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There are many different ways of citing resources. The citation style sometimes
depends on the academic discipline involved. For example:

 APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education,

Psychology, and Sciences
 MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities
 Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine

A researcher needs to consult with his professor to determine what is required in his
specific course

The APA (American Psychological Association) style format is the most

popular method for citing sources in academic work in the social sciences field.

Two important reasons make the researcher provides reference citations and a
bibliography (also referred to ‘documenting sources’):
1: Allow readers to find documents the researcher has used, they may want to do
so because of (a) interest in the topic or (b) they may want to see how the
researcher has made use of the sources.
2: To make full acknowledgement of the sources the researcher has used, this
reason is tied to the issue of plagiarism. Any ideas used by the researcher (aren’t
his own) must be documented, these include phrases, sentences or special uses of
words that he gets from sources.

Whereas, ideas or terms that became widely current in the field (in which the
researcher writes about) to the extent that it would impossible to track down the
owner do not need to be acknowledged.

The system of APA style is author/date documentation, the citations are given in
parentheses immediately following the information to be acknowledged. The
citation is different in other systems, they are given as footnotes as a separate page
at the end of the chapter or at the bottom of the of each page.

2. Quotation

A quotation is a group of words taken from a text and repeated by someone (a

researcher) other than the original author. There are two types of quotation:

2.1 Short Quotation

SHORT quotation: (fewer than 40 words) are made part of the text and are
enclosed in double quotation marks (line spacing for short quotations is the same
as line spacing for the main text of the paper). As in:
She comments, “The test results are ‘contaminated’ . . . because of influence
from the way it was administered” (Lee, 1984, p.63)
The researcher uses double quotation marks to enclose quotations in text and
single quotation marks within double quotation marks to set off material that in the
original source was enclosed in double quotation marks.
Miele (1993) found that “the ‘placebo effect,’ which had been verified in previous
studies, disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in
this manner” (p. 276).
Miele (1993) found that “the “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous
studies, disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in
this manner” (p. 276).

2.2 Long Quotation

LONGE (block) quotation: are indented five spaces as a block, with no quotation
Citation is required for all quotations, author, year, and page number(s).
Information should be included in parentheses when they are not mentioned in the
text, but there is no need to repeat them if author’s name is mentioned.
Three ellipsis points (…) indicate words omitted from within the sentence. While
the omission of words between sentences indicated by four ellipsis points.

3 Reference Citation
3.1 One Work by One Author
1: If author's name occurs in the text, year of publication should be followed in
parentheses. Example: Lee (1981) states that there are . . .
2: If author's name is not in the text, last name, comma, year should be inserted in
parenthesis. Example: It has recently been claimed (Lee, 1978) that . . .
3: If both year and date are in the text, so nothing added in parentheses.
Example: In 1968, Lee denied that there are . . .
Page number should be inserted whenever possible, the three examples would
appear as the followings:
Lee (1981, p.70) states that there are . . .
It has recently been claimed (Lee, 1978, pp.20-23) that . . .
In 1968, Lee (pp.200-201) denied that there are . . .

3.2 One Work by Multiple Authors

1: When a work has two authors, both names should be cited every time the
reference occurs in text.
2: When a work has more than two authors, all authors should be cited the first
time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, only the surname of the first
author should be included followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after
al) and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph, as in:

First citation As Gonzalez, al-Ali, Chang, and Jones (1966) noted, it is . . .

and a later citation of the same work would be:
Later citation Gonzalez et al. further explained . . .
Note: et al, 1883, abbreviation of Latin et alii (masc.), et aliae (fem.), or et alia
(neuter), in any case meaning "and others."
3.3 One Author with More than One Work
When one author has published more than one work in the same year, the letters
(a, b, c) and so on should be added to the year both in reference citation and in
reference list.
According to Waleski (1997b, p. 602), children try to . . .

3.4 Citing Someone’s Work Indirectly

One of the following formats should be used to site someone mentioned in another
Jones (1997, p.26) quotes Smith as . . .
Smith (quoted by Jones, 1997, p.26) states . . .
Smith is cited by Jones (1997, p.26) as stating . . .
4 Bibliography or References?
There are four main parts to every reference citation:
1: Author 2: Date 3: Title 4: Publication details
 A standard book citation is in this order:
Author’s name, date of publication, book title, place of publication, publisher.
 A standard article citation is in this order:
Author’s name, date of publication, title of article, title of journal,
volume number, page number of the article.
APA manual recommends that the word REFERENCE be used for works that
directly support a paper and the word BIBLIOGRAPHY be used for a list
including background or further reading.

Reference Bibliography
1: A reference list includes only 1: A bibliography includes all literature
those references which were actually consulted which was "immediately
cited in the text of one's paper. There relevant" to the research process, even
must be total agreement between the though the material was not cited in the
two. text of one's paper.
2: Everything in the list must be 2: Researcher may add to the list some
mentioned in the text and everything items that are not directly referred to in the
in the text must be appear in the list. text.
The following procedures should be followed (for the format of entries in
1: Entries must be alphabetized but without numbering them.
2: Lines should be double-spaced, starting the first line of each entry at the margin
and indenting additional lines of each entry. As in the following example:

5 Footnotes
Footnotes are used to provide additional content or to acknowledge copyright
permission status. They may explain or amplify information in the text, but they
may distract the reader, such footnotes should be included only if they strengthen
the discussion. So, they should not include complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential
Footnotes appear after the reference list. Such footnotes should be numbered and
referred to in the text by a raised (superscript) number. As in the following:
Three experts were consulted for their opinions.14

6 Tables
Researcher may use tables if they help to make the written information clearer
without repeating that information. The number of the table and heading are placed
at the top left of the table. They should be included in the text of the paper.
As in the following:

Color Group
Experiment Red Green Blue Yellow
1 26 22 31 18
2 25 44 30 28
3 13 17 33 12

For student paper, it is more convenient to place it on a separate page in the text
which should be included in the page numbering of the paper

7 Figures
Figures can be effectively used for illustration like just like tables, they can be
used if they help to support the text but the difference is: unlike figures, tables can
be typed. Both should be included with the text.
For convenience, figures should be placed in a separate numbered page. Its caption
and number are replaced at the bottom, as in the following figure:

8 Page Numbering
Pages should be numbered; the cover page is included (counted) but without
writing on it. Using Arabic numeral format that should be placed in the top right-
hand corner of the page.

9 Headings and Subheadings in the Text

It is not necessary to use headings and subheadings in a student paper but they in
some scientific and technical papers are frequently used. Heading should be
centered in the page. In short papers, headings such “Introduction” and
“Conclusion” are of no real use because it is supposed that the first few paragraphs
are introductory and the last few are concluding.