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Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Rheology evaluations of WMA binders using ultraviolet and PAV aging


procedures
Feipeng Xiao a,⇑, Serji N. Amirkhanian b, Moses Karakouzian c, Mehdi Khalili c
a
Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
b
State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
c
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Construction, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA

h i g h l i g h t s

 Asphalt binder can be oxidized under thermal and/or ultraviolet radiation conditions.
 Rheology of WMA binders after long term UV or PAV aging procedures was studied.
 UV and PAV aging behaviors are significantly affected by the binder source and grade.
 WMA additives generally have no influences on rheology of UV and PAV aged binders.
 UV aging procedure is effective in investigating rheological properties of WMA binders.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Oxidation of an asphalt binder affects the long term performance of an asphalt pavement, especially
Received 19 September 2014 under thermal and/or ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate
Received in revised form 30 December 2014 the rheological behaviors of various WMA binders after long term UV aging and conventional PAV aging
Accepted 5 January 2015
procedures. The following rheological properties were tested and evaluated in this study: complex shear
Available online 21 January 2015
modulus, phase angle, elastic modulus, viscous modulus at an intermediate service temperature, and
deflection, stiffness, and m-value at a low temperature. The experimental design included four asphalt
Keywords:
binder sources (two grades); four WMA additives and control. Two aging methods of UV and PAV aging
Warm-mix asphalt
Ultraviolet aging
were utilized and a total of 40 binders were tested and evaluated. The test results indicated that UV and
PAV aging PAV aging procedures are significantly affected by asphalt binder source and grade. In addition, WMA
Complex shear modulus additives generally have no influences on rheological properties of UV and PAV aged binders. Moreover,
Phase angle the differences in deflection, creep stiffness, and m-values of UV and PAV aged binders are generally not
Deflection affected by their grade, source and WMA additives. Therefore, UV aging procedure used in this study may
Creep stiffness be an effective method in investigating rheological characteristics of WMA binder after a long term aging
m-Value process.
Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction pavement, but it is produced at lower plant temperatures than


conventional HMA [1–3]. Currently, there are more than 50 WMA
Some new technologies have been developed in recent years technologies all over the world. In principle, three WMA technol-
making the asphalt industry more environmentally sustainable. ogy categories are available in the United States for the production
One of those technologies has been the utilization of warm asphalt of asphalt mixtures at relatively low temperatures including
technologies as a means to reduce the mixing and compaction organic additives, chemical additives, and foaming processes
temperatures of asphalt mixes and decrease the energy consump- [2,4,5].
tion and carbon emission of asphalt paving. Numerous research Some commonly used warm mix asphalt additives, such as Cec-
results state that warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is much like hot-mix abase RT, Evotherm, Rediset, and Sasobit, as well as water foaming
asphalt (HMA) and, in some cases, even provides a better asphalt technology, could be used to effectively produce asphalt mixtures,
help reduce the mixing and compaction temperatures in the labo-
ratory and an asphalt plant [6]. Many research results indicate that
⇑ Corresponding author.
E-mail address: fpxiao@tongji.edu.cn (F. Xiao).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.01.046
0950-0618/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64 57

Table 1
Properties of base binders.

Binder type
A B C D
PG 76-22 (Venezuela) PG 76-22 (mixed) PG 64-22 (Venezuela) PG 64-22 (mixed)
Unaged Viscosity (Pa s) at 135 °C 1.735 1.51 0.64 0.45
Failed temp. (°C) 81.15 80.15 68.5 65.8
G⁄/sin d (Pa) at 76 °C 1613.1 1467.7 1922.5# 1233.1#
RTFO aged G⁄/sin d (Pa) 3625.2 (76 °C) 3322.3 (76 °C) 4357.8 (64 °C) 3703.1 (64 °C)
RTFO + PAV aged G⁄sin d (kPa) at 25 °C 2807 4095 3254 4438
stiffness (MPa) 129.5 198 152 178.5
m-Value at 12 °C 0.258 0.285 0.332 0.306

Notes: RTFO: rolling thin film oven; PAV: pressure aging vessel, #: test at 64 °C.

the WMA mixtures had similar or better rheological and perfor- asphalt binder. Xiao et al. [18] found that UV aged mixtures gener-
mance properties compared to conventional HMA mixtures [6–10]. ally had greater dissipated energy than thermally aged mixtures
Binder oxidation and its impact on pavement performance have regardless of binder type, aggregate source and air void. The UV
been addressed by numerous laboratory studies of binder oxida- aging procedure generally had more effect on the fracture resis-
tion chemistry, reaction kinetics, and hardening. This oxidation tance of asphalt mixtures than the regular thermal aging procedure
has a negative impact on mixture and thus affects pavement fati- [18].
gue [11]. As binders oxidize, they form more polar compounds that The viscous component of asphalt is increased and the viscous
tend to associate with each other and increase the amount of response is prolonged by the UV absorber which plays as a softener
asphaltenes. These asphaltenes behave, rheology, like solids in and endues asphalt with more favorable low-temperature perfor-
asphalts and contribute greatly to increased binder stiffness and mance, such as the improved low-temperature fatigue resistance
viscosity [11]. Xiao et al. [12] indicated that the increase of aging [14]. Asphalt sulfide with suitable sulfur content can improve
duration causes an increase in creep stiffness at a low test temper- low-temperature performance and anti-aging performance of
ature. In addition, the m-values of aged binders slightly decrease as asphalt to some extent [19,20]. Colored asphalt with red dye
the aging duration increase, regardless of the binder type or test showed better resistance to ultraviolet light compared to other
condition. asphalt binders [22].
The pressure aging vessel (PAV), used for many years in asphalt Research articles on WMA technologies indicate that reducing
research, was modified by SHRP and a procedure was developed to the aging temperature reduces the aging index and increases the
simulate in-service aging. It provides simulated long term aged m-values, but has no significant effects on G⁄/sin d, G⁄sin d and
asphalt binder for physical property testing. Asphalt binder is stiffness of the binders [23–24]. Also, the addition of warm asphalt
exposed to heat and pressure to simulate in-service aging over a additives significantly increases the G⁄/sin d values and lowers the
7–10 year period. m-values of the binders [23]. Additional recycled asphalt pavement
Pavement in-service experiences exposure to ultraviolet (UV) (RAP) or recycled roofing shingle (RAS) can improve the rut resis-
radiation as an aging factor is not simulated with PAV. Under ther- tance of WMA mixture but weaken the fatigue life of these WMA
mal and/or UV radiation conditions, the pavement structure, espe- mixtures [6,23,24]. In addition, some studied reported that as the
cially, the interconnected air voids, affects the oxidation of asphalt WMA mixtures are thermally aged, the moisture resistance of the
binder due to the heat transferring from top layer to base layer. mixtures can be obviously improved [26,26]. The WMA binders
Other research articles reported that UV aging and thermal aging having similar or better rheological properties at high performance
of an asphalt binder of a pavement are quite different due to the temperature before or after a thermal aging process or UV aging
various oxidation levels, but the current asphalt performance eval- process were reported by some researchers recently [6,13,18].
uation system gives limited consideration to UV aging [13]. In The main impacts between two aging procedures are the different
addition, some researchers found that UV radiation aging has mechanisms of a combination of ultraviolet light with thermal and
effects on the performance of both the binder and an asphalt mix- pure thermal function on the oxidation changes of C@C stretch and
ture, especially low-temperature ductility and resistance to crack- C–O stretch [15,17,18]. However, the UV aging characteristics of
ing [14]. An asphalt binder has generally different sensitivities to WMA binders at intermediate and low temperatures have not been
thermal and UV radiation. In addition, evaluation methods based investigated in great detail.
on thermally aged asphalt does not truly reflect the influences of The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of
UV aging, and there are some limitations on the substitution of long-term UV aging and PAV thermal aging procedures on rheolog-
UV by thermal aging [13–16]. ical characteristics of WMA binders at intermediate and low tem-
Various asphalts are found to exhibit different aging properties peratures. These two types of aged samples were tested to
when subjected to different aging processes [17]. When subjected determine fatigue and cracking resistance of binders. In addition,
to the extended rolling thin film oven (RTFO) and PAV tests, asphalt complex shear modulus, elastic and viscous moduli, deflection,
binders from different sources show differentiable degrees of vol- stiffness, and m-value tests were performed to explore the rheolog-
atile loss due to the light oil ratios. The UV chamber was found ical behaviors of various UV and PAV aged WMA binders in this
to be effective only in aging the surfaces of the binder samples. study.
The ultraviolet aged asphalt compositions on penetration, soften-
ing point and ductility tests are same as thermal aged asphalt ones
[13]. Ultraviolet aging and thermal aging give asphalt different 2. Experimental procedures

influences, rheological property changes greatly after UV aging Two polymerized PG 76-22 (A and B) and two base binders PG 64-22 (C and D)
[14–16]. UV aging of an asphalt binder mainly occurs in the early from two different sources were employed to mix with warm mix additives to pro-
stage of aging and a longer UV aging time resulted in a stiffer aged duce WMA binders as per the recommendations from the suppliers. The tested
58 F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64

In this study, a couple of parameters developed by SHRP system had been uti-
lized to describe the rheology of the aged binder. Some parameters, such as G⁄
(complex modulus), d (phase angle), G0 (elastic modulus), and G00 (viscous modulus)
are used for defining the rheological properties of the asphalt binder.
The beam bending rheometer (BBR) testing was used to evaluate the properties
of the aged binder at a low temperature according to AASHTO T313. The measured
deflection, creep stiffness and m-value were used to describe the aged levels of the
various aged WMA binders in this study and were commonly used to explore the
low temperature cracking of warm mix asphalt [28]. Each binder was measured
in accordance with Superpave specifications (i.e., PG 76-22 and PG 64-22 binders
were tested at 12 °C). Two specimens of each binder type were used to test the
deflection, stiffness, and m-value under a constant load at a constant temperature
in this study.

3. Results and discussions

Statistical analysis using t-test was utilized to analyze the dif-


ferences between physical properties of asphalt binders aged by
conventional PAV and proposed method of UV. Table 2 summarizes
the analysis for different binder types, WMA additives and inter-
mediate and low testing temperatures.

3.1. Complex shear modulus

Fig. 1. Flowchart of experimental design. The complex shear modulus, G⁄, is the ratio of total shear stress
to total shear strain as defined in Superpave system. The G⁄ value of
basic rheological properties of these four binders are presented in Table 1. Polymer- asphalt binder and mixture is a fundamental property of the mate-
ized binders A and B generally have higher viscosity values and failure tempera- rial. In general, asphalt binder and mixture with higher complex
tures than base binders C and D because polymerized binders A and B were
shear modulus value at a given service temperature will exhibit
modified by 3% SBS. Four commonly used non-foaming warm mix additives: Cec-
abase RT, Evotherm, Rediset, and Sasobit (referred to as Ce, Ev, Re, and Sa, respec-
lower permanent deformation value than similar binder and mix-
tively) were used in this study. First two WMA additives are chemical-based ture tested at the same temperature that have lower complex
products as the surfactant recommended by the manufactures, while Rediset and shear modulus value. Due to the viscous–elastic property of
Sasobit are wax-based products to reduce the viscosity of the modified binders. asphalt binder at various temperatures, these long term aged
The detailed information was presented in another article [6]. Control samples with
WMA binders were tested at temperature of 25 °C (PG 64-22) or
no additives were referred to as Co. The used amounts of WMA additives recom-
mended by the supplies were 0.5% for Ce and Ev and 1.5% for Re and Sa by weight 31 °C (PG 76-22) as per the recommendations by the Superpave
of asphalt binder. The experimental design used in this study is presented in Fig. 1. specifications. Two replicates were tested for each specimen.
To prepare for the PAV, RTFO-aged binder was heated until fluid and stirred to As shown in Fig. 2, it can be observed that all UV aged PG 76-22
ensure homogeneity. A pan of 50-g asphalt binder was placed in PAV for 20 h at the
(A and B) binders have the G⁄ values close to 1000 kPa, but the G⁄
temperature of 110 °C and 100 °C for PG 76-22 binder and PG 64-22 binder, respec-
tively, as per AASHTO R 28. A total of 20 pans from various WMA binders were PAV
values of these PAV aged binders are three to four times higher,
aged in this study. regardless of WMA type. Obviously, it can be concluded that PAV
As preparing for UV aging binder, a small pan with 50 g of WMA additive mod- aging procedure can increase the G⁄ values of binders A and B more
ified binder was made, which is commonly used for PAV aging process. These pans effectively compared to UV aging procedure. In addition, statistical
were put to in a UV aging box, as shown in a previously published article [13,18]. A
analysis results shown in Table 2 indicate that there are significant
detailed the materials preparation and UV aging process were reported in other
article [18]. differences in G⁄ values between PAV aged and UV aged PG 76-22
The intermediate temperature rheological properties of each binder were mea- binders.
sured using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) according to AASHTO T315. In this The G⁄ values of PG 64-22 binders (C and D) shown in Fig. 2
study, 2 mm gap and 8 mm diameter plate for all binders were used to obtain illustrate that, apart from binders A and B, UV aged binders gener-
DSR value at the intermediate temperature. Each PAV and UV aged binders were
measured in terms of the complex shear modulus (G⁄) and phase angle (d) values
ally have similar G⁄ values with PAV aged binders except for bind-
at 25 °C (for PG 64-22), and 31 °C (for PG 76-22) in accordance with Superpave ers containing Rediset and Sasobit. The statistical results in Table 2
specifications. shows that no significant differences can be found between UV

Table 2
Statistical analysis between UV and PAV aged WMA binders.

a < 0.05 Intermediate temperature Low temperature


G⁄ Phase angle G00 G0 Deflection Stiffness m-Value
Binder type
A–A Y Y Y Y N N N
B–B Y Y Y Y Y N N
C–C N N N N Y Y Y
D–D N N N N Y N N
WMA type
Co–Co N N N N N N Y
Ce–Ce Y N N N N N N
Ev–Ev N N N N Y Y N
Re–Re N N N N N N N
Sa–Sa N N N N N N N

Note: Co: control, Ce: Cecabase RT, Ev: Evotherm, Re: Rediset, Sa: Sasobit, G00 = G⁄sin d, G0 = G⁄cos d, Y: P-value < a = 0.05 (significant difference), N: P-value > a = 0.05 (no
significant difference).
F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64 59

5000 5000
UV PAV UV PAV
4000 4000

3000 3000

G* (kPa)
G* (kPa)
2000 2000

1000 1000

0 0
Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa
A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22) C (PG64-22) D (PG64-22)
Binder type Binder type

(a) (b)

Fig. 2. Complex modulus values of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a) PG 76-22 binder, (b) PG 64-22 binder.

60 60
UV PAV UV PAV
Phase angle (degree)

Phase angle (degree)


50 50

40 40
Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa
A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22) C (PG64-22) D (PG64-22)
Binder type Binder type

(a) (b)

Fig. 3. Phase angle values of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a) PG 76-22 binder, (b) PG 64-22 binder.

5000 5000
UV PAV UV PAV
4000 4000

3000 3000
(kPa)

(kPa)

2000 2000
G*sin

G*sin

1000 1000

0 0
Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa
A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22) C (PG64-22) D (PG64-22)
Binder type Binder type

(a) (b)

Fig. 4. G⁄sin d values of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a) PG 76-22 binder, (b) PG 64-22 binder.

aged and PAV aged binders irrespective of WMA type. Conse- different G⁄ values can be found between UV and PAV aged binders.
quently, it can be noticed that properties of UV aged and PAV aged Therefore, it can be concluded that WMA additive generally has no
samples are dependent upon asphalt binder type, as indicated from influence on the G⁄ value of asphalt binder between UV and PAV
the resulted obtained from the G⁄ values of PG 76-22 and PG 64-22 aging procedures.
binders.
In addition, as shown in Fig. 2, compared to control binders, the 3.2. Phase angle
addition of WMA additive does not noticeably change the G⁄ values
of PAV and UV aged binders. In other words, control aged binders Phase angle (d) is defined as the time lag between maximum
generally have similar G⁄ values with WMA aged binders regard- strain and stress of an asphalt pavement under cyclic traffic load-
less of binder source, grade and aging method. Statistical results ing and is highly dependent on the temperature and frequency of
in Table 2 illustrate that, for same WMA binder, no significantly loading. d is an indicator of viscosity and elasticity characteristics
60 F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64

5000 5000
UV PAV UV PAV
4000 4000

3000 3000

(kPa)
(kPa)
2000 2000
G*con

G*con
1000 1000

0 0
Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa
A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22) A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22)
Binder type Binder type

(a) (b)

Fig. 5. G⁄cos d values of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a) PG 76-22 binder, (b) PG 64-22 binder

1.0 1.0
UV PAV UV PAV
0.8 0.8
Deflection (mm)

Deflection (mm)
0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.0
Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa
A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22) C (PG64-22) D (PG64-22)
Binder type Binder type

(a) (b)

Fig. 6. Deflection values of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a) PG 76-22 binder, (b) PG 64-22 binder.

Table 3
of an asphalt binder in Superpave system. Under normal pavement UV aging index (UV/PAV) of WMA binders at low service temperature.

temperatures and traffic loadings, asphalt binders act with the WMA type Deflection Stiffness m-Value
characteristics of both viscous liquids and elastic solids. A (PG76-22) Co 1.09 0.85 1.54
Regarding to the influence of binder source and grade, as shown Ce 0.99 0.99 1.05
in Fig. 3, phase angles of UV aged binders (A and B) are remarkably Ev 1.04 0.96 1.02
greater than those of PAV aged binders regardless of WMA type. Re 1.17 0.90 1.01
Sa 1.11 0.91 1.12
Thus, PAV aged PG 76-22 binders show elastic solid and are prone
to easily self-recover during the traffic loading. In addition, all B (PG76-22) Co 1.34 0.74 1.16
Ce 1.01 1.01 1.00
binders from source A generally have different phase angles com- Ev 1.11 0.91 1.05
pared with those binders from source B. Moreover, statistical Re 1.06 1.02 1.00
results presented in Table 2 indicate that, for aged PG 76-22 bind- Sa 1.17 0.89 0.98
ers, there are significant differences in phase angles between UV C (PG64-22) Co 1.12 0.90 1.10
and PAV aged binders. However, in most cases, the UV aged PG Ce 1.17 0.85 1.08
64-22 binders (C and D) have similar phase angles compared to Ev 1.25 0.79 1.06
Re 1.12 0.89 1.11
the PAV aged PG 64-22 binders. In addition, all binders from source
Sa 1.12 0.90 1.11
D have lower phase angles than those binders from source C and
D (PG64-22) Co 1.23 0.82 1.02
thus show elastic solid irrespective of aging approach.
Ce 1.16 0.88 1.05
In terms of WMA additive effect, control binders generally have Ev 1.10 0.89 1.09
approximately the same phase angles compared with WMA bind- Re 1.12 0.90 1.04
ers except for Sasobit binders where slightly lower phase angles Sa 1.04 0.97 1.03
were observed regardless of aging method. Moreover, in Table 2, Note: Co: control; Ce: Cecabase; Ev: Evotherm; Re: Rediset; Sa: Sasobit.
it can be observed that there is no significantly different phase
angle values between any UV and PAV aged binders in terms of
WMA additive type. Therefore, the addition of WMA additive does 3.3. G⁄sin d (fatigue factor) and G⁄cos d
not significantly affect the phase angles of asphalt binder during
UV and PAV aging procedures. It can be concluded that the phase The light oil of a typical asphalt binder is lost during the service
angles of UV and PAV aged residue are generally based on binder life of a pavement, and thus asphalt binder is prone to oxidation.
source and grade rather than the addition of WMA additive. The aged asphalt binder generally shows elastic solid property. If
F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64 61

the bond between aged asphalt binder and aggregate cannot resist of PAV aged binders. Therefore, similar to the complex shear mod-
the repeated traffic loading, this will easily result in fatigue dam- ulus, G⁄sin d value of UV and PAV aged asphalt binder is dependent
age of an asphalt pavement. In general, asphalt concretes are more upon the asphalt binder source and grade, as well as aging method.
susceptible to fatigue at an intermediate service temperature. G⁄- As show in Fig. 4, it can be noted that, in most cases, control PAV
sin d (fatigue factor) can be used to explain the fatigue cracking and UV aged binders have similar G⁄sin d values compared to other
resistance of an asphalt pavement. PAV and UV aged WMA binders regardless of asphalt binder source
As shown in Fig. 4, in comparison with the G⁄sin d values of UV and grade. Additionally, it can be found that aged Sasabit binders
aged PG 76-22 binders, PAV aged PG 76-22 binders generally have generally have slightly higher G⁄sin d values and thus are prone
two or three times of G⁄sin d values. In other words, UV aged bind- to fatigue induce damage for the binders tested in this study.
ers A and B have a higher resistance to the fatigue damage in the The G⁄sin d values were statistically analyzed at the 5% level of
field. In addition, aged binders from source A generally show lower significance (0.05 probability of a Type I error) with respect to the
G⁄sin d values compared to aged binders from source B. Moreover, effects of the UV and PAV aging in terms of warm mix additive, bin-
Fig. 4 shows that the G⁄sin d values of UV aged binders C and D (PG der source and grade. Statistical analysis results shown in Table 2
64-22), in most cases, are approximately the same as those values indicate that there are significantly different G⁄sin d values

1.5 76-Co 76-Ce 76-Ev 1.5 76-Co 76-Ce 76-Ev


76-Re 76-Sa
76-Re 76-Sa
1.2 1.2
Deflection (mm)

Deflection (mm)
0.9 0.9

0.6 0.6

0.3 Test temp. : -12 C 0.3 Test temp. : -12 C


Loading force: 980 mN Loading force: 980 mN
0 0
0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)

(a) (b)
1.5 76-Co 76-Ce 76-Ev 1.5 76-Co 76-Ce 76-Ev
76-Re 76-Sa 76-Re 76-Sa
1.2 1.2
Deflection (mm)

Deflection (mm)

0.9 0.9

0.6 0.6

0.3 Test temp. : -12 C 0.3 Test temp. : -12 C


Loading force: 980 mN Loading force: 980 mN
0 0
0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)

(c) (d)
1.5 1.5 64-Co 64-Ce 64-Ev
64-Co 64-Ce 64-Ev
64-Re 64-Sa
64-Re 64-Sa 1.2
1.2
Deflection (mm)
Deflection (mm)

0.9 0.9

0.6 0.6
Test temp. : -12 C
0.3 Test temp. : -12 C 0.3
Loading force: 980 mN
Loading force: 980 mN
0 0
0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)

(e) (f)
1.5 64-Co 64-Ce 64-Ev 1.5 64-Co 64-Ce 64-Ev
64-Re 64-Sa 64-Re 64-Sa
1.2 1.2
Deflection (mm)

Deflection (mm)

0.9 0.9

0.6 0.6

0.3 Test temp. : -12 C 0.3 Test temp. : -12 C


Loading force: 980 mN Loading force: 980 mN
0 0
0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)

(g) (h)
Fig. 7. Deflection values versus loading time of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a), (c), (e), and (g) UV aged binders A–D; (b), (d), (f), and (h) PAV aged binders A–D.
62 F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64

between UV aged binders and PAV aged binders from sources A than the PAV aged binders due to their ability of producing greater
and B but no significantly different G⁄sin d values could be found deflections under a constant load at a low service temperature.
for these UV and PAV aged binder from sources C and D. Addition- In addition, the deflections of aged binders from source A are
ally, statistical analysis in terms of WMA additive type as shown in generally higher than those of aged binders from source B. With
Table 2 indicated that there are no significant differences in G⁄sin d respect to the effect of asphalt binder, statistical results shown in
values between UV and PAV aged binders while containing the Table 2 illustrate that significantly different deflections could be
same WMA additive. As a result, it might be concluded that asphalt found between UV and PAV aged binder from sources B, C and D.
binder (source and grade) plays an important role in determining Moreover, in Fig. 6, the aged WMA binders generally have similar
the G⁄sin d values after UV and PAV aging procedures. One major deflections with the aged control binders. In Table 2, it can be
reason could be the chemical composition of the asphalt binder. found that, in most cases, there are no significantly different
G⁄cos d (elastic modulus) represents the elastic storage of deflections between UV and PAV aged binders containing the same
energy since the strain is recoverable in an elastic solid and sub- WMA additive. Consequently, the addition of a WMA additive gen-
stance’s tendency to be deformed elastically (i.e., non-perma- erally has no impact on the deflection of the aged binders at the
nently). As such, a stiffer material will have a higher elastic loading point of 60-s considering different aging methods irrespec-
modulus. As shown in Fig. 5, it can be noted that G⁄cos d values tive of asphalt binder source and grade. In addition, in Fig. 7, it can
of UV and PAV aged binders have similar trends to complex shear be observed that, as the loading time increases to 240 s at a con-
modulus and G⁄sin d values. Statistical analysis results shown in stant load of 980 mN, the noticeable differences in the deflections
Table 2 also conclude similar findings. Consequently, the results of various aged WMA binders from same source could be noticed
indicate that the source of an asphalt binders a key factor in deter- due to the viscous–elastic nature of the asphalt binder.
mining the G⁄cos d values of UV and PAV aged binders and WMA An equal creep stiffness after only a 60-s loading is used for a
additive generally has a slight influence on recoverable elastic desired creep stiffness of 2 h loading at the minimum pavement
property of UV and PAV aged binders at an intermediate service design temperature as using the concept of time-temperature
temperature even though PAV aged binders A and B exhibit higher superposition. AASHTO M 320 requires that the creep stiffness at
elastic property. the specified grade temperature is less than or equal to 300 MPa
at 60 s.
The creep stiffness values of various aged binders at 60 s are
3.4. Deflection, stiffness, and m-value at low temperatures shown in Fig. 5, it can be found that, all PAV aged binders generally
have slightly greater stiffness values than UV aged binders regard-
In order to obtain the rheological properties of PAV residue at a less of asphalt binder source and grade, and all stiffness values are
low temperature, the specimens were tested using BBR in accor- less than 300 MPa. In addition, Table 3 shows that UV aging indices
dance with the AASHTO T313. The tested temperature for each bin- of creep stiffness from four binders are, in general, lower than 1.0.
der is subjected to the specification defined by the Superpave Statistical results in Table 2 indicate that, for binders from A, B, and
specification (i.e., PG 76-22 and PG 64-22 binders were tested at D, there are no significant differences in creep stiffness values
12 °C). A 980 mN load is applied to the beam of asphalt binder between UV aged binders and PAV aged binders.
for a total of 240 s. The deflection was measured with the deflec- With respect to the influence of WMA additive, Fig. 8 shows
tion transducer. The graphs of deflection could be generated for that, in most cases, aged Sasboit binders have slightly greater creep
observation. In addition, the creep stiffness, calculated based on stiffness values than aged Rediset binders followed by aged Evo-
the applied load, beam deflection and dimension, can be obtained therm binders, Cecebase binders, and Control binders in that order.
after a mere 60 s loading of less than or equal to 300 MPa. The m- However, at the 5% level of significance, Table 2 illustrates that
value represents the rate of change in the creep stiffness versus there are no statistically different creep stiffness values between
loading time and it should be greater than or equal to 0.300 at 60 s. UV and PAV aged binders containing same WMA additive.
The deflection graphs of all UV and PAV aged asphalt binders at In addition, as shown in Fig. 9, it can be noted that, at a 240-s
60 s are shown in Fig. 6. It can be noted that the UV aged binders loading time, UV aged binders have similar values and trends com-
generally have slightly higher deflections compared to the PAV pared to PAV aged binders regardless of asphalt binder source and
aged binders regardless of asphalt binder source, grade, and grade. Moreover, various aged WMA binders from same source and
WMA type. As shown in Table 3, UV aged indices of the deflections grade generally have the same creep stiffness values.
from four binders, in most cases, are greater than 1.00. Therefore, it The m-value, the slope of the log stiffness versus log time curve
seems that the UV aged binders show better cracking resistance at any time, represents the rate of change in creep stiffness versus

250 250
UV PAV UV PAV
200 200
Stiffness (MPa)

Stiffness (MPa)

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0
Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa
A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22) C (PG64-22) D (PG64-22)
Binder type Binder type

(a) (b)

Fig. 8. Stiffness values of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a) PG 76-22 binder, (b) PG 64-22 binder.
F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64 63

700 700
600 Co 600 Co
500 Ce 500 Ce

Stiffness (MPa)

Stiffness (MPa)
400 Ev 400 Ev
300 Re 300 Re
200 Sa 200 Sa
100 100
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)
(a) (b)
700 700
600 Co 600 Co
500 Ce 500 Ce
Stiffness (MPa)

Stiffness (MPa)
400 Ev 400 Ev
300 Re 300 Re
200 Sa 200 Sa
100 100
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)
(c) (d)
700 700
600 Co 600 Co
500 Ce 500 Ce
Stiffness (MPa)

Stiffness (MPa)

400 Ev 400 Ev
300 Re 300 Re
200 Sa 200 Sa
100 100
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)
(e) (f)
700 700
600 Co 600 Co
500 Ce 500 Ce
Stiffness (MPa)

Stiffness (MPa)

400 Ev 400 Ev
300 Re 300 Re
200 Sa 200 Sa
100 100
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250
Loading time (second) Loading time (second)
(g) (h)
Fig. 9. Stiffness values versus loading time of UV and PAV aged WMA binders, (a), (c), (e), and (g) UV aged binders A–D; (b), (d), (f), and (h) PAV aged binders A–D.

time. The results presented in Fig. 10 are the m-value at 60 s, where Statistical analysis shown in Table 2 indicates that, for binder
it can be seen that UV aged binders generally have slightly higher sources A, B, and D, there are no significant differences in m-values
m-values than PAV aged binders. As shown in Table 3, UV aging between UV and PAV aged binders. Additionally, with respect to
indices of m-values of all binders are greater than 1.0 except for the effect of WMA additive, it can be seen that there are no signif-
Sasobit binder from source B. In most cases, m-values of aged bind- icant differences in m-values between UV and PAV aged binders
ers were greater than 0.3. containing the same WMA additive. Generally, it seems that the
64 F. Xiao et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 56–64

0.5 0.5
UV PAV UV PAV
0.4 0.4

m-value

m-value
0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0
Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa Co Ce Ev Re Sa
A (PG76-22) B (PG76-22) C (PG64-22) D (PG64-22)
Binder type Binder type
(a) (b)

Fig. 10. m-Values of UV and PAV aged WMA binder, (a) PG 76-22 binder, (b) PG 64-22 binder.

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