo» nupu~piO'KOV'tUV 08KU'tSO'0'8pte; yuvuiK8e; t8pde; nou 8VWVOV'tuv, 0''tO OVOIlU ron 980U -nou 8VO'UPKroV8 oiyoupu 0 UPxOV'tue; - ~UcrtA,tUe;- 0'8 SVUV tspo YUIlO, tnv lspoyapia.

0u IlnOPOUO'UIl8 vu uvu<pspoUll8 Kat UAAU nupU08lYIlU'tU yt' uu'tTJ 'tl] O'UIl1l8'tOXTJ rrov YUVatKWV O''tl] 9pl]O'KSU'ttKTJ 1;;roTJ 'tl]e; nOA,l]e; Kat yt' nuro 'tOY O'UV08O'1l0 non unTJPX8 UVUIl8O'U O"'tl] BpnO'KSU'ttKTJ 1;;roTJ Kat rnv «noA,t'tt:KTJ tOto'tl]'tu» rrov YUVatKWV. MxoPOUIl8 srot vu 8KnllTJO'OUll8 'tOY ~u9llo ron unoKA,8tcrllOU rorv yuVatKWV 0'8 O'XSO'l]118 'tl] 1;;roTJ 'tl]e; nOA,l]e; Kat 'tOY opiouo 'tl]e; nOA,t'ttKTJe; tOto'tl]'tue;.

To «8nuYY8A,llu» roo nOA,i'tl] A,OWOV, 98ropl]'ttKU 'tOUA,UxtO''tov, uno't8A,Ou0'8 IltU ~8Xroptcr'tTJ opuO''tl]pto'tl]'tU zoo UnSKA,8t8 A,iyo noA,u OA,8e; tu; UAA8e; OpUO''tl]PtO'tl]'t8e; 0'8 nOAASe; nOA,8te;, Ilnopou-

78

To «enaYYeAJla» !ov nOAir:YJ

0'8 Ollro~ v~ O'u~ouUO''t8i 118, tnv 8nUYY8A,IlU'ttKTJ 1;;roTJ 0'8 Ilta 0l]1l0- K~U'ttKl] nOA,l] o~roe; n A9l]vU, onoo 8~UA,A,OU n Ilt0'90<popiu 8~0- IlUA,U,V8 ne; ~VtO'O'tl]'t,8e; 1l8'tU~U trov noA,t'twv. Eivut roO''tOO'O O'l]IlUV't,tKO, U<pOU ~mX8tpl]O'UIl8 VU npocotopicoous ru; OtU<p0p8e; 8KOl]A,~0'8te; 'tl]e; UO'Kl]O'l]e; 'tl]e; nOA,t'ttKTJe; tOto'tl]'tUe;, VU uvupro'tl]90UIl8 rt to'XU8 O''tl];' Ku9l]1l8ptVTJ npUYIlU'ttKO'tl]'tU rrov 8AAl]VtKWV nOA,8- rov: Kat xopio»; VU 8nuvu'ton098'tTJO'OUIl8 OtUXPOVtKU uU'tTJ rnv UVUA,UO'l] 'tl]e; nOA,t'ttKTJe; OPUO''tl]PtO'tl]'tue;.

3

79

3

o nOAiT:1J!; (J7:1JV Apxa[a EAAdJa

I1Hrm:

'Eootcuuiaausv bi aV6pi KaAqJ te Kaya8qJ spvaaiav elvoi tcoi B7Clar1- pnv tcpaiiatnv yewpyiav, aq/ ~e; tti B7Clr1&w av8pwnol nopi(ovrw. Ai5rIJ yap ~ ipvaaia j.la8efv te MarIJ MOKel elvoi xoi ~biarIJ Bpya(eaiku, «ai ui otbuaia Ka22lara te xai eupwarorara napixea8w, tcai tci; If/vxafe; qKlara aax02iav napixelv cpi2wv te «ai n02ewe; oovenij.ldefa8w. J:vj.lnapO~Vvelv M ti MOKel ~j.lfv teal de; ro a2Kij.love; elvai ~ yewpyia 8~W rwv BpVj.larWv ui B7Clr1&w cpvovaa te xoi rpicpovaa rove; Bpya(oj.livove;. i1la toiita 6i tcai eU60~OrarIJ elvoi npo; rwv n02ewv oinn ~ j3lOreia, Oil xoi xoiii«; apiarove; tcai euvovorarove; napixea8w 601cef rqJ KOlVqJ.

~EX'tijKallE AOlnov TTIV tOEa on yta 'tOY KaM Kat ruuo uvopa 11 YEcopyia ano'tEAd rnv KaAo'tEPll Epyacria Kat 'tEXVll, llEcrCO 'tll~ onoia~ ot uv9pconot nopit;;ov'tat ru avaymia. H Epyacria aU'tij anoodX'tllKE nco~ eivm wKoM'ta'tll crnv EKllu911crll Kat rspnvo'ta'tll crnv ucrKllcrll Kat nco~ KUVEt tn crrolla'ta ouoptporspu Kat eoprocrorepc, Ka9ro~ Kat on anacrxoAd rnv \jfUxij EAUXtO"ta, stet rocr'tE va unops] Kavd~ va <ppOV'tit;;Et cruyxpovco~ Kat yta 'tOU~ <piAOU~ Kat yta rnv nOAll. Enicrll~ anoodX'tllKE nco~ KUVEt yEVvctou; roo; av9pronou~, yta'ti napuYEt rou; Kapnoo~ Kat 'tPE<PEt 'tOU~ Epyat;;ollEVoU~, E~CO uno tu 0XupcollEva llEPll. AnoodX'tllKE aKOlla nco~, yt' au'tOo~ 'tOU~ Myou~, Ol nOAEt~ EKnllOOV tOtahEpa «oro 'tOY rporro t;;coij~, yta'ti sivm OAO<pUVEPO on otallOp<proVEt ornv xoivoivto nOAhE~ npicroi»; Kat \jfUXtKU uvdrrspot»;

3EVO<pffiv'tO~, Olxovouucoc, VI, 8 - 10

H O''tuO'tt tmv A9ttvairov O'tpanrotcOv to 411

'Ettoinaav M «ai 8TOcAlJaiav eV8ve; of otpaiuinoi, BV fj rove; j.liv npotepoix; arparIJyove;, tcoi el ilva rwv rplIJpapxWv imdmteoov. huuxrav,

80

To «endyyeAJ.la» 7:OV 7l0AiT:1J

a220ve; bi av8ei20vro tcoi rplIJpapXOVe; xoi otpoxnyooc, WV 8paavj3ov26e; te «oi 8paav20e; unfjpxov. Koi napciveaeu; a22ae; ts BnolOvvro BV atpiotv oinoi; aVlaraj.leVOl «oi we; ou &la8vj.lelv orl ~ nosu; aurwv acpiarIJKeV. rove; yap B2aaaove; ano acpwv rwv n2eovwv «ai Be; navra nopuuotepcov j.le8earavw. 'Exovrwv yap acpwv to niiv vav7:l1cov, rae; rs a22ae; n02ele; WV apxovazv aVaYKaaelV ui xp1j.lara ouoiox; 6l60vw. Kai ei BKef8ev WPj.lwvro (n02lv te yap aoiatv unapxelv Eduov OUK aa8evfj, 0.22' q nap' B2aXlarov 61 ~28e to 'A8IJvaiwv «poxoc; rfje; ea2aaaIJe;, ore BnoAij.lIJaev, acpdia8w, rove; te noseuioix; BK rov aurov xwpiov aj.lvvela8e oimep xoi npotepov) , tcai 6vvarwrepol elvai acpefe; 8xovree; rae; vave; nopi(ea8w ra B7Clr1&w rwv BV r&n02el. Kai 6l' ioinoo; bi BV r& J:aWP npOKaeIJj.livove; tcoi ttpotepov aurove; tepateiv rov Be; rov Ileuxuii 8an20v, tcai vvv Be; totoiitov tcatoatnaovuu j.l1 j3ov20j.livwv ooioi na2lv r1v nosneio» an060VVW, ware oinoi 6vvatdnepoi elvoi elpyelv bceivoo; rfje; 8a2aaaIJe; ~ im' BKeivwv elpyea8w. Bpaxv re it elvoi «ai oMevoe; a~lOv 0 npo; to neptyiyvsoiku rwv xoseuio» ~ n02le; aoiai xp1alj.lOe; ~v, tcoi ouMv an02w2eKivw, or ye j.l1re apyvplOv e1xov 8ilnij.lnelV, 0.22' oinoi Bnopi(ovro of atpoxuiruu, j.l1re j3ovAevj.la XPIJarov, oimep evelw n02le; otpaionsocav tcpatei. a22a Kai BV tootou; rove; j.liv ~j.laprIJKivw rove; natpioix; VOj.lOVe; Kara2voavtacoinot M acp(elv tcoi bceivoo; tieipoaeaiku npooovostoiie», ware oMi toinooc, oinep av j3ov2evoliv tt rpnoiov, napa atpiai xeipoix; dvoi.

Ot cr'tpanro'tE~ cruYKuAwav allEcrco~ cruvEAwcrll, crnv oxoic xo- 9aipwav 'tOU~ np01lYOOllEVOU~ cr'tpa'tllYoo~ Kat ooou; rpmpnpXOU~ unon'tEoov'tav, EVro cr'tll 9Ecrll 'tOU~ aVEOEt~aV UAAOU~ Kat 'tptijpapxou~ Kat cr'tpa't1lYOO~, llE'ta~o rov onoiorv Kat 'tOY OpucrOpoUAo Kat 'tOY 8PUcrUAO, nco coxooonv 'ijoll rnv E~oucrla. Mspucoi EnatpVav 'tOY Myo yta va orocrouv 9uppo~ 0 Eva~ crov uno, AEyov'ta~ on OEV EnpEnE va an09appovov'tat EnEtoij llnoAll dXE Enavacr'ta'tijcrEt evcvriov tooc. ~ton, ot AtYO'tEPOt dxav anocnccrsi ano rou; nsptoootspouq, nco dxav, ano Ku9E UnO\jfll, Kat 'tOU~ llEyaA6'tEpou~ nopoix; Eoocov Aomov Ka'tctxaV 'tOY

3

81

3

o nOAh:YfC; atnv Apraia EAAdoa

cr'tOAO, 8a O1WXPEIDVaV 11(; aAA,C:~ reOAc:t~ nou Bptoxovruv Ka'tID uno rnv c:~ol)cria 't01)~ va Sivouv 'tTj xpTjllanK~ stotpopd oreID~ crl)vTj8t~0'tav onv va c:iXav yta OPIlTj't~PtO 't01)~ rnv A8~va (Ston c:lXav I)reo rnv Kl)ptaPXia 't01)~ 'tTj LaIlO, reOATj ol)va't~, Tj oreoia reapaAiyo va a<patpoucrc: 'tTj 8aAacrcroKpa'tia areo rnv A8~va, orov reoAEIlTjcrc: Ila~i 'tTj~, Kt aKolla 8a alluvov'tav uno 't01)~ C:X8pou~ areo tnv iota rec:plOX~ are' oxo» Kt ID~ «epc). Kat Ka'ta oc:u'tc:po, soocov Ka'tc:lxaV 'tOY cr'tOAO, unopouonv va c:<poota~ov'tat rn avaYKaia C:I)KoAO'tc:pa areo 't01)~ avopc:~ 'tTj~ reoATj~. Xnpn c' al)'tou~, c:~aAAOI), nou xputououv 'tTj pacrTj 'tTj~ LaIlOI), Ilreopoucrav Ot A8Tjvai01 va ota'tTjpouv rnv repocrpacrTj crov Iletpnui, Kat rropn Kat ot iOlOt, av 01 aAAOt 't01)~ apvTj80uv ru reOAtnKa otKatIDlla'ta, 8a ppc:80uv os OUcrKOATj 8EcrTj, c:reC:to~ rouroi areo 'tTj LallO unopouv nsptocorspo va areoKAc:icrol)v C:Kc:lVOI)~ areo 'tTj 8aAacrcra, reapa va areoKAC:tcr'tOUV areo C:Kc:lVOI)~. EmreAEov, Tj po~8C:ta non 't01)~ npootpspe Tj reoATj npoxstuevou va VtK~crOI)V 'tOY C:X8po, ~'tav acr~llav'tTj Kat OC:V c:tXav Xacrc:t rinote, Ilta Kat C:Kc:tV01 OC:V otE8c:'tav ma ours xp~lla'ta yta va 't01)~ O"'tc:lAOI)V, ana 01 iOlOt ot O"'tpanID'tc:~ EPptoxcv 't01)~ reopOI)~, outs XP~crtIlTj areo<pacrTj, c:~at'tia~ 'tTj~ onoic; Tj reoATj acrKc:i 'tOY EAC:YXO mrvro ctov crputo. Ana, Kat cro cnueto noro, 01 aAAot c:lXav otarepa~c:t 'to cr<paAlla 'tTj~ Ka'taAl)crTj~ 'tIDV vOIlIDV, C:VID ot iOlOt 't01)~ Ota<puAanav Kat 8a repocrrea80ucrav va avaYKacrol)v Kat C:Kc:tVOI)~ va 't01)~ crc:pacr'touv. Erot, oooi crov crpuro unopououv va OIDcrOI)V XP~crtllC:~ crI)IlPOI)AE~ OC:V ~'tav Ka'tID'tC:p01 areo C:Kc:tVOI)~ crnv reoATj.

@oI)Kl)oiool), 1m:OPIWV, H, 76, 2 - 6

Ole yap eiTeor.; noiocov viiwv ee; eavrOD 8vyarpor.;, ou&nwnOie Boaio» aVeV ~pWV oboeuiav enoinaev, aAA' e'f re pIKpa e'f te wyaAa 8VOl, navraXOD nopiuu» ~Wlr.; tcoi (Jvve8VOPev. Koi ob pOVOV ei; ui WWDra napeKaAOVpe8a, aAAa «oi ei; LllOvvma elr.; aypov ~yeV ad ~par.;, tcoi

82

To «endyydf.la» rov ttasitn

uei' bcsivo» re e8eWpODpeV Ka81PeVOI nap' aurov, tcoi rar.; iopuu; ~yOPeV nap' hceivov tuiaoc, r0 LId re 8vwv r0 KrfJ(JlCP, nepi qv paAl(Jr' beelvor.; Boaiav e(JnoMa(e tcai obte 60VAOVr.; npoaiiyev oirie eAev8ipovr.; 68vdovr.;, aAA' auror.; 61' iainoii mivi' enoiet, ioircnc; r,pelr.; eKOlvwVODWV tcoi ui lepd (JVVeXelpOVpYODpeV tcai aovsnetideusv «ai nlAAa (JVVenoIODpeV, teal fJVXero ~Plv VYlelaV 6100Val «ai «iiiaiv aya- 81jv, w(Jnep eixo; bvia tumnov ... OD WIVVV be wvrwv oijAdv ioti uovov Oil ~v r,pwv ~ p1rfJp 8vyarfJp YVfJ(Jla KlpWVOr.;, aAAa tcai ee; cOv 6 nar1p ~pwv enpae;e tcoi e~ cOv ol yvvalKer.; ol rwv 0fJPorwv nepi aurijr.; eylyvw(J1(Ov. "Ore yap 6 nar1jp aDr1jv eAapfiave, yapovr.; elaiioae tcoi eKaAe(Je tpei; avroD cpIAOVr.; pera rwv ainoiitcpoonxovtcov, toi; te cpparopm yapfJAlav el(J1VeYKe tcaui rovr.; bceivcov vouooc. Ai're yvvaltee; ai rwv 0fJPorwv pera tobta npotncptvav aur1v usui rijr.; LlIOKMovr.; YVValKOr.; rOD Iltttleax; apXelV elr.; ra ee(JpOcpOpza tcoi noteiv ui VOP1- (OPeva per' bceivnc.

Aton, oreID~ ~'tav euotxo, a<pou eiuccre reatota 'tTj~ KOpTj~ 't01), 0 Kiporvu; reo'tE 't01) OC:V EKavc: 81)cria XIDpi~ C:lla~. Ana site IltKP~ sits llc:yaATj 81)cria npootpsps, reav'tou reapapptcrKollacr'tav Kat C:1lc:t~ Kat 8I)crta~allC: Ila~i 't01). Kat OC:V Ila~ repOO"KaAoucrc: 1l0VO crc: 'tEWtC:~ 'tC:AC:'tE~, aAAa Ila~ OOTjyoucrc: reav'to'tC: crnv C:~OX~ yta 't(1 ~lOvucrta Kat, a<pou Ka8ollacr'tav xovni 't01), reapaKOAOl)80ucraftc: ru OTjIl0crta 8c:allam Kat 'tC:AoucrallC: OAC:~ n~ ylOp'tE~ Ila~i 't01) Kat I)reo 'tTj covoosi« 't01). Kat otnv 8I)cria~c: crov ~ia 'tOY Krnotov, 81)cria crnv onoiu areEOtoc: totahc:pTj crTjllacria Kai ortoo oute OOUAOI)~ ours C:Ac:u8c:pol)~, ~EVOI)~ npo; rnv oucovsvetn 't01), oc:xorov, ana 0 iOlO~ 1l0VO~ 't01) tu exove oAa, C:1lc:i~ crl)llllc:'tc:tXallC:

O"'tTjV 'tC:AC:'t~ Kat ayyi~allC: Ila~i 't01) tu tc:pa cr<payta Kat 8E'tallC: n~ npocoope; Ila~ reaVID crov PIDllo, KOV'ta crn~ OtKE~ 't01), Kat Ila~i 't01) KavallC: OAC:~ n~ anc:~ 'tC:Ac:'tE~, Kat sxstvo; repocrc:uxo'tav yta XapTj Ila~ orov 8c:o va Ila~ Xapicrc:t I)yc:ia Kat reAOu'tO reOAu, oreID~ sivm <pl)crtKO va xrrvst Eva~ rearereou~ ... Ana oc:v sivat 1l0VO are' al)'ta 'ta yc:yovo'ta ouvepo on Tj IlTj'tEpa Ila~ ~'tav yv~crta KOPTj 't01) Kiprovo, ana Kat oou Erepa~c: 0 rea'tEpa~ Ila~ Kat 01 YVIDIlC:~ non

3

83

3

o nositn; (J7:YfV Apxaia E)')'dJa

oXTjfla:n1;;av Ot yuvaiKE<; -rCDV bTjflO-rcOV yt' au-r~v. ~ton ornv 0 na-rEpa<; uou -rTjv nrrvrpeuotuv, npO()(pEpE yafl~A.to O'UflnoCHO Kat npOO'KaA.£O'E rps«; <piA.ou<; -rOU fla1;;i flE 'rOU<; O'uYYEv£i<; LOU. EbCDO'E EniO'Tj<; Kat aUo EniO'TjflO ouuzocno 0'10, flEA.Tj 'rTj<; epc'rpia<; 'rOU, O'Ufl<pCDva ue n<; O'UV~9EtE<; EK£ivCDV. Ot yuvaiKE<;, EniO'Tj<;, -rCDV bTjflO-rcOV, EnEt1a an' curo, E~i:A.E~aV 'rTj flTj-ri:pa fla<;, fla1;;i flE -rTj O'u1;;uyo ron ~toKA.EOU<; LOU IIt-r9ECD<;, yta vn xpoeopsucet ern 0£O'flo<popta Kat vu EK'rEA.8O'Et fla1;;i tTj<; tu; O'uvTj9tcrflEVE<; tEA.EtE<;,

'Iouiou, Ilepi rou Kipcovo; KA~POV, 15 - 16, 18 - 19

84

TIOAITE:E «ENEPrOI»

KAI TIOAITE:E «TIA0HTIKOI»

L-rO -rEA.O<; roo 20u KE<paA.aiou, ava<pi:p9TjKE Tj nEpimCDO'Tj -rCDV av9pcOnCDv EK£ivCDV oi onoiot, av Kat flEA.Tj tTj<; nOA.Tj<;, MyCD -rTj<; <p'rcOX£HX<; LOU<; ~ tTj<; aO'KTjO'Tj<; KanOta<; Dta~A.Tj'r~<; EnaYYEA.flanK~<; DpaO'tTjptotTjta<;, anOKA.Eiovtav ano uoro noo Eva<; O'UYXPOvo; ioropuco; ovouncs «nOA.lttK~ xotvornro», DTjA.aD~ tnv oflaDO, -rCDV a-roflCDv xou £ixav to DtKaiCDfla vn O'UflflE-rEXOUV O'tTjV nOA.lttK~ 1;;CD~, aKOflTj Kat av aUto ytvotav btaKEKOflflEva, onCD<; cru; oA.tyapXtKE<; nOA.Et<;. A<; EnaVEA.90UflE -rcOpa 0'10 npO~A.Tjfla nuro, ava<pEpOVta<; O'UYKEKptflEVa napab£1Yflata. Tt' mrto -rOV oxono 90, XpTjO'tflOnOt~O'ouflE flta svvotn nou npaKttKa DEV unapXEt O'LO EA.A.TjVtKO A.E~tMyto, rov opo «na9Tj1tKoi» nOA.t.E<;, ue rov onoio bTjA.cOVov-rav O'-rTj f'aUia rnv Enox~ tTj<; EnavaO'taO'Tj<; Kat Kata rov 190 atcOva Ot f'aA.A.ot EK£1VOt non, EVcO aV~Kav O'tTjV E9vtK~ xotvornrn, £1xav anOKA.Etcrt£1 uno tnv npaYflattK~ aO'KTjO'Tj tCDV nOA.lttKcOV rou; btKatCDflatCDV. LtTj O'UVEXEta OflCD<; 90, SteupUVOUf.l£ rnv svvotn au-r~ nEptA.afl~avov-ra<; Kat exsivou; non EVcO £ixav nA.~pTj nOA.lttKa btKatcOfla-ra, EnEA.Eyav vu anEXOUV ano rnv nOA.lttK~ DpaO'tTjpto'rTj-ra.

HDTj aVaA.uO'aflE rnv nEpintCDO'Tj tOU anOKA.EtO'flOU tCDV noA.trrov ern oA.tyapXtKa Ka9£O'tcO-ra Kat DEV 90, EnaVEA.90UflE O'tO 9Efla curo. IIEptO'O'otEPO EVDta<pEpov napouO'ta1;;Et Tj svtuncootuK~ nEpimCDO'Tj LOU anOKA.EtcrflOU crourov zoo un~p~av npoTjyouflEVCD<; flEA.Tj -rTj<; nOA.lttK~<; xotvotrm«; AutE<; 1t<; nEpt1ttcOO'Et<; 90, E~E-raO'ouflE npcO'ra.

4

85

4

o no dine; atnv Apxa[a EAAdJa

1. H I:TEPHI:H TnN rrOAITIKnN AIKAInMATnN

H cY'Cep11cr11 «ov nOAtnKcOV 8tKatcol-ul-tcoV, 811Aa8~ "COU 8tKatcOlla'W~ crUIlIlE"COX~~ crnv nOALnK~ SCO~ Kat cr't11 A~\jf11 trov czoqxiosCOY, unopooos va siva; ano'teAt:crlla EhE 8tKacrnK~~ ano<pacr11~ EhE Ilta~ cr'tacr11~.

1.1 H un,.,i:u

o opo; arljJ.la ontvenn on KaAun'tE 8uo d811 anoKAEtcrllou ana 't11 cruIlIlE'tOX~ crnv nOALnK~ sco~. ~ull<pcova IlE rnv naAato'tEP11 XP~cr11 "COu, 0 opo; un08~AcovE on 0 nOAh11~ nou unopA~811KE crnv notv~ aU't~ ano'tEAoucrE nAeov eva d80~ napavolloU "COV ozoio uzopooonv Kat va 8ava'tcOcrouv, xcopi~ EnaKoAou811 tuuopia, Kat va Ka'tacrxecrouv 't11 nEpwucria rou. IIoAu yp~yopa OIlCO~, ~811 ana 'to 'teAo~ "COU 60u atcOva, Kat "COUAUXtcr"COv crnv A8~va, 11 anllia anoK't11crE AtyO'tEPO ptsocrnacrnK~ cr11llacria: 11 EmpoA~ 't11~ anllia~ os evo» nOAh11 cr~llatVE 't11V a<paipt:cr11 rov nOALnKcOV roo 8tKatCOlla'tcov Kat "COV anoKAEtcrllO ana ru tEpa 't11~ nOA11~.

o Iuuux; 8Ev dXE nAeov 'to 8tKaicolla cruIlIlE'tOX~~ crnv EKKA11- cria "COU 8~llou, ctu 8tKacr't~pta Kat 8Ev uxopouoe va 8ecrEt uno\jf11<PtO't11'ta yta Kallia apx~. LlEV enauE OIlCO~ va aV~KEt oro nOAtruco otouo, cruvEncO~ 11 evcocr~ rou IlE Ilia A811vaia ~'tav voutur], onco~ Kat 11 t8wK't11cria rmv aya8cOv non roo aV11Kav. TieEv'tat 8Uo npOpA~lla'ta cvceopixc IlE rnv unuin: npcO'tov, nrov KA11POVOlltK~, Kat 8Eu'tEpov, nOta ~'tav tu cr<paAlla'ta nou uztopououv va smoupouv rnv EmpoA~ 't11~;

Q~ npo; "CO npcO"CO cnusto, qxrivsrut on 11 anllia ano'tEAoucrE tcropta Ka'ta8iKl1, 8Ev a<popoucrE OIlCO~ napa 1l0VO cr"COV evoxo, Kat oxt croo; anoyovou~ "COU. ~E Ilia 1l0VO nEpin'tcocr11, OIlCO~, 11 anllia IlnOPOUcrE va stvm KA11poVOlltK~: av snpoxsrro yta Kanowv nou XPCOm:OUcrE cro 811llocrw, Kanowv nOAi't11 ztoo 8Ev t:iXE ESO<PA~est Kanow xpoo-nuo nou "COU dXE EmpA118Ei ana 8tKUcr't~pw ~ nou 8Ev dXE, co~ YECOPYO~ unEu8uvo~ yta ivo» oopo, an08cOcrEt ru

86

II osiie; «evepvoi» IWI no sitec: «ttaiintucoi»

nocra nou t:iXE ouvxevrprocet. ~'t11v nEpin'tcocr11 au't~, av ne8atvE nptv ESO<PA~crEt "CO xpeo~ rou, 11 an Ilia papatvE roo; KA11POVOuou; "COU, ana enauE pEPaico~ orov ot 'tEAW'taiot nA~pcovav 'to xpeo~. EK'tO~ ana aU'te~ n~ nEptmcOcrEt~ xpecocr11~, 'ta aAAa cr<paAuntu non unopououv va Em<pepouv 't11V EmpoA~ anllia~ ~'tav 8ta<popcov Et8cOV aAAa ceopooouv ce t8tconKe~ pAaPE~ (KaK~ IlE'taxdptcr11, crEsoUaAtK~ pia, 8taAucr11 na'tptK~~ KA11poVOllta~ K.An.), Kat ana coopofouv crE 8111l0crtE~ pAaPE~ (8ta<p80pa 8tKacr'tcOv, \jfw80llap'tupia, EnaVEtA11lllleVE~ KaLa8iKE~ yta 't11V unoPOA~ napavollcoV npornceoiv).

<I>aivE'tat Enicr11~ nco~ un~pxav Kat Ilop<pe~ IlEPtK~~ anllia~. To napa8EtYlla nou ava<pepE'tat nav'ta yta rnv nEpin'tcocr11 au't~ sivrn trov nOAt'tcOv exstvrov nou dXav un11pE't~crEt cro cr'tpa'twlla nou dXE usivst crnv A8~va Ka'ta 't11 cr'tacr11 rrov OAtyapXtKcOV ron 411:

Ka'ta8tKacr't11Kav va Il11V naipvouv me rov Myo crn~ cruvEAEucrEt~ 't11~ EKKA11cria~ "COU 8~llou, 8ta't11pcOV'ta~ OIlCO~ 'to 8tKaicolla va napappicrKoV'tat crn~ crUVEAEUcrEt~.

AnE~ nEptn'tcOcrEt~ IlEPtK~~ anllia~ cvccepovrci ana 'tOY p~tope Av80Ki811, onco~, yta napa8EtYlla, 11 anayopEucr11 va Eyt:ipouv aycoy~ oru 8tKam:~pta ~ va 8tacrxisouv rnv ayopa. YmipXOUV OIlCO~ nona cxorsivd cr11llt:ia crXEnKa IlE n~ 8ta<popE~ 8ta- 8tKacriE~ noo 0811youcrav crE Ilta rerotn cr'tep11cr11 optousvorv noALnKcOV 8tKatCOlla'tcov.

Mson ano rnv tcropin 't11~ A8~va~ Kat 11:(lAt 8a IlnOpecroullE va xuruvonoouus ncO~ unopouonv Ot nOAhE~ va cr'tEP1180uv La nOAtnKa "COu~ 8tKatcOlla'ta, napallevov'ta~ cruyXpovco~ I-leA11 't11~ nOAtnK~~ xotvomrcc. 0a cruYKpa't~crouIlE tps«; crnYlle~ 't11~ tcropinc au't~~: 't11 cr'tacr11 trov OAtyapXtKcOV "CO 411, 't11 8taKupepv11cr11 rrov Tpuncovru Kat 'to nositeoua non UW8E't~811KE 'to 322 uno rnv nit:cr11 roo MaKE86va cr'tpa't11You Avrtncrpoo.

4

87

4

1.2.1 H O'tUOl) 'tot) 411

To 411, llEta tTj papta ~'t'ta 1WU unEcrtTj Tj Ae~va crtTj LtKEAia, at EXepoi tTj~ OTjllOKpatia~, EKllEtaUSUollEvat rnv avatapax~ noo EmKpa'tOucrE crnv nOATj, KatEAapav mv E~oucria crnv Ae~va Kat EYKaeiopucrav VEOU~ VOllOU~, cruwprova llE tOU~ onoioix IlOVO nEVtE XtAtaOE~ nOAhE~ ano 'tOU~ rpurvrc nEvtE XtAtaOE~ non un~pxav ornv nOATj ea unopououv va uoxouv ta nOAmKa tOU~ OtKatWllata. EioallE ~OTj nw~ anEtUXE to EyXstpTjlla, ano rnv nvriopacrTj tOU vuumco» Kat tOU crtpatEullatO~, zoo KaeaipEcrav tOU~ crtpatTjyou~ tOU~ Kat apV~eTjKaV va anOOEXtOUV rc YEyovOta nou stxav OtaOpallancrtst crnv Ae~va. Xropi; rnv unocrt~pt~Tj roo crtOAOU Kat llEPOU~ ron crtpatEUllatO~, ot OAtyapXtKOi OEV unopsonv va OtatTjpTjeOUV ctnv E~oucria Kat Tj OTjllOKpatia eeroKatacrtaeTjKE. rvropii;;oullE, Ollro~, ano 'tOY A,6yo EVO~ p~topa tTj~ Enox~~ on ~OTj stxav apxicrEt va ouvtuorrouv 'tOY KataAOYO sxstvrov non ea OWtTjpoucrav nA~pTj nOAmKa OtKatWllata. Ot UnOAOt1Cat OEV ea havav pEpaw rnv tototTjta ron AeTjvaiou, ea llEtatpEnovtav ollro~ crE «naeTjnKOu~» noAhE~.

1.2.2 H btUXt)~fQVl)Ol) nov TQtuxoV'tu

To 405, Tj Ae~va unEcrtTj llta cropap~ vaunK~ ~'t'ta croix Atyo~ nOtallOu~ ano 'tOY crtOAO rrov AaKEoatlloVtroV. H ~'t'ta aut~ cr~unvs to tEAO~ tOU nOAEllOU non yta Eva tetaptO 'tOU cuovn stXE <pepEt avnlletronE~ n~ ODO llEyaAE~ nOAEt~ Kat ·tOU~ crullllaxou~ roue, Evdi 0 vauapxo~ Aucravopo~ stXE anoKAEicrEt to AtllaVt tOU Ilsiputn, at OAtyapxtKOi KatEAapav yw utn aKOllTj oop« rnv E~oucria, avaeetovta~ os rptnvm nOAhE~ rnv EYKaeiopucrTj vsoo noAt'tEulla'tO~. Auto ollro~ OEV eytVE note, KaeW~, a<pou yw llEPtKOU~ Il~VE~ at Tpuncovrc oxopmonv crnv nOATj tOV rpouo, at WrotEPtKE~ tOU~ OtallaXE~ OtSUKOAuvav rnv Enavooo tTj~ OTj- 1l0Kpatia~ Aiyo upvorepu. To crXEOW npoE~AEnE on Tj acrKTjcrTj rrov nOAmKIDv OtKatrollatrov ea nEpwpti;;otav IlOVO os rps«; XtAtaOE~ nOAhE~, EVW oi aAAOt ea anoKAstOVtaV ano rnv nosneia.

88

Ilositec; «evepyoi» IWI ttositec; «nailntucoi»

o p~tOpa~ Aucria~, nou stXE ~OTje~crEt crnv EnaVOOO rrov OTjllOKpanKWv crtTjV Ae~va, nEptypa<pEt o»; anOAUtO 'tOY anoKAEtcrllO auto, <ptavovta~ cro onusio va nst on ocot OEV aV~Kav c' autou~ rou; TPEt~ XtAtciOE~ ea «crspouvtuv rnv natpioa rou;». LtTjV npaYllanKOtTjta, at nOAuaptellat OTjllOKpanKoi xou EYKatEAEt\!fav tTjv nOATj 'to EKavav a<p' EVO~ usv yw va ~E<puyouv ano n~ anEtAE~ non tOU~ papatvav, a<p' EtEPOU OE yw va pOTje~crouv crtTjv anOKatacrtacrTj tTj~ OTjllOKpatta~. MEta rnv anOKatacrtacrTj aUt~, eytvE Ilia aKOllTj anOnEtpa zsptoptouoo 'tOU OtKatWllatO~ crullllEtOX~~ crnv nOAmK~ i;;ro~ 1l0VO crou; KatOXOu~ aKivTjtTj~ nsptouoicc; To crXEOW anoppi<peTjKE, av ollro~ stXE nEtUXEt, to Eva nEllntO nEpinou rorv nOAttWV ea stXE ppEest Xropi~ nOAmKa OtKatwllata.

1.2.3 H un:OqJUOl) 'tot) 322

To 322, us rnv uvcxotvoxrn tOU eavatou tOU AAE~avopou, ot AeTjvaiat, napacrupovta~ llai;;i roue Kat llEptKa aUa EAATjVtKa Kprrrn, K~pu~av tOV nOAEllO svuvtiov rou Mcxeoovo; crpurnyou Avrinnrpoo, crov onoio 0 AAe~avopo~ stXE eumorsurst 'to ~acriAEtO tOU nptv ~EKtv~crEt rnv EKcrtpatsta crnv Aoto. Ot EAATjVE~ Tj't't~eTjKaV, Kat to 322 at AeTjvaiot avaYKacrtTjKaV va OEXtOUV rnv napoucria llaKEOOVtK~~ <ppoupa~ crov Iletpuui Kat rnv EYKatacrtacrTj tuioxpnrucou KaeWtWtO~: yta va crullllEteXEt Kanow~ crnv nOAmK~ i;;ro~ enpEnE va eXEt nsptouotu a~ia~ tOUAaXtcrtOv 060 XtAtaoroV opaXllwv. LuvEnw~ nsptcootspot ano tOU~ lltcrou~ AeTjvaiou~ npenEt va anOKAstcrtTjKav ano rnv tOtOtTjta tOU EVEPYOU noAhTj. LUll<Prova llE tOV IIAoutapxo, cruyypa<pea 'tOU tEAOU~ 'tOU lou atwva u.X, eva llEPO~ uutrov llEtavacrtsueo» crtTj 8paKTj. Kt auto ytati, Kata n~ tEAEUtaiE~ oEKaEttE~ tou 40u uuovo, 0 anoKAEtcrllO~ ano rnv nOAmK~ i;;ro~ cr~llatvE yw ru <ptroXOtEpa crtpWllata rnv anwAEw rrov UAtKWV npovouuov tTj~ nOAmK~~ tototTjta~: oTjAao~ tOU~ ota<popou~ f110-BOUC;, tTj Stovoll~ tOU Ilecapucoi), n~ allatpe~ yw ocotx; unnperououv orov oro-

4

89

4

o nOAhYf<; otnv Apxaia E)')'di5a

A.O. 11t9avo'm-m 11 areroA.Eta 'tow UA.tKroV uutrov npovouirov, reEptO'O'O'tEPO areo 't11 O''tep11O'11 't11<; O'UIlIlE'tOXi)<; O'n<; B111l0O'tE<; Ure0geO'Et<;, eytVE atO'911'ti) IlE O'KA.11PO'tEPO 'tporeo uno 't11v reA.Eto'l'11<Pia, Ka9ro<;, orero<; 9a BtaTCtO''troO'oUIlE, 11 reOA.tnKi) i;,roi} dXE reEpteA.9Et O''taBtaKa O''ta xepta Ilta<; IlEto'l'11<Pia<; «reOA.tnKrov».

2. H AAIA<IlOPIA rIA THN IIOAITIKH ZnH

Ilpoxeitm yta repo~A.11lla non areaO'xOA.11O'E 't11V A9i)va, 't11 1l0V11 reOA.11 yta 't11V onoic yta Ilta aKoll11 oop« Btage'toullE EreapKEt<; reA.11po<popiE<;. To repo~A.11lla ooro alvei eva areo ama noo repoKaA.EO'av n<; reEptO'O'o'tEPE<; O'ui;,11'ti)O'Et<; Kat OtallaXE<; IlE'ta~u rmv tcropucov 't11<; Ereoxi)<; Ila<;. A<; repoO'rea9i)O'ouIlE vc areOKaA.U'I'OuflE n<; Ota<popE<; O'l'Et<; rou.

EioallE rep011'Y0Ullevro<; rt O'i)llatVE 11 EYKa9iBpuO'11 B111l0KpanKou Ka9EO''tro't0<; O''t11v A9i)va: 't11 O'UIlIlE'tOXi) or«; O'UVEA.EUO'Et<;, onon A.all~avov-mv ot areo<paO'Et<; nou OBO'IlEUaV 'to O'UVOA.O 't11<; reoA.tnKi)<; xotvornn«; LE noio ~a91l0 i)'tav repaYllanKi) 11 O'UIlIlE'tOXi) aU'ti); Ivropii;,oullE on yta optousvs; 'l'11<PO<popiE<;, orero<;, yta reapaOEtYlla, 'tOY 50 atrova yta vc ~EKtVi)O'Et 11 BtaBtKaO'ia too E~Oorpmctouou, Ka9ro<; Kat yta va reapaxroP1190uv reOA.tnKa BtKatrounro, XPEtai;,o-mv areap'tia e~t xtA.taBrov 'l'11<PO<POProv. LlEV exoullE Kallia O'a<pi) eVOEt~11 O'XEnKa IlE 'toy apt91l0 trov reoA.t'trov 't11<; KA.aO'tKi)<; A9i)va<;. H 1l0V11 yvroO''ti) areoypa<pi) areo rc 'teA.11 ron 60u ouovc ava<pepEt 21.000 reOA.t-rE<;. 11tO''tEUOUIlE ollro<; YEVtKa on, 't11V reapallovi) ron 11EA.oreovv11O'taKOu reOA.eIlOU, 0 apt91l0<; trov A911vairov nrov IlE'ta~u 35 Kat 40.000, Kat O''t11V apxi) roo 40u atrova reapaBioE'tat 0 apt91l0<; 30.000 Kat areo 'toy <ptA.OO'o<po 11A.atrove Kat areo 'toy reot11'ti) AptO''tO<Pav11· Ll11A.aoi) O'uvi)9ro<; A.tyO'tEpo areo 'to eva sicro «ov reoA.t'trov O'UIlIlE'tEtXE repaYllanKa cru; O'uvEBptaO'Et<; 't11<; EKKA.11O'ia<; roo Bi)llou. OO''toO'o, onto BEV 0'11-

90

II OAire<; «evepyoi» tau nasire; «tuulmucoi»

uuivst on ru ureoA.otTCa reev'tE eK'ta aOta<popouO'av yta n<; ure0geO'Et<; 't11<; reOA.11<;· Kor' apxi)v, EreEtoi) 11 O'UV9EO'11 't11<; EKKA.11O'ia<; roo oi)Il0U Ote<pEpE avaA.oya IlE n<; O'UV9i)KE<;, 't11V Ereoxi) ton e'tou<;, ru gella'ta 't11<; 11IlEpi)O'ta<; Bta'ta~11<;· Mnopooue A.OtTCOV vc ure0geO'ouIlE on i)'tav EUKOA.O'tEPO yta 'tOU<; xuroixouq tou aO''tEro<;, reapa yta 'tOU<; xcroixoo; 't11<; ureatepou, vu IlE'ta~aivouv O''t11V Ilvoxo, Ot vocrus, yoi rrov reaA.ato'tEprov Ereoxrov upsoxovrov vu cvneepoov unto non eva<; O'uyxpovo<; icropuco; ovouncs «Snuoxpurtn rrov YEropyroV», ornv reOA.t-rE<; i)'tav 1l0VO ot tOtoK'ti)'tE<; aKiv11't11<; nsptouotoz; Kat areEx9avov-mv rnv tBea vn IlE'ta~aivouv O''t11v reOA.11 yta Ka9E A.Oyo. 0 reot11'ti)<; AptO''tO<Pav11<;, eva<; areo roo; vOO"taA.yOU<; au'tou<;, Ka'ti)YYEtA.E n<; ~A.a~Epe<; O'uvereEtE<; 'tOU 9EO'Il0U 'tOU SK1<ArWWC!7:uwv /1IO'Bov, non repoO'i)AKUE O"t11v EKKA.11O'ia 'tOU oi)uoo Ka9E Eioou<; E~a9A.trollevou<; reOA.t-rE<; IlE 1l0V11 ETCtBiro~11 tnv EiO'repa~11 trov rpuov O~OA.rov reou roo; Eree'tpEreE vo. i;,i)O'ouv Xropi<; vc xnvouv rinors. Ilpsnst, oxrroco, vn ureEv9UIliO'oUIlE on 11 EKKA.11O'ia 'tOU oi)Il0u O'UvEPxo'tav KaVOVtKa ouprivtu <pope<; 'tOY XPOVO Kat on, aKoll11 Kat uv urei)pxav KareOtE<; ETCtreA.eOV eK'taK'tE<; O'UVEA.EUO'Et<;, BEV e<p'tavav yta vc i;,i)O'Et eva rrrouo xropi<; reopou<; - oxouc Kt o» OEV dXE XaO'Et Kallia O'uveA.EUO'11. Ilpsnst A.OtTCOV vn avnllE'troreiO'oullE IlE O'UVEO'11 rnv KptnKi) noo ooxoov Ot uvrinnA.ot 't11<; B111l0Kpa'tia<;, Ka't11'Yoprov'ta<; rnv EKKA.11O'ia ron Bi)IloU ro<; avapX11 Kat O'uyxpovro<; reav'tOBUvall11, nou KUptapxd'tat areo Ilta Ilai;,a <p'troXrov reoA.t'trov Kat areo'tEA.d reaiyvto O''ta xepta «ov B11llayroyrov. Ot reoA.uapt9IlE<; areo<paO'Et<; nou repoepxov'tat areo n<; O'UVEA.EUO'Et<; aU'te<; Kat non e<p'taO'av ro<; Ella<;, unptupouv rnv KaA.1l A.Et'toupyia ron O'UO''ti)lla'tO<;, Kat ott 11 O'UIlIlE'toXi) 'tOU <51/1ov, ton A.aou, 0''t11 A.i)'I'11 rov areo<paO'Erov areo'tEA.OUO'E repayllanKo't11-m· H areo'tuxia trov BUo oA.tyapxtKrov O''taO'Erov, npoc tu 'teA.rj roo 50u uuovo, areo'tEA.d areOBEt~11 't11<; repoO'KOA.A.11O'11<; trov reEptO'O'o'tEProv reoA.t'trov cro reOA.tnKo Ka9EO''tro<; rou onoiou yvropti;,av on areo'tEA.OuO'av rnv Ktv11'ti)pta BUvall11.

Mstn urro ama, BEV IlreoPOUIlE vc apv1190ullE on 0 ~a91l0<; O'UIlIlE'tOXi)<; O''t11v reOA.tnKi) i;,roi} BEV i)'tav 0 iBto<; yta OA.ou<;.

4

91

4

o nOA!r:17f; (J1:17V Apvaia EAM.aa

I1payfla 7tOU flas obllYtl va 9EO"OUflE W SYt'Cllfla 'CllS U7tap~llS fltaS ({7tOAtnKYtS 'Ca~llS»·

2.2 H rtOAtttxi] ta.l;1)

~ufl<pcova flE tov qnMO"o<po Apw'CO'CEAll, O"E 7tOnES 7tOAEtS 11 btaXtlPWll trov U7t09EO"ECOV Bpicxorcv O"'Ca XEpta 'CllS flEW\jIll<Pias EKtlVCOV 7tOU, Myco nspioocicc Kat EAEU9EPOU XPOVOU, Eixav 'Cll buva'CO'Cll'Ca va E7ttbtcOKOUV US aVcO'Ca'CES apxEs. ~'CllV 7tEpi7t'CCOO"ll 'CllS bllflOKpaUKYtS A9Ytvas, 07tOU 11 aflOt~Yt yta uS bllflOO"lES AEtroupjts; E7tE'CPE7tE O"E OAOUS va EXOUV 7tpoO"~aO"ll 0"' aU'CES, ru 7tpaYfla'Ca Yt'CUv Ka7tCOS bta<popEUKa, ana 11 U7tap~ll fltas 7tOAtnKYtS 'Ca~llS bEV E7taUE va a7tO'CEAEi Kat EKd 7tpaYflauKo'Cll'Ca.

2.2.1 Ot tastt; xata rov l:oAwva

I1PE7tEt EbcO va E7taVEA90UflE oro SYt'Cllfla 7tOU Ytbll 'CE911KE, 'Cow ({O"OAcOVEtCOV 'Ca~ECOv». ~ufl<pcova us rov O"uyypa<pEa 'CllS 'AOryvaiwv Ilosneioc, 11 Ka'CavOflYt «ov 7tOAt'CcOV O"E 'CEO"O"EptS 'Ca~EtS avaAoya IlE 'Co EWOblwa 'COUS c:i;O:: O"'COxo Ka'C' apxYtv va pu9fliO"Et rnv 7tpoO"~aO"ll O"uS apxEs. E'CO"t, yta 7tapabEtYfla, flOVO Ot 7tOAl'CES rorv bUO 7tpcO'Ccov 'Ca~ECOv unopououv va yivouv apxov'CES, Kat ~lOVO Ka'Ca rov 50 atcOva EytvE buva'CYt 11 7tpoO"~aO"ll Kat yta roix; 7tOAl'CES 'CllS 'CPl'CllS 'Ca~llS, roue SCUyl'CES· 07tCOS u7tObtl~aflE mo mlvco, 11 Ka'Ca'Ca~ll tou ~oAcova KaAU7t'CE 7tEPWO"O'CEPO crpcnoUKa Kat <p0poAoytKa Sll'CYtfla'Ca, 7tapa rnv avaYKll 7tEPWPWflOU 'CllS 7tpoO"~aO"llS O"uS apXES yta tou; mo 7tAOUO"lOUS. Eivm 7tpayflauKa bUO"KOAO va qxrvtuctei Kavds OU Evas fltKPOS YECOPYOS, aKOfla Kat av avYtKE crnv 'Ca~ll rorv scuyt'CcOv, 9a urtopotxre Xcopis O"UVE7tEtES va EYKa'CaAd\jlEt 'Cll Yll Kat ru xcopa<pta roo Ka'Ca 'Cll btapKEta EVOS OMKAllPoU E'COUS.

2.2.2 H rt~O£AtU(JfJ twv rtOAtttxwv avo~wv

Ilprryurm, ot 7tOAtnKOi aVbpES rrov 7tponcov bEKaEUcOV WU SOU cuovo, ru ovounru tmv onoimv EXOUV <p'CaO"Et cOs Eflas, avYtKav

92

llOAiref; «evepvoi» lWI no dt»; «na/lniucoi» 4

OAOt o"us 7taAatES apW'COKpaUKES OtKOYEVEtES 'CllS A9Ytvas. Au'Co iO"XUE Kat O"'CllV 7tEpi7t'CCOO"ll ton KAEt0"9EVll, O"'CO 'CEAOS rou 7tPOllYOUflEVOU «uovc. To ibW Kat yta rov MtAuabll Kat rov yw rou Kifl~va, yta tov Aptcrsior] Kat rov @EfltO"'COKAYt, Kat ~E~ata yta tov tbW rov I1EptKAYt. Ot Ka'CaAoYOt rev apxov'Ccov 7tOU bta- 9E'COUflE bEV flas E7tt'CPE7tOUV 7tav'Ca va a7t0<pav90UflE yta rnv KOtVCOVtKYt Ka'CaO"'CUO"ll exsivrov 7tOU avaAafl~avav 'Cll AEt'Coupyia au'CYt Ka'Ca rov 50 ouovo, bEV 9a unopoixroue OflCOS va afl<pw~ll'CYtO"OUflE to YEYOVOS OU avYtKav O"E EU7t0PES 'Ca~EtS.

H Ka9tEpcoO'll 'CllS flt0"90<popias fl7topd va E7tE'CPE\jIE O"'COUS <p'CCOXO'CEPOUS 7tOAl'CES va O"UflflE'CEXOUV O"'Ca btKaO''CYtPta 'CllS HAtaias, bllAabYt va U7tllPEWUV rnv 7tOAll yta Eva oMKAllPO EWS cos ,~OUACU'CES, b~V E7tE<PEPE OflCOS O"llflavuKES flE'Ca~oAES O"'CllV Ytbll U7tapxouO"a xcrccrccn. Ilupouotn, fl7tOPEi va Eixav OAOt W StKaicofl~ va flt~Yto"ouv o"us O"UVEAEUO"EtS 'CllS EKKAllO'ias ron bYtflOU, avafl<pt~OAa OflCOS, EK nov 7tpaYfla'Ccov, sxsivot 7tOU fltAouO"av Yt'Cav nutot 7tOU, xapll O"'CllV EK7taibcuO"Yt 'COUS, XEtpisov'Cav us cuXEpEta rov Myo Kat unopooouv va E7tt~A1l90uv O"E flta O'uYKEnpcoO'll 7tOAAcOV crourov. As 7tP00"9EO"OUflE, E7tt7tMov, ou Ot aVcO'CEpOt apxov'CES, ot O"'Cpa'Cllyoi Yt ot 911O"aupo<puAaKES, EKAEyov'Cav Kat OU Ka'Ca tnv EKAOYYt W ~apos E7tE<P'CE O"uS 'C07ttKES E7ttPpOES. I'i' coro tov Myo E~aAAou, 11 KAYtPCOO"ll 9ECOPEl'C0 mo bllfloKpauKos 'CP07tOS EKAOYYtS· Ana Kat 11 KAYtPCOO"ll au'CYt ytvo'Cav a7to xutnMyouS 7tOU oovxporooouv Ot bYtflOt Kat Ot <pUAES, Kat exsi E7tiO'llS fl7tOPOU~E va 7tai~Et POAO 'Co 7tPOO"C07ttKO YOll'Cpo, 11 Ka'CaycoyYt Yt 11 7tEpWUO"la.

BE~ata, crnv A9Ytva 7tEPWO"O'CEPO a7to 07tOUbYt7t0'CE anou, 11 7tpoO"~aO"ll O'uS apXES Yt'Cav O"XEuKa avOtX'CYt. OflCOS, 7tEpa a7to uS ibtES ~tS apXES, 11 btaXEipwll roiv bllflOO"icov U7t09EO"ECOV nnpeusvs O"'Ca XEpta fltaS flEW\jIll<Pias flOP<PCOflEVCOV aVbpcOv CUYEVtKYtS xnrnycoyYtS Kat Ka'Ca xcvov« us apKE'CYt neptouotu, E'CO'\ cOO"'CE nutoi va EXOUV 'Cll buva'CO'Cll'Ca va 7tpO~aAAOUv 7tpa~EtS YEvvaWbcopias 7tpOS O<PEAOS oMKAllPllS 'CllS 7tOAllS.

93

4

o nOAf1:1'Jr; (J7:1'JV Aprcda EAAdoa

-<'".~-_

1/

( -c, 2.2.3 H £~EAt~l1 tllS :7tOAtttXtlS tci~l1S

Eivrn AOmOv npo<pav~<; T] llTCapST] Ilta<; nOAtnK~<; 'tUST]<;. Au't~ OIlCD<; T] 'tUST] ESEAiXST]KE Ka'tU 'tT] OtUpKEta 'tCDV DUO atcOVCDv 'tT]<; tctoptuc 'tT]<; OT]1l0KpanK~<; AS~va<;. MEXpt 'tOV IlsxozovvnotuKO nOAEIlO, 01 UVOpE<;nOU ~picrKOV'tat cr'tO npooxnvto aV~KOUV OAot ~ crXEOOV OAOt cru; naAatE<; sxsive; aST]VatKE<; OtKOYEVEtE<; nou Kuptapxoucrav crnv nOAT] ~OT] ano tov 60 uuovo, Ano 'to 430 nspinou, ~AEnouilE va EIl<Pavisov'tat oro xpooxnvio UVOPE<; Aiyo Ota<popEnK~<; Ka'tayCDY~<;, non OEV EXOUV nioro roue EVOOSOU<; npovovou; Kat nou tu Etcroo~lla'tU 't'OU<; npOEPXOV'tat ano 'tT]V EKIlE'tUAAcucrT] Epyacr'tT]piCDV ~ IlE'tanCDpUXEiCDV. Aurr] eivrn T] nEpin'tCDcrT], yta napUOEtYlla, 'tCDV nEpi<pT]IlCDV «OT]llayCDYcOV» 'tOU 'tEAOU<; 'tOU uuovo, 'tOU<; onoioo; XACUUSEt 0 Aptcr'tO<puVT]<; Kat 'tOU<; Ka'tT]Yopci on OEV uzropouv va cr'taSouv crn<; cruvEAEUcrEt<;: o nEpi<pT]llo<; KAECDV, tOtOK't~'tT]<; ~upcroOE'I'ciou, 0 YnEp~oAo<; 0 aYYEtonAUcr'tT]<;, 0 opvcvonotoc KACO<pcOV, ~ uxoun 0 Ellnopo<; npo~u'tCDV AUcrtKA~<;. 'GAOl noroi 01 UVOPE<; nrcv nAoucrtOt, anu 01 crXEcrEt<; 'tOU<; IlE 'tOV xoouo 'tOU Ellnopiou Kat 1:T]<; ~to'tExvia<; 'tOu<; uno~i~aSE cr'ta Iluna EKEivCDV non SECDpoucrav n<; opacr'tT]ptornra; aU'tE<; aVUstE<; yta evo» EAEUSEPO UvSpCDno.

Mzopei va avapCD1:T]Sci Kavci<; yta ru aina 'tT]<; ES£AtST]<; au't~<; 'tT]<; nOAmK~<; 'tUST]<;, ES£AtST]<; nou E1tt~E~atcOVE'tat 1:0V EnollEVO uuovo, orov OAOt crXEOOV 01 nOAtnKOi UVOPE<; nou YVCDpisOUIlE cr~IlEpa npo£Pxov'tav ano au't£<; n<; 'tUSEt<;. Eivm ~£~atO on T] ES£AtST] crXE'tisE'tat IlE 'to YEYOVO<; on T] avumUST]1:T]<; nOAT]<; Ka1:U rov 50 atcOva IlE't£~aAE 'to xp~lla os asia xoo £XatPE OAO Kat IlEyaAu'tEpT]<; EK'tillT]crT]<;. ita va EnavopCDSoUV tu nAoia 'tOU oroAOU, ym va opyavCDSouv 01 IlEyUAE<; ytOP't£<; 'tT]<; nOAT]<;, ym va XPT]lla'tooo'tT]SOUV 01 llaKPtv£<; anocr'toAE<;, rc xp~lla'ta 'tCDV nAoucirov yivov'tav OAO Kat mo anapahT]'ta Kat T] npo£Acucr~ 'tOU<; snoos va EXEt tOtahEpT] crT]llacria.

Evec; aKOIlT] AOyO<; ~'tav on 0 nAoucrtO<; 'tEXvhT]<; Ot£SE'tE suKoM'tEpa psocro xp~lla os crx£crT]IlE 'tOV IlEyaAO-tOtOK't~'tT] Y11<;, nou cruxvu avaYKaSo'tav va UnOST]KEucrEt rnv nEptoucria 'tOU yta

94

II oAiur; «evepvoi» leal no sit»; «noiintucoi»

va avnllE'tCDnicrEt n<; oanUVE<; non cmnrouvruv yta 'tT]v E1tt'tuxia 'tT]<; nOAmK~<; KaPt£pa<;. ~EV eivm 'tuxaio on nOAAoi ooo: (n£'tptVE<; cr't~AE<; ortoo avaypa<po'tav T] unoS~KcucrT] 'tCDV K'tT]IlU'tCDV) non ~picrKOV'tat crnv Armer] XPOVOAOYOUV'tat crov 40 ouovo, Kat on ot OtKaVtKOi Myot uvcospoov 1:T]v nEpimCDcrT]nAOuCllCDV avopcOv non avaYKucr'tT]Kav va UnOST]KEucrouv n<; yaiE<; tou; yta va KaAu'l'ouv Ilta oanavT] p~ Xettoopyia.

HE(€At~~-~~-~7i:o~l,nK~<; 'tUST]<; OEV crT]llaiVEt Kat ESEAtST] xoiVCDVtK~, onCD<; Sa IlnOpoucrE KUnOto<; va unoS£crEt. MUAtcr'ta, iotoK't~'tE<; YT]<; Kat tOtoK't~'tE<; OOUACDV SECDpouV'tav ouoto»; EtcroOT]lla- 'tiE<;. 0 nAou'to<; nap£IlEvE av OXt 'to KPt't'~ptO, 'tOUAUXtcr'tOV 'to anapai't'T]'to usco yta rnv npocr~acrT] crnv 'tUST] 'tCDV nOAtnKcOv.

2.3 H rtuOt)ttxOtt)tu roo ot//lov: ,..,iJOo; i) rtQuy,..,uttxOtt)tu;

Azo 'tT]V unapST] 'tT]<; nOAtnK~<; au't~<; 'tUST]<; Sa uxopououus, upaYE, va crullnEpuvoullE on 01 crUST]'t~crEt<; EK 'tCDV ozotrov npo£Pxov'tav ot E1ttAOY£<; nou o£crllEuav 'to cruvOAO 'tT]<; nOAT]<;, uvnyovruv crnv npaYllanKo'tT]'ta os EcrCD1:EptK£<; OtaIlUXE<; 'tT]<; 'tUST]<; au't~<;; Aoro unocrnlptsav optousvot ano rou; tcropucoix 'tT]<; Enox~<; Ila<;, cr'tT]ptSOIlEVOt crn<; npocrCD1ttK£<; avnnaAO'tT]'tE<; nou unptupouv 01 nT]Y£<; Kat crn<; crullllaxiE<; nou uuvreoouus on crXT]Ila'tisov'tav YUPCD ano optousvou; «T]Y£'tE<;». 0a nrov, ocrooo, unEp~OAtKO va crullnEpuvoullE on ot crUYKpoucrEt<; nou oixasav 'tT]v nOAT] avuyov'tat os anA£<; OtaIlUXE<; IlE'tasu napa'tUSECDV Kat 0IlUOCDV, omlluXE<; noo T] nAEtO'I'T]<pia 'tCDV nOAt'tcOV napaKoAouSOUcrE naST]nKu. Atort, av 01 npocrCD1ttK£<; crUYKPOUcrEt<; £<pEpvav avnll£'tCDna KUnOta Il£AT] 'tT]<; nOAtnK~<; 'tclST]<;- non ern xsiusvo OT]AcOVOV'tat IlEPtK£<; <pop£<; IlE rov opo nosneoouevoi -01 E1ttAOY£<; yta n<; ozoie; KaAouv'tav va ano<pav80uv 01 nOAi't'E<; OEV £nauav va sivrn nOAtnK£<; E1ttAOY£<;. 0a ava<p£pouIlE Mo 1l0VO napaociyucro. TT]v napallov~ 'tT]<; EKcr'tpa'tEia<; <HT] ~tKEAia, ~A8av nvn- 1l£'tCDnOt crnv EKKAT]cria ron 0~1l0U 0 Nuciuc, 0 ozroioc ~'tav nvri-

4

95

4

o nOAir17r:; (JT17V Apxaia EAAdJa

9E'L"0~ !lE 'L"O EYXEipTj!la Kat 10 9ECDPOUCYE snucivouvn nEpure'L"Eta, Kat 0 AAKtBUIOTj~, 0 onoioc ~'L"aV aV'L"i9E'L"a unOCY'L"TjptK'L"~~ 'L"Tj~ ErrtXdpTjCYTj~ Kat eArrtsE va 'L"OU <pepEt !lEyaATj 06~a. MnOpOU!lE va napaOEX'L"OU!lE on un~pXE npOCYCDrrtK~ ex9pa !lE'L"a~U 'L"CDV 060 avoprov, nou CYXEnSO'L"aV !lE tu; Ota<pope~ CY'L"TjV Ka'L"ayCDY~ Kat 'L"TjV TjAtKia 'L"OU~. 0 AAKtBtaoTj~ aV~KE CYE cptcroxpcrucn oucovevstu Kat ~'L"av vsoc. To EtcyoOTj!la 'L"OU Nucic npOEPXO'L"aV ana 'L"TjV EK!lE'L"aAAEUCYTj OPUXdCDV Kat 0 ioto~ nATjCYiasE rnv TjAtKia 'L"CDV nEV~V'L"a XPOVCDV. 'O!lCD~, 0 OrIlLaC; aKoAoU9TjCYE 'L"OV AhtBtaoTj EnEtO~, onCD~ napa'L"TjpEi 0 tCY'L"OptKO~ eouKuoiOTj~, unoMytSE on Tj EKCY'L"pa'L"da 9a 'L"OU ane<pEpE uAtKa o<peATj. EnpOKEt'L"O, AOurov, yta ano<paCYTj nou CYXEnS0'L"aV us rn cyu!l<pepov'L"a 'L"Tj~ nAEto'l'Tj<pia~ 'L"CDV noAt'L"rov.

To OEU'L"EPO napaOEtY!la eivm ana 'L"TjV tcropin 'L"OU 40u cuovc.

Ilpoxsrnn yta 'L"TjV eYKpwTj ana 'L"TjV EKKATjCYia 'L"OU O~!lOU 'L"Tj~ CYUV9~KTj~ EtP~VTj~ non cyuVa'l'E Tj A9~va us 'L"OV <l>iAurno 'L"Tj~ Mmceoovic; 'L"O e'L"O~ 346. Ttn optousvooq, eva~ ana 'L"OU~ onoiou; sivrn Kat 0 LlTj!locygevTj~, Tj CYUV9~KTj au'L"~ napayvroptsE ru cyu!l<pepOV'L"a 'L"Tj~ A9~va~, non anEtAouv'L"av ana 'L"Tj <ptMoo~Tj nOAmK~ 'L"OU MaKE06va BaCYtAta. Ttu aAAou~ aVnge'L"CD~, !lE'L"a~U 'L"CDV 0- zotorv cyuYKa'L"aAeyov'L"av Kat ot npootomxoi EX9poi 'L"OU LlTj!locygeVTj, ota<puAaCYCYE 'L"TjV EtP~VTj zoo nrov anapal'L"Tj'L"Tj yta 'L"TjV ECYCD'L"EPtK~ tcoppomn 'L"Tj~ nOATj~. 0 I5ryj1oc; EneAE~E 'L"TjV EtP~VTj Kat 0 LlTj!locygevTj~ avaYKaCY'L"TjKE va ouvmveost Kat va unspnomcrst 'L"TjV apx~ 'L"Tj~ EtP~VTj~.

Ot CYUYKPOUCYEt~ nco e<pEpvav aVn!le'L"CDnOU~ 'L"OU~ nOAtnKOU~ avopE~, us xapaK'L"TjptcynKO napaOEtY!la 'L"Tj !laKpOXPOVta Ota!laXTj !lE'L"a~U 'L"OU LlTj!locygevTj Kat 'L"OU AtCYXiVTj, CYXEnKa!lE 'L"Tj CY'L"aCYTj non enpEnE va uto9E'L"Tj9Ei anevavn CY'L"Tj !laKEOOVtK~ anEtA~, OEV unoOTjArovouv anapal'L"Tj'L"a rnv na9TjnKO'L"Tj'L"a 'L"CDV nOAt'L"rov svovn 'L"CDV ano<paCYECDv nco o<pEtAav va AaBouv, E<pOCYOV 'L"EAtKa ot OtKe~ 'L"OU~ 'l'~<pOt ~'L"av EKElVE~ non Ka90ptsav 'L"OV npoouvcros.touo xou 9a Ut09E'L"OUCYE Tj nOAtnK~ 'L"Tj~ nOATj~. MeVEt, CDCY'L"OCYO, 10 Epro'L"Tj!la Ka'L"a nooo ~'L"av aA~9Eta au'L"o nou unptupouv optousvot cyuyxpo-

96

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VOt 'L"Tj~ Enox~~ EKElVl]~ CYXEnKa!lE rnv oAoeva aU~aVO!lEVl] aotaoopic 'L"CDV nOAt'L"rov vtn n~ Ol]!lOCYtE~ un0geCYEt~.

3. H EEEAIEH THI: nOAITIKHI: IAIOTHTAI:

KATA TON 40 AlaNA

LlEV XCDpd a!l<PtBoAia on ot ava'L"apaxe~ non npoKaAECYE CYE 071.0 'L"OV EAAl]VtKO KOCY!lO 0 IIEAonovvl]CYtaKo~ nOAE!lo~ Eixav nvriK'L"UnO CY'L"l] AEt'L"oupyia 'L"l]~ nOAmK~~ SCD~~ CY'L"O ECYCD'L"EPtKO 'L"CDV nOAECDv. 'OnCD~ ~'L"av aVa!lEVO!lEVO, 9a acyxoAl]90U!lE Kat naAt !lE 10 a9l]valKo napaOEtY!la, 9a !lnopeCYOU!lE O!lCD~ va EnEK'L"ElVOU!lE optousvn ana 'L"a CYU!lnEpaCY!la'L"a !la~ Kat CYE aAAE~ nOAEt~.

t '_"ua'_"0QcpO)(Jn; rrov (JtQatEu'_"utrov rmv 3tOAerov

Mia ana n~ npro'L"E~ EVOEl~Et~ 'L"l]~ E~eAt~l]~ au'L"~~ Ka'L"a 'L"OV 40 uuovu sivct l] CY'L"aOtaK~ E~a<paVtCYl] 'L"CDV CY'L"pa'L"rov 'L"CDV nOAECDv. ROl] Ka'L"a 'L"l] OtapKEta 'L"OU IIEAonovvl]CYtaKou nOAe!lOU, oi zspicCYO'L"EPOt ana 'L"OU~ E!lnoAE!lou~ -nEptAa!lBavo!levCDv Kat 'L"CDV Lnaprturdrv- avaYKaCY'L"l]Kav va KaAecyouv !ltcy90<pOptKOU~ CY'L"pa'L"OU~, EnaYYEA!la'L"iE~ CY'L"panro'L"E~, ~evouC; yta 'L"l]V nOAl]. Kuru 'L"OV 40 uuovo, 'L"O omvousvo YEVtKEUE'L"at, Ka9ro~ cyuvOeE'L"at !lE 'L"l]V avan'L"u~l] veorv uopqxov !laXl]~ zou CYXE'L"isov'L"at nEpwCYO'L"EPO !lE 'L"OV aV'L"ap'L"onoAE!lo napa us rnv avnnapa9ECYl] 'L"CDV onAt'L"rov. L'L"a CY'L"pa'L"EU!la'L"a 'L"CDV EAAl]VtKrov nOAECDv, 'L"a cyro!la'L"a 'L"OU nEstKOu !lE EAa<ppu E~onAw!lo anOK'L"OUV 071.0 Kat !lEyaAU'L"Epl] CYl]!laCYia: 0 ~OAl'L"l]~ - onAl'L"1)£ napaXCDpEi 'L"11 geCYl] 'L"O~ CY'L"OV !ltcy90~Q.Q_nE~.::.._ 'L"aCY'L"ll_H npocy<puy~ CY'L"OU~ !lw90<popou~ Errt'L"penEt E~aUou CY'L"OU~ CY'L"pa'L"l]you~ va l]youv'L"at mo !lUKPOXPOVtCDv EKCY'L"pa'L"Etrov, XCDpi~ va XPEtasE'L"at va aVl]CYuXouv yta 'L"l]V ErrtCY'L"PO<p~ Kat 'L"l]V EvacyxoAl]CYl] !lE n~ YECDpytKe~ EpyacyiE~. 0 nOAE!lO~ naUEt va sivm snoXtaKOC;. ErrtnAeov, 0 mpa'L"l]Yo~ nou ototKEl evav mpa'L"o !lw90-

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/~~~J:~.nop_et ':.~_~~~~2:~11PcOVet tov unaKOUOUv. 0 CY'1:patllYo<; yive: tat Kat 0 tbto<; enayy€X]Tcffia~"wunoX8~um;-tetn pAenOUlle A811- vniou; mpat1lYou<; ~ ~napnate<; pacrtAd<; va npootpspouv n<; unllPwie<; tOU<; crt: pappapou<; pacrtAicrKoU<; ~ Ilspce; cratpane<;, yta va IlnOPEcrOUV va nAllpcOcrouv tOU<; crtpancOte<; tOU<;. YnripXOUV, pEpata, aKollll tu crcOllata rrov nOAltcOV - OnAltcOV, aUa crulllletEXOuv OAO Kat AtYOtepO ot«; llaKptvE<; eKcrtpatde<;. Tt' auto aKptpcO<; napanoveitat 0 ~111l0cr8Evll<; ctnv A8~va: EXOVta<; eniyvcocrll 1:COV VECOV cruv811KcOV nOAeIlOU, em8UIld Kt aU1:o<; 1:11 crUlllle1:0X~ eVO<; eAaXtcr1:0U apt81l0u nOAt1:cOV crn<; anocr1:0AE<; 1:11<; A8~va<; Ile oxono 1:11 otacpUAa~l1 1:COV 8EcrecOV 1:11<; cro Atyaio, evro 0 cr1:pa1:11Y0<; va sivrn uneu8uvo<; evovn tCOV nOAt1:cOV aU1:cOV Kat va Il11V unopei nAEOV va svepvei Kata PoUAllcrll. ,

E~aUou, 11 OAOEva Kat lleyaAU1:ep11 XPllcrtllonoillcrll Iltcr80- CPOptKcOV cr1:pa1:CUlla1:COV empapuve uneppOAtKa 1:0V npounoAoytouo 1:11<; nOAll<;· Kat os nepin1:cocrll non 11 nOAll Ssv ~1:av o'e 8Ecrll va xplllla1:0001:~cret n<; llaKptVE<; exorputeiec, cite OtaAU01:aV a1:aK1:co<; 0 crpuro; Kat Ka1:Ecpcuye cr1:11V onnpsoi« onoton unopouos va nAllPcOcret, cite 0 cr1:pa1:11Y0<; avaYKas01:av va emo08d cs AellAacrie<; Kat apnaYE<; yta va xpurncst 1:0U<; cr1:panc01:e<; 1:0U,

·yeyOVO<; no» enEcpepe cropapE<; oUcrXEpete<; cr1:11V nOAll. H crcotoK~ e~acpaVtcrll 'tOU nOAitll- onAitll dXe AOWOV cropapE<; emn1:cOcret<;. Xropi; allCPtpoAia aU1:~ ~1:av 11 uttiu non 11 A8~va npocrm- 811cre, Ka1:a 'to OeU1:epO uico 1:0U uuovc -xct icrco<; 1l0VO lle1:a 1:11V ~na 1:11<; Xmptovstnc, uno 1:11V smppof 'tOU AUKOUPYOU- va us- 1:a1:pE\jfet 1:11V Bep'Y/fJeia os npaYllanK~ «ctpcnroruoi 811tda», Ka1:a 1:11V onoiu OAOt Ot vsupot Aunvciot, xcopi<; otaKptcrll, eKnatoeUovruv oXt 1l0VO otnv onAmK~ 1:aKnK~, aAAa Kat ce mo KtvllnKE<; 1l0PCPE<; llaXll<; 1:0U eAacppou neStKOU. ~1:11 ~nap1:11, 1l0VO Ka1:a 1:0V 30 mrovc Ot lle1:appU8Iltcr1:E<; pacrtAei<; 8a emXetp~crouv 1:l1V avacrUYKP01:l1crl1 'tOU cr1:pa'tOu 1:11<; nOAl1<;, non dXe o'ro lle1:a~u yivet crKtcOoll<;, IlEcrCO 1:11<; avaotavoll~<; 1:COV yatcOv.

98

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«£rrai'i'd,,,a:tlxo~» xa~axtiwa~ t)~ rrOAtttXt1~ ~rot1~

Mia ana n<; cruvEnete<; 'tOU OA?EVa.: K~.E9. enayye21.j.LanKall xapa .. 191Jpa 1:.Q?Y, cr~Q~EE .. eu!l_~.!~v .. ~cov n.2.~~.Yil}m'_J1illill1E.'.!.!Q:mm ola{1f:crns Xpnl..lanKcOV nopcov yta 1:11V nAllpcoll~ 1:COV cr1:pateuHa1:cov ~U1:cOv. 011V nepin1:cocrll 1:11<; A8~va<;, 11 avaYKato1:111:a aU1:~ em- - 0~tvc0811Ke ana n<; cruvEnete<; 1:11<; ~1:1:a<; non unEcr1:11l1 nOAl1lle 1:0 1:eAO<; 'tOU fIeAonovvllcrtaKOu nOAEllou: 11 ancOAeta 1:11<; llYellovia<; Kat 1:0U oopoo Un01:EAeta<; noo Ka1:EpaUaV Ot crullllaXOt, 11 emppaouvcrll 1:11<; eKlle1:aUwcrll<; 1:COV apyupcopuXdcov 'tOU Aaupiou Kat ioro; enicrn<; -'tOUAaXtcr1:0V Ka1:a 1:11 otapKeta 'tOU npc01:0U utcou 1:0U cuovc- 1:COV cruvaAAaycOv, snixevtpo 1:COV onoioiv ~1:av 0 Ilstpata<;, 0l1lltoUPYouv npaYllanKo OtKOVOlltKO npopAlllla yta 1:11V nOAll. To npopAlllla auto Sev 8a emAu8ei us 1:11V avacrucr1:acrll, 'to 378/7, Ilta<; vEa<; vaunK~<; ouoonovotu; yupco ana 1:11V A8~va, soooov us 1:11V Ka1:acr1:anK~ npa~l1 1:11<; ollocrnovoia<; aU1:~<; Ot A811vaiol Ssousuovruv va ll11v surnprittouv cpO po UnOtEAeta<; ana roo; crullllaxou<; rouq.

Fi' auto Kat Ka8' OAll1:l1 OtapKeta 1:0U atcOva yivovtm otacpops; anonetpe<; us O"Kono 1:11V oPyavcocrll1:11<; dcrnpa~l1<; 1:11<; nOAe~tK~<; cpopoAoyia<;, 1:11<; si(JepopfiC;, nco nrov EK1:aKto<; eopo; aUa ersws va llc:tapA118c:i cre 1l0Vt1l0, Ka8cO<; Kat 1:11 Pu81l1crll 1:11<; mo crllllaVnK~<; yta 1:11V nOAll AC:ltoupyia<;, 1:11<; 1:ptllpapxia<;. Me tu; otacpope<; aU1:E<; anonc:tpe<; ouvoeovnn rn ovountn optousvov nvopcOV, onco<; 1:0U KaUicripa'tOu Kat 1:0U EUPOUAOU, upyotsp« 'tOU AUKOUPYOU, Ot onoiot C:llcpaviSOV1:at co<; c:totKoi cs OtKOVOlltKa sl1t~lla1:a, Kat ot OUO 1:C:Aw1:aiot 1:0UAaXtcr1:0V avaAallPavouv 1lC: 1:l1V tOt01:l1ta aU1:~ Ilta nOAu mo llaKPOxpovta apx~ crc: crXEcrl1 us n<; cruv~8c:t<; C:1:~crte<; apXE<;: 0 EUPOUAO<; 1:11V apx~ 1:0U «unc:u8uvou

yta;o ()SWplKO», 0 Au~oupyo<; «1:~V apx~ 1:11<; OtoiKl1crl1<;». Ka8cO<; ('~? _~el:lo<; 1l~1:a@aUo1:av cr~ en~yyeAlla, !L ?tQiK"l~ll;ms~1n.<; J

etsrve Kt aU1:l1 va lle1:apA118et ano Ilta optousvn uopon uurootoi-

Kllcrll<; ce Ilta mo c:~c:totKC:UIlEVll otoiKllcrll, zou anat1:oucrc: crUyKe-

99

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KPlj..ltVE<; apj..l00101'rr~E<;. Ka·mAa~aivouj..lE Aomov on Tj ETClAOY~ OlKOVOj..llK~<; nOAlnK~<; j..lnOpOUO'E va a<popa nEplO'do'CEPO 0" au'COU<; 'COU<; «EIOIKOU<;» napa O''CTj j..lasa 'CIDV nOAl'CCDV, YEYOVO<; nou j..lnOpOUO'E va EXEl ID<; O'UVErC8ta j..lta aKOj..lTj j..lEyaAu"C8pTj aOlacpopia EK uspou; 'CIDV nOAmDv YtaO'USTj'C~O'E1S 'CIDV ozoirov n<; AEn'COj..ltpEIE<; ayvoouO'av.

Auto ~9EAav apaYE va zoov Ol P~'COPE<;, onID~ 0 ~Tjj..l00'9EVTj<; . ~ 0 Y nEpEiOTj<;, ornv Ka'C1lYOpouO'av 'COU<; anAOU<; nOAl'CE<;, 'COU<; louiaec, on aO'XOAouv'Cav nEplO'O'O'CEPO us n<; 10lIDnKE<; 'COU<; uno- 9tO'El<;, us 'CU ,[Jza, napa us n<; un09EO'El<; 'CTj<; nOATj<;; ~EV 9a npEnEl, ~E~ata, va Aaj..l~aVOUj..lE Ka'Ca ypaj..lj..la ru ETClXElp~j..la'Ca non O'KOno Eixav va ~unv~O'ouv 'CO EVOlacpEpov 'CIDV uxpomrov EKEiVIDV nou apKOUV'CUV O''CO va aKOUV XIDpi<; va napEj..l~aivouv. Ana OEV unopoous Kat va ru ayvO~O'OUj..lE.

E~anou, Tj ~EAnIDj..lEVTj 'CEXVIK~ 'CIDV O'USTj'C~O'EIDV OEV cpxei iO'ID<; ana uovr] 'CTj<; yta va EPj..lTjVEUO'El 'CTjV aOtacpopia au'C~. To OEU'CEPO uico roo 40u atcOva xapaK'CTj piSE'Cat O''CTjv A9~va ana 'CTjV aVaKaj..l\jlTj 'CIDV OlKOVOj..llKcOV opaO''CTjpLO'C~'CIDV. Ta 0puXEia 'COU Anupiou YVIDpisouv vEa EKj..lE'CanEUO'Tj Kat 0 Ilsipmn; ~pi~KE'Cat EK VEOU O''CO EniKEV'Cpo 'CIDV eunoptxdrv opaO''CTjpLO'C~'CIDV, onID<; unprupouv OPIO'j..ltVOl OlKaVIKoi MY01, opaO"CTjpIO'CTj'CE<; nou WVOOUV'Cat Kat ana O'UYKEKplj..lEVa j..lE'Cpa non coopouv O''COU<; E~l1tOpOU<;, EIOIKa 'COU<; ~tVOU<;. MnOpOUj..lE va napaOEx'COUj..lE on yta touq Eunopou<; A9Tjvaiou<; Eixav j..lEyaAU'CEpTj O'Tjj..laO'ia ru KtpOTj nou j..lnOpOUO'E va 'COu<; anocptpEl 0 OaVEIO'j..lO<; XPTjj..la'CIDV O'E suzopou; j..lE U\jITjM ETCl'COKLO ~ Tj EVOIKiaO'Tj 'CTj<; EKj..lE'CanWO'Tj<; 'CIDV OpUXEiIDV rooc, napa 0 AEyOj..lEVO<; j..laKEOOVIKO<; Kivouvo<;, O''COV onoio, O'Uj..lcpIDva us 'COV ~Tjj..l00'9EVTj, OEV niO''Cwav Ka90Aou. E'CO'l E~1lYEl'Cat Tj ETCl9uj..lia 'COU<; va ola'CTjp~O'ouv j..lE Ka9E 'Cij..lTjj..la 'CTjV EIP11VTj, anapal'CTj'CTj yta 'CTjV ava1t'Cu~Tj 'CIDV 101IDnKcOv 'COU<; ETClXEIP~O'EIDV Kat Yla 'CTjV aO'KTj0'11 AlyO'CEPO ~apla<; CPOpOAOYIK~<;

100

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niwTj<;. 'OJ..lID<; 01 «nAOUO'LOl» OEV ~'Cav 01 uovot nco npoID90uO'av nEplO'O'o'CEPO rn 101IDnKa 'COu<; O'Uj..lcptpov'Ca ana ru O'Uj..lcptpoV'Ca 'CTj<; nOATj<;. Ttn rnv nAELO\jITjcpia 'CIDV CP'CIDXcOV nOAl'CcOv, 0 nOAEj..lo<; OEV O'~j..latVE nAtov rnv napox~ j..l1O'9cOv Kat 'CTjV EAnioa Yla Aacpupa aAAa 'CTj O''CtpTjO'Tj 'CTj<; OlaVOj..l~<; 'COU eSWpl1WV, 'CO ozoto 0 ~Tjj..l00'9tvTj<; ETCl9uj..loUO'E v« Ka'Ca'CieE'Cat O''CO nOAEj..llKO rcusio. Kat Yla EKEiVOU<;, 01 O''CEiPE<; Aoyoj..laxiE<; O'n<; oxoie; ETCloioov'Cav 01 p~'COPE<;, Ka'CTjyopcOv'Ca<; 0 Eva<; 'COV ano on EXEl nouATj9Ei O''COV <I>iAlnno, onivovmv EV'CEAcO<; j..la'CatE<;, Kat EnEIO~ 0 j..lOVO<; Myo<; non O'uvtXlsav va nTjyaivouv cr«; O'UVEAEUO'El<; nruv Yla va j..lTj xaO'ouv rov /.ll(Je6, Eixav j..lE'Ca~ATj9Ei O'E na9TjnKou<; aKpoa'Ct<;, YEYOVO<; yta 'CO oxoio napanovouv'Cav optousvot nOAl'ClKOi avOPE<; onID<; 0 ~Tjj..l00'9tVTj<;.

O~a =: 10'XUOUV ~t~ata Yla 'CTjV nEpin'CIDO'Tj 'CTj<; A9~va<;, 'CTj uovn nOATj yta 'CTjV ozoie ota9houj..lE aKpl~Ei<; nATjpocpopiE<; Kat uoprupie; nno roix O'uyxpOVOU<;. OJ..lID<;, j..ltO'a ana ru MYla EVO<; ~Tjj..lo0'9tVTj ~ EVO<; YnEpEiol1, j..lav'CEUOUj..lE on 'CO iOLO iO'XUE Kat anOU Kat on au'C~ Tj aOtacpopia 'CIDV nOA1'CcOV yta n<; OTjj..lOO'lE<; U~09tO'El<; OlEUKOAUVE n<; nAEK'CaVE<; EVO<; avopa onID<; 11'Cav 0 <I>lAmno<; 'CTj<; MaKEoovia<;: ~'Cav apKE'CO va napEl j..lE 'CO j..ltpo<; 'COU opiousvoo; nOAl'ClKOU<; Yla va KEpotO'El OATj 'CTjV nOATj.

~O'ID<; us 'COV rpozo cuto aj..laupcOVOUj..lE KanID<; unEp~OAIKa 'CTjV eucovo, ~EV 9a j..lnopoUO'aj..lE, IDO''COO'O, va apVTj90Uj..lE on Ka'Ca 'CO OEU'CEPO j..llO'O 'COU 40u atcOva Tj nOA1'ClKlllOlO'CTj'Ca nEpva xpicn. Bt~ata 01 nOAl'ClKOi Beouoi O'UVEXiSOUV va AE1'COUPYOUV Kat EI01- Ka yta 'CO 'CtAO<; 'COU 40u Kat Yla 'COV 30 uuovu Ota9t'COUj..lE 'nEplO'O'o'CEpE<; nATjpocpopiE<; Kat yta anE<; nOAE1<; EK'CO<; ana 'CTjV A9~va. Au'COi OJ..lID<; Ol nOAl'ClKOi 9wj..loi, O'E ivo» KOO'j..lO onoo Kuplapxouv tu j..lEyaAa ~aO'iAEla nou npo~A9av ana n<; Ka'CaK'C~O'El<; ton AAt~avopou, xavouv nAtov 0" tva ~a9j..l0 'Co nEpIExOj..lEVO 'COU<;, Kat Tj nOAlnK~ 1010'CTj'Ca 'CEiVEl va j..lE'Ca'CpanEi O'E j..lla Ka'CaO"CaO'Tj non anocptpEl KanOta nA80VEK'C~j..la'Ca, ana yta 'CO j..lEyaAU'CEpo uspo; 'CIDV nOA1'CcOV OEV ortunivet jnn EVEPYO O'Uj..lj..lE'COX~.

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101

4

o no),Jr:17C; a7:17v Apxa[a EAAaba

... 0 6ijfloe; OU1( wv a~IOflaXOe; ~vay1(a(JeYf r~v hmpon~v teal r~v 8~ov(Jia niiaav 'A vtituupt» 60DVaz nepi rije; nokwe;. 0 oe ({JIAaVepWnox; aurole; npOrJeVeXeefe; (JVVeXWPYf(JeV eXelV r~v te nOAIV xoi rae; tctnoeu; teal t' lUAa navra· r~v Ji nositeiav usiictnaev be rije; 6Yfuotcpatku; «oi npOrJera~eV ana tuuiaeox; elvoi ro nOAirwfla «oi rove; flev IWCTYffleVOVe; nAefw 6paxwvv 6WXlAiwv «opioo; eivoi roD nOAIrevflaroe; teal rije; Xelporoviae;, rove; Ji tcctcnspco rije; tumaeox; anavrae; we; rapaxw&le; ovrae; xoi nOAeflllCOVe; an~Aa(Je rije; xosneio; xoi role; (JovAoflevOle; xwpav e6W1(eV eie; tcatoixnotv 8vrV e p~1(n. oinot flev ouv OVTee; nAefove; rwv [ow J uopicov xai 6WXIAiwv flere(JraeYf(Jav be rije; noxpiooc, of Ji r~v WpWfleVYfV iiunctv eXOVTee; nepi 8VVa1(z(JXIAiove; ane&iXeYf(Jav 1(VPlOl rije; te nOAeWe; «oi xwpae; «ai 1(ara rove; 170AWVOe; VOflOVe; 8nOAlTBVovro·

... 0 Aao~, BnBtbij bBV BiXB 't1'] 86vall1'] va (JuvBXi(JBt 'tOY nOABllo, avaYKu(J't1']KB va ava8E(JBt crov Avrinnrpo OA1'] 't1']V KT]bBIlOvia Kat 'tT]V B~ou(Jia 'tT]~ nOA1']~. Kt sxstvo; (JullnBpHpsp8T]KB IlB smstxstc Kat 'tOU~ Bns'tpB\jfB va bta'tT]pij(JOUV 'tT]V nOAT] , n~ K'tij(JBt~ Kat OAa ru UAAa. OWD~ tpononoinos 'to nOAi'tculla, Ka'tapycOV'ta~ 'tT] bT]1l0Kpa'tia, Kat OPWB nOAi'tculla IlB ~u(JT] 'tOY Ka80pwIl0 'tT]~ a~ia~ trov Bt(JObT]IlU'tWV rorv noAt'tcOv. 'Erot, ocoi nOAi'tB~ dXav BWObT]lla nuvw ano 860 XtAtUbB~ bpaXlls~, Opt(JB va SXOUV 'to btKaiwlla (JUIlIlB'tOXij~ o rnv nOAtnKij swij Kat (J'tT]V B~ou(Jia. EvcO OAOU~ O(JOU~ Bixav IltKpO'tBPO BWObT]lla, ouv va ij'tav 'tapaxonotoi Kat <ptAOnOABllot, 'tOU~ B~opt(JB ano rnv nOAT]. TSAO~, SbW(JB (J' O(JOU~ 'to t:n:t8UIlOU(Jav YT] yta vn Ka'tOtKij(JOUV (J'tT] 0PUKT]. Aoroi AOtn:OV, rcou bBV ~BnBpVOU(Jav rou; bcObBKa XtAtUbB~, BYKa'tSABt\jfaV rnv na'tpiba roue, BVcO ocot dXav 'to Ka80pt-

102

IlOAl7:eC; «evepyoi» 'WI nOAl7:eC; «nae177:11(o[»

(JIlSVO Bt(JobT]lla, nBpinou svvtn XtAtUbB~ nOAi'tB~, Opi(J't1']KaV KUptot Kat 'tT] n6AT]~ Kat 'tT]~ XcOpa~ Kat KU~BpVOU(Jav (Jull<Pwva IlB rooc VOIlOU~ 'tOU ~6Awva.

L1tObWPOU ~tKBAtcO'tT], 'Iatopuoi BI(JAlOe~1(Yf, XVIII, 18,3-5

H 'l'll(jlO(jlopia "fta rqv Ei((T'tpatEla Gtll :EtKEAia to 415

Kai ipox; 8vineae toi; niiatv ouoiox; 81(nAeD(Jal. toi; fliv yap npe(J(JVtepou; we; q tcatoatpzipousvou; 8({J' a enABOv q oMiv liv (J({JaAel(Jav fleyaAYfV 6vvafl1v, role; 6' 8V rv r,AI1(iq rije; ie anov(JYfe; noeep OljfeWe; xoi eewpiae;, tcoi eViAnz&e; OVTee; (Jwe~(JWeal. 0 Oi nOAVe; OfllAOe; tcoi atpaiubtnc ev rs rep napovti apyvplOv OI(JeIV «oi npO(J1CT~(Je(Jeaz 6vvafllv oeeV az610V fll(JeO({Jopav Vno.p~eIV. dxrte 610. r~v liyav rwv nAeOVWV 8nzevfliav, d rep tipa tcai fl~ qpe(J1(e, 6G6Iwe; fl~ aVTlXezporovwv IW1(OVOVe; b6~eleV elvoi rv nOAel r,(Jvxiav r,yeV.

OAOU~ roo; Ka'tEAa~B B~i(Jou T] Bn:t8Ullia va anonABu(JouV. Tou; mo T]AtKtWIlEVOU~ Sion ni(J'tcuav ij on 8a uno'tu~ouv tu IlEpT] svnvriov 'tWV onoiorv EnAwv ij, 'tOUAUXW'tov, on bBV 8a xntn(J'tpB<pO'tav Ilta roco IlByUAT] 86vallT]. Exsivou; non ~pi(JKOV'tUV (JB cOPtllT]T]AtKia, Stott a<p' BVO~ IlBV Bn:t8ullou(Jav va bOUV Kat va yvwpi(Jouv'tT] llaKptvij aU'tij xmpa, Kat a<p' B'tEPOU btOn dXav rnv C:Aniba on 8a (Jw80uv. T€AO~, 'to IlByUAO nAij80~ Kat 'tOU~ crpuncO'tB~, Ston nt(J'tcuav on uno n~ napOU(JB~ nBpt(J'tU(JBt~ 8a KEPbtsav xpijlla'ta Kat on IlBAAOVnKu T] n6AT] 8a unoxrotxrs npo(J8B'tT] T]YBllovia, non 8a 'tOU~ anE<pBpB a'tBAdw'tT] Ilw80bo(Jia. Erot, Myw 'tT]~ unBp~OAtKij~ Bn:t8ullia~ trov nBpt(J(Jo'tEPWV, aKOIlT] Kat av 'tuxov KUnOlO~ bBV Bn:t8UIlOU(JB rnv sxorputsic, ano <po~o Ilijnw~ <pavd BX8ptKU btaKdllBvo~ npo~ rnv nOAT], bBV \jfij<ptSB Ka'tu 'tT]~ sxcrpursir«; Kat (JmnatvB.

00UKU8ibOU, 7(JroPIWV, ~T, 24, 3 - 4

4

103

4

Bov20flaz toivov [Vfliir:;] usui noppnaku; s~er6.aaz ui ttapovta npayuat« rfl no2el, xai mcilj/a(Jf)az ti nOIOBfleV oircoi vBv xoi onwr:; XpWflef), tunoic, ~flelr:; oirte XP1flar el(J(pipelV fJOVAOflef)a, our oinoi atpoxeoeatku, oirce rcOv KOIVcOV o.niXe(Jf)az 6vvaflef)a, oiru: uu; (Jvvra~elr:; i11Ondf)el Ji60flev, ouf)' o(J' av aino; avrcp nopiantai enaivoiusv, 0.220, fJa(JKaivo/1Gv tcoi axonoiiuev naf)ev, xai ti fli22el noieiv, «ai navra ra touuni, our, snel61nep obtox; lfxOfleV, ra ~flirep' aurcOv nptictetv sf)i20fleV, 0.22' SV fliv toi; AOyOlr:; too; rijr:; na2ewr:; Aiyovrar:; a~l' lnaivoiusv, SV Oi toi; epyolr:; toi; evavuoouevou; tootou; (Jvvaywvl(aflef)a. Vflelr:; flev toivov elwf)af)' iiaurtote rov naptovi' spwriiv, ti ouv xp1 noteiv; syw 6' Vfliir:; eportiioai fJov20flaz, ti ouv xpr, MyelV; ei yap flr,r eiaoiaete, flr,r obtoi (JrpareVe(Jf)e, flr,re rcOv KOIVcOV o.cpi~wf)e, flitre rar:; (Jvvra~elr:; 6W(Jere, flr,f)' O(J' av aUtor:; avrcp nopionuu iaaete, flr,re ra Vflirep' aurcOv npdtxs» sf)dr,(Jere, OUK exw ti 2iyw. of yap ~6'l toaturtnv s~ov(Jiav tok; oituiaiku tcai 6lafJa22elv fJov20fliVOIr:; 6160vrer:;, w(Jre teal nepi rov ooat fli22elV aurav nOlGIV, xoi nepi rovrwv npotcatnyopovvtcav o.Kpoii(Jf)az, -ri liv tu; MYOI;

0EAW, AOlnov, va c~cram:;-tc us cAcu8cpo nVcUlla tnv napouO'a KaraO'raO'y] rY]c; nOAy]C; Kat va O'Kccprclrc tt 8a KavOUllc rropa Kat 1tfDC; 8a XctptcrrOUllc ru npaYllara. ElldC; outs xp~llara 8EAOUIlc va oroO'OUjlC, ours ot iowt va excrpcrsucooue, ours IlnOPOUllc va anEXOUllc ano ru xotvn, outs Sivoous crov L1wncieY] tu noO'a nou O'Ullcpwv~O'allc. Ours 0IlWC; cYKpiVOUllc rou; nopouc nou ruxov ~piO'Kct, aAAa rov KaKoAoyoUllc Kat c~craSoullc rnv npoEAcuO'Y] rov XPy]llarwv rou, n oxoneust va KaVct us aUra Kat OAa tu O'xcnKa. Kat svro rY]poullc aur~ rY] crraO'Y] , ocv 8EAOUIlc va xrrvouus o.n llaC; O'UIlCPEpct, ana, evro us ru Myta emnvooue exeivou; non IltAOUV cna~ta yta rnv nOAY] llaC;, o'rnv npa~Y] 0IlWC; O'ullnparrouue us sxeivoo; non svovnrovovnn 0" aura. EO'cic; AOt1!OV O'UvY]8iscrc va pwrarc Ka8c cpopa aurov 1WU cllCPaviscrat O'ro ~~Ila: n npEnct va Kavoullc; Eyro 0IlWC; 8EAW va pwr~O'w wac;: n npEnct

104

II osiie; «eVePY01» Kat ttosit»; «na/lntncoi»

va nOUllc; L1ton av Ocv oivcrc xp~llara, av Ocv nYJYaivcrc at iowt orov nOAcIlO, oute anEXcrc ano ru xotvn, core oivcrc crov L1Wnd8Y] rn O'UIlCPWVY]IlEva noon, ours cYKpivcrc oon ruxov 0 iowC; O'UYKcvrprovct, oore cm8UIlclrc va Kavcrc o.n O'ac; O'UIlCPEpct, cyro Ssv ~EPW n va O'ac; nw. Ynapxouv av8pwnot zoo Sivouv roou OtKatrollara 0" sxsivoi»; non 8EAOUV va xutmcpivoov Kat va Ota~anouv, roO'rc 0 L1wnd8Y]c; va lla8aivct on roy KarY]yopouv npOKara~OAtKa yta npaYllara non AEVc on npOKctrat va KaVct -rt urtopei, AOtnOV, va nst Kavdc;;

L1y]1l00'8EVOUC;, Ilepi rcOv SV Xeppovnaci, 21- 23

~~lcO 6', ro liV6per:; ~f)'lVaIOI, av ti rcOv o.2'lf)cOv usui ttoppnaioi; 2iyw, fl'lbefliav uoi 610, toiito nap' vflcOV opyr,v yeVi(Jf)al. Etconeite yap dJJi. 'Yusi; r1v nappnaiav sni fliv rcOv li22wv oinoi KOIVr,V 0Ie(Jf)e belv elvai ttiiat toi; SV rfl na2el w(Jre xoi toi; ~iVOlr:; xoi toi; 60v201r:; aurijr:; flera6e6Wlwre, tcoi n0220vr:; liv tu; obceuu; 1601 nap' VfllV /1Gui n2dovor:; s~ov(Jiar:; on fJov20vraz liyovrar:; ~ nositt»; SV sviazr:; rcOv li22wv no2ewv, SK Oi roB (JVflfJov2evelV navranamv s~d'l2aKare. Elf)' VfllV (JVpfJifJ'lKeV 8T( toirtoo SV fliv toi; 8T(K2'l(Jiazr:; rpvcpiiv tcoi K02aKeVeatku navra npo; ~60vr,v o.KOVOVmV, SV 6i toi; npaYPMI tcoi tok; vtyvouevou; nepi rcOv s(JXarwv ~6'l KIV6VveVeIV, ei fliv ouv tcoi vuv oinco 6IaKel(Jf)e, OUK exw ti Myw' ei 6' a ootupepei xwpir:; ,w2w(elar:; sf)d1(Jer o.KOVeIV, etotuo; MyeiV.

Exw rnv a~iwO'Y], avopcC; A8y]vaiOl, av nw ue nappy]O'ia KanOtcC; aM8ctcC;, va unv opjtcrstte yta rouro svovriov 1l0U. E~craO'rc ro c~~C;: EO'dC; mO'rcucrc on Y] cAw8cpia roo Myou, yta Ka8c ano 8Ella, npEnct va eivrn 0'10 rsroio ~a8llo xotvf yta OAOUC; oO'OUC; ~piO'KoVrat crnv nOAy], roO'rc rnv EXcrc napaxwp~O'ct Kat croix ~EVOUC; Kat croix OOUAOUC;. Kat Ilnopd va Oct Kavdc; nonOUC; OOUAOUC; va AEvc o.n 8EAOUV svomov O'ac; us IlcyaAurcpY] cAcu8cpia cero roue nOAlrcC; «ov anwv nOAcwv. Ana rnv cAcu8cpia ano nc; O'UO'KE\jfctC; O'ac; rY]v EXcrc anoKAdO'ct cvrcAroc;. LuvEncta

4

105

4

o nOAlr:Yfr; atnv Apraia EA,A.dc5a

aulOU ELVat on cru; usv CiUVcAcUCict~ soopuivsots Kat KOAaKcUecrs oxouvovtu; nuv'ta CUXUptcr'tOU~ Myou~, orcv OflCO~ ru ycyovote npaYfla'tOnOtoUv'tat, ota'tpEXc'tc 'tOU~ ECixa'tOU~ Ktv86vou~. Edv, AotnOV, Kat 'tcOpa n~ iotc~ EXc'tc ota8Ecm~, Ssv EXCO 'tino'ta va Cia~ nco. Ecv, aV'ti8c'ta, 8EAc'tc va oxoocere noio ELVat 'to CiUfl<PEPOV one, xcopi~ KOAaKcic~, ELflat sroiuo; va fltATJCiCO.

~TjflOCi8EVOU~, Kaui rJJl)Jnnov, I' I, 3 - 4

106

H 0EfiPHTIKH l:KE'PH rIA THN nOAITIKH IAIOTHTA

Omo; ELOaflc ctn nporryoousvc Kc<pUAma, Tj nOAt'ttKTJ toto'tTj'ta eivm flta EVVOta noo OTjfltoUPYTJ8TjKc Ci'taOtaKU, xcopi~ va unopouus va npoCiotOpiCiOUflc os noio XPOVtKO CiTjflcio anEK'tTjCic 'to opionxo 'tTj~ vonun. Auto aKpt~cO~ ELVat nou Ka8tcr'tu OUCiKOATj rnv cpyaCiia 'tOU tcropucoo nou cntotcOKct va ota<pCO'tiCict EVVOtc~ nou nors Ssv soruouv npaYflanKU Ci'tOV ~a8flO a<paipcCiTj~ Ci'tOV onoio ELVat CiUVTj8tcrflEVTj Tj CiTjflcptVTJ nOAt'ttKTJ CiKE\jfTj. Movo ana 'to ocu'tcpo uico roo Sou mrovo, Kat Ci'tOU~ nVCUflanKOU~ KUKAOU~ 'tTj~ A8TJva~, avan'tuCiCic'tat Tj 8cCOpTjnKTJ CiKE\jfTj yupco ana rnv EVVOta 'tTj~ noArceiac;;, flta EVVOta Ciuv8c'tTj non Ssv nsptopisc'tat oro nOAl'tCUfla.

1. H 1:YZHTH1:H rIA THN nOAITEIA

0a ~cKtvTJCiOUflc ana Evav opiouo 'tTj~ nosiieku; non oiVct 0 tcropucoc Ed. Will: «Eivoi tu nOAt'ttKu otKatcOfla'ta TJ Tj toto'tTj'ta 'tOU nOAl'tTj. Eivm cniCiTj~ Kat 'to CiUVOAO 'tOU nOAt'ttKou CicOfla'to~, cKELVCOV xoo anOAafl~UVOUV 'ta nOAt'ttKU otKatcOfla'ta. Eivoi 'tEAO~ 'to CiUCi'tTjfla 8cCiflcOV 'tTj~ nOAeWC;; Kat 0 rpono; Act'tol)pyia~ 'tOU~. 'QCi'tc, CiUflflc'tEXCO o'rqv nosneio; CiTjflaivct anOAafl~UVCO tu nOAtnKU uo» OtKatcOfla'ta Kat OAa oou nnoppsouv ana au'tu cvceoptKU us 'tTj CiUflflc'tOXTJ Ci'tOU~ 8WflOU~ -noAt'ttKou~, crpuruotucoix; OtKaCinKou~, 8pTjCiKCUnKou~» (Le Monde grec et l' Orient, I, p. 419). Optouoq nou tCiXUct xupto»; yta ru 'tEATj 'tOU SOU mrovn, Stort Ka'tU 'tOY 40 uuovn Cin~ 8cCOpTjnKE~ Ka'taCiKcuE~ rev CiUy-

5

107

5

o 1l0Ah:W; atnv Apxa[a EAM.ba

ypa<peroy tTj~ c:n:OX~~ Tj svvotc tTj~ n:oA.ttc:ia~ Sa O'UIln:c:ptM~c:t Kat tOY tpon:o tTj~ KatY~~ 1:;ro~<; uson O'tTjY n:OATj,

1.1 0 «J't£Qat)eo~» builvoyo~ an~ 'latopie; roo HQobotou

Ilpoc rn lleO'a tOU 50u mrovu, Tj O'u1:;~tTjO'Tj yta to Sella tTj~ n:OAttc:ia~ Kayc:t rnv C:1l<paYtO'~ tTj~ O'n~ n:1lYe~ Ila~ 1lC: tOY n:c:pi<pTjIlO «n:C:PO'tKO 8taAoyo» tOU Hp08otOU (Ill, 80 - 82). Ei Vat apKc:ta n:apasc:yO to yC:yOYO~ on 0 tcropucoc e8roO'c: tOY =: O'C: tpsu; Ilspcs; c:uyc:yc:i~, n:ap' OAO non OAO to epyo tOU ~aO't1:;c:tat O'tTjY t8ea Ott Tj uvrorsporntu troy EAA~Yroy svovn troy Bap~aproy 0- <pc:tMtay O'tO yC:yOYO~ on at i8lOt nrov C:AC:USc:pat n:OAltc:~, C:YcO at aYtin:aAoi tOU~ ~tay un:o-raYlleYat O'C: eyay 8EO'n:otTj. 0 Hp08Oto~ <paYta1:;c:tat AOmOY tOY 8taAoyo auto vc 8ta8pallati1:;c:tat rnv c:nousvr] tTj~ ~tta~ troy Mayroy, at on:oi~t, Ilc:ta tOY Sa~ato tO~ Kall~uO'Tj, c:iXay Kataxpacrtc:i rnv c:souO'ta, Kat to 1:;TjtOUIlC:YO c::Vat noto; tun:o<; n:oAmKou KaSc:O'tcOtO<; en:pc:n:c: vo. C:YKaSt8puSc:t. o n:pcOtO~ an:o tOU~ OlltATjte~, 0 OtaYTj~, a<pou Kat~yyc:tAC: rnv c:souO'ia tOU C:YO~, 8TjAa8~ rn 1l0Yapxia, nou c:mtpen:c:t O'tOY KatOXO tTj~ vn evspvst Kata ~OUATjO'Tj, «xropi~ vc Myc:t Aoyapt~- 0'110», Kat vc c:m8i8c:tat O'C: KaSc: c:i80u~ ~ia ~E~at?~ on Ssv n:po~ xstrm vc un:ocrtc:i KUpcOO'c:t~, n:apouO'ta1:;c:t ro~ KaAUtc:po n:oAtnKO KaSEO'tcO~ rnv tcovouio: «at apxe~ an:08i80Ytat 1lC: KA~PO, 0 ap-_ XOYta~ 8iyc:t ovcoop« yta rnv apx~ nou uoxei, OAC:~ 8c: at uno<paO'c:t~ uvcxorvovovtm svromov tTj~ xoivorrrrce;». Ilpoxsttm, n:po<paycO~, yta to 8TjllOKpanKo n:oAltCUlla, on:~~ AC:HOUPY,ouO'c: crnv AS~ya Kat yta rnv toorntn troy n:OAttroy c:Y~Yn tOU YO~OU, zoo an:OtC:AoUO'C: to ~aO'tKo tOU xapaKtTjptO'nKo. ~tO C:YKrolllO auto tOU Otnvn npoc tTj 8TjllOKpatia an:aYta 0 8c:utC:po~ OlltATjt~~, 0 Mc:ya~u1:;o~, Kat sxsivo; C:K<ppa1:;c:tat apYTjnKa "fta tnv c:~ souO'ia tOU c:yo<;, aAAa KataYYEAAc:t c:n:iO',Tj~ Kat try xropt~ <ppay~o c:souO'ia tOU allaSou~ n:A~SOU~ Kat an:o<p~tYC:tat ~n:c:p tOU ~aSEO'tro~ roc O'tO ozoio Tj apx~ ~piO'KC:tat ern Xc:pta C:YO~ IltKpOU aptSIlOU

108

H ()eropytrl/oj alcelf/yt via tnv 1l0AZrllaj zbzorytra

n:OAttcOY, troy upicrorv, 8TjAa8~ tTj~ OAtyapxia~, n:OU ~aO'i1:;c:tat Ollro~ crnv aplurda, crnv TjStK~ Kat n:YCUllanK~ O'UYXpOyro~ nvoirspornru troy apiarwv. Tors n:apC:ll~aiYC:t 0 rpiro; OlltAl1t~~, 0 L1apc:io~. Kt sxsivo; Sc:ropc:i ro~ c:m~Aa~~ tl1 8taKU~EpYl1O'l1 an:o tOY Aao, aAAa OXt AtYOtc:po an:o tnv apx~ tl1~ llC:lO\jfl1<pia~, Aton, 00'0 riptcro; Kat «v sivnr nurot nou KatEXOUY rnv c:souO'ia, Ssv sivm Suvurov vu 1111 811lllOUPYl1S0UY aYnn:aMtl1tc:~ Ilc:tasu roue, KaScO~ KaSEya~ Sa c:m8tcOKc:t vc Sptall~C:uO'oUY ot 8tKE~ ton an:o\jfc:t~. H 1l0Yapxia eivm AOmOY aUt~ non n:ponlla 0 L1apc:io<;, ytati sivm to 1l0YO KaSEO'tcO~ zoo smrpezst vu <puAaO'O'OYtat lluO'nKE~ ot an:o<paO'C:t~ zoo uooponv crou; C:XSpou~, Kat n:OU smxputsi tC:AtKa ornv 11 8111l0Kpatia Kat 11 OAtyapxia ~uSi1:;oYtat O'tl1Y ataSia. L1c:y EXc:t O'l1llaO'ia o» 11 O'u1:;~tl1O'l1 aUt~ XPTjO'tllon:Ot~Sl1KC: ro~ c:tO'ayroy~ yta rnv ay080 roo L1apc:iou O'tl1Y c:SouO'ia. To cnucvnxo eivm on IlEO'a an:' aUt~Y an:oKaAun:tOvtat Ot O'u1:;l1t~osu; n:ou O'uYtapa1:;ay rots tOY C:AAl1YtKO KOO'Il0.

1.2 Ot aU~1]t11a£t~ yta t1] b1]lloxQatia xata to b£ut£Qo Iltao roo Sou mow a

Mia uno n~ O'u1:;l1t~O'c:t~ aUte~ c:iXC: ro~ SElla tl1 ouvnyopiu Un:EP tl1~ 8111l0Kpatia~. L1uo xsiusvo, tl1~ c:n:OX~~ troy n:PcOtroy strov ron IIC:Aon:oVYl1O'taKOU n:OAEIlOU sivct cnuuvnxn an:o rnv an:o\jfl1 aut~: 11 8111l1lYopia nou an:08i8c:tat an:o tOY 00UKU8i811 crov IlsptKA~, Kata tnv c:n:iO'l1lll1 ta<p~ troy crprmomov n:ou O'KOtcOSl1Kay oro n:PcOtO~ EtO~ tOU n:OAEIlOU, Kat svn aYcOYUIlO <puAAa8lO nou C:1l<payi1:;c:tat O'C: n:oAAa O'l1llc:ia ro~ 11 an:aYtl1O'l1 ern 8111l11yopia aUt~, ~toY n:c:pi<p111l0 'Etuttupeio, 0 IIc:ptKA~~ un:c:paO'n:i1:;C:tat to aSl1yalKo KaSEO'tcO~: «To n:oAltc:ulla auto OYOlla1:;c:tat 8111l0Kpario, ytati 8c:y 8lOtKOUY Ot AiyOt aAAa Ot n:OAAOi. Kat OAOt Ot n:OAltc:~ sivrn icot svdimov troy vourov oO'OY a<popa O'n~ t8tronKE~ roo; 8ta<pope~, yta tnv n:poO'romK~ tOU~ ouo»; aya8c:tSl1 O'n~ nllE~ o KaSEya~ xponunrm ayaAoya 1lC: rnv asia roo, mo n:OAU ytati eivnt ucovo; n:apa ytati uvrpcet O'C: Kan:Ota 0lla8a n:OAHcOy. Oure

109

5

5

o nOAhr/!; OT11v Apxaia EAM.i5a

7t(lAt KanOWe;, EnEtoTt sivm qYrCDxOe;, Kat EVeD urropsi va npootpspet Kanma umtpeoiu cr'LT]V nOAt'LEia, E!.l7tOOlSE'Lat ano 'LT]V acrTtflaV'LT] KOtvCDVtKTt 'LOU SecrT]» (ll 27,1). Erot, oAm m AST]Valm nOAhEe; eivor vouucd»; ioot Kat flOVO crE o,n a<popa 'LT]v npocr~acrTt 'LOUe; ctu; apxee; otaKplVOV'Lat ps ~acrT] 'LT]v a~la 'Lou~. IIpoKEtLat, ~e~ata yta 'LT]v tOWAtcrnKTt ano\lfT] fltae; npaYflanKO'LT]'Lae; non Etoaus on, napa 'LT]V unap~T] 'LT]e; flw8o<poplae;, Tt'Lav apKE'La ota<POPE~ nKTt. Ilnpupsvet ouo»; T] ouva'Lo'LT]'La, 'LOUAaXtcr'LOv os 8ECDPT]'LtKO EnlnEoo, OACDV 'LCDV nOAt'LeDV va cruflflE'LexOUV cr'LT] OWlKT]crT] 'LCDV un08ecrECDv 'LT]e; nOAT]e;.

o ovrovouo; cruyypa<peae; 'LOU xstuevou 'A8Yfvaiwv Ilosneia, non yta flEyaAO XPOVtKO otacr'LT]fla anoot06'Lav cr'LOV E~vo<peDv'La (\lfEUOO~EVO<peDV'LEWe;), EVeD npOKEt'Lat crnv npaYflanKO'LT]'La yta xsiuevo nou cruV'Lax8T]KE ctnv apXTt 'LOU IIE~onovvT]crt~KOu noAeflou, aVnflE'LCDnlsEt 'La npaYfla'La flE flEyaAU'LEpT] otauYEta K~t YVCDplSEt on flOVO m nAoucrWt exouv npocr~acrT] cru; 7tt0 U\lfT]AEe; apxee;. Kat uoro yta'Ll ot apxee; aU'Lee; eivct unEU~UVEe; Kat crU;EnaYOV'Lat nOAAee; oanaVEe;. Oco yta 'LT]V n~EW\lfT]~ta 'LCDV nOAtLCD~, nponfla va E7ttoteDKEt flOVO ne; AEtLOupytEe; EKEtvEe; non «ano<p~pouv fltcr80». f'VCDPlSOUV E~aAAou on ano 'LT]v \lfTt<po 'LOUe; E~ap'Larut T] nOAtLtKTt non 8a aKOAou8TtcrEt T] nOAT]. «Au'LO nou 8eAEt 0 AaOe; OEV eivm eva WVOflOUflEVO Kpa'LOe; oxoo 8a sivoi OOUAOe;, aAAa eva Kpa'LOe; onou 8a eivrn EAEU8EpOe; Kat 8a anO<pacrlsEt.» ita 'LOV aVeDVUflO cruyypa<pea, 8a npenEt flOVO EKElVOt zou exouv Aa~Et 'LT]v Ka'LaAAT]AT] flOP<PCDcrT] va exouv 'LT] Suvororntc va an~<pacrlsouv, oton flOVO EKEiVOt sivoi uccvoi va nap?uv 'Lte; cr~cr'LEe; Kat olKatEe; ano<pacrEte;. H ODVaflT] ouro; 'LT]e; A8T]vae; ~acrtsE'L~t crov cr'LOAO 'LT]e;, Kat cru nOAEfltKa nAOla UnT]pELOUV ot <P'LCD~Ot. ~EV 8a npenEt Aomov va EKnATtcrcrE'Lat KavEie; n~u, os flta nOA~ us roco KaKTt otaKU~epVT]crT], ot OOUAOt Kat ot ~EVOt anOAafl~avouv 'LT]v lota EAw8Epla AOYOU us LOUe; noAhEe;. Lne; Ka'LT]yoptEe; aU'Lee; non <pepov'Lat Ka'La 'LT]e; oT]flOKpa'Llae; Kat Ka'La 'LT]e; xuptupxlae; 'LOU Aaou, ~picrKOUflE ne; lotEe; E7tt~plcrEte; n?u otaLUneDV~vrm cr'LOV AOYO 'LOU MEYa~usou crXEnKa us 'LT]V ayvOta 'LT]e; un-

110

sae;, ctnv onoin avnnapa'Li8ELat T] apE'LTt Kat T] ouvson 'LCDV OAiyCDV.

Eava~picrKouflE LOV anOT]XO 'LCDV crUST]'LTtcrECDV aU'LeDV oro 8eutpo 'LT]e; EnOXTte;, EtotKa cru epya LOU EupmioT]. Lne; 7Kinbec;, 0 notT]'LTte; anooioEt cr'LOV flu8tKO ~acrtAta 'LT]e; A8Ttvae;, 'LOV eT]crea, 'La AOyta nou mcouyovrut onv anoT]XOe; 'LCDV AOYCDV 'LOU IIEptKATt: «H nOAT] flae; OEV ~picrKE'Lat cr'LT]V E~oucria EVOe; avopa. Eivut EAEU8EPT], 0 AaOe; flae; 'LT]V KU~Epva, ot me'LEe; 'LT]e; EKAeYOV'Lat yta eva e'LOe;. Ta XPTtfla'La OEV exouv xovevc yOT]'Lpo. <I>'LCDXoi Kat nAoucrtot eXOUV 'La iota otKateDfla'La». AV'LiAOyO c' uuto anO'LEAEi 0 avnoT]uoxpunxo; AOyoe; 'LOU eT]~aiou aYYEAto<popOU non Ka'LayyeAAEt ne; ~Aa~Epee; cruvenEtEe; 'LT]e; E~oucriae; 'LT]e; nAEto\lfT]<piae;, T] onoin eivoi naiyvto oru xepta 'LCDV PT]'LOpCDV, non 'LT]V KOAaKEUOuv «eveAoya us 'La crufl<pepOV'La 'LOUe;».

1.3 Or (JoqJUJ'ti;

o EupmioT]e;, napoucrtasov'Lae; cr'LT] crKT]VTt flta rerorc cruSTt'LT]crT], flap'LUpEi 'LT]v E7ttPPOTt non uoxououv 'LT]v EnOXTt EKEiVT] crnv A8Ttva ot avo ps; EKEivOt not) ovounorrpcuv cro<pW'Lee;. 0 opo; eXEt napEt flta apVT]nKTt XPOta rcou OEV 'LT]V EiXE cr'LT]V apXTt, Ka8eDe; T] Ae~T] crO<ptcr'LTte; npoTtA8E ano 'LT] Ae~T] aooia. Ot «coooi» OflCDC; curoi rrou ouveppeuv cr'LT]V A8Ttva ano OAO 'LOV EAAT]VtKO xoouo, Ka'La 'LO OEU'LEPO flWO 'LOU 50u uuovo, yta va otoa~ouv EKEi, Tt'Lav xupio»; oacrKaAOt 'LT]e; 'LeXVT]e; 'LT]C; nEt80ue;, YEyovoe; non E~mEi 'LT]v E7tt'LUXia 'LOUe; croix vsoi»; non ot\lfoucrav yta flta E7tt'LUXT]fleVT] nOAtLtKTt Kaptepa. 0 nOtT]'LTte; Aptcr'Lo<pavT]e; Kat 0 IIAU'LCDV cpyorepn, flecra ano 'LO croun 'LOU LCDKpa'LT], Ka'LTtYYEtAaV ru; ~Aa~Epee; E7tt7tLeDcrEte; 'LT]e; otoacrKaAiae; aU'LTte; non KocrnSE nOAu aKpt~a Kat, flScra ano nOAunAoKOUe; cruAAoytcrfloue;, unopouos va anooEi~Et La mrvru, L'LT]V npaYflanKO'LT]'La, 'La unocrnacrfla'La ano epya 'LCDV coqncrcov nou e<p'Lacrav eDe; Eflae; anOoEtKVUOUV on T] cro<ptcrnKTt OEV Tt'Lav flOVO T] 'LexvT] 'LOU «anobem:vvsrv», aAAa on flnopoucrE EnicrT]e; va EK<ppaSEt <ptAocrO<ptKee; Kat

111

5

5

nOAlnKEt; e1tlAOyEt;. ~'W npdrro snim;bo, non flat; SVblacpEpel ebcO, unopoous va blaKpivoUfle bUO av1'Hkca peUfla1'a. Ano 1'Yj flia flepui il1'av sxsivot nou, oncot; 0 epaO'uflaXOt; ano 1'Yj XaAKYj86va us 1'OV onoio O'UVOfllAd 0 ~coKpa1'Yjt; O'1'YjV Ilositeia, npo~anav 1'0 biKalO roo mo lO'XOpOU xm blKatoAoyouO'av Ka1" aULo rov rpono 1'YjV apxil 1'OU svo; aVbpa: 1'OUAaXlO'1'OV, on COt; lO'Xupiss1'al Kanoto; KanlKAilt; O'S Evav ano blaAoyo 1'OU IIAa1'cova, rov Fopvia, Yj rupuvviu il1'av 1'0 KaAU1'spo KaElw1'cOt;, aoooov snE1'psns crov aVc01'ePO aVbpa va flYj Aafl~avsl uno'l'Yj oute avElpcOnout; outs VOflOUt; zoo siXav yiVSl ano Kat Yla 1'OUt; abUVa1'OUt;. ~1'OV aV1'inOba, oflCOt;, unilpxav sxsivot nou, oncot; 0 Avnqxov, unoctnplsav on ano 1'Yj CPUO'Yj OAOl ot aVepCOnOl eivm icot, Kat xupio»; 0 IIpco1'ayopat;, non crov oucovuuo nAa1'covIKo blaAoyo ava1'pExsl crov fluElo yta va blKatcOO'el 1'Yj oYjfloKpa1'ia: 0 ~iat; il1'av exeivo; noo aVEElws crov Epuf va Ka1'avdflsl e~iO'ou fle1'a~u trov avElpcOncov rnv nOAl'Cl1C~ riXV1] , 1'Yjv xprnxn txcvotnt« Kat rnv aps1'il· Kat Ka1'aAilysl 0 IIpco1'ayopat;: «Nn yta1'i 01 AElYjvaiOl 1tlO'1'eUOUV on AiyOl flOVO unopouv va ocOO'ouv O'Ufl~OUAEt; os SYj1'ilfla1'a apXl- 1'SK1'OVIKilt; il onoioudtptote aAAou sna'Y'YEAfla1'Ot;, Kat av cvoxcrsutei KanOlOt; aAAot;, nou Sev uvnxst 0" aU1'out;, bSV rov aVEXovrm, Kat O'coma xuvouv Ka1'a 1'Yj YVcOflYj uou, Ornv ouo»; anocpaO'isouv yta rnv nOAl't'lKil, onon oAa O'1'Yjpisov1'at O'1'Yj OlKalOO'UvYj Kat rnv SYKpa1'Sla, EXOUV OiKlO va OExov1'al too; nav1'et;, Yla1'i 01.,01 npEnel va flS1'EXOUV 1'Yjt; nOAl't'lKilt; ape1'ilt;. Atnooparucn OSV unapxslnoAYj» (322 d - 323 a).

BAEnoufle on O'1'YjV AElilva, Ka1'a 1'0 bSU1'SPO uico 1'OU 50u nuovo, Ol nOAl't'lKEt; O'uSYj1'ilO'ett; il1'av Ibtahepa EV1'OVSt;. MaAtO'1'a Yj avan1'u~Yj 1'Yjt; oYjfloKpa1'iat; Ka1'a 1'Yj OtapKSta 1'OU uuovu au1'OU Kat Yj e1tl~e~aicoO'Yj ron nOAl't'lKOU pOAOU roo O'UVOAOU rev nOA11'cOv sixav npoKaAEO'et 1'YjV av1'iopaO'Yj sxsivov nou navrc niO'1'euav on, napa 1'YjV Kuptapxia 1'OU Aaou, ea bta1'YjpouO'av rc npovouic 1'OUt;. H ancOAsta rov npovouirov nuttov, nou S1tlbStVcOElYjKS aKo~lYj neplO'O'01'SPo coto nt; O'1'panco't'tKEt; il1'1'st; Ka1'a 1'Yj btapKSta 1'OU IIsAonovvYjcrtaKou nOAEflou, npoKaAws 1'YjV nvri-

112

opaO'il 1'OUt;. Anot e1tlxdpYjO'av aVOlX1'a va sYKaEltOpuO'ouv O'1'YjV AElilva oAtyapXtKo KaEleO'1'cOt; Kat aAAOl, zoo npooroptvd eVcOElYjxnv us 1'OUt; oAtyapXtKout;, unomilptsav utu SUpU1'epYj flopcpil KaElsO'1'c01'Ot;, mo aVOlX1'il ano 1'YjV anoAu1'Yj oAtyapxia nou dxav s1tl~aAst ot TS1'paKoO'lOt 1'0 411 il ot Tpuncovrn 1'0 404: rnv smO'1'pocpil O'1'Yjv nOAt't'da rmv xpovovoiv, tnv tuitptov nosneiav.

2. H nATPIO~ nOAITEIA

Ano1'sAd O'1'aElspa trov avElpc01tlVCOV KOtVCOVtcOV va O'1'PECPOV1'at, O'S nspiooo KpiO'Yjt;, npo; 1'0 napeAElov, non 1'0 cpaV't'asov1'at xuAU1'SPO ozo 1'0 nnpov. ~eV flat; sKnAilO'O'st O'uvsncOt; on, anEvavn O''CYjV xpicn nou avnflS1'c01tlsS Yj nOAYj, Kat yta va btaxcopiO'ouv 1'Yj ElEO'Yj 'COUt; ano exsivoo; noo unoO'1'ilPtsav 1'YjV npoO'cpuyil O'1'Yj ~ia svdvnu 0'1'0 oYjfloKpanKo KaElemcOt;, KanOlOt aV1'inaAot roo KaElsO'1'c01'Ot; avasil1'YjO'av 0'1'0 napsAElov 1'a nOAt1'staKa npo1'una, npaYflanKa il cpav1'aO'nKa, non Ela flnopouO'av va nporsivouv O'1'OUt; AElYjvaiout; xcopit; va cpavd Yj S1tlEluflia 1'OUt; va cvcrpsuroov ru nav't'U.

2.1 Ta JtQo·ttm:a: AQcixO)v, ~OAo)V, KAftaOfVlJ;

2.1.1 A~cixOJv

~1'0 EPYO 'Ailnvoicav Ilosneia avacpEps1'at, crnv apxil roo tcropiKOU flEPOUt;, Yj vOfloElwia 1'OU ~paKov1'a, yta 1'YjV onoin morsuouus on sivm nAaO'1'o EPYO nou bYjfllOUPYilElYjKS ern 1'EAYj 1'OU 50u cuovo. Iloie; il1'av ot ~acrtKEt; bta1'a~Stt; 1'Yjt; vO~LOElwiat; aU1'ilt;; IIoAl't'lKa btKatcOfla1'a dXav flOVO sxeivot non OtEEls1'av 1'YjV onAtnKil uccvornro, H npoO'~aO'Yj O'nt; mo O'YjflavnKEt; apXEt; ytVOruv us nfloKpanKa xpmipto: yta va yivst KanOlOt; apxov1'at; il ElYjO'aupocpuAaKat;, Enpsns va btaElE'CSt neptouoic OEKa flVCOV rouAaXtO'1'OV (1000 opaXflEt;). Ttu va vivet O''Cpa1'YjyOt; il innapxot;

5

113

5

o nOAhr/!:; CJ7:17V Apxaia EAAa6a

(OlOtKll1~<; 10U mmxo»), snpsns va OtaEls1St nsplOu<Jia 10uMXt<JlOV SKa10 IlVIDV (10.000 opanlS<;) Kat S1ttnASOV va SXSt voutuu natOul. Azo eicsivouc nco otsEk1av nOAtnKa OtKatcOIla1a Kat ~1av aVID 1IDV rpurvrn SKASY01av IlS KA~PO sva <JUIl~OUAlO. H nnouoiu ano n<; <JUVSASU<JSt<;lOU <JUIl~ouAiou aU10U ruuopoovrov IlS npo<Jnlla avaAoya "11<; nsptouotre; lOU KaElsvo<;, npoxstusvo» va nopaKtVOUV1at Ot nAou<JlOt va eivrn nav101snapov1s<;. To nO<J01IDv xpocttucrv KaElcO<; Kat 0 KaEloptcrllo<; lOU nll~llalO<; <JS vouiouarc llap1UPOUV "11v snSt\jfll auElsvnK01111a<; 10U KStIlSVOU, eoocov 11 AEl~va "11<; snox~<; lOU ~paKov1a ayvoou<Js "11 XP11<Jll 10U Xp~lla1O<;. Yn~pxs OIlID<; 11 tosa va anoOlooV1at 1a a~tcOlla1a <J1OU<; mo nAoumou<; Kat va smrpsnsrct 11 a<JKll<Jll 1IDV nOAtnKcOV OtKatIDIla1IDV 1l0VO uno 1OU<; onAhs<;.

2.1.2 l:OAWV

EiXallS ~011111V WKatpia va avacpspEloullS <J1a npO~A~lla1a non El81st 10 npooonto lOU LOAIDva. 0 LOAIDV Ila<; sivut KaAU1spa YVID<J10<; ano 10V ~paKOV1a, SCPO<JOV SXOUV Ota111PllElsi ano<Jnaounrc uno 10 noirrnxo 10U spyo. Asv XIDpa allcpt~oAia on acp' SVO<; sEl8O"S 1SAO<; <J111v unoooUAID<Jll AOYID XpscOV us "11 (JewaXeela Kat acp' S1SPOU <JUVS1a~s VO~lOU<; iOlOU<; yta OAOU<;, ElslOV1a<; S1m n<; ~a<JSt<; yta "11V icovouiu, nou Ela an01SAS<JSt 10 ElSIlSAlO "11<; aElllVatK~<; 0111l0Kpa1ia<;. Ot VO~lOt aU10i, onID<; OtaK~pu~s, Ela nnpeusvov allS1a~All10t yta svav uuovn. L111V npaYllanK01111a, Ela npsnst va un~p~av nOAA8<; npo<JEl~KS<; Ka1a n<; oSKas1is<; non aKoAouElll<Jav !l81a "11v avaXcOpll<J~ lOU, Kat aU10<; ~1av sva<; ano 1OU<; AOyOU<; yta 1OU<; onoiotx; opi<J111KS Ilta S1tt1pOn~ VOlloElS1cOV npo; tu 1SAlllOU 50u atcOva yta va npo~si <JS Ilta ySVtK~ avaElscOPll<Jll1IDV VOIlIDV. Tov 40 uuovu napa111Pshat 11 1a<Jll va anoOiOS1at <J10V LOAIDva 11 na1p01111a <JXsoov OAIDV 1IDV SV t<JXu VOIlIDV. LS aU<J111pa nOAtnKO sninsoo, 11 <JOAcOVSlO<; tuupto; nOAlteia napou<Jtass1at IlS OH10 xapaK1~pa. Ano 10 sva uspo; eivct nlloKpanK~, soooov 11 npo<J~a<Jll cru; apxs<; KaElopiSS1at ano

114

"11V KU1;a1a~111IDv nOAt1cOV rcou KaEltSpID<JS 0 iOlO<; 0 LOAIDV: 1l0VO at nOAhs<; 1IDV OUO npc01IDv 1a~sIDv SXouv npo<J~a<Jll <J1a mo U\jfllM a~tcOlla1a. Ana ano 10 ano IlSpo<;, OAot ot nOAhs<; sXOUV 10 otKaiIDlla <JUIlIlS10X~<; O"111V SKKAll<Jia 10U 0~1l0U Kat <J1a OtKa<J1~pta~, antcO<;, SXOUV Kupiapxa OtKatcOlla1a. Fivetm Aotnov Ka1aVOll10 yta1i 11 tuitptoc nositeia 10U LOAIDva OtSKOtKShat <JUYXPOVID<; Kat ano 10U<; nOASlllOU<; "11<; 0111l0Kpa1ia<;, nou xpc- 10UV 1l0VO "11V apx~ "11<; rtuoxpntinq, Kat an010U<; unO<J111ptK1S<; "11<;, nou OSV oi<J1asav va OVOlla<JOUV 10V LOAIDva «nurspo» 10U aElllvatKOU nOAHSUlla1O<;, nOAhWlla OIlID<; 0"10 onoio 11 Kuptapxia 10U b~J10V nspWpts01av SV IlSPSt ano 10 ysyOVO<; on tu a~tcOlla1a npoopiSOV1av 1l0VO yta 10U<; nAoum01Spou<;.

AvacpspEl~Kalls npOllYOUIlSVID<; 0"111 <Jlllla<Jia 1IDV IlS1apPuEllli<JsIDV 10U KAstcrElSVll yta "11V trrropin "11<; aElllVatK~<; nOAtnK~<; tOt01111a<;. Ttu 10V <Juyypacpsa "11<; 'Ael1valwv Ilouieiac, 0 KASt<JElSVll<; sivrn exsivo; nou, "11V snnupto "11<; 1t1cO<Jll<; 1IDV 1upaVVIDV, anSOID<JS "11V nasneia <J1O nA~eOC;, ~ aAAtcO<;, sivct 0 npaYllanKO<; tOpU1~<; "11<; 0111l0Kpa1ia<;. 'OIlID<;, Ka1a "11 O"1a<Jll 1IDV OAtyapxtKcOV 10 411, onID<; avacpspst 0 iOlO<; <Juyypacpsa<;, us npID10~ouAia KanolOu KASt10cpcOvca anocpa<Ji<J111KS uin rpononoincn <J111v anocpa<Jll non Ela sYKaEliopus 10 KaElS<J1cO<; 1IDV TS1paKo<JiIDv, <JullCPIDva Ils "11v onoia at snirponot nou Ela SKAsyov1av yta va OtallOPCPcO<Jouv 10 VSO nOAhsulla «Ela snpsns va s~s1a<Jouv 10U<; VOIlOU<; 1IDV npoyovO)v rcou Els<J1tt<Js 0 KAstcrElsVll<; otnv sYKaEli- 0PU<Js111 0111l0Kpa1ia, stet cOO"1S va AllCPElouv Kat aU10i UnO\jfll Kat va anocpam<J1si 10 KaAu1spo». Kat 0 <Juyypacpsa<; np0<JEls1St: «Ils "11 <JKS\jfll on 10 nOAhwlla 10U KAstcrElsvll OSV ~1av npaYlla1tKa 0111l0KpanKo, ana avaAoyo us exsivo 10U LOAO)va» (XXIX, 3). Kat npaYllan, at smtponot ~sKivll<Jav IlS "11V anocpa<Jll on 11 nositeia aV~KSt 1l0VO <JS exeivou; 10U<; AElllvaiou<; «nou eivrn nSpt<J<J01SPO ucovoi va "11V unllps1~<JOuv npO<Jo)1ttKa Kat IlS ru

5

115

5

o noJ...irl]C; atnv Aproia EHdoa

xp~lla't"a roue, OXt At'yon;pOt anOnEVn; xtAta8E~». ~tam(mbvOUIlE rov EKnATjKnKO tpono IlE 'tOY ozoio XPTjolllonowuv 'to napEASOV ot uuroupvoi 't"Tj~ (HaO'Tj~ ron 411, yw roue onotou; yvroPiSoullE E~aAAou, xapTj crnv acp~yTjO'Tj 'tOU E)ouKu8i8Tj, IlE noiov napavo- 110 tpono Ka't"EAa~av rnv E~ouO'ia. H uvncop« crov KAEtO'SEVTj uaprupai 'tOY rpono IlE 'tOY onoio O'uO'Ko'tisE"Cat Tj napoDO'a npayunrucornru, npOKEt~tEVOU va cpavEi on 8W"CTjPEi'tat 8~SEV Eva d80~ O'UVEXEta~. 0 aptO''t"oKpa''CTj~ EKelVO~ nou, O'''Ca "CEATj 'tOU 60u uuovo, Kat yta AOyOU~ non napallEvoUV O'KO"CEtvoi, elXE uno~eDO'Et rnv KupiapXTj E~ouO'ia 0''tO O'UVOAO rrov nOAl't"eDV, yiverut - ozo»; Sa nst Kat 0 IO'oKpa"CTj~- EKelVO~ nou, rnv Enaupw 'tTj~ rupnvvinc, nsptopiornxe 0''t"0 va anoKa'taO''t"~O'Et "Co nOAi'twlla 'tOU LOArova. Kat avallCPWoAa EKEi ocpciAE't"at Kat Tj E~acpaVlO'~ too, Ka'ta 'tTj XpOVtK~ nEpi080 zoo Sa aKoAouS~O'Et, nioto uno rnv nOAu mo 8tcpoPOUIlEVTj 1l0PCP~ rou LOArova.

2.2 To 6£",,0. t't\; 1tatpiov b1J!10Kpatia~: o 'ApG01[aY1JnKO~ to\) IOO'jltQut't\

To SElla "CTj~ naipioo nOAneiac; EnavEllcpavisE'tat 8tapKeD~ 8tapKEw roo 40u cuovo, xupio»; 0''t"0 EPYO ton pnrop« onoioc EiXE llaSTj'tE~ nOnOD~ nOAmKou~ av8pE~, ASTjva ~EVOU~. L'tTjV npaYllanKo't"Tj'ta, 8EV ~'t"av nMov 8uva't"0\i,

tnv ano'tuxia rrov 860 OAtyapXtKeDV O"t"aO'Erov, va ,,~"-'"""~ KaVel~ Eva 't"E't"OW KaSEO''teD~. L'tOU~ AOyOU~ rov roprov -onoio xt av sivrn Tj npo'tiIlTjO'~ 'tOU~- cvso i8w; 8taKTjpU~Et~ niO''t"Tj~ npo; 't"Tj OTjIlOKpa't"ia Kat rnv

trov nOAl't"eDV, aKOIlTj Kat av anOU Ka't~'Y'YEtAaV rnv ru rou Mf1ou, 'tTj ~Aa~Ep~ emppon rmv nOAmKeDV nou va rov KOAaKEUOUV, rnv a't"a~ia nou emxpmoocs O'n~

O'Et~. Tt' «oro E~aAAOU, orov mo cnuovnxo AOYO 'tOU rov 'Apeonovntuco, vivsnn AOyO~ yw rnv tuitpto nnll/lvnrvr'in>r yw rnv tuitpto nosneia. Onro~ unEvSulliSEt Kat 0 iow~ 0

'tl1~, ~'t"av xopic»; Eva~ MO'KaAO~, Kat ot AOyOl ron non

116

O'~IlEpa anO'tEAouO'av npo't"una nou npoopisov'tav yw 'tOU~ llaS11- 'tE~ rou Kat OEV napoucrtaO''tTjKaV nO't"E EVeDmOV O'UVEAEUO'EroV. 0 IO'oKpa"CTj~ O'uvEypa\jlE 'tOY 'Ap80naY1JT:ll(O Ka't"a 'to 355/4, rnv Enaupio ton noMllou non O''tOiXlO'E crnv AS~va 'tl1v aneDAEW rrov xeptocorepoiv O'ullllaxrov 't"Tj~ ano 'tTj OEU't"EPTj vaunK~ LUllllaxia. 0 IO'oKpa"CTj~ AOlnov npO"CieE't"o va 8taypa\jlEt ro OplO'nKO 'tEAO~ rrov tllnEptaAtO'nKeDv CPtAOOO~teDV 'tTj~ nOATj~, ana Kat va EnaVOpSeDO'Et tn O'cpaAlla'ta nou llaO'nsav 'to KaSCO''t"eD~. «To nOAi't"wlla Ila~ sivct 8tEcpSapllevo, Xropi~ t;llel~ va aVTjO'uxoUIlE yt' unto Kat xropi~ va cpPov'tisOUIlE va 'to IlE't"appuSlliO'oUIlE. Ano ru epyuO"t"~pta Ila~ Ka'tTjyopoullE 1:0 xpnro; Kat to'XuptsollaO"t"E on nO't"E uno OTjIlOKpanKo KaSEO''t"eDC; OEV ciXallE 't00'0 KaK~ OtaKU~EpVTjO'Tj. Ouo»; crnv npaYllanKO'tTj'ta, Kat O''t"Tj O'KE\jITj llaC; IlEO'a, tKaVOnotooucors nEplO'O'O"CEPO IlE au't~ napa IlE EKelVTj non KATjpOVOIl~O'aIlE uno rou; npovovou; Ilac;. Ttu 't"Tj OWiKTjO'Tj au't~ npoxst'tat EyeD va IltA~O'ro 't"eDpa Kat yw rnv avan't"u~Tj 'tOu.SElla'toc; au'tOD s~'tTjO'a va napoucrtaO''teD IlnpoO''t"a crac;. Ftcri morsuro on -0 1l0VO~ 'tponoc; va ananaYOUIlE ano 't"Tj O'TjIlEPtv~ aSAtO'tTj'ta Kat va a'roue; llSAAOVUKOUe; K1VcSUVOUe; Eivat va anocpaO'iO'ourTle; oTllloKpariae; sKsivl1e; nou 8SllSAiroO's 0 LOArovae; Kat anOKarsO'rTlO's 0 KAslO'8svTle;, atupdvvoo;» (§ 15 - 16). Au't~ Tj tuitpto; 617f10Kpaano 'tTj O'u'YXpov~ roo oTjIlOKpa'tia ano 'to YEYOVO~

v IlEV O'''CTjV icornrc rorv nOAt'teDV, AaIl~aVS ouo»; v npoO'romK~ a~ia ron KaSEvoc;. Tt' nuro Kat smxsTjC; opisov'tav ot mo evnuot Kat ucovoi avopsc;, IlE Kat OXt IlS KA~proO'Tj. Kat Ka't"aA~YEt: «TEAOe;, ot

~ 'tTje; snox~~ cixav 111 YVeDllTj on npEnSt 0 Aao~, va owpiSSt rou; apxov'tsC;, va ttuoipst exeivou; Kat va naipvst anocpaO'St~ yw ru sTj't~lla'ta non KaSeDC; Kat on sxeivot non EXOUV XPOVO owSt-

il1(,,1I'<'O'" nspwuO'ia npEnSt va cppov"Cisouv, onroc; ot unTjOTjIl0O'W npaYlla't"a Kat, av anOOEtX'tOUV oiKaWt, va Kat va upxouvrm crnv nll~ au't~, EVeD av naAt Stet-

117

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o nOAlrllC; atnv Apxaia EAAciba

Kl)crOUV KaKcOe; ~11v nOA1~sia, va ll11v sAnit,;ouv ce Kallia emstxeto, aUa av~i8s~a va ruunpouvtm us ~11v aUO"111pO~SP11 norvn, ITcOe; sivat, AOtnOV, Suvcrov va Bps8si b111l0Kpa~ia cr~a8spo~sP11 xrn blKatO~SP11 ana sKsiv11 nou ava8E~Sl croix mo ucovoo; ~11 blaxsiPlO"11 rorv un08scrscov ~11e; nOAltsiae;, evro cruyxpovcoe; smBaUsl c' amoue; rov Aao coe; Kupiapxo;» (§ 26 - 27). ITpOKEl~al aKplBcOe; Yla to crOAcOVSlO nOAhwlla, oncoe; 8a LO nsplsypa<ps apyo~spa 0 AplO"LO~SA11e; crnv 'Aiinvakov Ilosneia. 0 Icoxpntrp; opovnce 0- Ilcoe; va unoypallilicrsl rov b111l0KpanKo roo xapanl)pa Kal cruyxpovcoe; ansblbs ~11v a~ia LOU tcoppomjusvou nurou nOAl~sullaLOe;, onou ot <p~coxoi bla<pUAacrcroV1av ana ~11v s~a8Aicocr11 XaP11 cr~11 ysvvalObcopia rorv nAoucricov, ctnv s~oucria roo ApSlOU ITayou. «~lon sixs anaUa~sl roix; <p~coxoue; ana ~11v OlKOVOlllKl) cr~svoXcOpla Ils ~11v spyacria non LOUe; SblVS Kat ~11 BOl)8sta nou roue napsixav ot nAoucrlOl, Ka8cOe; Kat ~11 vsn ysvla ana ~11v aKoAacria, XaP11 crne; acrxoAise; nou ~11e;napsixs Kat to sVbla<pspov non EbS1XVS Yl' au~l)v. Tou; nOAl~wOIlSVOue; LOUe; anaUa~s ana ~11V nAsovs~ia IlS ~11V aucr~11 Pl) nllcopia Kat IlS to va 1111 bta<pSUYouv ot ablKOUvtSe;, rou; vepovrotspooq LOUe; anaUa~s ano ~11 Bapu8ullia us tn npovoutu non rou; napsixs 11 nOA11 Kat ~LS LOV crsBacrllo non SbSlxvav ot VSO~SpOl. Eivm, AOtnOV, Suvarov va Bps8si aU11 nOAl1S1aKl) cruYKpo~11cr11IlS IlsyaAu~sp11 a~ia ana nurnv nou npovonos roco KaAa Yla oAa;» (§ 55). Kat Yla va ano<puysl ~11V m8avl) Ka~11'Yopia on sK<ppat,;s~at aVnb111l0KpanKa, 0 Icoxpcrn; smBsBatcOVSl buvalllKa on npoxstrm Yla ~11V npaYllanKl) b111l0Kpa~ia, sxeivr] non sixs sYKa81bpu8si ano LOUe; mo uoootonrevoo; crov Aao avbPSe;.

E~O"l, Ilscra crs uurov LOV AOYO - npoypalllla, 0 Icoxprirrp; bSV npoBaAs rov nsptoptouo rou nOAlnKou crcOlla~oe; 1l0VO crouc Ka~oXOUe; evoc OplO"llEVOU Slcrobl)lla~Oe;. 'OAOl ot nOAhse; snpsns va napallsivouv KUPlOl ~11e; SKAOY1Kl)e; blablKacriae; Kat rrov blKao-nxrov ano<pacrscov. To 1l0VO rrou 8a ~E<PWYS ana ne; apIlOblO~11- ~se; roue l)~av 01 b11llocrlse; un08scrsle;, r«; onoia; 8a avaAaIlBavav 01 nAoucrlOl, Ka8cOe; bls8s~av Kat LOV anapah11~o sAsu8spo Xpovo.

118

H eeOJplluf(~ mcelflll via "IV nOAmlC~ uiurtnia

E~O"l, ansblbs VOlllll11 lO"XU os Ilia Ka~aO"1acr11 nou, oncoe; siballS, ano~sAoucrs npaYllanKo~11~a, aAAa Ilia npaYllanKo~111U IlS cpxs~se; s~atpscrsle;, Kat cr' au~se; aKplBcOe; ru; S~atpscrsle; nnpsusve npocrKoU11IlEVOe; 0 c5ijf1or;.

3. 0 IIOAITHl: l:YM<DQNA ME TIl: 0EQPHTIKEl: KAT Al:KEYEl:

T11v ibla crnYIll), AOtnOV, nou OPlO"llSVOl avat,;11~oucrav rpozoi»; va sYKa81bpucrouv Ilia Ils~plOna8l) b111l0Kpa~ia zoo, svro 8a bla~11- pooos ~11V Kuplapxia trov crUVSASUcrSCOV trov nOAltcOV, O"111V npa~11 8a nsploplt,;S ~11v Kuplapxia aU~l), nsplOpit,;ov~ae; stoucotepn ~11 cruxvo~11~a trov crUVSASUcrSCOV, ot <plAocrO<plKSe; crxoAse; avat,;11~ououv usou ana 8sCOP11nKSe; Ka~acrKwse; !11V lbaV1Kl) nositeia.

o ITAa~covae; sivm svae; ana roo; IlsyaAU~spoUe; <P1AOcrO<pOUe; OACOV rrov snoxcOv. To cnucvruco LOU sPyo s<p~acrs cs Ilae; Ils ~11 1l0p<Pl) blaAOYcov zoo 0"10 IlsyaAu~spo uspo; LOUe; SXOUV o»; npco~aycoV10"1l) rov McrKaAO LOU LcoKpa~11, non Ka~ablKacr~11Ks os 8avaw ana ro AatKO blKacr~l)plO roo 399, Ils ~11 btnAl) Ka~11Yopia on blS<p8s1PS tou; vsooc xrn on slO"l)yays vsoo; 8soue; crrnv nOA11. 0 ITAa~covae;, nou Ka~ayo~av ana utu IlsyaA11 a811vatKl) OlKOYSVSta, sixs sYKa~aAshvsl Yla iv« XPOV1KO blacr~11lla ~11V nOA11IlS~a LOV 8avaw tou bacrKaAou LOU. Otnv snscr~ps\j1S crnv A8l)va, bSV to sxovs yta va aKoAou8l)crsl nOAtnKl) xuptspn aAAa Yla va lbpucrSl 1l1a <plAOcrO<plKl) crXOAl), ~11V AKab11llia, noo YPl)yopn npocrsAKucrs lla811~Se; ana OAO LOV SAA11vlKO xoouo. L~OUe; blaAOyoue;, rou; onoiouc cruvs8ws ana ~11V apXl) roo atcOva scoe; !U ~sA11 !11e; bSKas~iae; LOU 350, 0 ITAa~covae; npocrsyyit,;Sl oAa ru <plAocro<plKa npoBAl)lla~a, ~11 IlS~a<pUO"lKl) Kat ~11 AOY1Kl), ~a uo- 811llanKa, ~11v 1181Kl) K.An. H cr~a8spl) roo OIlCOe; svacrxoA11cr11

5

119

5

o nOAh;YfC; OTYfV Aproia EAAdba

sivat Tj aVal;;~1TjO"Tj1Tj~ OtKatOO"t:JVTj~, Kat jlEo"CD aU1~~ 1Tj~ aval;;~- 1TjO"Tj~ 00Tjy~9TjKc 0"10 npO~ATjjla lOU KaAtYL"cpOU nOAt1cUjlalO~. ,Mo ano 1a Epya 10U emxevrorovovrm total1cpa 0"10 npO~ATjjla aU10: Tj Ilasiteia Kat ot NO{lOl.

3.1.1 H Ilosneia

L1TjV npoO"na9wl lOU va anav1~O"ct O"c evo» Myo lOU 0"0<ptO"1~ 8paO"ujlaxou ano 1Tj XaAKTj06va Kat va otajloP<PcOO"ct evo» Optouo 111~ OtKatOO"UVTj~, 0 LCDKpa1Tj~ OOTjycl1at 0"10V 9cCDpTjnKo O"XcotaO"jlO 1Tj~ tOaVtK~~ noAt1cia~. Ano 1TjV apx~ 9E1ct CD~ ocoojlEVTj1TjV uvicomru 1CDV nOAt1cOV, uvtcornru cYYcv~, av oXt anapal1Tj1a KATjpOVOjltK~, non ~aO"il;;c1at O"n~ npoO"CD1ttKE~ tKaV01Tj- 1c~ 1CDV tpuov ojlaoCDv non Suncpivst. «Eosu; nou store jlEATj1Tj~ nOAt1cia~, sicrs OAOt aOcA<poi, 9a 10U~ EAcya, O"uvcxil;;ov1a~ 1TjV icropiu aU1~. 0 9co~ OjlCD~ non O"a~ OTjjltOUPyTjO"c, aVEjlt~c Kat XpuO"o 0"1Tj O"uv9WTj exsivrov xou sivnt ucnvoi va otOtKOUV. Ft' aU10 Kat stvoi ot mo nOAUnjlot. AVEjlt~c apyupo 0"1Tj O"uv9wTj 1CDV <pUAUKCDV, O"ioTjpo Kat opcixaAKO ce cKciVTj1CDV cpya1cOv Kat 1CDV aAACDV 1cXVt1cOV. Ka9cO~ OAOt EXc1c 1TjV iota Ka1ayCDy~, 9a EXc1c natota non 9a O"a~ jlOtal;;ouv. Mnopst OjlCD~ ano 10V XpuO"o va ycvvTj9ci Eva apyupo 1EKVO Kat ano 10V apyupo Eva XpuO"o 1EKVO, Kat ot iotc~ napaAAaYE~ va OTjjlWUPyOUV1at Kat ano rc aAAa jlE1aAAa» (415 a - B). EniO"Tj~ ot apxoV1c~ O<pciAOUV va cnaypunvouv c00"1c va urro pouv va yivovrm jlc1aKtv~O"ct~, npoKctjlEVOU va rnpetrm Tj Ka1aVOjl~ 1CDV Act10UpytcOv. H O"uvEXcta 10U OtaAOYOU uoopri mo O"UYKcKptjlEVa crouq <puAaKc~: yt' au- 10U~ 9a cYKa9topu9ci aU10 10 Ka9cmcO~ 1Tj~ anoAU1Tj~ KOtVOK1TjjlOO"UVTj~, OXt jlOVO OO"OV a<popa 0"1a aya9a aAAa Kat O"n~ yuvaiKc~ Kat tu natota, ycyovo~ nou an01cAci 10 ~aO"tKo xapaK1TjptO"nKO 1Tj~ toaVtK~~ nOAt1cia~ non ncptypa<pc1at crnv IIoAlrda. L'tO cnincoo non jla~ cVota<pEpct, 1Tj~ nOAmK~~ tOt01Tj- 1a~, sivci O"a<pE~ on ot ycCDpyoi Kat ot 1cXVl1c~ ocv 9a ciXav xovev« nOAtnKO otKaiCDjla 0"1TjV nOATj aU1~, 1Tj~ onoinc OjlCD~

120

an01cAOUV jlEATj. OjlCD~, 10 iow 8a iO"xuc npoouvd»; Kat yta 'tOU~ <pUAaKc~, non ~1av snupopnouevoi us 1TjV cnaypunVTjO"Tj yta 1TjV aO"<paActa 1Tj~ nOATj~, evro cs sxeivouc nou ano 1Tj <pUO"Tj 10U~ sivm <pnaYjlEVOt yta va OWtKOUV, 10U~ sxnpooronoo; 1Tj~ XpUO"~~ <pUA~~, oTjAaO~ lOU~ <ptMO"o<pou~, cna<pic1at Tj <ppov1ioa yta 1Tj A~\IITj1CDV ano<paO"cCDv O"XcnKa us 10 tt sivm O"CD0"10 Kat oiKaw yta OATj 1TjV KOtV01Tj1a. H Ilosueia lOU IIAa1CDva ouYKpivc1at O"uxva us 10 nOAl1CUjla 1Tj~ Lnap11K Llta<pEpct OjlCD~ CD~ npo ; 10 ycyovo~ on ot ycCDpyoi Kat ot 1cXVl1c~ Sev ~pio"KOvrut O"c Ka1a0"1aO"Tj c~ap1TjO"Tj~, aAAa eivm nOAl1c~, ot orcoiot Ssv ota9E10uv 6jlCD~ aU10 nou yta 10U~ EAATjVc~ an01cAouO"c iowv lOU nOAl1Tj, oTjAao~ 10 otKaiCDjla 1Tj~ O"UjljlclOX~~ 0"1Tj A~\IITj 1CDV ano<paO"cCDv. 0 nAa1CDva~ c~aAAou Ssv E1pc<pc \llcuoatO"8~O"ct~ CD~ npo~ 1Tj Sovurornrc npayjla10noiTjO"Tj~ uuro» xou yta sxsivov, 1cAtKa, av~KC 0"1Tj O"<paipa 10U jlu80u, 10U qxrvrucruco».

3.1.2 o. NOpOl

o OtaAoyo~ 1CDV NO{lwV sivat 10 1cAcu1aio EPYO lOU IIAa1CDva. H jlOp<p~ 10U LCDKpa1Tj Sev cjl<pavil;;c1at, aUa unapxct Eva~ uvrovujlO~ A8Tjvaio~ xoo nail;;ct lOV otKO 10U POAO anEvavn ce ODO O"UVOjltATj1E~, 10V KpTjnKO Kxsrvtc Kat lOV Lnapna1Tj MEytAAO. Llcv sivrn 1uxaio on 0 IIAa1CDva~ cnEAc~c evuv Lnapna1Tj Kat evo» KpTjnKO. Llton ue 1TjV KP~1Tj Kat 1Tj Lnap1Tj O"UVOEOvtut tn ovoucro 1CDV ODO 8pUAtKcOV VOjl08c1cOV, 10U Mtvoxr Kat lOU AUKOUPYOU, croix onoiou; anooioc1at Tjna1p01Tj1a 1CDV xuAU1cpCDV VOjlCDV nou YVcOptO"c n01E Tj EUaoa, Ka8cO~ c~aUou 0 AUKOUPYO~ <pEpc1at va cjlnVcU0"1TjKc 1Tj vouoflscin lOU uzto 10U~ KpTjnKOU~ vououc. AUlOU~ aKpt~cO~ lOU~ VOjlOU~ KaAcl1at va c~c1aO"ct 0 Kpntuco; KActvia~ ev O\llct 1Tj~ iopuO"Tj~ jlta~ anOtKia~. 0 aVcOvujlo~ A8Tjvaio~ 9a aO"xoATj9ci jlc 1TjV cnc~cpyaO"ia 1CDV VOjlCDV yta 1Tj jlcUOVnK~ oxoucio, cVcO ot aUOt ODO upxouvtm n~ nsptcooteper; <pOPE~ va O"Ujl<pCDV~o"OUV jlc tn c1ttXctp~jla-

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5

o nOAh'll:; atnv Aproia EAAd6a

1:a 1:0U. ~8V sivci ~8~airo~ avcu crl]llacria~ 1:0 y8YOVO~ on 0 A8l]vcioq, 011Aaoit 0 IIAa1:rova~, eivct 8KEiVO~ non Ka1:cu8uV8t 1:l] oui,:it1:l]crl]. ~ton, orto»; nupnrnpouv at nsptooorspot crXOAtacr1:e~, nOAAoi xnvovtouoi 1:l]~ 1l8UOvnKit~ anatKia~ 8ullii,:ouv 8KEiVOU~ 1:l]~ A8itva~. '011:ro~ Kat crnv A8itva, unapxouv, 8K1:0~ ano 1:l]V KOW01:l]1:a «ov nOAt1:CDV, at usroucot Kat at OOUAOt. Onro; Kat crnv A8itva, ot nOAh8~ Ka1:aVeIlOV1:at couqxovc 118 1:l]V nsptouoiu WU~ cr8 rsoosp«; nlloKpanKe~ 1:a~8t~. 'Onro~ Kat crnv A8itva, unapX8t Ilia 8KKAl]cria 1:0U oitllou Kat eva crull~OUAW. Ot 0IlOtO- 1:l]1:8~ ouo»; croucroov 8K8i. Ka1:' apxa~, Sion or 1:8xvh8~ anoKA8iov1:at uno rnv nOAt1:Eia «ov NOj1OJv. H, mo crUYK8Kptlleva, OAOt Ot nOAh8~ nou Ka1:a rnv iopucrl]1:l]~ anOlKia~ EAa~av ivc» KA11Po yl]~, i,:ouv uno ru 8tcrooitlla1:a auwu tou KAitPOU Kat 08V smtpsnstm v« 8moiDOV1:at cr8 81lnOptKE~ it 8nayy8AllanKe~ Spocr1:l] Pt01:l]1:8~.

Ot cnunvrucorepe; Dta<pope~, ollro~, uoopouv xupto»; ern A8t1:0upyia rorv 8WlleDV. 'OAOl ot nOAh8~ EXOUV 88ropl]nKa 10 otKairolla crull1l8WXit~ cru; crUV8A8Ucr8t~ 1:l]~ 8KKAl]cria~ 1:0U Dituou, ouo»; ot apIlODt01:l]1:8~ rrov crUV8A8Ucr8roV curcov D8V sivm cra<peD~ Ka80ptcrllev8~ Kat ot ano<pacr8t~ npen8t ce optousve; n8- ptn1:eDcr8t~, npoxetusvoo v« eivoi eYKup8~, va Aall~aVOV1:at 118 ouoqxovin, AV1:ie81:a, Ot 8~oucri8~ 1:0U 1:UIl~ouAiou sivut nOAU mo 8K1:81:alleV8~. Ta ileAl] ouo»; uuro» 1:0U 1:ull~ouAiou opii,:ov1:at 118 1:8Adro~ Dta<pop8nKa xprtnptn ano aU1:a 1:l]~ a8l]Vai:Kit~ BovAijC;. l:UYK8Kptlleva, Ka88 1:a~l] eX8t 1:0V iDW apt81l0 cvnnpooronrov, y8yovo~ nou npOUn08E1:8t 1:l] onunvnxotspn avaAoytKa avnnpootozeuon torv nAoucrirov, nco 8~ optouou eivm Aty01:8POt. E~aUou, roco yta 10 1:ull~ouAW oco Kat yta 1:l]V 8KKAl]cria tou Ditllou, unapxouv Dta1:a~8t~ nOD Ka8tcrwuv unoXP8ronKit 1:l] 1l0- Vtlll] napoucria rrov nAoucrirov, npaYlla xou D8V unmteirut yta WU~ <P1:roXOU~: 1l0VO l] unouotn trov nprororv 8a nllrop8hat 118 npoo'nuo. BAenOUIl8 va 8KDl]AeDV81:at Kat 8DeD, onro~ 8a DOUIl8 Kat crov AptcrW1:EAl], l] npocrna88ta ano<puyit~ 1:l]~ apxit~ 1:l]~ nA8W\jfl]<pia~ CJ1:l]v onoiu cr1:l]pii,:81:Ut l] Dl]1l0Kpa1:ia, npOK8tllEVOU va a-

122

H BeWpYf'CllClj mdljfYf yta 'CYfV nOA1'Clloj 1610'CYfW

no<pcux8d 10 ~apo~ zou exouv Ot \jfit<POl rrov <p1:roX01:8Prov nOAt- 1:eDV nou eivct Kat oi nsptccotspot. Ynapxouv Kat aAA8~ Dta1:a~8t~, Ol onoiec crull~aAAOuv crnv 8vicrxucrl] rev cvtcornrcov 1l8- 1:a~u rrov nOAt1:eDV, nou apxtKa aVnIl81:ronii,:ov1:at ro~ icot CJ1:0 Bsroprrnxo 8nin8DO, aUa D8V 8a CJ1:a80U1l8 cr' aU1:e~ 8DeD. Aurmcr1:eDVOUIl8 Aomov notoc it1:av 0 cr1:0XO~ CJ1:0V onoio ane~A8nav ot Dta1:a~8t~ aU1:e~: l] anoDocrl]1:l]~ npaYllanKit~ DwiKl]crl]~ 1:l]~ noAl]~ cr1:0U~ nAoucrt01:8pOU~, os sxetvou; noo DtE881:aV 1:0V anapai- 1:l]W 8A8U88PO XPOVO. 1:' aU1:0 10 onusio, Kat napa 1:l]V icrl] xctcvOllit trov yateDV, 1:l]V aucr1:l]pa pu8Ilti,:01l8Vl] ano 1:l]V nOAl] natDda Kat 1:0V nOAu npocr8xnKo eA8YXo 1:l]~ i,:roit~ rov nOAt1:eDV, l] nOAl] rrov NOj1OJv EX8t KanOta cruyyeV8ta 118 rnv, eD~ eva ~a81l0, <panaCJ1:tKit A8itva 1:0U nap8A80v1:0~ nou ava<pep81:at ano 1:0V Icoxpnrr] crov 'ApeonaYIJTll(o.

o APtcrW1:EAl]~ sivci 0 aUo~ 1l8yaAo~ <ptMcro<po~ 1:0U 40u ouovu. 1:8 aV1:iewl] 118 rov IIM1:rova, sxeivoc D8V 111:av A8l]vaio~, aUa itp88 CJ1:l]V A8itva yta va <pOt1:itcr8t <J1:l] crXOAit roo IIAa1:rova. Ka1:aY01:av ano ru 1:1:aytpa 1:l]~ Mcxeoovtnr; Kat it1:av yw~ yta- 1:POU crnv aUAit ron ~acrtAta 1:l]~ Mmcsdovicc, Ttn 1:0V Myo unto rov KaAw8 0 <I>iAmno~ Kat 1:0U aVE8w8 rnv 8KnaiD8ucrl]1:0U V8- upo» AAE~avDpou. 1:1:l] cruvEX8ta 8necr1:p8\jf8 crnv A8itva, ozoo Kat iDpucr8 1:l] DtKit 1:0U crXOAit, 10 AUK8W. IIV8UIla 8YKUKAOnatDtKO, 8KDitArocr8 8VDta<pEpov yta OAOU~ 1:0U~ rousf; 1:l]~ crKe\jfl]~. 1:1:0V Aptcr1:01:eAl] anoDiDOV1:at nOAAE~ smcrrjuovuce; npaYlla- 1:d8~, aAAa Kat 1:0 npeD1:0 epyo 1:l]~ nOAmKit~ 8mcr1:itlll]~, Ilia crnouDit rrov nOAt1:CUlla1:rov nou dX8 8n8~8pyacr1:d a<pou crUYKEvrpoce cr1:0tXda 0 iDW~ it ot lla8l]1:e~ 1:0U yta ru unapxona noAH8Ulla1:a. Ano ru 150 nOAt1:8Ulla1:a nou npaYlla1:8U1:l]K8 D8V creDi,:81:at napa 1l0VO l] 'A0lJvafOJv IIoA17:eia, epyo nou exouIl8 cruxva uvucepst.

Ta IIoA17:u((i ollro~, 10 1l8yaAo 1:0U EPYO, creDi,:81:at crX886v aKe-

123

5

5

o no din; CJ7:'lV Apxa[a EAAaOa

paw: AEinouv 1l0VO rc 1EAW1aia KE<paAata. Kat an01EAGt !lia nOAlln!lT] nTJY~ nAT]po<poptcOV, KaScOC; Kat Ilta tbtahEpa bta<pron<HtK~ crnoub~ rrov nOAtnKcOv crucr1T]!la1rov Kat 1T]C; nOAt1tK~C; tbt01T]1ac; trov EU~vrov.

3.2.1 0 O~w~o~ roo ltOALtlJ

~1a Ilosnuai 1i8E1at yta npc01T] oop« 10 npO~AT]!la 1T]C; avaYKat01T]1ac; EVOC; optouoo rou noAhT]. Aoo» EST]YGt os npc01T] <pacrT] ncOC; crXT]!la1icr1T]KE T] nOAT] , cr1T] cruvtXEta 0 Aptcr101t~T]C; EmbibE1at cr1T]V KPtnK~ Kanatrov nOAt1EU!la1rov nou napoucrtasovrut roc; nporunu -EhE eivrn <pav1acrnKa onroc; roo I1Aa1rova ~ aUrov SEropT]nKcOV, EhE npaY!lanKa onroc; 1T]C; ~nap1T]C; Kat trov KpT]nKcOV nOAErov- yta va Ka1UA~SEt cr1T]V Est1acrT] rcov unapx?V1roV nOAt1W!la1ffiV. KaScOC; O!lroc; tXEt opicst 1T]V nOAT] roc; utu KOW01T]1a nOAt1cOv, aU10 zoo npotXEt apXtKa eivm va !laSOU!lE ztotot; eivtn 0 noAhT]C;. «H evvoia 10U nOAhT] cruxva npoKaAGt bta<proviEC; ... EKEivoC; nco sivm nOAh11C; cs utn bT]!lOKpa1ia, cruxva bEV sivrn nOAhT]C; os Ilta OAtyapxia» (III, 1275 a 3 - 5). Tic 10V AptcrW1EAT], nOAhT]C;, !lE 1T]V «aucr1T]p~ svvoio», sivm EKGtVOC; non crull!lE1tXEt cr1T]V «xpiatv tcoi r1v apx1v» (1275 a 22 - 23), ~T]Aab~ crnc; AEtWUpyiEC; 10U btKa<H~ Kat roo aPXOV1a, crnc; onotsc nEptAall~aVEt OXt !lOVO nc; apxtc; noo uoopoov crE optousvo XpOVtKO btacr1T]lla, aUa Kat EKGtVEC; nou OVO!lasEt «cneptopicre;»; !lE1asU rrov onoimv wnoSE1Gt Kat 1T] crU!l!lEWX~ crnc; crUVEAEucrEtC; 1T]C; EKKAT]criac; ton b11!lOU. I'ivsrm a!lEcrroc; cra<pEC; on ano aU10; WV «AEt10UpytKO» opiouo anOKAGtov1at at yuvaiKEC;, ru natbta Kat, crnc; nOAEtC; onoo T] crU!l!lEWX~ aU1~ uoop« !lOVO cr10UC; onAi- 1EC;, at YEPOt nou EXOUV anaAAax8Gt ano nc; crprmcmxe; unnpecriEC;. AV1i8E1a, btamcr1cOVOU!lE on 1atptaSEt cr10V nOAhT] 1T]C; A8~vac;, soooov T] crU!lIlEWX~ Kat 1l0VO cr1T]V EKKAT]cria roo b~!lOU SEroPEhat on avnC)10tXGt os Ilia apx~. AU10 Sa unopouos Ka1' apx~v va npoKaAtcrEt EKnAT]ST], EK10C; Eav Aa~OU!lE uno\jfT] on cr1T]V Enox~ rou AptcrW1EAT] T] crUIl!lEWX~ cr1T]V EKKAT]cria 10U

124

b~!lOU a!lEt~01av !lE 10V AEY0!lEVO !uaB6. E1;aUou, onroc; 10viSEt Kat 0 iblOC; 0 AptcrW1EAT]C;, 0 optouoc aU10C; tcrXUEt xupio»; yta 10 bT]!lOKpanKO nOAhw!la, a<pou bEX0!lacr1£ on T] crU!lIlE10X~ cr1T]V EKKAT]cria 10U b~!lOU ouvtorri Ilia «cxepioptcrn» apx~. AUou, bT]Aab~ sxsi onou smxputouv OAtyapXtKa nOAt1EUlla1a, bEV unapxouv 1aKnKEC; cruvEAEUcrEtC; 1T]C; EKKAT]criac; Kat T] apx~ 10U btKa<H~ bEV sivor aVatX1~ crE OAOUC;. Tt' aU10 blOp8cOVEt EAa<ppcOC; rov opiouo WU: 8a anOKaAtcrEt nOAhEC; OAOUC; EKGtVOUC; nou btaSEWUV 1T] «Sovcrornro» crU!l!lEWX~C; cr1T]V apx~ 1T]C; A~\jfT]C; ano<pacrErov Kat cr1T] btKacrnK~ apx~, aKO!lT] Kat av unapxouv crnY!lEC; nou bEV uoxouv 111 bUVa101T]1a WUC; aU1~.

BAtnOU!lE on 0 APtcr101EAT]C; bEV btaXropiSEt 1T]V nOAt1tK~ tbt01T]1a ano 1T]V acrKT]crT] roiv nOAt1tKcOV Kat btKacrnKcOv AEt- 10UPY1cOV. Kat yt' aU10 rov Myo, EKn!la on Sa Enp£nE va ano!laKpuv80uv ano 1T]V 1b101T]1a aU1~ EKGtVat nou, Ka1a 1T]V ano\jf~ WU, sivm uvixcvot, Myro ron rpono» sro~c; 10UC;, va acrK~crouv nc; AE110UpyiEC; aU1tc;, aKO!lT] Kat av unapxouv nOAE1C;, onroc; eivut at bT]!lOKpanKtc;, xou WUC; Ent1pEnOUV 1T]V npocr~acrT] crnc; apXEC;: yta 10V AptcrW1tAT], npOKEt1at ouotccrucc yta 1ExvhEC;, Kat T] KaAU1EpT] ano tu; nOAl1C:iEC; -T] 1baV1K~ nOAt1Gta- bEV npOKE11at va too; crullnEp1Aa~Et cr10UC; noAhEC;. AvaYKacrnKa O!lroc; b1amcr1cOVE1 on 1U npaY!la1a bEV sivm erot. 'OX1 !lOVO Ot bT]!lOKpa1i£c;, aUa aKO!lT] Kat 01 n!lOKpanKEC; OAtyapxiEC; -KaScOC; noUoi 1Exvh£C; eivm nAoucrlO1- 10UC; 8EXOV1U1 roc; noAi1EC;. Tt' aU10, npoKE1!ltVOU va yiVE1 Ka1aVOT]1~ T] SEcrT] rcov bta<pOprov 1aSErov rrov nOAt1cOV, !ltcra cru nOAtnKa crucr1~lla1a, nptnE1 va £SE1acrwuv rc crucr1~!la1a aU1a.

3.2.2 H (IVaAU(JlJ rrov ltOAtt£u~cit(J)v

Ka1aAa!l~aVE1 10 !lEyaAu1£po !lEPOC; WU EsatpEnKa nAoucrlOU Kat crUV8EWU KE1!ltvOU 10U AP1cr101tAT], EVcO T] !lEAE1T] WU ernpiSE1at !lEP1KtC; <pOPEC; cr1a ~l~Aia nou at crxoA1acr1tc; anoKaAouv «npaYllancrnKa», crE napabEiY!la1a nou baVGtSE1at ano EPWVEC;

125

5

5

o no}'JrYJr:; (J1:I7v Aprola EHdoa

TWU clXS KaVSt usoro trov ~a8T)"CCDV "COU. ~SV eivct npoenvo»; Suvorov, ern nA,aicrta ron Ks<paA,aiou curou, vn avaA,ucrou~s "Co crUVOA,O rou xstusvou. Ilpsnst uovo va 8u~0~acr"Cs on yta "COV Aptcr"CO"CtA,l1, non ypa<pst Ka"Ca "CO osu"Cspo juco "COu 40u mrovo; OSV unapxouv napa 860 "CunOt nOA,t"Csu~a"Crov, 11 ol1~oKpa"Cia Kat 11 oA,tyapxia, Kat «11 npay~anK~ ota<popa ~s"Ca~u ol1~oKpa"Cia~ Kat oA,tyapxia~ eivoi 11 <p"CcOxsta Kat 0 nA,ou"Co~», Ka8cO~ Ot <p"Croxoi sivat nuvroo Ot mo nOA,uapt8~ot Kat Ot nA,oucrWt ano"CsA,OUV ~SW\jfll<pia (III, 1279 b 39). H oucravaA,oyia au"C~ ava~scra crov apt8~0 «ov <p"CroxcOv Kat rov nA,oucrlrov eivrn s~aA,A,ou uuto TWU rov KaVSt va acrKcl KPlnK~ CY"Cll ol1~oKpa"Cia, onoo, Xapll o'rnv apX1l "Cll~ anOA,u"Cll~ tcro"Cll"Ca~ ~s"Ca~u OA,rov rov noA,t"CcOv, nav"Ca KUptapxouv Ot <p"Croxo1, nou SK <pucrsro~ ano"CsAouV rnv nA,SW\jfll<pia. ~sv unocr"CllpisSt oxrroco outs rnv oA,tyapxia, crnv onoiu npoorixtet xupto»; "Co ysyovo~ on, ~s "CO va anOKA,clSt rnv nA,SW\jfll<Pia rrov noA,t"CcOv ana "Cll A,~\jfll nov ano<pacrsrov, ol1~wupysi cruvsxcO~ anis~ ava"CapaxcOv Kat cruvsncO~ acr"Ca8sta~ ron Ka8scr"CcO"CO~. Erot, 11 acr"Ca8sta oomcl crnv a"Ca~ia, cr"Cll P~~l1 "Cll~ nOA,lnK~~ xoivomrcc, 011A,aO~ cr"Cll ouian, nco sivrn total1:spa cruv~811~ rnv snox~ rou Aptcr"CO"CtA,l1. Ilpsnst A,Otnov v« smxstpncoous, yta ru unapxov"Ca Ka8sCY"CcO"Ca, va anaAUvou~s "Ca ~SWvSK"C~~a"Ca non crxs'risov"Cat us n~ avtcro"Cll"CS~ au"Ct~, OXt ota "Cll~ sYKa8iopucrll~, onro~ cr«; ol1~oKpa"Cis~, ~ta~ «apt8~l1nK~~» too"Cll"Ca~, 11 ozoin c:moswcOvst -ozo»; cloa~s- "COv cvrnjrovtouo ~s"Ca~u nA,oucrirov Kat <p"CroXcOV, ana ~ta~ «aVaA,oytK~~» ~ «ysro~tS"CptK~~» tcro"Cll"Ca~, non 8a anoKa8tcr"COucrs rnv Ka"Cw"Cpa~~tvll tooppomu. Erot, yta napaosty~a, crs ~ia ol1~oKpa"Cia 8a smrpsnsrm 11 \V~<po~ uovo cs rooo»; <p"Croxou~ ocot sivat Kat ot nA,ouCYtm, ~ ce ~ia oA,tyapxia 8a emrpsnetut 11 npooreprvn npocr~acrll ce optousvs; A,st"Coupyis~ yta sxsivoix nou KaVOVtKa anOKA,cloV"Cat ana "Cll A,~\jfll ano<pacrc:rov. Ilpoxerrm ouo»; yta npooroptvd ~t"Cpa. To tOScOos~ 8a ~"Cav va ~ava~pc:8c:i 11 tcopponia nou un~pxc: crn~ n6A,st~ rnv c:nox~ nou uovo ot onA,hc:~ siXav "Co otKairo~a cru~~s"COX~~ crnv sKKAllcria "COu o~~ou Kat ot

126

cruvC:A,sucrSt~ "Cll~ ~"Cav crnavts~ Kat Xropi~ nOA,uapt8~11 cru~~s"COX~, Ka8cO~ oi nsptcrcro"Cspm nOA,l1:s~ soucrav ctu; yais~ rou; Kat crnaviro~ ustuxtvoovtuv yta va tA,80uv crnv nOA,l1. 0 AptcrorsA,11~ cru~nA,tst srot ue "COU~ onaoou~ "Cll~ ttatpioo nOAzreiac; ~ "Cll~ natpioo 6'lPOKpariac;, nap' OA,O nou anOKaA,cl anA,cO~ nOA,t"Csia "Co tcoppomuisvo curo noA,hc:u~a. E~anou, onro~ Kat 0 oaCYKaA,6~ "COU IIA,a"Crova~, nicr"Cc:uc: on xovsvc ana ru unapxov"Ca nOA,t"Csu~a"Ca OSV eivoi npay~anKa anoosK"Co. I'i' curo Kat "CO tpyo roo Ka"CtA,mS os tva crxtow yta tnv tOaVtK~ nOA,t"Csia, noo oUCY"CuXcO~ napt~stVs aVOA,OKA,~pro"CO.

3.2.3 H tbaVtx~ ltOJ.l]

~"Ca 860 npcO"Ca ~t~A,ia rorv Ilosnuoi», 0 Aptcr"CO"CtA,l1~ sK8t"Cst "CO npoypa~~a xou a<popa crnv tOaVtK~ nOA,t"Ccla onro~ "Cll <pav"Cass"Cat 0 iow~. H smA,oy~ "Cll~ ysroypa<ptK~~ 8tCY11~, 11 tK"Cacr11 «ov soa<pcOv Kat 0 apt8~0~ "COu nA,118ucr~ou sivci ru npcO"Ca spro"C~~a"Ca non avn~s"CronisC:L Ocov a<popa croix; nOA,l1:s~, 0 <PtA,6cro<po~ mcrsoet on 0 apt8~0~ "COu~ nptnc:t va sivm nspwptcr~tvo~, ana xropi~ unsp~oA,t~: «Av ~ia nOA,l1 ano"CsA,sl1:at ana unc:p~OA,tKa Aiyou~ av8pcOnou~, OSV unopsi va sivot au"CapK11~ ... Av"Ci8s"Ca, av ano"CsA,sl1:at ana unSp~OA,tKa noA,A,ou~, stvut au"CapK11~ ro~ npoc ru avaYKaia, aA,A,a ~picrKS"Cat os Ka"Cacr"Cacr11 t8vou~ Kat oxt nOAt"Ccla~: yta"Ci cr"C11V nspin"Crocr11 au"C~ OSV sivm C:UKOA,O va unap~ouv nOA,lnKoi Bsouoi» (VII, 1326 b 1- 5). ~"C11v npay~anKO"C11"Ca, ot En11VS~ osv unopouv va qxrvtnctouv an11 nOA,lnK~ sro~ SK"CO~ ana "C11v a~scr11, Kat onro~ ava<ptpst Kat 0 <PtA,6cro<po~, os ~ia nOA,l1 ue "Cspacrnc:~ otacr"Cacrc:t~ OSV unopsi va etcoxoucrst 0 K~puKa~. Kat npocr8t"Cst: «anapal1:11"C11 npoun08w11 yta "C11oiKat11 xpicn Kat "C11V Ka"C' a~ia unovoun rcov apxcOv sivat va yvoipisouv ot nOA,hs~ "Co notov 0 tva~ roo aA,A,ou» (VII, 1326 b 15 -16). ~"C11V tOaVtK~ ouo»; nOAt"Cc:ia, oc:v 8a txouv OA,Ol n~ iOtc:~ ASt"COUpyic:~. Ka8cO~ ~UAtcr"Ca "Co tOaVtKO 8a ~"Cav 11 nOA,l1 va sivrn uurnpK11~, 8a nptnst 11 Kowo"C11"Ca va nsptA,a~~avst «tva nA,~80~ KaA,-

5

127

5

o nOAlr17C; O"T17v Apraia EAJ..rioa

Au;pyrrco)V non Sa napsxouv tu npo~ "Co /;;TjV, KaSID~ Kat "C!;xvi"C!;~, "CTjV "Ca~Tj "CCOV nOAeIlHnIDV, "CTjV "Ca~Tj "CCOV nAoucricov, "CCOV tep8COV Kat "CCOV btKacr"CIDV, non Sa anoq)Ucri/;;ouv yta ru avaYKaia Kat ru couospovrc» (VII, 1328 b 20). 'OAa OIlCO~ au"Ca ru anapahTj"Ca yta "CTj /;;co" Tl1~ xoivorntrn; aWlla Sev Sa eivor noAhe~. L"CTjV npaYllarucotntn, CJ"CTjV tbaVtK" nOAt"Cela, «ot nOAhe~ Ssv np8net va btayouv "COv ~io "COu xetpIDvaK"Ca OU"Ce roo sunopoo (Stott coroo "COU elbOU~ Tj /;;co" ctepetrm Wy8Veta~ Kat sivct av"CiSe"CTj Ile "CTjV ape"C,,), Kat Ssv npsnet enicrTj~ Ot nOAhe~ va sivoi KaUtepyTj"C8~, yta"Ci XPeta/;;e"Cat eAeUSePO~ XpOVO~ Kat yta "CTjV anOK"CTjcrTj "CTj~ ape"C,,~ Kat yta "CTjV acrKTjcrTj "CCOV nOAtnKIDV bpacr"CTjpw"C,,"Ccov» (VII, 1328 b 39 -1329 a 2). Ot bpacr"CTjptO"CTj"Ce~ au"Cs~ Sa «oopoov 1l0VO cr"COU~ aVbpe~ IDPtIlTj~ TjAtKia~, eKelVOU~ non Sa 8XOUV anaUaYel uno "CTjV nOAelltK" Aet"Coupyia nou sivut yta roue VeO"CePOU~. L"CTjV oooio npoxsrrut yta "CTj 1l0VabtK" ollaba nOAt"CIDv, Tj onoia Sa eivoi Tj 1l0VTj non Sa SXet Kat "CTj buva"CO"CTj"Ca npocr~acrTj~ crnv 8'Y'YeW tbWK"CTjcria -ot nOAhe~ "CTj~ tbaVtK"~ nOAt"Ceia~- KaSID~ e~icrou Kat cr"Ca ispurucc a~tIDlla"Ca, a<pou en8ASet to y"pa~ Kat Tj eYKa"CaAet'l'Tj "CCOV aUcov bpacr"CTjpw"C,,"Ccov. L"COU~ nOAhe~ au"COu~, non sivoi KU~ePVIDlleVot Ka"Ca "CTj VeO"CTj"Ca rou; Kat KU~ePVIDV"Ce~ Ka"Ca "CTjV eV"AtKTj /;;CO", np8net va nap8Xe"Cat natbela crull<PCOVTj Ile tou; btabOxtKOU~ pOAOU~ nou Sa KATjSOUV va avaM~ouv. Auto cnunivet on Tj anOKAetcrnKa cr"CpanconK" natbeia oxupnrmxo» tunou beV Sa "Caipta/;;e crnv tbaVtK" nOAt"Ceia Kat on np8net va anobibe"Cat lleyaA Tj cnucotc cr"CTj 1l0UCJtK" nou, nsptorrotspo ano KaSe aAATj bpacr"CTjpto"CTj"Ca, sivct tKaV" va npcerouuicei "COV avSpcono yt' uuto non anO"CeAel "COV CJ"C0XO "CTj~ nOAt"Ceia~: "COV W"CUXtcrll8VO ~io.

o Aptcr"CO"CSA11~, cs av"Ci9WTj us "COV I1M"Ccova, Ssv neptsypa\jfe rou; SecrIlOU~ "CTj~ tbaVtK"~ ron noAt"Cela~. @ecopoucre OIlCO~, onco~ Kat 0 I1Aa"Ccova~, av Kat bta<p8pouv os noU8~ AenwllSpstsq, on 0 nOAhTj~ "CTj~ tbaVtK"~ nOAt"Cela~ Ssv Sa urtopotxrs va embibe"Cat napa 1l0VO crn~ bUO bpacr"CTjptO"CTj"Ce~ non eivoi av"Ca~te~ ton eAeUSepOU avSpIDnou: tov nOAellO Kat "CTjV nOAtnK".

128

Axoun Kat Tj KaUt8pyeta "CTj~ yTj~, enetb" Ssv a<pTjVe "COV anapai"CTjWeAeUSepO XPOVO yta "CTjV anOK"CTjcrTj "CTj~ nOAt"CtK"~ ape"C,,~, 8npene va napaXCOPehat orouq bOUAOU~ " roix; e~ap"CTjj..l8vou~. BA8nOUlle cre now ~aSIlO Ot SeCOpTjnK8~ au"Cs~ Ka"CacrKw8~, nou bTjIlWUpy"STjKav oro nePt~aUov "CTj~ AS"va~, anelxav uno "CTjV npaYllanKO"CTj"Ca au"Cou ron nePt~aUov"Co~, au"C,,~ "CTj~ nOATj~ 0- zoo, onco~ <p8pe"Cat va A8et 0 LCOKpa"CTj~ cro spyo rou EeVO<pIDna, Tj e~oucria aV"Ke crnv eKKATjcria ron b"IlOU non anO"CeAOuv"Cav ano «yva<pel~, crKu"Cei~, "C8KWVe~, xaAKel~ Kat ellnopou~, zoo Ssv crK8<p"COV"Cat napa nID~ va nouA"crouv aKpt~a au"Ca nco ayopacrav cs XaIlTjA" nil"» ('An0j1V17j10veUj1ara, III, 7, 6). AUa, aKpt~ID~ yta va avn"CaxSouv CJ"CTjV npaYllanKo"CTj"Ca au"C", beV bTjIlWupyoucrav Kat ene~epya/;;ov"Cav tu crX8bta "CTj~ tbaVtK"~ nOAt"Ceia~ Ot <ptAOcrOcot nou /;;oucrav Kat bibacrKav ornv AS"va;

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o noJ..hllr; (nil)! Apxaia EJ..J..dba

MeyafJvc,Or; c5i oAlyapXIU bdAGUe innpdnetv, Aiywv ra&. TO. j.1iv 'Oravytr; elne topavvioa tuuxov, AdixOw ldlj.101 toirca, ra b' er; to nAqOor; avwye rpipelV ro «patoc, YVWj.1ytr; rqr; apiarytr; ~j.1aprrJKe. OJ.1IAOV yap axp~lOv ovoiv earl ac,VVerwrepOV ovoi vfJplarorepOV. Kaitoi topdvvoo f5fJPIV rpeuyovrar; avbpar; er; O~j.10V al(oAaaWV f5fJPlv neaeiv earl oubaw'iJr; avaaXerov. '0 j.1iv yap e'i ti ttoteei, up bi ou6i ytvdxncetv eVI. 1CWr; yap av vivdxncoi or; our' eolbaXOyt oine el& TCaMv ou6iv ovo' ObC~lOV, (beiel ie ej.1neawv ui np~yj.1ara aVeV voov, Xelj.1appcp ttouuui: 'iTcdor;; b~W{J j.1iv vvv, 01 Ileponai TCaTCOV voeooai, OUWI XpaaOwv, ~j.1e'ir; c5i avbpwv rwv aplarwv emAic,avrer; OJ.1IAlytV WUWI(Jl nepIOiWj.1eV to tcptiioc, ev yap b~ tootoun xoi obtoi eVWOj.1eOa, opiatcov 6i avbpwv obco; Iipiota fJOVAeUj.1ara ylvwOaz.

o MEya~uSo~ oxrtooo nnpotpuvs vc Uvu8€crouv 1TJV nOAHdu cs IltU OA1YUPXtU, A€YOV1U~ 1U E~~~: «Q~ npo; UU1a non UV€<PEPE 0 01aVTJ~ crXEnKa IlE 1TJV KU1apYTJcrTJ 1TJ~ 1UpUVVtbU~ crull<ProwD Kl EYW. AAAa UU10 rcou nporstvs, vu UVU8€crE1E 1TJV E~OUcrtU cr10V AUO, bEV sivut TJ KUAl)1EPTJ YVWIlTJ. ~lon bEV unaPXE11tn01E TClO UVtKUVO Kat mo uu8abE~ uno 10 aXPTJcr10 nA~80~. Kat eivm unupabEK10 aVbPE~ non 8€AOUV vc ~E<PUYOUV uno 1TJV uAusovdu 10U tupnvvou vt: n€crouv cr1TJV UAUSoVEtU 10U UXUAtVro1Ou nA~- 80u~. ~lon uv 0 1UpUVVO~ KavEl Kan, 10 KavEl EV yvWcrE110U, EVW oro nA~80~ OEV unapXEl OU1E KUV TJ yvwcrTJ. Kat nw~ 8u IlnOPOUcrE vu €XEl yvwcrTJ KanolO~ nou bEV €XEl blbUX1d OU1E €XEl bEl Kan KuM, uUa ro8Et 1U npaYllu1U xropt~ AOY1K~, ouv XEtIlUPPO~ ucruYKpa1TJ1O~;

Exeivot Aomov nou ETCl8UIlOUV 10 KUKO «ov Ileporov, u~ ETClA€~OUV 1WPU 1TJ bTJIlOKPU1tu. Elld~ ouo»; u~ ETClA€~OUIlE uiu ouribu uno 10U~ KUAU1EPOU~ aVbPE~ Kat U~ 10U~ Uvu8€crOUIlE 1TJV

130

E~OUcrtU. ~lon, ~€~atU, Kl Elld~ 8u dllucr1E uvriusou c' UU1OU~, soocov sivat qmouco 01 KUAU1EPOl av8pronOl vc AUIl~avouv ru; KUAU1EPE~ uno<pacrEl~.

'HpoM10U, 'Iaiopubv, I', 81

To nOAlttUIUl nov npoyov<ov

Ol yap e1CeIVOV rov xpovov r~v nOAlv blOlTCouvrer; tcateatnaavto nouteiav OU1C ovouau j.liv reP 1COlVOrarcp «ai npoouiu» npoacsopeoouevnv, eni 6i rwv npac,ewv ou ioiosnnv ioi; evrvYXaVOVal oxuvopsvnv, ouo'if toinov rov tponov enal&verour; nosiuu; waO' ~yefaOe r~v j.liv oxolaaiav bytj.1oTepariav, r~v oi napavouiav eAevOepiav, r~v oi noppnoio» laovouiav, r~v 0' ec,ovalav rou toirta notsiv eVOazflovlav, aAAaTeal piaoiiaa xoi TeOAa(OVaa too; rOlOUWVr; fJdrlovr; teal ocoppovsatepoo; linavtm; toix; nosiu»; Imoinaev, Menatov 0' aurofr; aVVefJaAerO ttpoc; rOTeaAWr; OITeelV r~v nOAlv, on ovofv laoimotv vOj.1l(oj.1ivazv elvaz, Teal rqr; j.liv raurov tmoaiv onoveuoionc, rqr; oi ro tipoahtcov iiaiatotc, OUTe ~yvoovv r~v xpytalj.1wripav, aAAa r~v j.1iv rwv aurwv ac,lOuaav wur; xpytawur; Teal too; novnpoo; aneOOTeifla(ov ox; ou oucoio» ovaav, r~v 6i xai« r~v ac,lav 81caawv iuubao» (tcoi TeOAa(OVaav) npoupouno xoi Ola raurytr; cPTeOVV r~v nOAlv, OUTe ec, anavrwv rar; apXar; dytpouvw; aAAa wur; fJdriawvr; teal wur; ixavaruiioix; erp' 8TeaaWV rwv epywv npotcpivovtec. Totootoo; yap ifAm(ov eawOaz «oi wur; IUAovr;, 0101 nep av W(JlV ol rwv npayj.1arwv emarawuvrer;.

EKEtVOl Aomov nou dxuv '!TJ blOtKTJcrTJ 1TJ~ nOAt'!du~ Ku'!a '!TJV nUAat01EPTJ Enox~, EYKU1€cr1TJcrUV nOAhwllu noo EtXE OVOIlU npocrqnA€cr1U10 c' OAOU~ Kat YAUKU'!U'!O, UAAa cr'!TJV npuYllunKo- 1TJ1U bEV oarvorov 1€1OlOU dbOU~ os ocou; 10 soucruv. AU10 to nOAhwllu OU'!E EKnutbEuE '!OU~ nOAhE~ IlE rsrotov rpono Wcr1E vu 8Eropouv '!TJ OTJIlOKPU1tU UKOAUcrtU, '!TJv nupuvolliu EAEU8Epiu, ,!TJv u8upocr10lltU icornru un€vuvn cr10U~ VOIlOU~ KUt W1UXtU 1TJ bUVU101TJ1U vn KaVEt KanOto~ uu'!a. A V'!i8E1U, IlE 10 vc utosi

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Kat va nllffipd aVSpeDnOUe; ooroo "COU dooue;, KaSlcr"COucrE OAOUe; 1"OUe; nOAhEe; KaAU1"EpOUe; Kat <PPOVIIlO1"EpOUe;. EiXE E~atPEnK~ llaAW1"a crUIlPOA~ o'rqv KaA~ O1OiKTJcrTJ 1"TJe; nOATJe;, EnEIO~, EVeD unapXEl TJ oo~acria '1la 860 dOTJ lcr01"TJ1"ae;, ana ne; ozois; TJ Ilia cnovsust c' OAOUe;1"a iOla EVeD TJ aAATJ o.n 1"atplaSEl cr1"OV KaSeva, OEV a'1vooucrav 1"TJ XPTJO"lIlO1"EPTJ. AU' EKdvTJ non eowE 1"a iOla OlKateDlla1"a Kat crou; TJSIKOUe; Kat croix nOVTJpoue; avSpeDnOUe;, 1"TJV anoooKillaSav, '1la1"i 1"TJ Bscopououv a01KTJ, EVeD EKEivTJ non nuoucs (Kat nuoipoooa) rov KaSeva crull<Pffiva IlE 1"TJv a~ia 1"OU 1"TJv rtpottuououv. ~U!l<pffiva u' aU1"~v, AOl11:0V, pUEllllSav 1"TJ o1OiKTJcrTJ 1"TJe; nOATJe; Kat OEV E~eAE'1av rou; apXOV1"Ee; an' OAOUe; rou; nOAhEe; aVE~atpe1"ffie;, aAAa '1ta KaSE AEl1"OuP'1TJlla npoeKplvav rov KaAu1"Epo Kat tov lKaV01"Epo. L110n dxav 1"TJv EAnioa on Kat 01 UnOAOl11:Ol nOAhEe; Sa yivouv 1"e1"01Ol, onffie; aKpIPeDe; eivct xm 01 apXOV1"Ee;.

'Icoxpuroix, 'ApeonayrrrlTCOe;, 20 - 22

nptircov f.1ev rov aurwv OYTCOV toii apl0f.10U Mi ui~aaOaz, ttoaov elvoi XpeWV' f.1era be toirto r~v bwvof.1~v rwv nOAzrwv, TCaO' onoaa f.1epIJ nA~Oel tcai OnIJAiTCa otoipsteov oiaoic; aV0f.10AoYlJreov· ini be toiita tnv te y~v tcai rae; obc~aele; orl f.1aAzara iaai; enlVef.1IJreov. OYTCOe; M nA~OOVe; bcavo; OUTC aAACOe; opOwe; yiYVOlr' av AeXOde; q npo; tnv y~V tcai npo; rae; rwv nAlJalOXWpcov nOAele;. y~ f.1ev onoon noaoo; oibopovae; ovrae; iTeav~ tpepeiv, nAdovoe; be oubiv npoaoei, nA~OOVe; be, onoaot rove; npoaxwpove; abucouvrae; te aurove; af.1vvaaOaz bvvaroi tcoi yeitootv eavrwv ab,TCOVf.1eVO,e; fJOIJO~aal f.1~ navttinoatv anopcoe; bvvalvr' av ... 'Huiv bi ~ rwv VOf.1COV vnoOeaze; evrauOa lifJAeneV, oncoe; we; eubazf.1Oveararol liaovraz teal on f.1aAlara aAA~AOle; rpiAol. e1eV bi OUTC av note ttositiu rpiAOI, onov noAAai f.1ev bilcaz ev aAA~AOle; elev, noAAai bi abuciaz, aAA' onov we; on ouucpotauu xni oAiYlaraz. Aeyo-

132

uev b~ f.1~re xpvaov oeiv f.1~re apyvpov tv rfl nokl, f.1~re au XPIJf.1atiauov nOAvv bla fJavavaiae; «oi totaov f.1IJbi fJoaTCIJf.1arCOv olarpd», aAA' ooa yecopyia bfbcoaz xoi rpepel, teal rovrcov onooa f.1~ XPIJf.1an(of.1eVOV avaYTCaaezev aW;Ae'iV wv eVeTCa nerpl)TCe ui xp~f.1ara· tairca b' eari IfII)X~ TCai atiuui, Ii xcopie; yl)f.1VaarITC~e; tcoi r~e; aAAIJe; nazbeiae; OUTC av xote yevotto a~w Myol).

ITpeD1"a npenEl va optctsi notoc Sa sivat 0 cruvoAIKOe; aplSIlOe; rcov xntoixoiv. 'Y ctspu TJ olaipwTJ tmv nOAl'teDV cs 'ta~ele;, a<pou crull<PffiV~crOUlle '1ta 'tOY aplSIlO Kat 'to lle'1eSoe; rrov unOOlatpecrEffiv nou npenEl va '1ivouv. TBAoe;, npenEl va uoipccoous 'tTJ '1TJ Kat 'ta crnina oco 'to Sovoro mo OiKata. Ttn va optcouue ouo»; orocr'ta 'tOY aplSllo rov xntoixrov, npenel va pacrwWUlle cr'tTJ '1TJ Kat cru; nOAele; non unapxouv eKd KOV'ta. Tocn, OTJAao~, '1TJ, ocn eivm anapahTJ'tTJ '1la 1"TJ Ota1"PO<P~ opiousvou aplSIlOu xcroixrov xffipie; crna'taAEe;. Ilspurcotspn OeV XpelaSe'tal. Kat rocot KawlK01, eDcr'te va Ilnopouv va uunvovtm otuv aOlKouv'tat ana rou; '1eiwvee; roue, ~ va POTJSouv ne; '1El'tOVIKee; rou; nOAele; ornv aU'tee; cSucoovnn ana aAAOUe; ... AnoKAelcrLlKOe; oxonoc 'tTJe; VOlloSwiae; Ilae; ~'tav va sivci 01 nOAhee; oco 'to Suvnro mo EU1"UXWlleVOl Kat <piAOllle'ta~u roue. L1Ev Sa yivcuv 0llffie; no'te <piAOl 01 nOAhee; av vivovrc. otKee; Ile'ta~u roo; Kat noUee; a01Kiee;, napa 1l0VO av aU'tee; sivrn crnavlee; Kat acr~llav'tee;. I't' nuro 'tOY AO'1O onoornpiSOUlle on OeV npenEl va unapXel crnv nOATJ OU'tE xpucra<pl outs acr~lll OU1"e nOAUe; nAouncrlloe; ana XelpffivaKnKee; ep'1acriEe;, "COKO'1AU<piee; Kat nopvsiu, aUa oon ano<pepel TJ '1Effip'1ia, xm an' aU'ta roon oon xnvovru; sunopto Kavde; va IlTJV ~Exva 1"OV oxono '1la 'tOY ortoio E<peUpeSTJKav 'ta xp~lla'ta, OTJAao~ '1la 'tTJV \jfUX~ Kat 1"0 orouo, nou xffipie; 1"TJ '1UllvacrnK~ Kat 1"TJ '1EVIKO'tEPTJ EKnaioeucrTJ OEV Sa '1ivov'tav nO'te a~loAo'1a.

ITAa'tffiVOe;, NOf.1Ol, E, 737 c-d Kat 743 c-d

133

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o nOAhrr;; atnv Aprcda EAAa6a

JOK8l 15' eivoi rwv aJvwirwv to 8VVOfJ,8l0Baz r1v fJ,1 aplaroKparovfJ,ivnv nOAlv aAAa ttovnpoxpaioousvnv, ouoiox; be tcai apurtotcpcuiaiku r1v fJ,18VVOfJ,ovfJ,ivryv. OVIC earl be 8vvofJ,ia to 8D K8laeaz too; VOfJ,OVr; fJ,1 ncieweaz be. JIO uiav fJ,iv dJvofJ,iav unoArynriov elvai to ncie8aeal toi; tceiusvou; VOfJ,Olr;, eripav bi to KaAWr; K8laeaz too; VOfJ,OVr; ole efJ,fJ,ivovazv (earl yap ncieweaz tcoi IWKWr; xeiusvoic}.

Emxpntsi oc Tj av'tiATj\jfTj on eivm aouva'tov va suvousitm Tj nOATj rnv ozoic OcV KU~cpvouv at aptcr'tOt ana ot otc<p9apj..levot nOAhe~, onco~ eivct aouva'tov va KU~cpvouv Ot aptcr'tOt nOAhc~ cre j..lta nOATj non OeV euvoueitm. Asv eivrn OJ..lCO~ suvouiu 'to va unapxouv orocroi vouoi ana va unv WU~ unnxouet Kavcl~. I'i' «oro Kat npenct va OCXWUj..lC on eva doo~ suvoutuc eivut va umncouoov at nOAhc~ croix unapxov'tc~ VOj..lOU~ Kat aAAO doo~ va unapxouv otootoi vouoi crou; 01tOlOU~ va U1taKOUOUv at 1t0- Ahc~ (oton u1tapXct Kat unaKO~ os VOj..lOU~ KaKro~ xsiusvoix).

'Aptcr'to'teAou~, Ilosituai, IV, 1294 a 1- 6

Miywrov be navrwv rwv elpnuevcov npo; to bzafJ,iv8lV uu; nOAlr8iar;, OD vvv oAlywpoval tuivtec, to naz6cu8aeaz npo; uu; noAzrciar;. 'VrpcAor; yap oveiv rwv WrpcAlfJ,WrarWV VOfJ,WV xoi avv6cboc;aafJ,ivwv uno tuivrwv rwv nosneoopsvcov, ei fJ,1eaovraz clelafJ,ivOl tcoi n8nal6cvfJ,ivOI ev rfl nosueio. cl fJ,iv of VOfJ,Ol bryfJ,orllcoi, bryfJ,orlKwr;, el 15' oAlyapXIKoi, oAlyapXIKWr;. einsp yap earl v erp' svoc; aKpaaia, earl teal eni nOA8Wr;. "Earl be to n8naz6cvaeal npo; r1v ttosneiav 015 toino, ro noteiv ole; xaipovazv of oAlyapxovn8r; Ii of onuoxpattav POVAO/lBVOI, aAA' Olr; oovnoovtoi of fJ,iv oAlyapxc'iv of be onuoxpoxeiaiku.

Ano oAa oou ctnro9TjKUV, W cnouomotspo yta 'tTj ota't~pTjcrTj tou

134

H eewpy/1:11oj (71dlfly/ via 7:y/V nOAl7:l1(1j IOI07:177:a

nOAHcUj..laW~, W onoio OAOt 'tropa napaj..lcAOUV, sivnt Tj otanatoayroyTjcrTj rorv nOAHrov cruj..l<pcova us 'to 1tOAheUj..la. Aton xuvsvn O<pcAO~ ocv 1tPOKU1t'tct outs a1to WU~ mo co<peAtj..lOU~ VOj..lOU~ ours a1to n~ OJ..lO<pCOVe~ a1to<pacrct~ OACOV rorv 1tOAHroV, cay at 1toAhc~ OcV npoonpuocrouv oro 1toAhcuj..la usoto 'tTj~ aycoy~~ Kat 'tTj~ cruv~9cta~, cay sivm OTjj..lOKpanKo ota 'tTj~ OTjj..lOKpanK~~ aycoy~~, cay sivrn OAtyapXtKO ota 'tTj~ OAtyapXtK~~ aycoy~~. L!ton av ecr'tco Kat eva~ 1tOAhTj~ exct enct\jfTj auweAcYXou, unto unopsi va e1tTjpcacrct OATj tnv 1tOATj. IIatoda Oc us ~acrTj n~ apxe~ roo 1tOAt'tcUj..law~ Ssv sivct va acrxoAouV'tUt us oou roue eUXapiorouv ot OAtyapXtKOl ~ Ot OTjj..lOKpanKol, ana us oou 9a em'tpe\jfOuv ctoix usv va Ku~cpvrov'tat OAtyapXtKa Kat croix; Oc OTjj..lOKpanKa.

'Apt(J'to'teAou~, Ilosnuai, V, 1310 a 12 - 22

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135

1:YMnEPA1:MA

<l>'L"acm).u::, AOtTCOV, (no 'L"EAO~ 'L"l]~ YP~yopl]~ UU'L"~~ OtUOPOIl~~ IlEau U7tO rnv toroptu 'L"l]~ 7tOAtnK~~ tOtO'L"l]'L"U~. AVUYKU<HtKa, E7tEtO~ ot 7tl]YE~ Ilu~ ytU rnv KAUatK~ E7tOX~, KU'L"a 'L"l]V onoiu l] 7tOAl] cp'L"aVEt a'L"O U7t0YEtO 'L"l]~, coopoov ouotno-nxn crnv Ae~vu, l] 7tOAl] UU'L"~ U7tO'L"EAEaE 'L"O E7tiKEV'L"PO 'L"l]~ 7tpOa7taeEta~ Ilu~. ~EV eivat OJlC.o~ l] 7tpOEAEUal] trov 7tl]YcOV 10 IlOVO nino. ~ton crnv Ae~vu E7tiO"l]~ l] 7tOAtnK~ tOtO'L"l]'L"U ~pEel]KE O"E 7tA~Pl] Uva7t'L"U~l] Kat 'L"O «E7taYYEAIlU» 10U 7tOAhl] EYWE KUel]IlEpW~ 7tpuYllunKO'L"l]'L"U. Ki UU'L"O YtU'L"i, U7tO 'L"U 'L"EAl] 10U 60u UtcOvu, E7tt~A~el]KE l] tcorntn torv 7tOAt'L"cOV, to"O'L"l]'L"U KU'L"' UPX~V OtKuO"nK~ Kat 7tOAtnK~, 7tOU E7tE'L"PE7tE 'L"l]V E7tt~iffiO"l] tov UVtO"O'L"~'L"ffiV 7tOU EK «ov 7tpUYlla'L"ffiV O"UVOEOV'L"UV IlE 'L"l]V KU'L"UYffiY~ ~ IlE 'L"l]V xepiouote, UAAa EOWE E7tiO"l]~ O"E OAOU~ 'L"OU~ Ael]vuiou~ 'L"l] OUVU'L"O'L"l]'L"U O"UIlIlE1OX~~ O"1OV KUeOptO"IlO 'L"l]~ 7tOAtnK~~ 'L"l]~ 7tOAl]~, usoro rrov 'I'~CPffiV 'L"OU~ crnv EKKAl]O"iu 'L"OU O~IlOU. AAAOU Il7tOPEi E7tiO"l]~ VU U7t~PXE l] iotu KU'L"aO"'L"uO"l]. H l]YElloviu 7tOU UO"KEl l] Ae~vu cero 10 'L"EAO~ rev Ml]OtKcOV 7tOAEllffiV Kat IlE'L"a otyoopn O"UVE~UAE ornv E~a7tAffiO"l] rorv Ol]lloKpunKcOv eEcrllcOv O"'L"OV atyatUKO KO- 0"1l0, Kat Ka'L"a O"UVE7tEtU 0"'L"l] YEviKEUO"l] 'L"l]~ EVEPYOU~ 7tOAtnK~~ tOtO'L"l]'L"U~ 7tOU 0 Apto"'L"O'L"EAl]~ eu 'L"l] eEffip~o"Et ffi~ 'L"l] IlOVl] 7tOAt'L"tK~ tOtO'L"l]'L"U IlE 'L"l]V aUo"'L"l]p~ EVVOta 10U OpOU. 'Ollffi~, O"E IlEyaAo IlEPO~ 10U EAAl]VtKOU KOO"IlOU, l] EV'L"a~l] crnv 7tOAtnK~ KotVO'L"l]'L"a KaeOptSo'L"av a7tO mo aUo"'L"l]pa KPt'L"~PtU, 07tffi~ 'L"l]~ KU'L"UYffiy~~, 'L"l]~ 7tEptOuO"iu~, 'L"l]~ EyyEiOU tOtOK'L"l]O"ia~. E~aAAOU, l] EV'L"U~l] UU'L"~ OEV O"~llaWE U7tupuhl]'L"U 'L"l]V 7tpUYIlU'L"tK~ O"UIlIlE1OX~ a'L"l] A~'I'l] rmv a7tocpaO"EffiV, 7tOU acpopOUo"E 'L"EAtKa O"E Ka7totE~

137

o no},Ic1]!; O"C1]V Apxaia EAAdoa

!lEtO\jfYj<piE~ nOAUO:>v. MnOpOU!lE va OEX'WU!lE on Ka1a 1Yj otapKEta nov OUO cuovoiv 1Yj~ KA,a<HK~~ Enox~~ crUV1EASCHYjKE Yj E~SAt~Yj, us 1YjV svvoic 1Yj~ OtEUpUVcrYj~ rrov 1U~EroV 1Yj~ nOAtnK~~ KOtV01Yj1a~, npor; O<PEAO~ torv cvcrpoatov non YVcOPWE 0 EA.A.YjVtKO~ xoouoc, xupie»; Ka1a 1Yj OtapKEta WU IlsxonovvnmaKOU nOA,E!lOU. LUyXPOVro~ ouo»; -xoi Yj tctopic 1Yj~ A8~va~ sivrn tOta11Epa Ota<proncrnK~ ox; npoc aU10- Yj OtEUPUVcrYj aU1~ WU b1f1oV Kat «ov E~OUcrtcOV WU npOKaAWE avnopacrEt~, Ka8cO~ Kat 1YjV Em8wia va !lEtro8Ei 0 apt8!lo~ tmv nOAt1cOV us nAYtPYj OtKatcO!la1a. H !lEAS1Yj rev 8EroptcOV nou Ota1unc08YjKav IlE 8s!la 1YjV nOAtnKYt tOt01Yj1a !la~ Em1pSnEt va EKn!lYtcrOUIlE 10 !lsYE80~ rorv avnopacrErov aU1cOv. EiXav crUYKEKPt!lSVE~ EmopacrEt~ cr1YjV E~SAt~Yj 1Yj~ nOAtnKYt~ tOt01Yj1a~ orov EAAYjVtKO xoouo; L1EV eivm EUKOAO va anav1Yj8d 10 Epc01Yj!la aU10. L1YjV EA.A.YjvwnKYt EnoXYt, Ot nOAuapt8!lE~ Emypa<ps~ nou npOSPXOV1at ano r«; EAAYjVtKS~ nOAEt~, xupiox; ano n~ nOAEt~ trov uotnrucrov napaAirov rou Atvuiou, !lap1UpOUV !lta KanOta SronK01Yj1U 1Yj~ nOA,tnKYt~ opacr1Yjpt01Yj1a~: crUVEA,EUcrEt~ Kat crU!l~OUAta cruvsPXOV1at Kat \jfYj<pisouv ano<pacrEt~ non coopouv crn~ Ota<popE~ anO\jfEt~ 1Yj~ sroYt~ 1Yj~ KOtv01Yj1a~. Ot iOtE~ ouo»; ot nOAEt~ -!lE E~aipEcrYj AiYE~, onro~ Yj POOO~- OEV OtaOpa!la1isOUV napa acrYt!lavw poli,o cr1YjV atyataKYt nOAtnKYt, non KUptapXE11at cno 10U~ ~acrtAd~ roiv !lEYUAroV Kpa1cOV nco npoYtA8av ano 1YjV Auroxpnropin WU AAS~avOpou. L1YjV EA.A.uoa 10U cupronatKOU Eoa<pOU~, Yj uoprupia 10U W10ptKOU IIoAU~tOU, non SSYjcrE tov 20 uuovc n.X, mo'ronotsi on ot nOAEt~ Yt1av epuoio Wro1EptKcOV 1apaxcOv, nou 0<pEiA,OV1aV crnv a8Ato1Yj1U 1Yj~ nAEtO\jfYj<pia~ trov nOAt1cOV Kat non Ka8wwucrav 1EAEiro~ a~s~atYj Ka8E nOAtnKYt sroYt. Oco yta 1YjV A8Ytva, non ~picrKE1at crXE06v OtapKcO~ uno tov SAEYXO unKEOOVtKYt~ opoupu; EYKa1w1Yj!lSVYj~ cr10V Ilsipmo, SOUcrE nAsov ps 1YjV avu!lvYjcrYj 10U naAatOU 1Yj~ !lEyaAEiou Kat ano 1Yj <PYt!lYj rcov qnAocrO<ptKcOV 1Yj~ crXOAcOV. IIav10u cru; EA.A.YjVtKS~ nOAEt~ Em~E~atcOvE1at Yj unEpicrxucrYj trov smouvrov, mcoun Kat av u<picrutm EmcrYt!lro~ Yj nOA,tnKYt SroYt.

138

H av8Yj0"11 1Yj~ nOA,tnKYt~ tOt01Yj1a~ cr10V EA.A.YjVtKO xoouo aV1W10tXEi, AOtnOV, ce !lia crXEnKa crUV10!lYj crnY!lYt 1Yj~ tcropia~ 10U ounKou nOAtncr!lOU. Bs~ata, napaA.A.YjAa!lE 1YjV E~SAt~Yt 1Yj~, avan1ux8YjKE CHYj ounKYt MWOYEtO Kat Yj pro!latKYt nOAtnKYt tOt01Yj1a. L1EV 8a unopououus va napa8scrou!lE EOcO oAa ru xapaK1YjpwnKa 1Yj~, napa !lOVO va crYj!lEtcOcrOU!le KanOte~ ~a<HKS~ ota<pops~. Ka1' apxYtv, Yj pro!latKYt nOAtnKYt tOt01Yj1a nors OEV cruvEnayo1av 1YjV toorntu exeivov non 1YjV Ka1Eixav, OXt !lOVO yta1i unYtpxav ota~a8!licrEt~ crn~ E~oucrie~ non !lnopoucrav va acrKYtcrouv, aA,A,U Kat yta1i ot KOtVroVtKS~ avwo1Yj1E~, nou xcroXUpcOvov1av coro 1YjV tuioxprmxf OtaKptcrYj rev nOAt1cOV, Yt1av aU1s~ non Ka80ptsav 1t~ ouva101Yj1E~ acrKYjcrYj~ aU1cOv trov E~OUouov: ot <p1roxoi anoKAEiov1av npaKnKa uno 10 otKairolla \jfYt<pou crn~ com ices centuriates, 1Yj crYjllavnKo1EpYj crUVSACUcrYj. L1Yj ouvSXEta, EnEtOYt nOAu ypYtyopa Yj tOt01Yj1a 10U Pountoo nOA11Yj !le1a~AYt8YjKE os crull~oAo unePOXYt~ napa cs AEHoupyia, uno 1Yj crnY!lYt non EnEK1a8YjKe os O!laOE~ av8pcOnrov nou Yt1av os noAU anO!laKpucr!lSVa crYj!leia ano 1YjV Urbs. 0 !lu80~ OeV sna\jfe va u<picr1a1at, sro~ otou 0 uutoxperopu; KapaKaA.A.a~ napaxcOpYjcre 1YjV tOt01Yj1a 10U Ptouniou nOA,11Yj os OA,OU~ roo; EAeu8epou~ avopE~ 1Yj~ Aoroxpuroptcc;

I'evovo; napa!lSVet on, onro~ Kat Yj nOAtnKYt tOt01Yj1a crru; eAAYjVtKS~ nOAEt~, Yj pro!latKYt nOAtnKYt tOt01Yj1a crYt!latve 1YjV Kuptapxia 1Yj~ nOAtnKYt~ KOtVo1Yj1a~ (populus romanus), av Kat Yj Kuptapxia aU1Yt, onro~ unEv8u!lisEt Yj nepi<pYj!lYj <ppacrYj (Senatus Populusque Romanus), !lOtpaS01UV us 1Yj I'spouotu. Ano EKEi e~YJYe11at Kat Yj yOYj1Eia non uoxououv ot «OYj!lOKpa1iE~ 1Yj~ apxat01Yj1a~» CHOU~ avopE~ 1Yj~ yaA.A.tKYt~ Enavacr1acrYj~, nou 8sAYjouv va usrupopqxocouv 10U~ unYtKoou~ roo ~amAta os nOA11E~ ron E8vou~, Sivovtnc srot !lta vsu a~ia cr10V opo «nOA,11Yj~», Yj onoin suetvs crnv Ictopin.

139

MIKPO AEEIKO TnN 0El:MnN

Ayopa: sivnt 0 oT]J..loato<; XcOpo<; att<; EAAT]V1KE<; nOAE1<; ozo» npuyunronotoovruv upX1Ka 01 aUVEAEuaEl<; ,OU O~J10V. L'T]V Ae~vu, uno rots noo T] EKKAT]aiu ,OU O~J..lOU upxi1;El VU aUVEPXE,at ornv I1VUKU, T] uyopa nui1;El nsptooo,EpO 10V POAO 10U KEV,POU 'T]<; OlKOVOJ..llK~<; 1;co~<; Kat «ov 1OmKcOvauvuAAuycOV.

APXOVtf:,,: 01 apXOV,E<;, aE nOAAE<; nOAE1<;, eivut sxsivot zou KU,EXOUV rc mo aT]J..lUVttKa U~lcOJ..lU'"CU. L'T]V Ae~vu sivut UPX1Ka ,PE1<;, orou; ozotoc; npoa,ieEvrm ern aUVEXE1U 01 E~l eWJ..lOeE,E<; Kat 0 YPUJ..lJ..lU,EU<;. 01 AEl'OUpyiE<; 1OU<; ~,UV xupiox; OlKUattKE<; Kat epT]aKWttKE<;. EKAEYOV,UV J..lE KA~PO yta EVU E,O<;.

APElO" IIuyo,,: eivui 10 auJ..lpouAto 'T]<; Ae~vu<; non uno,EAEtrat uno 1OU<; apxoV'"CE<; exsivouc noo OEV ,EAOUV mn ,0 u~icoJ..la 1OU<;. L'T]V UPXUtK~ Enox~ OlUOpUJ..latt- 1;E aT]J..lUVttKO POAO aE OlKUattKu eEJ..lU,U, UAAa 0 POAO<; ron uu,o<; nEptopia'T]KE uno 10V EqnuArT]

10 462/1. I10AAE<; CPOPE<; Enuv~ABs orov POAO '"COU CPUAUKU roiv Bsourov Kat 'T]<; nOAT]<;,aE MaKoAE<; anYJ..lE<;, onco<; yta nupuOE1YJ..lU J..lE,u 'T] Xcipevetc.

A'tllliu: ~,uv T] a,EpT]aT] 'T]<; uaKT]aT]<; rev nOAmKcOv OlKUW)J..lU,COY, nou EmpuAAO,uV cs exetvoo; noo dxuv XPET] npo<; ,0 Kpu'"CO<; Kat os OAOU<; exeivoo; nou, J..lE 0- nOtovO~nO'E tpono, dxuv OlUnpa~El KunOlU nupuvoJ..liu.

BOVAT): stvat ,0 nsptoptouevo aUJ..lpOUAlO zoo npOE'OlJ..lu1;El n<; aU1;T],~aEl<; ,T]<; EKKAT]aiu<; '"COU O~J..lou. L'T]V Ae~vu, T] BouATj uno,EAEtrat uno nEV'"CuKoalu J..lEAT] nou EKAEYOV,Ul KaeE Xpovo J..lE KA~PO Kat houv EK'E'UJ..lEVE<; E~ouaiE<;. H BouA~ stv«i EKdvT] rton EAEYXEl '"COU<; apxoV'"CE<; Ku,a 'T]V UVUAT]o/T] ,cov KUeT]KOV,COV 1OU<; KUl ,T]V unoXcOpT]a~ 1OU<; uno ,0 u~icoJ..lu. KUeE nOAtrT]<; T]A1Kiu<; uvco «ov rptnvru E,cOV EXEl OlKUicoJ..lU npoaPuaT]<;, 0Xl OJ..lco<; nEplaaO,Epo uno 800 CPOpE<;. 01 POUAEU'"CE<; ElaEnpUHUV uno1;T]-

141

o nOAI-r:1Jr; O'7:1JV Apxaia EA.Ad.6a

llicoCYTj n8V'n: O~OA,WV rnv Tjll8pa KaTa TTj 8taPK8ta tCOV 35 ij 36 Tj1l8- pow rtou ijtav npUTaV8tc;.

ATuuxycoyoi: Stat OVOllaS0V'taV CYt11V ASijva sxstvot Ot pnrope; rtou un8pacyniSoV'tav TOV MiflO. Ano roo; avnnaAou<; 'tOU<; KaTTjvopouvruv on KOA,aK8UOUv 'tOY Aao nvri va tOV KaS08T]Youv CYtTj CYCOCYTij 086.

MutO~: a) 0 8ij1l0<; ijTav 88a<ptKij n8pt<p8p8ta. LtTjV ASijva, 0 KA,8tcyS8VTj<; ijtav sxeivo; non un08taipece tnv nOA Tj Kat r«; 0,1.,1.,8<; 88a<ptK8<; TTj<; n8ptoX8<; CY8 8KUtO nepixoo 8ijIlOU<;, non CYXTjllanSaV rpuivtc TPtT'tU8<; Kat 88Ka <puA,8<;. Ot nOA,tr8<; 'tOU KaS8 8ijllOU cyuyKaA,oucyav CYUV8A,8UCY8t<; uno tTj v n po- 88pia tOU 8Tj~lapXOU. Oi ASTjvaiot 1l8ta TO ovoun tOU<; aV8<p8pav to ovoun TOU 8ijllou TOU<;.

~) 0 ope; 8X8t 8niCYTj<; rnv 8~ij<; 8t1tAij 8VVOta: ere 8niCYTjlla 8yypa<pa, yta napa88tYlla cru; ano<paCY8t<;, onucivet rnv xotvornru tCOV noAt'twv. LTa A,oYOt8XVtKa xeiusvc avnS8tco<;, 0 oqflor; sivm o anA,o<; A,ao<; CY8 avn8taCYtoA,ij 118 tOU<; nAoucytou<;, TOU<; wY8vd<;, TOU<; 8taK8KptIl8VOU<;. H AS~l1 811- uoxputiu, nou onuuivet rnv KUptapxia TOU O~flOV, ospet rnv i8ta all<ptCYll Ilia. I'io TOU<; un8paCY1ttCYt8<; TOU KaSmtWTO<; uuro» enucivst tTjV KUptapxia oAcov TCOV

142

nOAtTCOV, yta tOU<; nOAElltou<; dvat 11 KUptapxia TCOV <ptCOXwv, nou sivai Kat ot nsptocorepoi.

EKKAllO'ia: sivrn Tj cyuvsAwCYTj 0- A,COV tCOV noA,t'twv. LtTjV ASijva dvat to Kupiapxo cywlla rtou \jfTj<pis8t n<; npornceu; nou UnO~aA,AOvrm ano TTj BOUAij 118 tll SovcroTTjTa Tll<; tpononoiTjCYij<; tOU<;. To i8to tCYXU8t Kat cyn<; aU8<; 811110- KpanKs<; nOA8t<;. Avrltlsrc, cyn<; oA,tyapxtKs<; nOA,8t<; Tj 8KKA,l1CYia EX8t n8ptopWIl8VO P0A,O, Kat llaAtere, CO<; n poe tTj A, ij \jfTj tCOV ano<paCY8COV, 88V EX8t xovsvc P0A,o. AvtiS8ta 88 118 TTjV aSTjVatKij 8KKAllCYia tOU 8ijllou noo CYUV8PX8tat nspto- 8tKa, cr«; oAtyapXtKE<; nOA8t<; Tj 8KKATjCYia TOU 8ijllou cyuYKaA,dtat 1l0VO CY8 8~atP8'ttKE<; n8pt1ttwCY8t<;.

ElO'<popa: 11 elocop« CYTTjV ASijva sivm 0 <popo<; nOA,EIlOU non sm~AijSTjK8 8KtaKtCO<; Kata TOV II8- AonovvTjcywKo nOA,81l0. Tov 40 uuovn, Ot daoope; nOAA,anA,amaSOV'tat Kat Tj dcynpa~ij TOU<; umnTd 0PWIlEV8<; PUSlliCY8t<;. IltcrsuoUIl8 on 1l0VO 1l8ptK8<; XtA,ta88<; noA,t'twv, uno tOU<; rpurvtu XtA,ta- 88<; non aptSIlouCY8 TOT8 Tj nOAll , unOXP80UVtaV va KaTa~aA,AOUV rnv eiaoop«.

Eq>ll~tia: Tj 8<pTj~da ijTav aPXtKa o S8CY1l0<; tTj<; anocyupCYTj<; tCOV 8<pij~cov yta XPOVtKij n8pi080 860 8- tWV, nporoo anOKtijCYoUV nAijpTj

nOA,t1:tKa 8tKatwllaTa. L'tl1V ASijvo, Kata to 88Ut8PO uioo tOU 40u cuovn, Tj 8<pTj~da yiv8Tat Eva si- 80<; CYtpanco'ttKij<; STjt8ia<; xou a<popa CY8 oAou<; TOU<; vsopou; ASTjvntooc.

HAlaia: Tj HAtaia nrov TO aSTjvatKO AatKo 8tKaCYtijpto rtou 8iKaS8 6A,8<; tu; unoSsCY8t<;, 8Tjllom8<; Kat t8tCO'ttKS<;, 118 8~aip8CYT] n<; avSpconoxroviec, non cvmcev CYTll 8txmooootc TOU Apstou Jlavoo. Tov 50 atwva 8~EA8yav KaS8 XpoVO 118 KA,ijPCOCYTj, 1l8ta~U tCOV ASTjvctev TjA,tKia<; avco tCOV rpuivtu 8tWV, TOU<; E~t XtA,ta88<; TjAtaCYt8<;, zoo xcruvsuovrov cru 8ta<popa 8tKUCYtijpta xcromv vEa<; KA,11PCOCYTj<;, t8tatr8pa nOAunAoKTj<;, npoK8tllEVOU vc ano<p8uyovrat Ot anaT8<; Kat Tj aCYKTjCY11 ni8CYTj<; CY'tOU<; 8tKaCYtE<;. Ot TjAtaCY'tE<; 8w8npatrev IltCYSo rpuov o~oAwv yta KaS8 CYuv88piaCYTj tOU 8tKaCYtTjpiou.

AEltO\)pyiE~: Ot A8noupyi8<; ijtav Ot 8Tjllom8<; 8anaV8<; rton avaMIl~avav ot mo nA,ouCYtot nOA,tr8<;. LtllV ASijva Ot mo CYTjllavnKE<; A8noupyi8<; ijtav Tj tptnpapria (8- ~orcAWIlO<; 8VO<; nOA81ltKOU nAoion), Tj xoplJyia (oi 8anaV8<; TOU Xopou cr«; 8pallanKE<; napaCYTaCY8t<;) Kat Tj SO'T[aO'IJ (XPllllat080- tTjCYTj 8VO<; 8111l0CYtoU cyullnocyiou noo aKOA,OUSOUCY8 1l8Ta ano Suoin). Ano n<; A8ttoupyi8<; ot nA,ouotot anoKolltsaV 86~a. QCYtocyo,

Mll(PO A.e~lI(o W)V fJeO'j1wv

Kata tOV 40 atwva, 11 oucovouucn 81tt~apUVCYTj 11taV rstoto, nou npoKaAouCY8, 01.,0 Kat mo cyuxva, rnv avri8paCYTj sxelvorv zoo nrov xoVOVtKa urcOXP8COllSVOt vu n<; ovoM~ouv.

MhOlKOl: crnv ASijva eivot oi ~SVot rtou EXOUV to 8tKaicolla vc 8ta!!Evouv crnv 88a<ptKij 81ttKparsto tTj<; nOATj<;. Ynoxpwuvtav CYTTjV Kata~oAij ernctoo copou, tOV ozoio ovollaSav uetoiiaov. '0- <p8tAav 8niCYTj<; vu UnTjp8tOUV CYtOV orputo Kat Ot nAouCYtot8pOt ano auTOu<; ijtav unoXP8collEVOt vc xuta~aA,OUV rnv eiacopo. A8V dXav 8tKaicolla CYUIl1l8tOXij<; CYtTjV nOAtnKij scoij OUT8 t8toKtTjCYia<; YTj<; CYTTjV AtnKij. OptCYIlEVOt OIlCO<; ano aUTou<; 8ta8pallansaV cnuovnxo pol.,o CYTTjV oucovouucn scoij tTj<; nOA,Tj<; Kat ijTav noM nA,oumot.

M10'9oq>opia: 118 tOV opo auto an08i88Tat Tj allOt~ij yta tt<; 8Tj1l0- CYt8<; A8ttoupyi8<;. 0 II8ptKA,11<; ijrnv 0 npwto<; nco SmllOS8tTjCY8 tTj IltcySo<popia crnv ASijva, aPXtKa yta rou; 8tKaCYtE<; TTj<; HA,wia<;, En8tta yta TOU<; ~OUA,WtE<;. Knrn tOV 40 uuovc, unijpX8 allOt~ij Kat Yta Tll CYUIl1l8TOX11 cyn<; CYUV8A,8UCY8t<; TTj<; 8KKATjCYia<; TOU 8ijIlOU. Ot nOAElltot TTj<; 8TjIlOKpatia<; xnTijYY8tUav tTj IlwSo<popia, noo Kata tTj YVcOllTj rou; WVOOUCY8 rnv oxvnpin tOU 8ijIlOU. 'OIlCO<;

143

o nOAiT:17C; O'7:17V Apxa{a EAAaOa

yta rov IIept1cAij, XUpT] 0"1"T] Ilt- 0"80cpopia unopououv 6AOt va aO"xoAT]80uv Ill' 'w; un08sO"etl; 1"T]<; n6AT]<;,

NOflO,,: 0 opo; dXe noM WpU1"ePT] evvoto an6 1"T] O"T]lleptvij, ot6n nepteAullPave O"uyxp6vro<; xowroviKS<; npaKnKS<; Kat pu8lliO"et<; otKaO"nKou ij nOAtnKOu xapaK1"ijpa, Ot EAAT]Ve<; ansotoav 1"T] OT]IlWUpyia nov vourov os sunvsuouevoo; VOIl08s1"e<;, 6nro<; 0 AUKOUPY0<; 0"1"T] LnUp1"T] ij 0 L6AroV o"1"T]V A8ijva. L1"T]V A8ijva, Ka1"U 1"OV 50 atcOva, Ku8e vso; v61l0<; unOpaAA01"aV cmv eKKAT]O"ia 1"OU oijllou yta va \jfT]cpto"1"d. 00"1"60"0, 1"OV 40 cuovo, npoxeiusvoo va anocpwx8d T] \jfijcptO"T] vouorv nou avnpaivouv 0 sva<; 1"OV UAAO, oT]llwuPYOUV1"at ent1"pons<; VOIl08e1"cOv, smoopnouevc; Ill' 1"T]V npOKa1"apKnKij e~s't"UO"T] «ov vouev. Ku8e v61l0<; aniee1"o<; npo<; 1"0 nOAt't"wlla unopouos va entcpspet svcvriov sxeiYOU nou rov dXe nporelvst 1"T] otaotKaO"ia 1"T]<; yparpijc; napa vouov.

OO'1"paK10'flo<;: 0 00"1"paKtO"Il6<; 8e- 0"1l08e1"ij8T]Ke an6 1"OV KAet0"8SVT], 1"OV A8T]vaio lle1"appu8IltO"1"ij. Ercpoxarro yta otaotKaO"ia Ill' 1"T]V onoia T] eKKAT]O"ia 1"OU oijllou, o"1"T]V onoia snpene va O"Ulllle1"SXOUV 1"OUAUXtO"1"OV S~t XtAtUOe<; nOAt't"e<;, 6ptse Ill' \jfT]cpocpopia 1"OV uvopa ij 1"OU<; uvope<; sxsivou; nou Bsrcpouvruv entKivouvOt yta 1"T]V

144

noAtLda. H notvij nou entpaAMrev ij1"av T] e~opia yta nepiooo OEKa e1"cOv. 0 00"1"paKtO"Il6<; seepllos61"av O"'t"T]V A8ijva Ka8' 6AT] 1"T] OtUPKeta 1"OU SOU atcOva Kat SXOUV ppe8d 60"1"paKa (xouunnn an6 nijAtva ayyda) nou cpspouv 1"0 6- vouc yvroO"1"cOV nOAt't"tKcOv avopcOv, ot ozoiot O"e Kanata XPOVtKij O"nyIlij eixav ppe8d un6 1"T]v anetAij 1"OU oO"1"paKtO"IlOU ij dxav ovro»; 00"1" poxtorsi.

IIpU1"llvw;: ot npU't"avet<; ij1"av Ot nevijv1"a POUAeU1"S<; Ka8e CPUAij<; nou yta 1"0 ev« oSKa'tO 1"OU eroix; (36 IlSpe<;) cvnnpoorbxsocv 6AOU<; roue unou<;. Ilpoedpeuov rrov O"UVeAeUO"eroV 1"T]<; eKKAT]O"ia<; 1"OU oijllou, e~sAeyav Ka8e Ilspa 1"OV eve» an6 rou; nevnvro ro<; nposSpo (entO"1"a1"T]<; trov npU't"averov) Kat etO"snpaHav T]llePOlli0"8w Ilia opaXllij.

IIoAm:ia: xpoxstrm yta noM yevixo 6po, nou cnuuivsi Kat 1"T]v tot61"T]1"a 1"OU nOAt't"T] Kat 'to nOAtnK6 Ka8eo"1"cO<;. H «an6K1"T]0"T] 1"T]<; nOAtLda<;» stvm T] an6K1"T]0"T] rorv nOAt't"tKcOv OtKatrolla1"rov, T] anOllaKpUVO"T] an6 1"T]v nOAtLda etvoi T] ancOAetu 1"OU<;. Ouroc, oruv at noAt't"tKOi O"uyypacpd<; Kat ot pnrope; cvccepouv 1"OV 6po tuiipux; nOAlrefa, svvoouv 1"T]v nOAtLda rorv npoy6vrov 1"OU<;.

Wpa1"pi&,,: at cppa1"pie<; sivm Olla-

oe<; nOAt1"cOV, 8pT]o"KwnKOU Kat oucoysvatnxou xapaK1"ijpa Ill' 1"T]v eupeiu SVVOta, Ot oxoter; 6 Ilro<; , o"1"T]V A8ijva 1"OUAaxtcr'tOv, naisouv nOAu onucvnxo p6AO 0"1"T] VO~ttIlOnoiT]O"T] 1"T]<; ysvvT]O"T]<; ij roo yallou, npOKetllSVOU va sm- 1"pand S1"O"t T] np60"PaO"T] roiv A8T]vairov 0"1"0 nOAt't"tK6 orouo,

"E1"pa't"11Yoi: cs nOAM<; n6Aet<; np6- xsmn yta nOAu onucvnxoo; upXOV1"e<;. Eivut sxstvot nou StetKOUV 1"0 O"1"pa1"Wlla Ka1"a 1"T]v eKctpntein, aAAu, 'toUAUXtO"1"OV IlSXpt 1"0 1"SAO<; 1"OU SOU ouovo, Ka1"eU- 8uvouv eniO"T]<; Kat 1"T]V nOAt't"tKij 1"T]<; n6AT]<; nou 1"OU<; e~SAe~e, yta svav Xp6vo Ka1"a xcvovo. Tov 40 uuovn, Ill' 1"T]V e~SAt~T] 1"T]<; ctpn't"1ronKij<; 1"aKnKij<;, ot o"1"pa1"T]yoi lle1"a1"psnonat os enaYYeAlla1"ie<; otpunomxoix; rtou OWtKOUV xu- 1"a np01"illT]O"T] o"1"pa1"ou<; Ilt0"80- eopev.

"EUflflOpi&,,: at O"UIlIlOpie<;, o"1"T]V A- 8ijva'tOu Sou uuovo, eivct 0IlUOe<; cpoPOAOYOUllsvrov nou Ka1"SpaAAav 'to iow nooo 1"T]<; siaipopiic. L1"T]V npawanK61"T]1"a, Sev unijpXl' OWiKT]O"T] ttov cpOPOAOytKcOV ST]1"T]lla1"rov Kat ot iowt at CPOpOAOYOUlleVOt 6cpetAaV va O"UYKeV1"PcOvouv rc xpijlla1"a. L1"T]V A8ijva npsnet va unijpxav eKa1"6 couuo-

Mucpo Ae';l1(O rwv OWj.lWV

pie<;. AU1"6<; 0 npro1"6yovo<; 1"p6no<; dO"npa~T]<; rtov coprov ouvenrryoruv Ka8uO"1"epijO"et<; Kat OUO"KOAie<;. Tt' aU1"6, npo; 1"0 1"SAO<; 1"T]<; oeKae1"ia<; too 360, 8eO"Il08e1"ij8T]xs T] npoeiaoopa, oT]Aaoij T] npoKa1"apoAij 1"OU O"UV6AOU 1"T]<; cpO poAoyia<; an6 'toU<; rps«; nAoucrt6- 1"epOU<; cpoPOAOYOUlleVOU<; Ku8e ouuuopir«;

0&roP1KOV: ij1"av Ilia anoST]lliroO"T] nou etO"snpaHav Ot nOAt't"e<; xpoKetllSVOU va IlnopsO"ouv va napaKOAou8ijO"ouv n<; opallanKs<; nnpao"1"uO"et<; Ka1"a 1"T] OtUpKeta «ov 8pT]o"KwnKcOv WP1"cOV, Kat etotKa Ka1"a rn MeyuAa Atovootc. Ilpoc 1"a IlsO"a 1"OU 40u cuovc, 6AO 'to nAe6vaO"Ila trov oT] uoouov 1"allirov npoopts61"av yta 1"0 Becapucov, nou an6 1"61"e cpaive1"at 61"t lle1"a1"punT]Ke os ev« eioo<; XPT]llanKij<; poij- 8eta<; yta 1"OU<; CP1"roxou<;.

WUAE,,: ce nOAAs<; eAAT]VtKS<; n6- Aet<; snpoxeito yta ollaoe<; nOAt- 1"cOV nou OtaKij putruv 1"T]V KOtvij Ka1"ayroyij 1"OU<;. L1"T]V A8ijva, ot rscosp«; apXtKs<; cpuM<; uvtucetn- 0"1"a8T]KaV, npo; ru 1"SAT] 1"OU 40u atcOva, an6 OEKU cpuM<; eoacptKOU xapaK1"ijpa, evro Ka8e CPUAij nspteAUIlPave oijllOU<; trov napaAirov, 1"OU aO"1"ero<; Kat 1"T]<; unaiepou. Le aAAe<; n6Aet<; at CPUAS<; ota1"ijpT]ouv 1"OV apXtK6 'tou<; xapaK1"ijpa.

145

AEEIKO KYPInN ONOMATnN

AAK1~ui()TJc;: A811vaio~ upicroKp6:tll~ noo 1:7tt~A:f]811KI: co~ P11'tOpa~ Ka'ta ru XPOVla xoo aKOAOO- 811crav 'tllv 1:1P~Vll 'tOU N1Kia (421). KOPlO~ unoK1Vll't~~ 'tll~ I:Kcr'tpa'tEta~ cr'tll L1KI:Aia, Ssv n~pl: 'tI:A1Ka IlSpO~ o' cornv, Ka8cO~ 8ts<puYI: yta va ano<poyEt rnv Ka'tllYopia 'tll~ tl:pocruAia~. Enscr'tpl:\jI1: 8ptall~wnKa ornv A8~va, OK'tcO xpovta apyo'tl:pa, yta va I:~Optorei optcrucc Ill:'ta ano Aiyo.

Aplo"tO<paVTJC;: KCOlltKO~ nOl11't~~ rtou cr'ta 8w'tptKa rou spya, 'ta 0- noic napoucrtaCY'tllKav Ka'ta 'tll btapKl:ta roo III:AonovvllcrtaKOo nOAsllou, ucxsi aVllAI:~ KpmK~ cs nOAmKOO~ Kat os bllllaycoyoo~ onco~ 0 KASCOV, 'tOY onoio Ka'tllYOpoucrl: on I:llnaisl:t 'tOY !5~uo Kat nupnoupet rnv nOAll cs Ka'tacr'tpl:1t'ttKS~ anocr'tOAs~.

AP10"tO'tEATJC;: sva~ ano roix; Ill:yaAO'tI:POU~ 'EnllVI:~ <ptMcro<pou~. EYKa'tacr'ta811KI: ornv A8~va xc'ta 'to bI:O'tI:PO uico rou 40u alcOva Kat I:Ket cruvs81:crl: llaSi Ill: 'tou~ lla811'ts~ ton nOAAa spya, evo. ano

tn oxoin sivm ru IIOAIW((l. L'tOV Aptcr'tO'tSA 11 O<PetAOUIlI: 'to Ill:yaAO'tI:PO IlSpO~ rev YVcOcrl:cOv Ila~ crXl:nKa Ill: n~ SVV011:~ 'tOU nOAhll xnt 'tll~ nOAmK~~ tbto'tll'ta~, xu- 8cO~ Kat n~ YVcOcrl:l~ Ila~ yta rou; a811vai:Koo~ 8I:crIlOO~.

KuniO''tpa'toc;: A811vaio~ nOAmKO~ roo npcO'tou Iltcrou ron 40u uuovc, rtou cruvs~aAI: Ka80ptcrnKa cr'tll IlI:PtK~ anoKa'tacr'tacrll 'tll~ a811vai:K~~ llYl:llovia~ oro Atyaio. L' uutov anobibl:'tat 11 ~ll:'tappu8lltcrll 'tll~ Ka'ta~OA~~ 'tll~ I:tcr<popa~ Kat 'tll~ opyavcocrll~ 'tCOV ouuuopuhv.

KiJ1<Ov: A811vaio~ aptcr'tOKpa'tll~ rtou KUplapXEt ornv ictopic 'tll~ A8~va~ Ka'ta r«; npcO'tl:~ bl:Kal:'til:~ rou 50u cuovc, LUVS~aAI: crnv avan'tu~ll 'tll~ a811vai:K~~ 11- yl:llovia~ cro Atvcio. Aoyco rou rspccmoo nAoo'tOu nou bt£81:'t1:, Ka'teiXI: ~I:XCOpt<H~ 8£crll Kat YOllrpo cru Ilana ron !5~flOV. H uvnnapa8l:cr~ roo OIlCO~ Ill: 'tOY IlsptKA~ etXI: co~ anO't£AWlla'tOV I:~Oorpoxtouo rou 'to 461. AvaKA~-

147

8T]Kc ana 'T]Y csopia IlcptKa XPOvic apyo,cpa KUt nE8avc Ka,a 'T] otapKcta cK(npa,da<; evnvriov 'T]<; Kunpou.

KUrov: xapaKrT]ptCHtKO napaOctYlla OT]llayroyou. AnEK'T]crc ueyaAT] cntppo~ crnv cKKAT]cria rou O~llou Ilc,a ,OY 8aYa,0 roo IlsptKA~. llAOUcrtO<; ~UpcrOOE\jIT]<;, ,OY nspuppovooonv oi cnt<payd<; noAhc<;, aAM rov aKoAou80ucrc ° 6~flOC;. Ano,cAoucrc roy KUPtO cr,oxo ,[(DV cnt8Ecrcrov roo Apioro<pavT].

KAwr9i:v11S: A8T]vaio<; «oteroKpa'T]<; noo cvmcs cr'T] IlcyaAT] otKOYEVcta rtov AAKllcroVtOWy. LUVE~aAc ornv aya,pon~ rou rupdvYOU Innia, ytou ron Ileiotctpuroo. L'T]V aynnapa8ccrT] us roo; OAtyapXtKou<; n~pc ,0 IlEpo<; ron 6~uoo Kat npOE~T] ornv avaOtOpyavoicn 'T]<; nOAT]<; Kat 'T] otaipccrT] rmv coa<pwv 'T]<;, ozo» cnpOKcao va cYKa8topu8d T] oT]lloKpa,ia.

L\l1Jlo<r9i:v11S: ° mo cvnnpooroncunKo<; ana roue nOAtnKou<; p~rope; ornv A8~va ron 40u cuovo; Kopioc cr,oxo<; tou ~,av ° aywva<; KU,a rou <DtAinnou ton MaKc06- va, npocrEKpoucrc ollro<; crnv uvti- 8ccrT] exsivorv nou, Ilc,a 'T]Y uno,uxia 'T]<; ocU,cPT]<; vaunK~<; LUIlIlaxia<;, ~8cAay va Ota'T]P~crouv rnv ctP~VT] us Ka8c ,illT]lla. Msrn 'T] Xrnprovstn crUYEXtcrc va ota-

148

opalla,i~ct nOAtnKO POAO Kat, napa rnv anollaKpuvcr~ 'au ana 'T]V nOAT], us rnv Ka'T]yopia on cWEnpasc xp~lla,a ana ,OY apxaaIlia rou AMsavopou, crullllc,ciXc crnv ,cAcu,aia cSEYcpcrT] Ka,a 'T]<; llaKcOOVtK~<; napoucria<; crnv Enaoa Kat uuroxrovno» yta va SC<PUYct ana rou; av8pwnou<; rou MaKC06va cr,pa'T]You Avrinurpou.

Eql1UA t11S: ° napayvropwllEvo<; auto<; nOAttlKO<; avopa<; Enatsc cnuovnxo pOAO crnv A8~va rrov IlEcrrov rou 40u cuovo, ro<; uncu8uvo<; tou roustou tou BBWP1- 1(015, Ka8w<; cruvE~aAc crnv smKpa'T]crT] Ilta<; ~ma<; nOAtnK~<; crc crXEO"T] us n<; T]ycIlOVtKE<; <ptAOooSic<; 'T]<; A8~ya<;.

I<roKpa:t11S: oacrKaAo<; 'T]<; PT]'OPtK~<;, nou oioasc crnv A8~va tov 40 cuovo. Ot nOAUapt81l0t AOYOt roo anO,cAOUY yta rov toropiKO nOAUnllT] Ilaprupia yta rn otaooo« pculla,a crnv a8T]yai:K~ xotv~ yyWIlT]. Yn~PSE ° 8cropT]nKo<; 'T]<; tuiipioo 617floKpadac;, OT]1l0- Kpa,ia<; rtou anEOtOc crov LOArova, ° osoioc napaXWpT]crE crov 6~flO ,0 otKairolla 'T]<; A~\jIT]<; ano<pacrcrov Kat 'T]<; EKoiKacrT]<; un08Eosrov, aAM Ota<pUAaSc tu avw,cpa aStWllara yta roue nAoucrtOu<;, zoo ~,av Ot 1l0VOt Ka,aAAT]AOt yt' au,a AOyro roo cAcu8cpou Xpovou noo otE8c,aY.

AUKOUPYOS t11S 1:nap'l1S: VOIl08E'T]<; noo aV~Kct crxcoov ctov xwpo rou IlU80u. Aeo» EKavE EPCUVc<; crnv KP~'11 Kat crull~oUAcU'T]Kc 10 unvrsio rorv L\EA<pWY, napEorocrE cr'T] Lnap'T] rou; 8EcrIlOU<; 'T]<;, npo~aivovra<; ,auroxpoya cr'T]V icrT] Karavoll~ roiv yatwv Kat 8ccrniSovra<; n<; apXE<; Ilta<; aucr'T]po,a'T]<; natoda<;, npocravaroAtcrIlEVT]<; oucrtacrnKa npo; 'T] orpcnronK~ cKnaiocucrT].

AUKOUPY0C; t11C; A9ftvac;: A8T]yaio<; nOAtnKOe; rton EnatSc cnuoveuco pOAO crnv nOAT] IlE,a rnv ~"a nou unEcr'T] ana rov <DiAtnnO cr'T] Xmprovstn ,0 338. Anoxcrscmce rn oucovouncn 'T]<; nOAT]e;, anEoroos crtt<; 8pT]crKcunKE<; COP,E<; 'T] MIl\jlT] roo napEA80no<; Kat 8ccrIl08E'T]crc 'T]V E<pT]~Eia ro<; npayllanK~ cr,panronK~ 8T],da.

llEP1KAftS: o mo yvrocr,o<; cno roo; A8T]vaioue; nOAtnKou<;, xoo enoVcKAcyo,av cr,pa,TJYo<; yta ocKanEvrc XPovta Kat Ka,cu8uvc rnv ,UXT] 'T]<; nOAT]<;. Aoto; ano<pacrtcs rnv npaYlla,onoiT]crT] rrov EPyroy 'T]<; AKpOnOAT]<;, ru onoic ava8ccrc crov <Dctoia. Me 'T] OT]uioopvic 'T]<; Iltcr80<popia<; cnE,pc\jIc crE IlcyaAo apt81l0 nOAt,WV 'T] crullllEroX~ ornv nOAttlK~ ~ro~. L'T]Y npocrna8cta rou va nporo8~ost 'T]V T]ycllOyia 'T]<; A8~va<;, xc'EO"1T] uncu8uvoe; yta 'T]Y K~pUS11 ron llcAOnOVVT]crtaKou noMllou.

Ae~1I(6 /CUPlWV ovotuitcov

llE8ayc Aiyo cpvorepc, 8uIla roo Aot~LOU rton npoKaAEcrE IlcyaAc<; Ka,acr,p0<pE<; ornv nOA1l

llEl<ri<r,pa,os: A8T]vaio<; opioroKpa'T]<; nou cnro<pcA~8T]Kc ana n<; ,apaXE<; non aKOAOu8T]cray IlE,a 'T]V avaxwpT]crT] ron LOArova Kat Ka'EAa~c 'T]V csoucria crnv A8~ya. EKOtwX8T]Kc QUo <P0PE<; ana 'tT]V nOAT], aAM 'tcAtKa Ka'ta<pc ps vu cnt~A118ci. H ropnvvic too 8Erop~8T]Kc ana roo; A8T]vciooc ro<; ~ntO Ka8ccr'twe; Kat ouvsnecs IlE Ilta 'taxu,a'tT] avan'tuST] 'tT]<; nOAT]e; Kat 'tT]<; smppoip; 't1l<;. Mstu 'tOY 8ava't0 tou, 'to 527, ot ytOt rou ocv cruvExwav 'tT]V rmcnK~ 'tT]<; IlE'tptOna8ctae;. 0 uucporspoe, ° 1nnapxo<;, 00Ao<pov~8T]KE 'to 514, Kat ° IlEyaAu'tEpo<;, ° Inniae;, avaYKacr'tT]Kc vc. Ota<PUYEt ana 'tT]V nOAT] 'to 510.

ll",u'trov: Eva<; ano roix; IlEyaAu'tcpou; <ptAOcrO<pOU<; OAroV 'troy snoxWv. Ma8T]'t~<; roo LroKpa'tT], ~rnv ° tOpu't~<; 'T]<; AKaOT]llia<;. Ot otaAoyoi roo, noo OtaOpalla'ti~ov'tat IlE'tasu 'tou oacrKaAou 'tou Kat KanOtOU aAAou npootoaou, ano'tcAouV cruYXPOyro<; Epya IlcyaAT]<; AOyO'tcXYtK~<; asia<; Kat uovnOtK~ nT]y~ yvwcrcrov yta 'tT]V a811- vai:K~ xorvoivin,

1:roKPUt11S: A8T]vaio<; cro<po<;, tunctv~<; Ka'tayroy~<; (0 na'tEpa<; roo ~'tay YAUn'tT]<; Kat T] ~lT]'Epa

149

o nOAh/7s CfTI7V Apxa[a EAMoa

tOU unin), zoo upsoxomv vu n8- ptOtapaiY8t rou; Spouoi»; tll<; no- 1.11<; Kat vn 8et8t 8po)'t"~~ata croix; O'u~noAh8<; roo, EiX8 noUou<; un- 811te<;, ~€ta~u tCOY onoiorv tOY AAKtpta011, tOY IlAatcoya Kat tOY 88- voeevru. Ot 000 t8Awtaiot epepYOUY O'tO npocxnvio tOU epyou rooc tOY LCOKpatll Kat, napa tt<; Kanol8<; aYnepa0'8l<; O'tOY rpono ~8 tOY onoio tOY napoucrtasOUY, ~nopou~8 vc OtaKpiYOU~8 opiouevc: O'ta88pa xapaKtllPlO'nKa xoo ~a<; smrpenouv vc KataAapou~8 ytati Kat11Yop11811K8 ano rnv noAll Kat KataOtKaO'tllK8 0'8 8ayatO to 399 -x.

:EOACOV: A8llYaio<; YO~L08etll<; nou tYlY8 apxoYta<; to 594 Kat 81ttX8iPll0'8 vn 81ttAU0'8t tll O'opap~ KOtYCOYtK~ KpiO'l1 noo an8tAou0'8 t11Y evornro tll<; nOAll<;, KarapYcOV't"a<; rnv unooouAcoO'l1 yta XPell Kat 88- O'nisoV't"a<; vouoix; KOtYOU<; yta 0- Aou<;. E1tt8u~cOyra<; vn Olatll P11- 0'8t rnv tcoppomu ~8ta~u tCOY ouo aYnn8e~8YCOY o~aocoy, npoKaA80'8 tll ouO'apeO'K8la Kat tCOY ~8Y Kat tCOY 08. Ka,a tOY 40 ouovu O~lCO<;, O'tO npoorono tOU epA8- nay tOY topUt~ tll<; ol1~oKpatia<; Kat tOY 011~tOUPYo tCOV n8ptcrO'ot8pCOY YO~COY nou pu8~tsay tll sco~ tll<; nOA11<;·

150

@8f.110"'t"OKAT]r;: A8llYaio<; nOAtnKO<; nou O'uyepaA8 crnv aYan't"U~11 ton a8llyatKou vuurucou, ~8 anoteA8O'~a vc unopeoouv ot A- 811yaiot vc aynO'ta80uy O'tOY 8ep~11 Kat vu YtK110'0uY tOY nspotKO O'tOAO O't11 LaAa~iya to 480 n.x.

@ouKuoiolJr;: 0 ~8yaMt8po<; EAAllya<; tcropucoc, E1ttx8iPll0'8 rnv aep~YllO'l1 tOU Il8AonovvllcrtaKOU nOAe~ou, ~8 cxono vn anOKOuicoov ot aYaYYcOO't8<; tOU ~a8~uorc «eousi». To KO~'I'O Kat auO'tll po uepo<; tOU, 11 teXYll ~8 't"11Y ozoiu X8tpis8tal roix; A6you<; tCOY KUptCOY O~tAlltcOY, 11 ai0'81lO'l1 't"11<; ano08l~11<; Kat tll<; AOytK~<; O'UY8- naycoy~<; tCOY Y8YOYOtCOY tOY Ka8tO"t"OUY npoopo~o tll<; «op80AoytO'nK~<;» icroptuc.

SzvoepcOV: ~a8llt~<; tOU LCOKpatll, un~p~8 8niO'l1<; 0 O'UY8Xtcrt~<; tOU eouKuotOll orn O'uyypaep~ tll<; 'lcropicc too Il8AonOYVllO'taKOu nOAe~ou, Kat 0" uurov oep8iAou~8 tnv 8~lO'tOPllO'l1 tCOY nOAlnKcOY Kat O'tpanCOnKcOY Y8YOVOtCOV tOU teAou<; tOU Sou Kat tCOY npcOtcoy 08Ka8ttcOY tOU 40u nuovo, IlY8U~a av~O'uxo, O'uyeypa'l'8 noUe<; npay~at8i8<;, noo anot8AOUv noAun~l1nllY~ YYc00'8COY yta tOV 8'1-AllYlKO 40 alcOva.

XPON OAOfIKO:E IIINAKA:E

TEA,O~ 90u - UPXE~ 80u ut<ovu: «nVV11O'rp> 't11~ En11VtKTt~ nOA11~. MEO'u 80u - JiEO'U 60u ut<ovu: EnEK'raO'11 'tCDV En TtVCDV O''t11 MEO'OyEW. Luv8EO'11 'tCDV Olll1PtKcOV nOt111l(l'tCDV.

AEiin:po JilO'O 70u ut<ovu: L'ta8Eponoi11O'11 'tOU O'napnanKou nOAt'tEulla'tO~.

621: NOll08EO'ia 'tOU Apaxona O''t11v A8Ttva. 594/3: 0 LOACDV upxov'ta~ O''t11V A8Ttva.

561/0: IIpO:H11 Ka'tuA11'V11 't11~ E~ouO'ia~ ano 'tOY Ilstciotputo. 510: II'tcOO'11 't11~ rupuvvioce; O''t11V A8Ttva.

508/7: ME'rappu8IliO'Et~ roo KAEtcr8EV11.

499 - 494: E~EYEPO'11 'tCDV tCDVtKcOV nOAECDv.

491-490: Ilproro; M110tKO~ nOAEllo~. Mapa8cOva~.

481- 479: AEU'tEPO~ M 11 Ot KO~ nOAEllo~. LaAalli va.

478/7: LX11lla'ttcrllo~ 't11~ O'ullllaxia~ 't11~ ATtAOU IlE EniKEv'tpO rnv A8Ttva.

464: E~EYEPO'11 'tCDV EtAcO'tCDV O''t11 Msconvio.

462/1: Mstuppolluics«; 'tOU EqnUA't11 O''t11V A8Ttva. 451/0: NOIlO~ ron IIEptKATt yta tnv nOAtnKTt tOto't11'ta.

449/8: «KaniEW~ Etp11V11» IlE'ta~u A8Ttva~ Kat nEpO'tKTt~ Autoxpuropinq.

431: Evap~l1 'tOU Ilsxoxovvnotoxoo noAEllou. 429: euva'tO~ 'tOU IIEptKATt.

421: EtpTtV11 'tOU Nucio.

415 - 413: Excrputsic O''r11 LtKEAia.

411: L'tuO'11 'tCDV Tsrpmcootoiv OAtyapXtKcOV O''t11v A8Ttva. 406: ApXTt 't11~ ropuvvic; ron Atovootou O'n~ LupaKouO'E~.

151

o nOAfrr;r; atnv Apyaia EAAd<5a

405: nAO~ 'WI) TIEAonOVVT]O"taKou nOABIlOI).

404 - 403: L1taKl)pBpVT]O"T] 'tow Tpuncovru O"'tT]V A9~va. 399: L1iKT] Kat 9ava't0~ 'WI) LWKpa'tT].

397: LI)VWlloO"ia 'WI) Ktvaowvo~ 0"'tT] Lnap'tT]. 378/7: L1Ell'tEPT] Val)nK~ Ll)llllaxia 'tT]~ A9~va~.

371: 'HHa rrov Lnapna'tcOv cru AEUK'tpa. AncOAEta 'tT]~ MsoO"T]via~.

359: Avooo; crov Bpovo 't01) <PtAinnol) 0"'tT] Mcxeoovia.

357 - 355: TIoAEllo~ rmv Ll)llllaxwv. nAO~ 'tT]~ a9T]valK~~ T]yEllovia~.

346: Etpnvn 't01) <PtAOKpa'tT].

338: Rna rorv EA.A.~vWV 0"'tT] Xciprovetn.

337: LXT]llanO"llo~ 'tT]~ o"l)llllaxia~ 'tT]~ Koplvtlou uno 'tT]v TJYwia 't01) <PtAinnol).

336: L1oAocpovia 't01) <PtAinnol). Avooo~ 'WI) AM~avopol) crov Opovo.

330: L1iKT] nEpi 't01) L'tEcpaVOI). 323: eava'W~ 't01) AAB~avopol).

322: eava'W~ 'WI) L1T]1l00"9BVT]. EYKa9iopl)0"T] nuoxpcrucoo Ka9EO"'tcO'to~ O"LT]V A9~va.

152

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Ila),azo ipyo, iYKVPO ae no),),o. anusia, av lWI optoueve; ava),V(Jele; rov allrpwfJlJrovvral (J11Iepa.

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LONIS R., La Cite dans le monde grec. Structures.fonctionnement, contradictions, Nathan, Paris, 1994.

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Avaoopa (Jrovr; ()8(JpOVe; us tnv lCVplO)'elC!lIC1 evvoia rov opoo.

Cite grecque, d' Homere d Alexandre, crUAAOy~ ap9pcov (5T]jlOcrtW~lEVCOV uno 1T]V cTCtjlEActa 1COV O. MURRAY, S. PRICE, La Decouverte, Paris, 1993.

154

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AUSTIN M., VIDAL· NAQUET P., Economies et Societe en Grece ancienne, A. Colin, Paris, 1972, 1992.

IlepliXel no),),o. «eiueva lWI tua anuaviucn el(Jaywy1.

FINLEY M. I., Economie et Societe en Grece ancienne, La Decouverte, Paris, 1984.

IVAAOy1 o.p()pwv. Iouiitepa (JIJpav!lIco ro o.p()po via rIJ Ino.prIJ lWI rove; A()IJvaiove; JI7Jlaywyove;.

GARLAN Y., Guerre et Economie en Grece ancienne, La Decouverte, Paris, 1989.

VERNANT J. P. (ed.), Problemes de fa guerre en Grece ancienne, Mouton, Paris, 2e ed., 1985.

IXerlKo. ue rov po),o rov nosiuoo lWI tnv empp01 rov (JrIJv oucovouia IWI tnv tcoivcovia.

01 AllAPXEI: THI: IlOAITIKHI: IAIOTHTAI:

LEVEQUE P., VIDAL·NAQUET P., Clisthene l' Athenien, Paris, 2e ed., 1983.

Epunveia rwv perappv()pf(Jewv rov K)'el(J()iVIJ tu: fJdCJ'7 ro nO),l!l(J!lICO vnofJa()po inc; enox1e;·

POLIGNAC F. DE, La Naissance de la cite grecque, La Decouverte, Paris, 1984.

LileV1cpIVi(el rIJ anuaaia rov ()PIJ(JlCeVruCOV naptiyovta (JrIJ Jwpoprpw(JIJ inc nO),lrllC1r; xoivoimac.

ROUSSEL D., Tribu et cite. Etude sur les groupes sociaux dans les cites grecques aux epoques archaique et classique, Paris, 1976.

Avasoon rwv Jlarpopwv (JXIJpau(Jpwv (Jrove; onoioix; avntcav 01 no),ftee, tcaui rIJ JIJIUovpyfa inc nO),IJe;, lWI rwv perafJo),wv rovr; tcaui tnv Tda(Jllc1 enoX1.

SCHMITT· PANTEL P., La Cite au banquet, Rome, 1992.

IIJpavruco fJlfJ),io nov ava),Vel tu; apxaiide; poprpie; tnc; lCOlV1r; ouotpa-

155

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ne(1Je; (w~e; lWI T1J axea1J TOUe; f.le T1JV evvOIa T1Je; nOAITll(~e; KOIVOT1Jrae; ewe; T1JV eAA1JVzaTII(~ enox~.

V ATIN c., Citoyens et non - citoyens dans le monde grec, SEDES, Paris, 1984.

EVXP1JaTo aUV()eTII(O epyo.

H AEITOYPrIA T!lN TIOAITIK!lN tYtTHMATfiN

CARLIER P., Demosthene, Fayard, Paris, 1990.

Meoa an' TO fJlOyparplKO aUTO epyo f.lae; oivetoi uui eucova yia TOV POAO TWV nOAlTll(WV avoptbv aT1J 01Jf.lOlCpaTZK~ A()~va.

FINLEY M. I., L' Invention de fa politique, F1ammarion, Paris, 1985. 8ef.leAZW&e; epyo yza T1JV xatavonan TOU tponoo AezToupylae; tnc nOAITIK~e; (w~e; atu; apXaiee; nOAele; yevuai, lWI atnv A()~va eiotxotepo:

H ANATITYSH THt TIOAITIKHt tKE'PHt

BORDES J., Politeia dans fa pensee grecque jusqu' d Aristote, Paris, 1982.

LXeTll(a tu: T'lV e(eAZ(1J T1Je; zOlairepa avv()eT1Je; evvouu; T1Je; nouteioc.

MOSSE Cl., Histoire des doctrines politiques en Grece, Paris, 2e ed., 1975.

LUVOnTlK~ aVv()ea1J.

PIERART M., (ed.), Aristote et Athenes, Fribourg, 1993.

LXeTll(a ue T'lV nOAZTll(~ mdlfl'l TOU ApzaTOTeA'l, aAAa lWZ TU;; OlarpOPee; anolfieZe; yu: T'l senoopyia in; af)'lvaik~e; nOAlTll(~e; (w~e;.

VERNANT J - P., Les Origines de la pensee grecque, PUF, Paris, 4e ed., 1981.

8ef.leAIW&e; epyo yza T1JV tanavonon TOU «nveouaiucoo tcoauoo» inc; eAA1JVll(~e; nOA'le;.

VIDAL-NAQUET P., Le Chasseur noir, Maspero, Paris, 1981 (La Decouverte, 1991).

LUAAOy~ ap()pwv yza TOV tpoito lie TOV onoio 01 aprak» 'EAA'lVee; aVTlAaf.lfJavovrav T1JV tcotvoivia.

156

Claude Masse

o noitltnc: atnVApxaia Eftita6a

H nOAIl onorexeoe YLO IlLO IlOKPOTOTrl xpOVLK~ nep[ooo KOTO rnv 0PXQLOTIlTO rnv KUP(OPXTI IlOPCP~ opyOVWOTje; TOU eMllvLKoU xwpou. Meao. 0' ovrnv KOTOKTr18IlKe Il nOALTLK~ npo~1l KQL LOLOTIlTO KQL acpupTjAOT~9llKe 11 OvomU~1l TIle; geWPIlTLKrle; aKeljJ'le;. H LOTOp(O TIle; ~eKLVO ono TOV 90 OLWVO n.X., ue rnv E:l-1CPOV10Tj TWV rtpornov eMTjVLKWV nOAewv) KQL cpTovel llexpL KOL TOV 40 QLWVO n.X., OTOV!-Ie TIlv enlKpoTIlOll TWV lley6Awv ~OOLM(WV, 0 e~oagevllllevoe; ~Oll opvcviouoc Tile; nOAIle; MxeTQL TO KO[pLO nArlYIlO KOl OTjIlOTOOOTeiTQL TO rtepoouc ce uro oMIl 1l0PCPrl nOALTLKrle; opvovcoonq .

LTO usco currie TIle; LOTOpLK~e; OLOOpOlJrle; AOlJnel TO nop60eLYllo TIle; O'l!-lOKpOTlKrle; A9",voe; TOU 50u QLWVO n.X. EivQL'l enOXrl TOU ortoveiou rnc eM'lVLKrle; nOAIle;. 0 A9'lvo[0e; nOAlTlle; aUIl!-lE:TexeL svepvd OT'lV nOALTLKrl ~w"'. To «enoyyeAllo» TOU noxfrn crtorexet rno Ko91llJeplvi) npuvpcrucorrrrc, nou TOU nopexel TO OlKO[WIlO ouuusromc OTIl M4J1l cnocccetov OWlJeuTLKWV yLQ OAIl TIlV KOlvOTIlTO, TO OlKOiwllO unepcorncnc TWV eoocpwv TIle; nOAIle; ana KOee e~wTeplK'" eT1L~OuA!'J KQL TeAOe; TO OLKOlWlJa aUl-llleTox!'Je; OTLe; ernonuec eKOIlAwaeLe; TOU 9P'laKWTLKOU ~lOU.

nopoMIlAIl nopeto OKOAOUellae KQL Il geWp'lTlK~ aKeljJll TWV EMr'jvwv. 'ETOL KOTO TO oeUTepo uroo TOU 50u QLWVO, OTOUe; nVWIlOTLKOUe; KuKl\oue; TIle; A9r'jvoe; ovorrrucoeror 0 npO~AlllloTLaIlOe; vupco ana TIl ouveern evvoio TIle; nOALTelOe;. EivOl 'l enoxr'j nou Ol lley6AOL cpLMaocpOL rnc OPXOlOTllTOe; eo OVO~IlT~aOUV ueco ana geWP'lTlKee; KOToaKwee; rnv L15ew0'l rtoxrreic KOL Til geOTj TWV nOALTWV Ileao 0' OUTr'jV.

To aUYKeKpll-l8VO ~LI3A(0 p[XVeL cpwe; a' oAee; nureq TIe; eKcpovaeLe; TIle; nOALTLKrle; ~Wrle; KOl OKeljJ'le;, us T'lV rtoooeeon TWV onopOITTjTWV mwwv KQL rnv rtoocncasio 15lepeuVIlOTje; KOee muxf)e; TIle; nOAlTlKf)e; «rroptcc TWV EM~vwv.

K.A.80023 ISBN 960-460-146-6

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