Study Guide for Chapter 25 America Moves to the City, 1865-1900 PART I: Reviewing the Chapter B.

Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. megalopolis An extensive, heavily populated area, containing several dense urban centers. “The... city gave way to the immense and impersonal megalopolis...” 2. tenement A multi-dwelling building, often poor or overcrowded. “The cities... harbored... towering skyscrapers and stinking tenements.” 3. affluence An abundance of wealth. “These leafy ‘bedroom communities’ eventually ringed the bring-and-concrete cities with greenbelt of affluence.” 4. despotism Government by an absolute or tyrannical ruler. “... people had grown accustomed to cringing before despotism.” 5. parochial Concerning a parish or small district. “Catholics expanded their parochial-school system....” 6. sweatshop A factory where employees are forced to work long hours under difficult conditions for meager wages. “The women of Hull House successfully lobbied in 1893 for an Illinois anti-sweatshop law that protected women workers...” 7. pauper A poor person, often one who lives on tax-supported charity. “The first restrictive law... banged the gate in the face of paupers...” 8. convert A person who turns from one religion or set of beliefs to another. “A fertile field for converts was found in America’s harried, nerve-racked, and urbanized civilization...” 9. Fundamentalist A Protestant who rejects religious modernism and adheres to a strict and literal interpretation of Christian doctrine and Scriptures. “Conservatives, or ‘Fundamentalists,’ stood firmly on the Scripture... ” 10. agnostic One who believes that there can be no human knowledge of any God or gods. “The... skeptic... lectured widely on ‘Some Mistakes of Moses’ and ‘Why I Am an Agnostic.” 11. behavioral psychology The branch of psychology that examines human action, often considering it more important tan mental or inward states. “His [work] helped to establish the modern discipline of behavioral psychology.” 12. syndicated In journalism, material that is sold by an organization for publication in several newspapers. “Bare-knuckle editorials were... being supplanted by feature articles and non-controversial syndicated material.”

.. prohibition Forbidding by law the manufacture. “Statewide prohibition. ____ 8. ____ 5. crude and inelegant. ____ 7. Many native-born Americans considered the New Immigrants a threat to American democracy and Anglo-Saxon purity.” 15. Where it is false.” 14. “Two new journalistic tycoons emerged. ____ 3. ____ 4. tycoon A wealthy businessperson. sake.” PART II: Checking Your Progress A.. ____ 2. secondary (high school) education was . was sweeping new states into the ‘dry’ column. Female social workers established settlement houses to aid the New Immigrants and promote social reform. The growth of Darwinism science contributed to the turn towards religious belief in the late nineteenth century. and correct it in the space immediately below. Most of the New Immigrants who arrived in America originally came from the slums of European cities. “Art had been of sickly growth in the rustic years of the Republic. Two religions that gained strength in the United Stated from the New Immigrants were Roman Catholicism and Judaism. In the late nineteenth century. Rapid and uncontrolled growth made American cities both exciting and full of social problems. especially one who openly displays power and position. mark F. most immigrants to America came from northern and western Europe. mark T. or consumption of liquor. After 1880.13. ____ 1. ____ 6. True-False Where the statement is true. rustic Concerning unsophisticated country ways...

The new cities’ glittering consumer economy was symbolized especially by the rise of a. ____ 12. Urban newspapers often promoted a sensational “yellow journalism” that emphasized sex and scandal rather than politics or social reform. Late-nineteenth-century Americans generally held to traditional ideas of sexual morality and the social role of women.increasingly carried on by private schools. luxuriant horse-drawn carriages.Civil War writers like Mark Twain and William Dean Howells turned from social realism toward romantic themes in their fiction. New voices like Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman signaled women’s growing dissatisfaction with Victorian ideas about sex and gender roles. c. ___ 1. American higher education depended on both public “land-grant” funding and private donations for its financial support. The new urban environment generally weakened the family but offered new opportunities for women to achieve social and economic independence. d. ____ 15. large. ____ 9. elegant department stores. . Washington believed that blacks should try to achieve social equality with whites but not economic equality. fine restaurants and food shops. ____ 14. b. Post. B. Multiple Choice Select the best answer and write the proper letter in the space provided. Booker T. separate districts for retail merchants. ____ 13. ____ 11. ____ 10.

___ 3. Poland and Italy. Two technical developments of the late nineteenth century that contributed to the spectacular growth of American cities were a. Among the factors driving millions of European peasants from their homeland to America were a. c. ___ 6. ___ 7. Countries from which many of the “New Immigrants” came included a. c. Besides providing direct services to immigrants. American food imports and religious persecution. The one immigrant group that was totally banned from American after 1882 nativist restrictions was a. b. major international and civil wars. the Africans. ___ 8. b. the telegraph and the telephone b. the reformers of Hull House worked for general goals like a. b. d. the oil furnace and the air conditioner. the Chinese. ant-sweatshop laws to protect women and child laborers. d. Two religious groups that grew dramatically because of the “New Immigration” were . the Greeks. Sweden and Great Britain. the ride of communist and fascist regimes. disposing of large quantities of waste material. the compressor and the internal combustion engine. the electric trolley and the skyscraper. d. b. c. A major new problem generated by the rise of cities and the urban American life-style was a. d. managing draft animals in urban settings. the secret ballot and direct election of senators. d. China and Japan ___ 5. communicating in densely populated environments. d. ___ 4. social security and unemployment compensation.___ 2. Germany and Ireland. c. c. European political unification and loss of national identity. conservation and federal aid to farmers. c. the Irish. b. finding effective methods of housing construction for limited urban space.

the psychological ideas of William James. d. . it was almost impossible to bring about real economic reform in the cities. settlement houses like Jane Addams’ Hull House demonstrated that a. b. DuBois advocated a. Christian Scientists and Salvation Army. Traditional American Protestant religion received a substantial blow from a. c. integration and social equality for blacks. ___ 9. d. ___ 13. b. the cities offered new challenged and opportunities for women. Episcopalians and Unitarians. b. labor was unsympathetic to middle-class reform efforts. Besides aiding immigrants and promoting social reforms. b. Washington. c. the efforts of some Christian reformers to apply their religious beliefs to new social problems. c. c. the growing requirement of a college degree as a prerequisite for employment in industry. b. the theological ideas of the Fundamentalists. The phrase “social Gospel” refers to a. practical as well as theoretical education for blacks. economic opportunity for blacks. women could not bring about successful social change without the vote. c. the growing involvement of the churches in higher education. c. d. ___ 11. the blacks remain in the South rather then move north. the chemical theories of Charles Eliot. federal “land-grant” assistance and private philanthropy. the decline in traditional religious beliefs in the late nineteenth century. d.B. Jews and Roman Catholics. b. American colleges and universities benefited from a. the biological ideas of Charles Darwin. ___ 12. d.E. the conflict between socialists and traditional religious believers. W. Unlike Booker T. the belief that American society was undergoing fundamental changes in the urban age.a. ___ 10. In the late nineteenth century. Methodists and Baptists.

Supply the correct identification for each numbered description __________ 1. d. Authors like Mark Twain. d. utopian reforms to end poverty and eliminate class conflict. Term for the post-1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southern and eastern Europe __________ 3. Identification -. c. the end of racial prejudice and segregation. Stephen Crane. The settlement house in Chicago slums that became a model for women’s involvement in urban social reform __________ 6. fantasy and history. The church that became the largest American religious group. __________ 8. close observation and contemplation of nature. C. The profession established by Jane Addams and others that opened new opportunities for women in the modern city __________ 7. American social reformers like Henry George and Edward Bellamy advocated a. Immigrants who came to America to earn money for a time and then returned to their native land __________ 4. ___ 15. psychological investigation of the individual. a transformation of the traditional family through communal living arrangements. b. The religious doctrines preached by those who believed the churches should directly address economic and social problems __________ 5. the growth of direct federal grants and loans to college students. High-rise urban buildings that provided barracks-like housing for urban slum dwellers __________ 2. Nativist organization that attacked “New Immigrants” and Roman Catholicism in the 1880s and 1890s. ___ 14. c. mainly as a result of the “New Immigration” .d. the resettlement of the urban poor on free western homesteads. and Jack London turned American literature toward a greater concern with a. b. social realism and contemporary problems.

or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line ___ 1. Mary Cassatt A. Henry George ___ 11. Mary Baker Eddy ___ 7. ___ 2. E. B. Du Bois ___ 9. Women’s organizations founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption D. W. __________ 11. Charlotte Perkins Gilman Controversial reformer who book Progress and Poverty advocated solving problems of economic inequality by a tax on land Midwestern-born writer and lecturer who created a new style of American literature based on social realism and humor American painter who sensitive portrayals made her one of the prominent new . Matching People. Anthony Comstock ___ 15. E. A federal law. B. The organization founded by W. place. Mark Twain ___ 13. Organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women __________ 15. Places and Events Match the person. Louis Sullivan ___ 3. Washington ___ 8. B. that was used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents __________ 13. Booker T. Black educational institution founded by Booker T. William James ___ 10. Jane Addams ___ 5. promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader. Washington to provide training in agriculture and crafts.__________ 9. Du Bois and others to advance black social and economic equality. __________ 10. Dwight L. Henry George’s best-selling book that advocated social reform though the imposition of a “single tax” on land __________ 12. C. Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s book urging women to enter the work force and advocating cooperative kitchens and child-care centers __________ 14. Emily Dickinson ___ 12. Moody ___ 6. Walter Rauschenbusch ___ 4. Victoria Woodhull ___ 14.

H. ___ Nativist organization is formed to limit the “New Immigration” and attack Roman Catholicism.D. ___ Well-educated young midwesterner moves to Chicago slums and created a vital center of social reform and activism. K. G. M. F. ___ A western territory becomes the first U. ___ Introduction of a new form of high-rise slum housing drastically increases the overcrowding of the urban poor.S. Putting Things in Order Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 5. government to grant full voting rights for . J. N. O. E. the bulk of whose works were not published until after her death E. Radical feminist propagandist who eloquent attacks on conventional social morality shocked many Americans in the 1870s Brilliant feminist write who advocated cooperative cooking and child-care arrangements so that women could obtain greater economic independence and equality Leading social reformer who lived with the poor in the slums and pioneered new forms of activism for women Vigorous nineteenth-century crusader for sexual “purity” who used federal law to enforce his moral views Harvard-educated scholar and advocate of full black and social and economic equality though the leadership of a “talented tenth” Chicago-based architect whose high-rise innovation allowed more people to crowd into limited urban space Popular evangelical preacher who brought the tradition of old-time revivalism to the industrial city Gifted but isolated New England poet. impressionists Author and founder of a popular new religion based on principles of spiritual healing Leading Protestant advocate of the “social gospel” who tried to make Christianity relevant to urban and industrial problems Former slave who promoted industrial education and economic opportunity for blacks but did not advocate black social equality Harvard scholar who made original contributions to modern psychology and philosophy. L. ___ The formation of a new national organization signals growing strength for the women’s suffrage movement. I.

J. E. H. D. Matching Cause and Effect Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line. F. Encouraged the mass urban public’s taste for scandal and sensation Created intense poverty and other problems in the crowded urban slums Weakened the religious influence in American society and created divisions within the churches Led women and men to delay marriage and have fewer children Helped uproot European peasants from their ancestral lands and sent them seeking new opportunities in American and elsewhere Supported the substantial improvements in American undergraduate and graduate education in the late nineteenth century Lured millions of rural Americans off the farms and into the cities Assisted immigrants and other slum dwellers and pricked middle-class consciences about urban problems Provoked sharp hostility from some native-born Americans and organized labor groups Created sharp divisions about the “new morality” and issues such as divorce . The cultural strangeness and poverty of southern and eastern European immigrants ___ 5. Darwinism science and growing urban materialism ___ 7. Changes in moral and sexual attitudes ___ 10. New industrial jobs and urban excitement ___ 2. Social gospel ministers and settlement-house workers ___ 6. C. F. Cheap American grain exports to Europe ___ 4.women. Uncontrolled rapid growth and the “New Immigration” from Europe ___ 3. ___ 1. Popular newspapers and “yellow journalism” ___ 9. B. G. The difficulties of family life in the industrial city A. Government land grants and private philanthropy ___ 8. I.

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