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Although API SPEC 6A provides dimensions for Loose and Integral flanges, it leaves

the thickness of adapter flanges up to the manufacturer.

Most manufacturers make Double Studded Adapters the same basic thickness as that
required for a flange of the largest nominal connection, with a raised portion about 1/4"
high on the opposite side for the smaller studded connection; unless tapped stud hole
intersection, and drilled hole depth, necessitate additional thickness to satisfy the API
design requirement for stud thread engagement. Different manufacturers use different
methods to satisfy this design requirement so minimum thickness may differ between
manufacturers. Thickness may also increase above the design minimum to fill the user’s
space requirements.

The size DSA you asked about, 4-1/16" 5M X 2-9/16" 5M might find application in
aChoke Manifold. Its thickness would have to meet that required minimum to satisfy
design, plus any measurement additional to that minimum needed to fill any space
necessary to complete any loop and allow flange faces to meet in parallel contact.

WOODCO USA uses 3-1/2” as the minimum thickness for a 4-1/16" 5M X 2-9/16"5M
DSA. For the reason mentioned above, DSA's may have their thickness, above the
minimum, specified by the buyer.

Except for Crossover Connections, Double Studded Adapters (DSA's) serve as the
shortest method to join flanges of different sizes or pressure ratings. The DSA has a
body resembling a flange with a different seal size or bolt pattern on each side. The
connecting bolts for each side, called "Tap End Studs" thread into tapped holes in the
body, conforming to the same size bolts and bolt circle as nominal for the specified
flange each side shall fit. The internal bore will not exceed that specified for the
smaller side, and if nominally different on each side, shall transcend by a taper, (see
illustration below). API specifies no thickness requirement for DSA's. DSA's usually
have a minimum thickness equal to the thickness of a flange of equal size and
pressure to the largest and highest pressure side of the DSA, and may have any
amount of additional thickness as necessary to satisfy design requirements or allow
for lock screws.

BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, DOUBLE STUDDED ADAPTER

(To see a catalog page click here)

DSA's shall have their bolt circles oriented so that equipment assemblies will
maintain consistent orientation throughout the equipment stack-up. All API
conventional flange bolt circles have a number of evenly spaced holes,
divisible by four. All API equipment shall have bolt circles with two holes of
each bolt circle equally straddling a common centerline.
13-5/8" 10M x 7-1/16"10M DSA ILLUSTRATED

In the event an equipment assembly needs a small amount of extension, a


Spacer Flange may have the appearance of a DSA yet have the same
connection geometry on both sides. Such a spacer flange may have its bolt
circle drilled through and attach within the equipment stack using extra-long
flange bolts. Spacer flanges may have any length (thickness) not constrained
by design requirements. Studded spacer flanges must have sufficient length
(thickness) to accommodate tapped holes that accept full thread engagement
of the tap end studs. Spacer flanges with drilled through holes may have a
much shorter length (thickness), so long as the root thickness between
opposite ring grooves remains adequate to the stresses necessary to coin the
ring gaskets to seal (the drilled through spacer flange experiences only
compression and pressure loading). Bolts produce no stress in drilled through
spacer flanges. As a general rule, a drilled through spacer flange may have a
minimum thickness of 4 times its ring groove depth.
11" 5M x 11" 5M SPACER FLANGE ILLUSTRATION

When assembling equipment, operators sometimes find it necessary or advantageous


to join flanged equipment of different nominal size or working pressure.Adapter
Flanges or Adapter Spools necessary for this may have a different number of bolt holes
on their opposite connections. When this case occurs, a problem of proper orientation
presents itself. API 6A, 20th Edition contains the following. "10.5.4.2.7 Bolt Location
For Flanges. A pair of bolt holes in both end flanges shall straddle the common
centreline. " This design requirement assures that operators can maintain a proper
orientation of equipment if they understand this requirement and how it applies to field
assembly.

The following illustrations will make clear a method of recognizing the points of common
center line that will assure proper orientation of the next piece of equipment joined in an
assembly.

The rule is as follows: For a horizontal flange face (the flange face in the horizontal
position and the bore vertical) the bolt holes shall be oriented to straddle the
centerlines, both ends.

For a vertical outlet flange face (the flange face in vertical position and the line
horizontal) the bolt holes shall be oriented to straddle vertical and horizontal
centerlines.

BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, FLANGED DRILLING SPOOL


(13-5/8"15M x 13-5/8"15M with 4-1/16"15M Outlets)

(To see a catalog page click here)

Photo
DSA's and spacer flanges may or may not have lock-down screws to secure
internal bore wear bushings or sealing devices.

DSA's having a different number of bolts on each side may not allow
enough space between tapped holes for drilling lock-screw holes. Adding
thickness to the DSA design, if equipment stack-up height permits, may
remove this limitation.

BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, FLANGED ADAPTER SPOOL


(11"3M x 7-1/16"5M)

(To see a catalog page click here)

Photo
This Flanged Adapter Spool with 16 bolt holes in one flange and 12 bolt holes in the
other will have 4 points around its' circumference where two bolt holes will equally
straddle a common centerline.

BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, DOUBLE STUDDED ADAPTER


(7-1/16"5M x 4-1/16"5M)

(To see a catalog page click here)

Photo
This Double Studded Adapter with 12 studs extending from one connection and 8 studs
extending from the other will have 4 points around its circumference where two studs in
each connection will straddle a common centerline.

Although they have different configurations, both the Flanged Adapter Spool and the
Double Studded Adapter illustrated conform to the API Spec 6A requirement for bolt
circle orientation (Single Studded Adapters, not illustrated also conform).

API flange connections always have a number of holes (or tap end studs) divisible by 4,
so regardless of the flange size or pressure or number of holes, this rule applies.

Persons making an assembly of flanged equipment should visually identify the 4


common center lines on all pieces of equipment. Maintaining strict alignment of this set
of center lines through any assembly that requires an adapter will assure predictable
orientation of the next connected unit.

Note: When adapters built to API Spec 6A requirements have the same number of
holes, or studs, on each connection, all of these holes will straddle common center
lines. The orientation of such an adapter does not effect the orientation of the next
equipment connected. As a general rule any outlet connection on a Spool or Blowout
Preventer will fall on the same center lines as the connection bolt holes. Except for
special requirements outlets project at 90° from the Run bore and two outlets, 180°
apart.

The following illustrations provide examples of bolt hole arrangement and outlet position
on different types of Well Head and Blowout Preventer equipment.

BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, BLOWOUT PREVENTER (BOP)

BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, STUDDED TEE AND CROSS


BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, FLANGED TEE AND CROSS

BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT, FLANGED GATE VALVE


As an example of a problem situation, observe the following illustration of an out of
orientation installation made for a Flow Line connection extending to a Studded Cross in
a Choke Manifold.

REFERENCE TO CENTER LINE OF BOP EQUIPMENT


FOR INSTALLATION ON OUTLET
The above illustration shows a 7-1/16" 5M x 4-1/16" 5M Flanged Adapter Spool installed
without proper reference to center lines. An attempt to install a Studded or
Flanged Cross onto any Spacer Spool extending from the 4-1/16" 5M flange will result
in cross outlets 30° out of level plane. Unless the operator intended this orientation,
disassembly and reassembly must take place.

If persons making assemblies using adapters do not have awareness of this


information, they may consume valuable operator time investigating a non-existent, but
suspected, equipment defect.