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University of Zakho

School of Engineering
Petroleum Eng. Dep.

Standard Test Method for Carbon Residue

Name: Saman Hassan Rasul


Stage: 2
Ex. NO.: 2
Date of Experiment: 2-11-2014
Date of Submitting: 9-11-2014

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2.1 Objective:
To determine the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation and
pyrolysis of crude oil.

2.2 Introduction:
A weighed quantity of sample is placed in a crucible and subjected to
destructive distillation. The residue undergoes cracking and coking reactions during
an axed period of severe heating. At the end of the specified heating period, the
test crucible containing the carbonaceous residue is cooled in a desiccator and
weighed. The residue remaining is calculated as a percentage of the original
sample, and reported as Conradson carbon residue.
The carbon residue of a fuel is the tendency to form carbon deposits under
high temperature conditions in an inert atmosphere. It may be expressed as
Ramsbottom Carbon Residue (RCR), Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) or Micro
Carbon Residue (MCR).Numerically, the CCR value is the same as that of MCR.
The carbon residue value is considered by some to give an approximate indication
of the combustibility and deposit forming tendencies of the fuel. The carbon residue
of a fuel is the tendency to form carbon deposits under high temperature conditions
in an inert atmosphere, and may be expressed commonly as Micro Carbon Residue
(MCR) or alternatively Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR). It should be noted that
numerically MCR is effectively the same as CCR

2.3 Instruments:
Conradson carbon residue apparatus includes the following:
1- porcelain Crucible
2- Iron Crucible- Skidmore iron crucible
3- Iron crucible
4- Wire Support
5- Hood
6- Insulator-Asbestos block, refractory ring, or hollow sheet-metal box.
7- Burner.

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2.4 Procedure:
1- Weigh accurately the empty dry and clean crucible on the analytical balance,
m1, gm.
2- Shake thoroughly the sample to be tested, first heating to 50 oC when
necessary to reduce its viscosity. Immediately following the heating and
shaking, filter test portion through a 100 mesh screen.
3- A 10 g sample is weighed into a tarred porcelain or silica crucible containing
2 glass beads 2.5 mm in diameter.
4- The crucible is placed in the center of skidmore crucible which is set at the
center of the iron crucible and covers are applied to both of skidmore and iron
crucible.
5- A strong flame is applied from the gas burner to have high heat for a period of
10 min.
6- When smoke appears from the chimney the burner is moved or tilted to ignite
the vapor then removed temporarily.
7- When the vapor cease to burn the heat is reapplied until the bottom of the
sheet iron crucible is cherry red.
8- The burner is removed and the apparatus is cooled until no smoke appears
then the cover of the skidmore crucible is removed (about 15 min).
9- The porcelain or silica crucible is removed and placed in the desiccators,
cooled and weighed again accurately, m3, gm and % of carbon residue is
calculated based on the original sample.

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2.5 Calculations:
Calculate the carbon residue of the sample, from the equation:
M1 (mass of empty crucible) =23.3 g
M2 (mass of crucible + sample) =33.6 g
M3 (mass of residue + crucible) =24.3 g
𝑀3 − 𝑀1
𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑏𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 % = ∗ 100
𝑀2 − 𝑀1
24.3 − 23.3
= ∗ 100 = 9.7%
33.6 − 23.3

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2.6 Discussion:
Here we have a standard test method to determine the amount of carbon
residue exist in a sample of petroleum, the conradson test is used to measure
carbon residues of oil. In brief, the carbon residue of a fuel is the tendency to form
carbon deposits under high temperature conditions in an inert atmosphere.
This is an important value for the crude oil refinery, and usually one of the
measurements in a crude oil assay. Carbon residue is an important measurement
for the feed to the refinery process fluid catalytic cracking and delayed coking.
Carbon residue for a fossil fuel can be defined as the tendency of that fuel to
form carbon deposits at high temperature in an inert atmosphere. Carbon residue
for a fuel is measured in weight percentage (wt %) or parts per million by weight
(ppm wt). High carbon residue value is undesirable for a fuel, so carbon residue is
an important value for oil products price.

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