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Design and Specification of Durable Concrete Cemento Panamá First Congress of Construction "Building a World‐
Design and Specification of
Durable Concrete
Cemento Panamá
First Congress of Construction
"Building a World‐ Class Country”
September 1, 2011
Today’s Discussion •  Philosophy of design for durability •  Implementation of durability provisions in codes
Today’s Discussion
•  Philosophy of design for durability
•  Implementation of durability provisions in
codes and specifications
•  Testing for concrete durability
•  The impact of changes in concrete
technology on durability
Hardy Cross on Engineering Judgment •  Analyses •  Tests •  Experience •  Intuition (common sense)
Hardy Cross on Engineering Judgment
•  Analyses
•  Tests
•  Experience
•  Intuition (common
sense)
Sources
that rarely
agree
completely.
“Great engineers are those who can
weigh this evidence and arrive at a
reasonable answer through
judgment as to its dependability.”
Durability of Concrete •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Corrosion Alkali-aggregate reactivity
Durability of Concrete
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
Corrosion
Alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR)
Sulfate attack
Delayed ettringite formation (DEF)
Freeze-thaw and deicer scaling
Abrasion
Etc.
Durable Concrete •  A key to obtaining durable concrete is to increase the resistance to
Durable Concrete
•  A key to obtaining durable concrete is to
increase the resistance to penetration of
water and aggressive solutions
•  Resistance to water penetration is related
to the volume of capillary voids and the
whether the pores are connected
(permeability)
•  Crack control is also essential
How do we specify durability? •  Prescriptive requirements •  Performance requirements •  Hybrid
How do we specify durability?
•  Prescriptive requirements
•  Performance requirements
•  Hybrid requirements
Prescriptive Requirements •  Describe provision in terms of specific composition, ingredients, chemical or physical
Prescriptive Requirements
•  Describe provision in terms of specific
composition, ingredients, chemical or
physical properties.
•  Example: ACI 318 specifies ASTM
C150 cement type (composition) for
sulfate resistance. ASTM C150 for
portland cement limits C3A level in
cement to control sulfate resistance.
C3A is derived from chemical tests on
the cement.
Performance Requirements •  Provision is written exclusively in terms of attributes that relate to performance
Performance Requirements
•  Provision is written exclusively in
terms of attributes that relate to
performance required to satisfy needs
of the user.
•  Example: ACI 318 option for sulfate
resistance to be controlled based on
results of long-term laboratory tests of
mortar.
Based on having a reliable test method!
ASTM C39 – Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Specimens
ASTM C39 – Compressive Strength
of Cylindrical Specimens
Test methods for durability should: •  Distinguish whether proposed constituent materials or concrete mixtures have
Test methods for durability should:
•  Distinguish whether proposed constituent
materials or concrete mixtures have potential
to meet performance requirements
•  Effectively evaluate different alternatives to
meet performance requirements
•  Minimize test duration – accelerate reactions
while simulating field exposure conditions
•  Provide reasonable precision to “predict”
potential field performance
•  Be cost effective
Rapid Chloride Permeability
Rapid Chloride Permeability
Chloride Permeability (ASTM C1202) Measured Class Coulombs >4,000 2,000 to 4,000 1,000 to 2,000 100
Chloride Permeability
(ASTM C1202)
Measured
Class
Coulombs
>4,000
2,000 to 4,000
1,000 to 2,000
100 to 1,000
< 100
High
Moderate
Low
Very Low
Negligible
Some Factors Impacting Rapid Chloride Test Results (ASTM C1202) •  w/cm •  Age of test
Some Factors Impacting Rapid
Chloride Test Results (ASTM C1202)
•  w/cm
•  Age of test specimen
•  Type and quantity of SCM (fly ash, slag cement,
silica fume, etc.)
• 
Curing conditions
• 
Aggregate type
• 
Consolidation of specimens
• 
Polymeric admixtures
• 
Ionic solutions (for ex. calcium nitrite)
Effect of SCM’s on Chloride Permeability (Coulombs) w/cm = 0.41 to 0.43 Iowa DOT AASHTO
Effect of SCM’s on
Chloride Permeability (Coulombs)
w/cm = 0.41 to 0.43
Iowa DOT AASHTO T277
Ternary Blended Cement (~4% Silica Fume + ~22% Slag) ASTM C1202 Thomas, et al, ACI
Ternary Blended Cement
(~4% Silica Fume + ~22% Slag)
ASTM C1202
Thomas, et al, ACI Concrete International, July. 2007
Ternary Blended Cement (~4% Silica Fume + ~22% Slag) Thomas, et al, ACI Concrete International,
Ternary Blended Cement
(~4% Silica Fume + ~22% Slag)
Thomas, et al, ACI Concrete International, July. 2007
Concrete – “The Old Days” •  •  •  •  Cement Fine aggregates Coarse aggregates Water
Concrete – “The Old Days”
• 
• 
• 
• 
Cement
Fine aggregates
Coarse aggregates
Water
Today’s Concrete Cement Fine aggregates Coarse aggregates Water Supplementary cementitious materials • 
Today’s Concrete
Cement
Fine aggregates
Coarse aggregates
Water
Supplementary
cementitious
materials
•  Chemical admixtures
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
Today’s Portland Cement (Lower Carbon Footprint) ● Clinker Finished Cement ● Gypsum ● Limestone
Today’s Portland Cement
(Lower Carbon Footprint)
● Clinker
Finished
Cement
● Gypsum
● Limestone
● Processing
Additions
Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) •  Fly ash (Class C) •  Metakaolin (calcined clay) •  Silica
Supplementary Cementitious
Materials (SCMs)
•  Fly ash (Class C)
•  Metakaolin
(calcined clay)
•  Silica fume
• 
Fly ash (Class F)
• 
Slag cement
• 
Calcined shale
Hydraulic Blended Cements •  Clinker •  Gypsum •  Portland cement •  Fly ash •  Slag
Hydraulic Blended Cements
•  Clinker
•  Gypsum
•  Portland
cement
•  Fly ash
•  Slag
•  Silica Fume
•  Calcined Clay
Chemical Admixtures •  Air entrainers •  Water reducers •  HRWR (superplasticizer) Accelerators • 
Chemical Admixtures
•  Air entrainers
•  Water reducers
•  HRWR
(superplasticizer)
Accelerators
• 
• 
• 
• 
Retarders
Corrosion inhibitors
Etc.
Compatibility!!
Compatibility!!
ASTM C142 – Slump Test
ASTM C142 – Slump Test
Stages of Hydration
Stages of Hydration
Concrete Temperature •  Reduced heat concrete mixtures Cement (type and quantity) Fly ash or slag
Concrete Temperature
•  Reduced heat concrete
mixtures
Cement (type and
quantity)
Fly ash or slag (type
and percentage)
Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) •  Potentially deleterious reformation of ettringite in hardened concrete after
Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF)
•  Potentially deleterious reformation of ettringite
in hardened concrete after destruction of
primary ettringite by high temperature
•  Requires moist exposure in service
•  Often observed with other deterioration
mechanisms (ASR, etc.)
•  High temperature – accelerated curing or heat
of hydration
Specification Limits on Temperature •  Externally applied heat or internal heat of hydration •  Concrete
Specification Limits on Temperature
•  Externally applied heat or internal heat of
hydration
•  Concrete temperature not air temperature
•  For precast, consider:
Preset time
Rate of heating and cooling
•  Common max. temperature limit is 70°C
(158°F)
•  Some specs permit higher limit if concrete
contains fly ash or slag cement
Corrosion •  Moisture •  Chlorides •  Oxygen •  Carbonation (pH)
Corrosion
•  Moisture
•  Chlorides
•  Oxygen
•  Carbonation (pH)
Alkali-Silica Reactivity
Alkali-Silica Reactivity
Requirements •  Reactive silica •  Sufficient alkali •  Available moisture
Requirements
•  Reactive silica
•  Sufficient alkali
•  Available moisture
Specifications on ASR – Common Elements •  Qualify constituent materials Use nonreactive aggregates Limit
Specifications on ASR –
Common Elements
•  Qualify constituent materials
Use nonreactive aggregates
Limit alkalies
•  Use supplementary cementitious materials
for mitigation
Fly ash, slag cement, silica fume, calcined clay
Blended cements
•  Use chemical inhibitors for mitigation
External Sulfate Attack •  Natural sulfates of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium Soils Groundwater Ponds or
External Sulfate Attack
•  Natural sulfates of
calcium,
magnesium,
sodium, potassium
Soils
Groundwater
Ponds or rivers
Seawater
•  Sanitary wastes
•  Industrial wastes
•  Agricultural wastes
Mitigation of Sulfate Attack •  Use low w/cm •  Use sulfate resistant cement (Low C3A)
Mitigation of Sulfate Attack
•  Use low w/cm
•  Use sulfate resistant
cement (Low C3A)
•  Use supplementary
cementitious
materials
Today’s Discussion •  Philosophy of design for durability •  Implementation of durability provisions in codes
Today’s Discussion
•  Philosophy of design for durability
•  Implementation of durability provisions in
codes and specifications
•  Testing for concrete durability
•  The impact of changes in concrete
technology on durability