This document is the user’s manual for a MATLAB script called pprop_e2m that can be used to numerically integrate the geocentric and heliocentric orbital equations of motion of an Earth to Mars interplanetary trajectory. This scientific simulation begins at a user-defined epoch and state vector somewhere within the Earth’s sphere-of-influence (SOI) and ends at (1) closest approach to Mars, (2) a user-defined Mars-centered (areocentric) distance, or (3) at a user-defined final epoch.
This manual also includes a technical discussion that summarizes the numerical technique and methods implemented in this computer program. Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB) is the fundamental time argument for this simulation and the fundamental solar, lunar and planetary ephemeris is DE421. This computer program also uses version 3.1 of the Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) library for sidereal time calculations.
All internal calculations and the output provided by the pprop_e2m software are performed in the metric system. The geocentric equations of motion include the non-spherical gravity effects of the Earth and the point-mass gravity of the sun, Moon and (optionally) the planets within the Earth’s sphere-of-influence. During the interplanetary cruise the point-mass gravity of the sun, Moon and planets is included in the heliocentric equations of motion. The option to include the effect of solar radiation pressure in both the geocentric and heliocentric trajectory segments is also provided.

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

This document is the user’s manual for a MATLAB script called pprop_e2m that can be used to numerically integrate the geocentric and heliocentric orbital equations of motion of an Earth to Mars interplanetary trajectory. This scientific simulation begins at a user-defined epoch and state vector somewhere within the Earth’s sphere-of-influence (SOI) and ends at (1) closest approach to Mars, (2) a user-defined Mars-centered (areocentric) distance, or (3) at a user-defined final epoch.
This manual also includes a technical discussion that summarizes the numerical technique and methods implemented in this computer program. Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB) is the fundamental time argument for this simulation and the fundamental solar, lunar and planetary ephemeris is DE421. This computer program also uses version 3.1 of the Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) library for sidereal time calculations.
All internal calculations and the output provided by the pprop_e2m software are performed in the metric system. The geocentric equations of motion include the non-spherical gravity effects of the Earth and the point-mass gravity of the sun, Moon and (optionally) the planets within the Earth’s sphere-of-influence. During the interplanetary cruise the point-mass gravity of the sun, Moon and planets is included in the heliocentric equations of motion. The option to include the effect of solar radiation pressure in both the geocentric and heliocentric trajectory segments is also provided.

© All Rights Reserved

- 5 examples of Law of motion
- Ballistic Missile Trajectory Prediction Using a State Transition Matrix
- Effect of MAPAXES and IJK Origin_5423490_02 (1)
- Chapters Physics Basic tics
- newton's second law
- 03 3d Coordinate Geo(class 12)
- Acceleration (Inclined Plane)
- Kinema Tics
- Ujian Fizik
- Chapters 1-4 Conceptual Questions
- Chapter 7-Rotational Motion
- Physics
- Numeircal Methods (1)
- Section 4.5 Equations of Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- P-1
- Pch3lec1
- Concepts of physics
- Graphs
- math 1210 project 1
- A5

You are on page 1of 36

This document is the user’s manual for a MATLAB script called pprop_e2m that can be used to

numerically integrate the geocentric and heliocentric orbital equations of motion of an Earth to Mars

interplanetary trajectory. This scientific simulation begins at a user-defined epoch and state vector

somewhere within the Earth’s sphere-of-influence (SOI) and ends at (1) closest approach to Mars, (2) a

user-defined Mars-centered (areocentric) distance, or (3) at a user-defined final epoch.

This manual also includes a technical discussion that summarizes the numerical technique and methods

implemented in this computer program. Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB) is the fundamental time

argument for this simulation and the fundamental solar, lunar and planetary ephemeris is DE421. This

computer program also uses version 3.1 of the Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software

(NOVAS) library for sidereal time calculations.

All internal calculations and the output provided by the pprop_e2m software are performed in the

metric system. The geocentric equations of motion include the non-spherical gravity effects of the Earth

and the point-mass gravity of the sun, Moon and (optionally) the planets within the Earth’s sphere-of-

influence. During the interplanetary cruise the point-mass gravity of the sun, Moon and planets is

included in the heliocentric equations of motion. The option to include the effect of solar radiation

pressure in both the geocentric and heliocentric trajectory segments is also provided.

The pprop_e2m software is “data-driven” by a user-created text file. The following is a typical input

file used by this MATLAB script. Each data item within an input file is preceded by one or more lines

of annotation text. Do not delete any of these annotation lines or change the number of lines reserved

for each comment and data item. However, you may change them to reflect your own explanation or

information. The annotation line also includes the correct units and when appropriate, the valid range of

the input data items. ASCII text input is not case sensitive but must be spelled correctly. In the

following discussion, the actual input file contents are in bold courier font and all explanations are in

times italic font.

The first four lines of any input file are reserved for user comments. These lines are ignored by the

software. However the input file must begin with four and only four initial text lines.

******************************************

* pprop_e2m input data file - pprop_e2m.in

* Earth-to-Mars trajectory example

******************************************

The first program input is the name of a “constants and models” data file. This ASCII data file contains

user-defined astrodynamic constants and other information.

name of constants and models data file

--------------------------------------

pprop_e2m_cm.dat

The following is a typical constants and models data file. Do not delete any of these annotation lines or

increase or decrease the number of lines reserved for each comment or data item. Also, please note the

proper units for each data item.

page 1

******************************************

* pprop_e2m constants and models data file

******************************************

------------------------------

149597870.6996262

------------------------------

299792458.0

------------------------------------

1366.1

-------------------------------------------

398600.4356

------------------------------------

6378.1363

--------------------------------------------

925000.0

------------------------------------------

4902.8000

------------------------------------------

42828.375214

-----------------------------------

3396.19d0

The second program input is the difference between ephemeris time (Terrestrial Time) and Universal

Coordinated Time (UTC) in seconds.

ET-UTC (seconds)

64.132

This next option specifies the type of final conditions of the propagated trajectory. Option 1 propagates

to closest approach at Mars, option 2 propagates to a user-defined areocentric distance, and option 3

propagates to a user-defined final epoch.

type of propagation final condition

1 = Mars closest approach

2 = user-defined Mars-centered distance

3 = user-defined final epoch

-----------------------------

1

The next two sets of inputs define the calendar date and UTC time of the final epoch for option 3

described above. Be sure to include all four digits of the calendar year.

user-defined final calendar date

(1 <= month <= 12, 1 <= day <= 31, year = all digits!)

------------------------------------------------------

6, 20, 2003

page 2

user-defined final UTC

(0 <= hours <= 24, 0 <= minutes <= 60, 0 <= seconds <= 60)

----------------------------------------------------------

14, 47, 23.918

The next input defines the final user-defined areocentric distance for program option 2 described above.

user-defined areocentric distance (kilometers)

500000.0

The next two inputs define the calendar date and UTC at the initial time.

initial calendar date

(1 <= month <= 12, 1 <= day <= 31, year = all digits!)

------------------------------------------------------

6, 5, 2003

initial UTC

(0 <= hours <= 24, 0 <= minutes <= 60, 0 <= seconds <= 60)

----------------------------------------------------------

14, 47, 23.918

The next three data items define the x, y, and z components of the geocentric position vector of the

trajectory at the initial time.

Earth departure geocentric position vector components

(mean equator and equinox j2000 - kilometers)

---------------------------------------------

-6272.07312607554

-1760.41957306828

-800.642741501510

The next three data items define the x, y, and z components of the geocentric velocity vector of the

trajectory at interplanetary injection. The position and velocity vectors must be specified relative to the

Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000 (EME2000) coordinate system.

Earth departure geocentric velocity vector components

(mean equator and equinox j2000 - kilometers/second)

----------------------------------------------------

3.35306759386591

-9.54013022081091

-5.29081568530960

The next three integers allow the user to specify what types of third body point-mass gravity

perturbations are included during the geocentric trajectory propagation. To activate an option, the

input should be set to 1. Otherwise, the input should be 0.

***************************

geocentric phase definition

***************************

-------------------------------------------------------

1

-------------------------------------------------------

1

------------------------------------------------------------

1

page 3

The name of the ASCII data file containing the Earth gravity model data is specified in the next line.

Please see the Technical Discussion section later in this document for a description and format of the

data in this file.

name of Earth gravity model data file

egm96.dat

The order (zonals) of the Earth gravity model is an integer defined in the next line.

order of the gravity model (zonals)

-----------------------------------

8

The degree (tesserals) of the Earth gravity model is an integer defined in this next line.

degree of the gravity model (tesserals)

---------------------------------------

8

The next series of inputs define the characteristics used for solar radiation pressure perturbation

calculations. These three items include the reference mass, reference cross-sectional area, and

reflectivity coefficient. To exclude this perturbation, input a mass of zero.

mass (kilograms; input 0 to ignore SRP calculations)

----------------------------------------------------

0.0d0

----------------------------------

18.75

------------------------------------------

1.4d0

The pprop_e2m script will interactively prompt the user for the name of a simulation definition data file

with a window similar to the following;

The file type defaults to names with a *.in filename extension. However, you can select any

compatible ASCII data file by selecting the Files of type: field or by typing the name of the file directly

in the File name: field.

page 4

Script example

The following is the program output for a typical closest approach simulation. Explanatory text is

provided in italic times Roman font. Appendix A contains a brief explanation of these data items.

------------------------------------------------

DE421 ephemeris

The first part of the output summarizes the geocentric and heliocentric conditions at the initial time. It

includes the orbital elements of the departure hyperbola along with the energy (C3) and right ascension

(RLA) and declination (DLA) of the trajectory.

departure hyperbola characteristics

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

-4.53500401858736e+004 +1.14472886844419e+000 +2.86442848562298e+001 +1.94742119762936e+002

+2.67494586007697e+000 +1.01777749806833e-013 +1.94742119762936e+002

-6.27207312607554e+003 -1.76041957306828e+003 -8.00642741501510e+002 +6.56346000000000e+003

+3.35306759386591e+000 -9.54013022081091e+000 -5.29081568530960e+000 +1.14127068452222e+001

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

page 5

sma (km) eccentricity inclination (deg) argper (deg)

+1.49651444102350e+008 +1.62374958181757e-002 +2.34390545149767e+001 +1.02451915932401e+002

+7.22897068239422e-004 +1.52049044491637e+002 +2.54500960424038e+002 +3.65453122443267e+002

-4.05597427304616e+007 -1.34200242073241e+008 -5.81820454695553e+007 +1.51789156786311e+008

+2.82280784474347e+001 -7.39734366156804e+000 -3.20725910433326e+000 +2.93569687986379e+001

(Earth mean ecliptic and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+1.49651444102350e+008 +1.62374958181754e-002 +3.72374893588549e-004 +3.33004756044660e+002

+1.29447823133429e+002 +1.52049044491636e+002 +1.25053800536296e+002 +3.65453122443267e+002

-4.05597427304616e+007 -1.46269803400722e+008 +8.07564457867057e+002 +1.51789156786311e+008

+2.82280784474347e+001 -8.06270452130826e+000 -1.08373484325913e-004 +2.93569687986379e+001

The next section summarizes the time and conditions at the boundary of the Earth’s sphere-of-influence.

time and geocentric conditions at Earth SOI

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

-4.55952651706088e+004 +1.14329878876998e+000 +2.85067574002260e+001 +1.94701075005149e+002

+2.68705645888539e+000 +1.49476430370118e+002 +3.44177505375267e+002

+8.99364424128154e+005 -1.79665707880950e+005 -1.20369705591863e+005 +9.25000000000000e+005

+3.03091601157154e+000 -5.32484413881155e-001 -3.66050015684915e-001 +3.09902954716634e+000

page 6

time and heliocentric conditions at Earth SOI

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+1.90707647403203e+008 +2.03979740088537e-001 +2.34999962000289e+001 +2.53589181214998e+002

+5.26247221332065e-001 +3.79157831009456e+000 +2.57380759525093e+002 +5.25729651008980e+002

-3.19281331278927e+007 -1.36202686251649e+008 -5.90925970626198e+007 +1.51863466491460e+008

+3.16293499993612e+001 -6.53259436377160e+000 -2.96664703255671e+000 +3.24328778420826e+001

This section of the display summarizes the time and conditions at closest approach to Mars. It includes

both the EME2000 heliocentric coordinates and the B-plane coordinates of the trajectory with respect to

a Mars-centered mean equator and IAU node of epoch coordinate system.

time and conditions at Mars closest approach

(areocentric mean equator and IAU node of epoch)

------------------------------------------------

-5.85547127346365e+003 +4.33556776694117e+000 +1.29983557083817e+001 +3.18839765307548e+002

+2.46457159708885e+002 +1.32686773568480e-006 +3.18839766634416e+002

-1.73564054660330e+004 -8.47748484437895e+003 -2.89135770748943e+003 +1.95313212400153e+004

+1.40112090326853e+000 -3.06614092576944e+000 +5.79222509679307e-001 +3.42050561729892e+000

(areocentric mean equator and IAU node of epoch)

------------------------------------------------

b dot t 24277.342890 kilometers

b dot r 4562.160947 kilometers

b-plane angle 10.642815 degrees

v-infinity 2704.486837 meters/second

r-periapsis 19531.321240 kilometers

decl-asymptote 7.505859 degrees

page 7

rasc-asymptote 281.261445 degrees

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+2.27939349007787e+008 +9.35420831485435e-002 +2.46772248957438e+001 +3.32979294354388e+002

+3.37165819776802e+000 +7.04484997481011e+001 +4.34277941024890e+001 +6.86972360664283e+002

+1.50785503275122e+008 +1.45975103072018e+008 +6.28800683803616e+007 +2.19086516505094e+008

-1.66520923917687e+001 +1.68785175802372e+001 +8.19168008640425e+000 +2.50854571289496e+001

(Earth mean ecliptic and equinox of J2000)

------------------------------------------

+2.27939349007787e+008 +9.35420831485440e-002 +1.84935624352721e+000 +2.86517455248543e+002

+4.95409333630961e+001 +7.04484997481008e+001 +3.56965954996643e+002 +6.86972360664284e+002

+1.50785503275122e+008 +1.58941793342421e+008 -3.74226536189822e+005 +2.19086516505094e+008

-1.66520923917687e+001 +1.87442003212609e+001 +8.01830818071665e-001 +2.50854571289496e+001

The final script output is a sequence of events summary similar to the following.

--------------------------

page 8

Technical Discussion

The pprop_e2m MATLAB script implements numerical methods that perform the following sequential

trajectory calculations.

(1) determine the ephemeris time and conditions at the Earth’s sphere-of-influence (SOI) based on the

user-defined dynamical time and state vector at hyperbolic injection.

These conditions are determined using the event prediction feature of the built-in ode45

MATLAB function. The SOI radius for these calculations is defined by the user in the

constants/models data file.

(2) at the Earth’s sphere-of-influence, convert the geocentric state vector to sun-centered (heliocentric)

position and velocity vectors

(3) determine closest approach, areocentric distance or user-defined epoch conditions between the

heliocentric trajectory and Mars

The close approach and areocentric distance conditions are determined using the event

prediction feature of the built-in ode45 MATLAB function. Closest approach occurs

whenever the flight path angle relative to Mars is nearly zero, and areocentric distance

occurs when the Mars-to-trajectory distance reaches the user-defined value.

In this computer program the heliocentric coordinates of the sun, Moon and planets are based on the JPL

Development Ephemeris DE421. These coordinates are provided in the Earth mean equator and

equinox of J2000 coordinate system (EME2000). The binary ephemeris file provided with this

computer program was created for use on PC-compatible computers. For other platforms, you will need

to create binary files specific to that system. Information and computer programs for creating these files

can be found at the JPL solar system FTP site located at ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/eph/planets/.

The geocentric orbital motion is modeled with respect to the Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000

(EME2000) coordinate system. The following figure illustrates the geometry of the EME2000

coordinate system. The origin of this Earth-centered-inertial (ECI) inertial coordinate system is the

geocenter and the fundamental plane is the Earth’s mean equator. The z-axis of this system is normal to

the Earth’s mean equator at epoch J2000, the x-axis is parallel to the vernal equinox of the Earth’s mean

orbit at epoch J2000, and the y-axis completes the right-handed coordinate system.

The epoch J2000 is the Julian Date 2451545.0 which corresponds to January 1, 2000, 12 hours

Terrestrial Time (TT).

page 9

Figure 1. Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000 coordinate system

Program pprop_e2m implements a special perturbation technique which numerically integrates the

vector system of second-order, nonlinear differential equations of motion given by

where

t dynamical time

r inertial position vector

a g acceleration due to Earth gravity

a s acceleration due to the sun

am acceleration due to the moon

a p acceleration due to the planets

a srp acceleration due to solar radiation pressure

The software uses a spherical harmonic representation of the Earth’s geopotential function given by

n R m

n n

0 R

r, ,

r

Cn

r n 1 r

n

P 0

u Pn u Sn sin m Cn cos m

r n 1 m1 r

m m

where is the geocentric latitude, is the geocentric east longitude and r r x 2 y 2 z 2 is the

geocentric distance. In this expression the S’s and C’s are harmonic coefficients of the geopotential, and

the P’s are associated Legendre polynomials of degree n and order m with argument u sin .

page 10

The software calculates the acceleration due to the Earth’s gravity field with a vector equation derived

from the gradient of the potential function expressed as

a g r, t r, t

This acceleration vector is a combination of pure two-body or point mass gravity acceleration and the

gravitational acceleration due to higher order nonspherical terms in the Earth’s geopotential. In terms of

the Earth’s geopotential , the inertial rectangular cartesian components of the acceleration vector are

as follows:

1 z 1

x x 2 y

r r r 2 x 2 y 2 x y 2

1 z 1

y y 2 x

r r r 2 x 2 y 2 x y

2

1 x2 y2

z z

r r r2

The three partial derivatives of the geopotential with respect to r, , are given by

1 N R

n

n

r r r n 2 r m 0

N R

n n

r n2 r

C

m 0

m

n cos m Snm sin m Pnm1 sin m tan Pnm sin

N R

n n

r n2 r

mS

m 0

m

n cos m Cnm sin m Pnm sin

where

R radius of the Earth

r geocentric distance

Snm , Cnm harmonic coefficients

z

geocentric declination sin 1

r

longitude g

y

right ascension tan 1

x

g right ascension of Greenwich

The right ascension is measure positive east of the vernal equinox, longitude is measured positive east of

Greenwich, and declination is positive above the Earth’s equator and negative below.

page 11

For m 0 the coefficients are called zonal terms, when m n the coefficients are sectorial terms, and

for n m 0 the coefficients are called tesseral terms.

The Legendre polynomials with argument sin are computed using recursion relationships given by:

1

Pn0 sin 2n 1 sin Pn01 sin n 1 Pn02 sin

n

Pn sin 2n 1 cos Pnn11 sin ,

n

m 0, m n

Pnm sin Pnm2 sin 2n 1 cos Pnm11 sin , m 0, m n

and Pi j 0 for j i .

cos m 2 cos cos m 1 cos m 2

m tan m 1 tan tan

These gravity model data files are simple space delimited ASCII data files. The following is a portion

of a typical gravity model data file. In this file, column one is the degree index, column two is the

model order index, and columns three and four are the corresponding un-normalized gravity coefficients

(zonals and tesserals, respectively).

2 0 -0.10826300D-02 0.00000000D+00

3 0 0.25321531D-05 0.00000000D+00

4 0 0.16109876D-05 0.00000000D+00

5 0 0.23578565D-06 0.00000000D+00

6 0 -0.54316985D-06 0.00000000D+00

7 0 0.33237640D-06 0.00000000D+00

8 0 0.17721040D-06 0.00000000D+00

9 0 0.14459876D-06 0.00000000D+00

10 0 0.23339780D-06 0.00000000D+00

11 0 -0.27870829D-06 0.00000000D+00

12 0 0.17036617D-06 0.00000000D+00

13 0 0.25024428D-06 0.00000000D+00

Gravity model coefficients are often published in normalized form. The relationship between

normalized Cl ,m , Sl ,m and un-normalized gravity coefficients Cl ,m , Sl ,m is given by the following

expression:

l m ! Cl ,m

12

Cl ,m 1

Sl ,m 2 m 0 2l 1 l m ! Sl ,m

page 12

Geocentric acceleration due to the sun, Moon and planets

r r

am r, t m msc 3 em 3

r rem

msc

where

m gravitational constant of the moon

rmsc position vector from the moon to the trajectory

rem position vector from the Earth to the moon

r r

a s r, t s s sc 3 es 3

r res

s sc

where

s gravitational constant of the sun

rs sc position vector from the sun to the trajectory

re s position vector from the Earth to the sun

r r

a p r, t p s sc 3 e p 3

rs sc re p

where

s gravitational constant of the sun

rs sc position vector from the sun to the trajectory

re p position vector from the Earth to the planet

The first-order system of equations required by this computer program can be created from the second-

order system by the method of order reduction. With the following definitions,

y1 rx y2 ry y3 rz

y4 v x y5 v y y6 v z

where vx , v y , vz are the velocity vector components, the first-order system of differential equations is

given by

page 13

y1 v x y2 v y y3 v z

rx

y4 s a x m a x p a x srp

r3

r

y5 s y3 a y m a y p a y srp

r

r

y6 s z3 a z m a z p a z srp

r

In these equations, s is the gravitational constant of the sun, ax p , a y p and az p are the x, y and z

gravitational contributions of the planets, ax m , a y m and az m are the x, y and z gravitational

contributions of the Moon, and ax srp , a y srp and az srp are the x, y and z gravitational contributions due

to solar radiation pressure.

3 3qk qk2

f qk qk 3

1 1 qk

where

r T r 2sk

qk

sTk sk

n

k

r r f qk s k

k 1 d k3

In these equations, s k is the vector from the primary body to the secondary body, k is the gravitational

constant of the secondary body and dk r sk , where r is the position vector relative to the primary

body. The derivation of the f q functions is described in Section 8.4 of “An Introduction to the

Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics, Revised Edition”, by Richard H. Battin, AIAA Education

Series, 1999.

We can define a solar radiation constant as a function of its size, mass and surface reflective properties

according to the equation:

A

Csrp Ps a 2

m

where

page 14

reflectivity constant

Ps solar radiation pressure constant

a astronomical unit

A surface area normal to the incident radiation

m mass

The reflectivity constant is a dimensionless number between 0 and 2. For a perfectly absorbent body

1 , for a perfectly reflective body 2 , and for a translucent body 1 . For example, the

reflectivity constant for an aluminum surface is approximately 1.96.

The value of the solar radiation pressure on a perfectly absorbing surface at a distance of one

Astronomical Unit from the Sun is

G Newton

Ps 1

c meters 2

where G1 is the solar flux at a distance of one Astronomical Unit in watts per square meter, and c is the

speed of light in meters per second. The values of the solar flux and speed of light used during a

simulation are defined by the user in the constants and models data file.

rsc s

a srp csrp 3

rsc s

where

rsc = geocentric, inertial position vector

re s = geocentric, inertial position vector of the sun

rsc s rsc re s

During the geocentric integration process, the software must determine if the trajectory is in Earth

shadow or sunlight. Obviously, there can be no solar radiation perturbation during Earth eclipse of the

orbit. The software makes use of a shadow parameter to determine eclipse conditions. This parameter

is defined by the following expression:

rsc res

sign(rsc res )

res

where rsc is the geocentric, inertial position vector of the trajectory and re s is the geocentric, inertial

position vector of the sun relative to the trajectory.

The critical values of the shadow parameter for the penumbra (subscript p) and umbra part (subscript u)

of the shadow are given by:

p rsc sin p

page 15

u rsc sin u

p p

u u

They are the angles between the geocentric anti-sun vector and the vector to the trajectory at the time of

shadow entrance or exit.

re

sin 1

rsc

rs re

p sin 1

re s

rs re

u sin 1

re s

where

rs radius of the sun

re s distance from the Earth to the sun

If the condition u p is true, the geocentric trajectory is in the penumbra part of the Earth’s

shadow, and if the inequality 0 u is true, the trajectory is in the umbra part of the shadow. If the

absolute value of the shadow parameter is larger than the penumbra value, the trajectory is in full

sunlight. The shadow calculations used in this MATLAB script also assume the Earth’s atmosphere

increases the radius of the Earth by two percent.

The second-order, vector system of heliocentric equations of motion for point-mass gravity

perturbations such as the Moon or planets are given by

n

d s

r j 3j 3j

j 1 d j sj

page 16

In this equation, s j is the vector from the primary body to the secondary body j, j is the gravitational

constant of the secondary body, and d j r s j , where r is the position vector of the trajectory relative

to the primary body.

Following the geocentric formulation, use is again made of Battin’s F q function given by

3 3qk qk2

F qk qk 3

1 1 qk

where

r T r 2sk

qk

sTk sk

n

k

r r F qk sk

k 1 d k3

The heliocentric acceleration vector due to solar radiation pressure is given by:

rsc

a srp csrp 3

rsc

where rsc is the heliocentric position vector of the trajectory. The equation for csrp is defined in the

previous geocentric trajectory propagation discussion.

This section describes the transformation of coordinates between the Earth mean equator and equinox of

J2000 (EME2000) and the areocentric mean equator and IAU node of epoch coordinate systems. This

transformation is used to compute the Mars-centered flight path angle and the coordinates of the

trajectory at encounter.

A unit vector in the direction of the pole of Mars can be determined from

cos p cos p

pˆ Mars sin p cos p

sin p

page 17

The IAU 2000 right ascension and declination of the pole of Mars in the EME2000 coordinate system

are given by the following expressions

p 317.68143 0.1061T

p 52.88650 0.0609 T

where T is the time in Julian centuries given by T JD 2451545.0 / 36525 and JD is the TDB Julian

Date.

The unit vector in the direction of the IAU-defined x-axis is computed from

xˆ pˆ J 2000 pˆ Mars

where pˆ J 2000 0 0 1 is unit vector in the direction of the pole of the J2000 coordinate system.

T

yˆ pˆ Mars xˆ

Finally, the components of the matrix that transforms coordinates from the EME2000 system to the

Mars-centered mean equator and IAU node of epoch system are as follows:

xˆ

M yˆ

pˆ Mars

The trajectory conditions at the boundary of the Earth’s sphere of influence is determined during the

numerical integration of the geocentric equations of motion by finding the time at which the difference

between the geocentric distance and the user-defined value is essentially zero. This mission constraint is

computed as follows

r rsc rsoi 0

where rsc is the geocentric position vector of the trajectory and rsoi is the user-defined value of the

geocentric distance of the SOI boundary. SOI conditions are predicted using the event prediction

capability of the built-in ode45 MATLAB function.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% compute time and conditions at the SOI

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

jdtdb_wrk = jdtdb_tip;

page 18

% set up for ode45

[t, ysol, tevent, yevent, ie] = ode45(@geo_eqm, [0 tof], [r_tip v_tip], options);

The MATLAB function that calculates the difference between the current geocentric distance and the

user-defined SOI distance is as follows.

% input

% y = current spacecraft geocentric state vector (km & km/sec)

% output

% global

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

global rsoi_target

isterminal = 1;

direction = [];

Closest approach is determined during the numerical integration of the heliocentric equations of motion

by finding the time at which the flight path angle relative to Mars is essentially zero. This mission

constraint is computed as follows

rv

sin 1 0

r v

where r and v are the Mars-centered position and velocity vectors, respectively. Closest approach is

predicted using the event prediction capability of the built-in ode45 MATLAB function.

The following is the MATLAB source code for the function that determines closest approach.

page 19

function [jdtdb_ca, rm2sc, vm2sc] = findca(jdtdbi, ri, vi)

% input

% ri = initial heliocentric position vector (au)

% vi = initial heliocentric velocity vector (au/day)

% output

% rm2sc = mars-to-spacecraft position vector (kilometers)

% vm2sc = mars-to-spacecraft velocity vector (kilometers/second)

% NOTE: rm2sc and vm2sc => Mars mean equator and IAU node of epoch

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

tof = 500.0;

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% solve for closest approach conditions

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

jdtdb_wrk = jdtdbi;

[t, ysol, tevent, yevent, ie] = ode45(@hel_eqm, [0 tof], [ri vi], options);

jdtdb_ca = jdate;

rmars = svmars(1:3);

vmars = svmars(4:6);

% (Mars mean equator and IAU node of epoch)

tmatrix = mme2000(jdate);

page 20

% mars-to-spacecraft state vector (km and km/sec)

% (Mars mean equator and IAU node of epoch)

The following is the MATLAB function that evaluates the current value of the areocentric flight path

angle.

% required by pprop_e2m.m

% input

% y = spacecraft heliocentric state vector (au, au/day)

% output

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

global jdtdb_wrk

jdate = jdtdb_wrk + t;

rmars = svmars(1:3);

vmars = svmars(4:6);

tmatrix = mme2000(jdate);

value = fpa;

isterminal = 1;

direction = [];

page 21

Predicting the conditions at a user-defined areocentric distance

The trajectory conditions at the boundary of a user-defined areocentric distance are determined during

the numerical integration of the heliocentric heliocentric of motion by finding the time at which the

difference between the areocentric distance and the user-defined value is essentially zero. This mission

constraint is computed as follows

r rsc ruser 0

where rsc is the areocentric position vector of the trajectory and ruser is the user-specified value of the

areocentric distance. Areocentric distance is also predicted using the event prediction capability of the

built-in ode45 MATLAB function.

The following is the MATLAB source code which evaluates the difference between the current

areocentric distance and the user-defined value difined by rmag_user.

% required by pprop_e2m.m

% input

% y = spacecraft heliocentric state vector (au, au/day)

% output

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

jdate = jdtdb_wrk + t;

rmars = svmars(1:3);

% areocentric distance

isterminal = 1;

direction = [];

page 22

The B-plane

The derivation of B-plane coordinates is described in the classic JPL reports, “A Method of Describing

Miss Distances for Lunar and Interplanetary Trajectories” and “Some Orbital Elements Useful in Space

Trajectory Calculations”, both by William Kizner. The following diagram illustrates the fundamental

geometry of the B-plane coordinate system.

cos cos

Sˆ cos sin

sin

where and are the declination and right ascension of the asymptote of the incoming hyperbola at

Mars encounter.

The following computational steps summarize the calculation of the B-plane vector from a Mars-

centered position vector r and velocity vector v evaluated at closest approach to Mars.

h rv

radius rate

r r v r

semiparameter

p h2

page 23

semimajor axis

r

a

r v2

2

orbital eccentricity

e 1 p a

true anomaly

pr rh

cos sin

er e

B-plane magnitude

B pa

fundamental vectors

r v rr

zˆ

h

S vector

a b

S pˆ qˆ

a 2 b2 a 2 b2

B vector

b2 ab

B pˆ qˆ

a 2 b2 a 2 b2

T vector

S , S ,0

2 2 T

T

y x

S x2 S y2

R vector

R S T SzTy , SzTx , S xTy S yTx

T

In this MATLAB script the heliocentric coordinates of the Earth and Mars are computed in the Earth

mean equator and equinox of J2000 coordinate system using the JPL DE421 algorithm. The

pprop_e2m computer program also provides these coordinates in the Earth mean ecliptic and equinox

of J2000 coordinate system.

page 24

The transformation of vectors from the equatorial to the ecliptic system involves the following matrix

multiplication

T

1 -0.000000479966 0

Sec 0.000000440360 0.917482137087 0.397776982902 Seq

-0.000000190919 -0.397776982902 0.917482137087

where S eq is the state vector (position and velocity vectors) in the equatorial system and S ec is the state

vector in the ecliptic system.

Terrestrial Time, TT

Terrestrial Time is the time scale that would be kept by an ideal clock on the geoid - approximately, sea

level on the surface of the Earth. Since its unit of time is the SI (atomic) second, TT is independent of

the variable rotation of the Earth. TT is meant to be a smooth and continuous “coordinate” time scale

independent of Earth rotation. In practice TT is derived from International Atomic Time (TAI), a time

scale kept by real clocks on the Earth's surface, by the relation TT = TAI + 32s.184. It is the time scale

now used for the precise calculation of future astronomical events observable from Earth.

TT = UTC + (number of leap seconds) + 32.184 seconds

Barycentric Dynamical Time is the time scale that would be kept by an ideal clock, free of gravitational

fields, co-moving with the solar system barycenter. It is always within 2 milliseconds of TT, the

difference caused by relativistic effects. TDB is the time scale now used for investigations of the

dynamics of solar system bodies.

0.000022sin 575.3385T 4.2970

0.000014sin 1256.6152T 6.1969

0.000005sin 606.9777T 4.0212

0.000005sin 52.9691T 0.4444

0.000002sin 21.3299T 5.5431

0.000010T sin 628.3076T 4.2490

In this equation, the coefficients are in seconds, the angular arguments are in radians, and T is the

number of Julian centuries of TT from J2000; T = (Julian Date(TT) – 2451545.0) / 36525.

page 25

Algorithm and Modeling Resources

(1) NOVAS (Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Subroutines) software package, version 3.1, U.S.

Naval Observatory, March 2011.

Science Books, 1992.

(3) “Update to Mars Coordinate Frame Definitions”, R. A. Mase, JPL IOM 312.B/015-99, 15 July 1999.

(4) “The Planetary and Lunar Ephemeris DE 421”, W. M. Folkner, J. G. Williams, D. H. Boggs, JPL

IOM 343R-08-003, 31-March-2008.

(5) “Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of

the Planets and Satellites: 2009”, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 109: 101-135, 2011.

(6) “IERS Conventions (2003)”, IERS Technical Note 32, November 2003.

(7) “Planetary Constants and Models”, R. Vaughan, JPL D-12947, December 1995.

(9) W. Kizner, “A Method of Describing Miss Distances for Lunar and Interplanetary Trajectories”,

Publication 674, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, August 1, 1959.

(10) F. M. Sturms, Jr., “Error Analysis of Multiple Planet Trajectories”, JPL Space Programs Summary,

No. 37-27, Vol. IV.

(11) R. H. Battin, An Introduction to the Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics, AIAA, 1987.

(12) “Interplanetary Mission Design Handbook, Volume 1, Part 2”, JPL Publication 82-43, September

15, 1983.

page 26

APPENDIX A

Contents of the Simulation Summary

This appendix is a brief summary of the information contained in the simulation summary screen display

produced by the pprop_e2m software. The simulation summary screen display contains the following

information:

UTC Julian Date = Julian Date of trajectory event on UTC time scale

TDB Julian Date = Julian Date of trajectory event on TDB time scale

arglat (deg) = argument of latitude in degrees. The argument of latitude is the sum of

true anomaly and argument of perigee.

vmag (kps) = scalar magnitude of the velocity vector in kilometers per second

degrees

specific orbital energy = specific orbital energy in kilometers squared per seconds

squared

page 27

b dot t = dot product of the B-plane b-vector and t-vector in kilometers

areocentric flight path angle = flight path angle relative to Mars in degrees.

page 28

APPENDIX B

Additional Script Examples

This appendix summarizes typical output data created by the pprop_e2m software for the other two

program options. The initial epoch and state vector for both examples are the same as the close

approach example given earlier in this document.

The first output summary is for the user-defined areocentric distance program option. The user-defined

Mars relative distance for this example is 500,000 kilometers.

------------------------------------------------

DE421 ephemeris

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

-4.53500401858736e+004 +1.14472886844419e+000 +2.86442848562298e+001 +1.94742119762936e+002

+2.67494586007697e+000 +1.01777749806833e-013 +1.94742119762936e+002

-6.27207312607554e+003 -1.76041957306828e+003 -8.00642741501510e+002 +6.56346000000000e+003

+3.35306759386591e+000 -9.54013022081091e+000 -5.29081568530960e+000 +1.14127068452222e+001

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

page 29

UTC julian date 2452796.11624905

+1.49651444102350e+008 +1.62374958181757e-002 +2.34390545149767e+001 +1.02451915932401e+002

+7.22897068239422e-004 +1.52049044491637e+002 +2.54500960424038e+002 +3.65453122443267e+002

-4.05597427304616e+007 -1.34200242073241e+008 -5.81820454695553e+007 +1.51789156786311e+008

+2.82280784474347e+001 -7.39734366156804e+000 -3.20725910433326e+000 +2.93569687986379e+001

(Earth mean ecliptic and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+1.49651444102350e+008 +1.62374958181754e-002 +3.72374893588549e-004 +3.33004756044660e+002

+1.29447823133429e+002 +1.52049044491636e+002 +1.25053800536296e+002 +3.65453122443267e+002

-4.05597427304616e+007 -1.46269803400722e+008 +8.07564457867057e+002 +1.51789156786311e+008

+2.82280784474347e+001 -8.06270452130826e+000 -1.08373484325913e-004 +2.93569687986379e+001

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

-4.55952651706088e+004 +1.14329878876998e+000 +2.85067574002260e+001 +1.94701075005149e+002

+2.68705645888539e+000 +1.49476430370118e+002 +3.44177505375267e+002

+8.99364424128154e+005 -1.79665707880950e+005 -1.20369705591863e+005 +9.25000000000000e+005

page 30

vx (kps) vy (kps) vz (kps) vmag (kps)

+3.03091601157154e+000 -5.32484413881155e-001 -3.66050015684915e-001 +3.09902954716634e+000

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+1.90707647403203e+008 +2.03979740088537e-001 +2.34999962000289e+001 +2.53589181214998e+002

+5.26247221332065e-001 +3.79157831009456e+000 +2.57380759525093e+002 +5.25729651008980e+002

-3.19281331278927e+007 -1.36202686251649e+008 -5.90925970626198e+007 +1.51863466491460e+008

+3.16293499993612e+001 -6.53259436377160e+000 -2.96664703255671e+000 +3.24328778420826e+001

(areocentric mean equator and IAU node of epoch)

------------------------------------------------

-5.85782595451434e+003 +4.32843509743761e+000 +1.29931205750855e+001 +3.18887271363930e+002

+2.46437568449198e+002 +2.59453898766932e+002 +2.18341170130862e+002

-1.20264293003575e+005 +4.80284537933659e+005 -6.97370928902369e+004 +4.99999999674580e+005

+5.30628563480131e-001 -2.65955233882641e+000 +3.57543166673176e-001 +2.73543825215863e+000

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

page 31

TDB julian date 2452995.52031219

+2.27939501348497e+008 +9.35427996243048e-002 +2.46772246447423e+001 +3.32979492946509e+002

+3.37165764066978e+000 +6.92772604055362e+001 +4.22567533520455e+001 +6.86973049359817e+002

+1.53732898384908e+008 +1.42927219584838e+008 +6.14024444039032e+007 +2.18705862570831e+008

-1.63075251912893e+001 +1.72054179773548e+001 +8.33230886299396e+000 +2.51274582206069e+001

(Earth mean ecliptic and equinox of J2000)

------------------------------------------

+2.27939501348497e+008 +9.35427996243053e-002 +1.84935590201849e+000 +2.86517652661233e+002

+4.95409340366569e+001 +6.92772604055358e+001 +3.55794913066769e+002 +6.86973049359819e+002

+1.53732898384908e+008 +1.55557649852764e+008 -5.17541603931568e+005 +2.18705862570831e+008

-1.63075251912893e+001 +1.91000644864937e+001 +8.00821687764983e-001 +2.51274582206069e+001

--------------------------

The second example exercises the user-defined final epoch option. The user-defined epoch for this case

corresponds to the areocentric distance epoch of the previous example.

------------------------------------------------

DE421 ephemeris

page 32

departure hyperbola characteristics

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

-4.53500401858736e+004 +1.14472886844419e+000 +2.86442848562298e+001 +1.94742119762936e+002

+2.67494586007697e+000 +1.01777749806833e-013 +1.94742119762936e+002

-6.27207312607554e+003 -1.76041957306828e+003 -8.00642741501510e+002 +6.56346000000000e+003

+3.35306759386591e+000 -9.54013022081091e+000 -5.29081568530960e+000 +1.14127068452222e+001

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+1.49651444102350e+008 +1.62374958181757e-002 +2.34390545149767e+001 +1.02451915932401e+002

+7.22897068239422e-004 +1.52049044491637e+002 +2.54500960424038e+002 +3.65453122443267e+002

-4.05597427304616e+007 -1.34200242073241e+008 -5.81820454695553e+007 +1.51789156786311e+008

+2.82280784474347e+001 -7.39734366156804e+000 -3.20725910433326e+000 +2.93569687986379e+001

(Earth mean ecliptic and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

page 33

TDB time 14:48:28.050

+1.49651444102350e+008 +1.62374958181754e-002 +3.72374893588549e-004 +3.33004756044660e+002

+1.29447823133429e+002 +1.52049044491636e+002 +1.25053800536296e+002 +3.65453122443267e+002

-4.05597427304616e+007 -1.46269803400722e+008 +8.07564457867057e+002 +1.51789156786311e+008

+2.82280784474347e+001 -8.06270452130826e+000 -1.08373484325913e-004 +2.93569687986379e+001

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

-4.55952651706088e+004 +1.14329878876998e+000 +2.85067574002260e+001 +1.94701075005149e+002

+2.68705645888539e+000 +1.49476430370118e+002 +3.44177505375267e+002

+8.99364424128154e+005 -1.79665707880950e+005 -1.20369705591863e+005 +9.25000000000000e+005

+3.03091601157154e+000 -5.32484413881155e-001 -3.66050015684915e-001 +3.09902954716634e+000

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+1.90707647403203e+008 +2.03979740088537e-001 +2.34999962000289e+001 +2.53589181214998e+002

+5.26247221332065e-001 +3.79157831009456e+000 +2.57380759525093e+002 +5.25729651008980e+002

-3.19281331278927e+007 -1.36202686251649e+008 -5.90925970626198e+007 +1.51863466491460e+008

+3.16293499993612e+001 -6.53259436377160e+000 -2.96664703255671e+000 +3.24328778420826e+001

page 34

time and conditions at user-defined final epoch

(areocentric mean equator and IAU node of epoch)

------------------------------------------------

-5.85782671293504e+003 +4.32843556717028e+000 +1.29931207983875e+001 +3.18887268621298e+002

+2.46437569163943e+002 +2.59453900876387e+002 +2.18341169497686e+002

-1.20264295732131e+005 +4.80284546673545e+005 -6.97370943852856e+004 +5.00000008934661e+005

+5.30628503972609e-001 -2.65955217585857e+000 +3.57543139009348e-001 +2.73543807855249e+000

(Earth mean equator and equinox of J2000)

-----------------------------------------

+2.27939501348497e+008 +9.35427996243060e-002 +2.46772246447423e+001 +3.32979492946510e+002

+3.37165764066978e+000 +6.92772604034245e+001 +4.22567533499342e+001 +6.86973049359819e+002

+1.53732898390157e+008 +1.42927219579300e+008 +6.14024444012213e+007 +2.18705862570149e+008

-1.63075251906615e+001 +1.72054179779385e+001 +8.33230886324469e+000 +2.51274582206823e+001

(Earth mean ecliptic and equinox of J2000)

------------------------------------------

+2.27939501348497e+008 +9.35427996243064e-002 +1.84935590201848e+000 +2.86517652661234e+002

page 35

raan (deg) true anomaly (deg) arglat (deg) period (days)

+4.95409340366567e+001 +6.92772604034244e+001 +3.55794913064658e+002 +6.86973049359819e+002

+1.53732898390157e+008 +1.55557649846616e+008 -5.17541604189310e+005 +2.18705862570149e+008

-1.63075251906615e+001 +1.91000644871289e+001 +8.00821687762869e-001 +2.51274582206823e+001

--------------------------

page 36

- 5 examples of Law of motionUploaded byMary Joy Vallar
- Ballistic Missile Trajectory Prediction Using a State Transition MatrixUploaded bysavb123
- Effect of MAPAXES and IJK Origin_5423490_02 (1)Uploaded bygschlachter2
- Chapters Physics Basic ticsUploaded byarnabnitw
- newton's second lawUploaded byAida Ish
- 03 3d Coordinate Geo(class 12)Uploaded byHardik Kumar
- Acceleration (Inclined Plane)Uploaded byjambuna
- Kinema TicsUploaded byperwinsharma
- Ujian FizikUploaded byPuan Fieysza
- Chapters 1-4 Conceptual QuestionsUploaded bydsowm
- Chapter 7-Rotational MotionUploaded bySuganeya Udiasoorian
- PhysicsUploaded bystevepat
- Numeircal Methods (1)Uploaded byAkashKhanSwati
- Section 4.5 Equations of Uniformly Accelerated MotionUploaded bytwy113
- P-1Uploaded byrishabh gupta
- Pch3lec1Uploaded byRoberto Pereira
- Concepts of physicsUploaded byChris Loidz Ganado
- GraphsUploaded byasha
- math 1210 project 1Uploaded byapi-438604238
- A5Uploaded byWaqas Gehlan
- Lecture 3Uploaded bygkvmit
- Kertas 3 Pep Akhir Tahun Ting 4 Terengganu 2007.pdfUploaded bysyakirahyahaya
- lab report stage 1 planner editedUploaded byapi-215956780
- 9th Co-Ordinate GeometryUploaded byvishal_bokaro
- peperiksaan akhir penggal 2 2009Uploaded byApple Lee Kuok Ing
- sir-cumference-author-presentation-nctm2012Uploaded byapi-316123904
- mid-term reviewUploaded byapi-245317729
- 09 Science Motion Test 03 Answer m7d2 (1)Uploaded byHimanshu Gupta
- Note - Chapter 02Uploaded byCuongNgo
- MotionIn StraigtlineUploaded bygraciousparul

- Orbit Theory and ApplicationUploaded byPeacefulLion
- Computer Methods for Lunar Mission AnalysisUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Computer Methods for TransEarth TCM Delta-V Design and OptimizationUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Lunar Mission AnalysisUploaded bycdeaglejr
- PRE-FLIGHT INTERPLANETARY MISSION ANALYSISUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Selenocentric Coordinates and TransformationsUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Atmospheric Reentry Trajectory OptimizationUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Finite-Burn, Earth Orbit Rendezvous Trajectory OptimizationUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Two Maneuver, Finite-Burn Trajectory OptimizationUploaded bycdeaglejr
- A MATLAB Script for Propagating Trajectories from the Earth to the MoonUploaded bycdeaglejr
- The Gravity Perturbed Hohmann TransferUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Low-Thrust Interplanetary Trajectory OptimizationUploaded bycdeaglejr
- A Computer Program for Propagating Spacecraft Trajectories from Earth to MarsUploaded bycdeaglejr
- A MATLAB Script for Ballistic Interplanetary Trajectory Design and OptimizationUploaded bycdeaglejr
- A MATLAB Script for Creating Pork Chop Plots of Ballistic Earth-to-Mars TrajectoriesUploaded bycdeaglejr
- A Computer Program for Parametric Analysis of Ballistic Earth-to-Mars TrajectoriesUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Lunar Ascent Trajectory OptimizationUploaded bycdeaglejr
- The Gravity Perturbed Hohmann TransferUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Two-body Partial DerivativesUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Targeting with Modified Equinoctial Orbital ElementsUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Generalized Linear Targeting and GuidanceUploaded bycdeaglejr
- A MATLAB Script for Creating Pork Chop Plots of Ballistic Earth-to-Mars TrajectoriesUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Earth-to-Mars Mission Design (Fortran)Uploaded bycdeaglejr
- Optimal Finite-Burn Earth Orbit-to-Interplanetary InjectionUploaded bycdeaglejr
- Earth-to-Mars Mission Design (MATLAB)Uploaded bycdeaglejr

- The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System (Kenneth R. Lang)Uploaded byMuhammad Rafiul Ilmi Syarifudin
- manu kundaliUploaded byshreya singh
- 1851 Gregory Letters to a Candid Inquirer on Animal MagnetismUploaded byYawNyarko
- Links for Astro Books & Jyotish_sept 2018Uploaded bydivya-crawler
- Saturnian Cosmology - Appendix P - Links to Saturnian Web SitesUploaded byKen Sattamunin
- Avasthas of PlanetsUploaded byAli Raza
- astronomy study guide answersUploaded byapi-240689882
- romero_g_e_vila_g_s_introduction_to_black_hole_astrophysics.pdfUploaded byIyan Caldevilla Rodriguez
- Star Force 3 Wave CommandsUploaded byStrikerXE
- Longevity Analysis through Krishnamurti PaddhatiUploaded byPt Akaash
- Gravitation Paper 1Uploaded byVikash Sharma
- James Webb TelescopeUploaded bymoly23
- Pmfias.com-Solar System Planets Inner PlanetsUploaded byChandra Rao
- astrobright refresh infoUploaded byterris4999
- 21 movements of the earth - teacherUploaded byapi-251355123
- KP EZine 135 April 2018Uploaded byramachari
- starslightup--presentationUploaded byapi-341843346
- Chrono Nadi AstrologyUploaded byrajeevsonali
- Gravity 10Uploaded byDiego Borja
- Simplifying Physics --Kepler's law-for high school studentsUploaded byDr Srinivasan Nenmeli -K
- Rusting Year 4Uploaded bydean6286
- SkyUploaded byapi-26829072
- Basics of Space Flight_ Orbital MechanicsUploaded byettypasewang
- What is the Nebular TheoryUploaded byanika fierro
- the solar systemUploaded byapi-169639475
- UFO’S AND GREY ALIENS.pptxUploaded byigllobe
- 2019-04-01 Sky and TelescopeUploaded bycambraialopes
- SyllabusUploaded bysirpenguin31
- Physics I Problems (142).pdfUploaded byBOSS BOSS
- Astrology on Calamities and Other EventsUploaded byM K Mishra