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# Excavation and Backfill:

## Find the total volume of excavation and backfill.

Assume the soil to be moist ordinary earth. The
slope of this kind of soil varies from 1:1-1:1.
V EXCAVATION = VBUILDING
+V RAMP

## Solve first the volume of building and ramp

Class A-
Beams, slabs
columns and for all
the members which
are subjected to
ending stress.

Class B-
for all the
members which are
not reinforced for
bending stress.

Class C-
Used for footing
not under water.
Let C = No. of Part Cement
S= sand
G= gravel or stone
then;

## Note: 1 barrel = 4 bags of 96lbs Portland Cement

=3.76 cu. Ft.
 Area = 6.70 x 1000 = 6,700 sq.m
 Vol. = 6,700 x 0.23 = 1,541 cu.m

## Using 88 lbs Portland cement:

(Use Class A*)
Solution:
a) Cement: 1,541 x 8.20 = 12, 636.20 say 12,640 bags
b) Sand: 1,541 x 0.54 = 678.04 say 679 cu.m.
c) Gravel: 1,541 x 0.88 = 1,356.08 say 1357 cu.m.
a) Dowel bars, use ¾ ǿ x 0.50m x 0.50m O.C.
Assume one const. joint for every 75m.
1000
therefore no. of const. joints = = 13.33 say 14 const. joints
75
6.70
there are also = 13.4 say 14pcs. of dowel board for each const.
0.5

## where; 14 x14 = 196 pcs.- ¾’ ǿ x 0.50m or = to 98 pcs. Of ¾” x

10m.
Use the standard size reinforcing steel bars is 6m.

## Therefore; RSB = 98/6 = 16.33 say 17pcs. - ¾’ ǿ 20ft.

b) The bars use ½” ǿ x 0.60m spaced c 0.75 m. O.C.
1000
no. of pcs. = 0.75
= 1,333.33 say 1334 pcs.

## total length of the bars = 1.334 x0.60 = 800m

 Concreting
Find the quantity of cement in bags, sand and gravel in cu.m.
needed for a plain concrete slab on fill 0.10m thick and 6.0 x 9.0m in
dimension.

SOLUTION:
1. Find the volume:
V = 0.10 x 9 x 6
= 5.40 cu.m.
2. Referring on table 1-2 class “B”
for cement: 5.4 x 6.48 = 34.99 say 35 bags
sand: 5.4 x 0.44 = 2.37 say 2.5 cu.m.
gravel: 5.4 x 6.88 = 4.75 say 5.0 cu.m.
 A concrete pavement with a thickness of 4 in. and having a dimensions of
18x28m. Using class ‘C’ concrete, mixture, compute for the quantity of
cement, sand, and gravel in bags and cu.m. respectively.

 SOLUTION:
1. 4 inches = 0.1016 meter
2. Area of the pavement
18 x 28 = 504sq.m.
3. Volume = 0.1016 x504 = 51.21 cu.m.
4. Referring to table – using class C mixture
Cement: 51.21 x 5.5 = 281.65 say 282 bags
Sand: 51.21 x .44 = 22.52 say 23 cu.m.
Gravel: 51.21 x .88 = 45.06 say 45 cu.m.
 CHB- Concrete Hollow Block
Area of CHB:

## CHB laid per bag cement:

Table A: Quantity of Cement and sand for CHB mortar per
a. Find the area of the wall: sq.m.
A = 2m x 52 = 104sq.m.
b. Referring to table A:
104 x 12.5 = 1,300pcs.

## c. find the volume of mortar

(area of CHB Table)
0.0008 x 1,300 =1.04cu.m.
d. Mortar for 4 cells (area of CHB Table)
0.003 x 1,300 = 3.9cu.m.
i. Referring to table using Class ‘B’:
Cement : 2.60 x 5.5 = 14.30
e. Add the total volume of C and D = 4.94 cu.m. Lime: 2.60 x 5.5 = 14.30
f. Referring to table of mortar Sand: 2.60 x 0.90 = 2.34
12.04 x 4.94 = 59.48 cement
0.97 x 4.94 = 4.79 cu.m. sand
h. Find the volume of plaster
two faces: 0.002 x 1,300 = 2.6 cu.m. Summary of computation for materials:
Cement : 59.48 + 14.30 = 73.78
Lime: = 14.30
Sand: 2.34 + 4.94 = 7.28
SAMPLE PROBLEM:
1. A concrete post of 4.00m high with a cross sectional dimension of
10x12in. is resting on a concrete footing of 8in. , thick by 32”sq. if class B
mixture is specified, find the quantity of cement, gravel and sand.
Solution:
a. Convert first the measurement to
meters.
8” = .20m
32” = .80m
12” = .30m
10” = .25m
b. find the volume of the footing
.20 x .80 x.90 = .128cu.m.
c. Volume of post
.25 x .30 x 4.00 = .30 cu.m.
d. Total volume of B and C = .428
e. Referring to table using Class ‘B’:
Cement : .428 x 6.48 = 2.77 say 3 bags
Gravel: .428 x .44 = 0.188cu.m.
Sand: .428 x .88 = .38 cu.m.
2. The net area of a certain masonry wall is 100sq.m. Find the no. of 9” x
6” x 8 CHB, bag of cement and lime, and cu.m. of land. The wall is to be tooled
finished on one side. Use 13 mixture for plaster and mortar.
SOLUTION:
1. Pcs. Of CHB = 100 x 13 = 1300 pcs.
Materials required for 1000sq.ft. of
2. Mortar Volume :
varying thickness of mortar table:
(Referring to tables)
Filler Volume = 1300 x 0.0028 = 3.64 cu.m.
Volume of mortar = 100(3.28)2

## sq.ft.x 6 cu.ft. cu.m.

x
100sq.ft. (3.28)cu.ft.
Volume of mortar = 1.83 cu.m.
Total Volume of mortar =
3.64 + 1.83 = 5.47 cu.m. Area od CHB table:

## Referring to table of plaster using Class ‘B’:

Cement : 5.47 x 12.07 = 66.02
say 66 bags

## Sand: 5.47 x 0.97 = 5.31

say 5.5 cu.m.
3. Plaster volume referring to table
V= 100 x 0.012 = 12 cu.m.

## ◦ Cement : 1.2 x 5.5 = 6.6 bags

◦ Lime: 1.2 x 5.5 = 6.6 bags
◦ Sand: 1.20 x 0.90 = 1.1 cu.m.

## 3. Compute the quantity of cement in bags sand in cu.m. and 0.35 x

0.45 adobe stones for a wall supported by buttress as shown:

## *Note: Table 2-3 is the Plaster Table

 Prepare the BOM using class “B” mixtures:
g. Plastering of the Post:
1. Take the surface area of the
post less the area occupied by the
CHB (0.20 x 0.20)
2. using the class “B” mixture:
Cement: 24 x 0.192 = 4.6 bags
Sand: 24 x 0.016 = 0.384cu.m.

SUMMARY:
CHB = 2.130
Cement = 196
Sand = 16
Gravel = 6.34
 Specify the use of 15cm. CHB for a construction of firewall having a
dimension of 30m long and 6m high with class “B” mixture of mortar.
Prepare a BOM for both CHB and reinforcement for the same phase

SOLUTION:
 From the figure shown below, prepare the
BOM using class “B” and class “C” mortar.
 A firewall has a dimension of 35 meters long and 7 meters
high, specify the use of 15cm CHB with Class B concrete
mortar mixture. Prepare a comparative BOM for both CHB and
reinforced for the same wall.
SUMMARY:
CHB 15cm = 3,438 pcs.
Cement = 385 bags
Sand = 33 cu.m.
 STEEL REINFORCEMENT

## Types of Deformed bars

Length of Steel Reinforcement for Concrete Hollow Block Work:
Solution:
ROOFINGS
ROOF PITCH AND PERCENTAGE ADDITION

## Formula for Pitch:

𝑅
Pitch =
𝑆
PURLINS FOR STANDARD CORRUGATED G.I. ROOFS
(FOR TRUSSES NOT GREATER THAN 3.0M O.C.)

## CORRUGATED ROOFING SHEETS

(EFFECTIVE COVERAGE)

ESTIMATING PROCEDURE:
ROOFING HARDWARES
ARDEX CORRUGATED SHEET