FINAL REPORT
PREFLIGHT
INTERPLANETARY
MISSION ANALYSIS
21 January 1969
Prepared by
H. S. Goodman
and
W. C. Dallam
Prepared for
The Delta Project Office
Goddard Space Flight Center
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Contract Number NAS 7690
Approved :
R. ^J. Jo\i/6son, Manager
Space & Civil Systems Department
FOREWORD
ii
CONTENTS
Page
1.0 INTRODUCTION 11
1.1 Summary and Conclusions 12
iii
LIST OF FIGURES
Page
IV
LIST OF FIGURES CONTINUED
Page
11
ll
1.1 Summary and Conclusions
The Venus orbiter mission proposed for 1972 consisted of a thirty one
day launch window with energy requirements providing a payload capability
of 380 Ibs with the standard Delta M configuration. Type II trajectories
are utilized for this launch period. Daily launch windows range from
5.67 to 3.75 hours. The full launch azimuth corridor of 90114 degrees
is utilized for this launch period. Flight times range from 164 to 184
days and communication distances at planetary encounter range from 1.48
to 1.60 A.U.
The Mars orbiter mission proposed for 1973 consisted of a twenty four
day launch window with energy requirements providing a payload capability
of 515 Ibs with the Delta M plus nine solid engines configuration. Type I
trajectories are utilized for this launch period. . Daily launch windows
range from 5.67 to 4.0 hours. The full launch azimuth corridor of 90114
degrees is utilized for this launch period. Flight times range from 189
to 195 days and communication distances at planetary encounter are
approximately 2.45 A.U.
12
2.0 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
G"
ft,! This section will present a description of the Delta M launch system
and discuss the constraints imposed on orbiter missions by the use of the
Cj Delta M system. Recommendations for possible modifications to the Delta M
system are also included in the discussion.
jj The first stage is powered by one gimballed Rocketdyne MB3 Block III
main engine augmented by three externally mounted Thiokol Caster II TX3545
L_J motors equally spaced around the periphery of the stage. The main engine
" provides an average thrust of 172,000 Ibs at sea level (and 197,000 Ibs
vacuum) and burns for a period of 219.804 seconds. The three Caster II
U motors are simultaneously ignited at lift off and jettisoned at burnout.
These motors provide an average thrust of 163,000 Ibs at sea level

 (181,000 Ibs vacuum) and burn for a period of 39.66 seconds. The total
overboard weight of the main engine and solids are 8,870 Ibs and 4,821 Ibs,
pt; , .
M respectively.
m
The second stage is powered by one AGC10118E engine gimballed for
i altitude control (pitch and yaw) during powered flight. Roll control is
provided by second stage cold gas system. This system also provides roll,
Ei pitch and yaw control during a coast phase. The second stage system places
the third stage in the desired attitude and orientation required by the
p interplanetary transfer trajectory. The second stage engine provides a
H
tl! thrust of 7,800 Ibs vacuum and burns for a period of 385.885 seconds. The
total overboard weight of the second stage is 10,705.4 Ibs with a total
gj
] inert weight of 1,738.2 Ibs (does not include a spin table).
ra 21
STA. NO.
I 1 RELATIVE x+°~ •15C 503.600
WIND X^ /
<c fin ni A \f
SHROUD
1230.500
BOOSTER
1263.500
CENTER SECTION MOTOR
NO. 2
176.4 IN DIA.
OXY MOTOR
TANK N0"]
96.0 IN DIA.
MOTOR
NO. 3
VIEW AA
LOOKING FORWARD
] 636.671
1722.00
1778.00
22
The last stage (third stage) of the Delta M utilizes the Thiokol
TE 3643 engine. The engine provides 10,000 Ibs vacuum thrust and burns
for 41.88 seconds. The third stage overboard weight is 1454 Ibs and the
total inert weight is 125 Ibs (no attach fittings). The third stage uses
spin rockets on a spin table to provide the impulse to spin stabilized for
thrust control. Spacecraft separation from the spent third spent stage is
then effected by the separation springs, which provides the spacecraft with
a relative separation velocity with respect to the expended third stage
motor.
2.1.1 Performance
For the 1972 Venus launch opportunity, the visviva injection energy
2 2
(C.,) range is approximately 8.2 to 13. Km /sec for a one and one half
month launch window, a payload range of 350 to 390 Ibs for the standard
Delta M configuration.
For the 1973 Mars launch opportunity, the visviva injection energy
2 2
(C~) range is approximately 14.5 to 18. Km /sec for a one and one half
month launch window. This would provide little payload capability for the
standard Delta M configuration (maximum payload of 330 Ibs). It was
therefore assumed that the Delta M 4 9 Castors configuration will be used
for the 1973 Mars mission, providing payload weights from 530 to 490 Ibs
23
DELTA M + 9 SOLIDS
NJ
P
r  r rrn rcn
1972 VENUS" 41973 MARS];
OPPORTUNITY_ ^OPPORTUNITY!
IH'rH HH tllf !
(Km2/sec2) ~4
:HT
Figure 2. DELTA M Payload/Energy Relationship n
Launching a spacecraft into an interplanetary trajectory requires a
boost vehicle that can be launched anywhere within a daily launch
window. To accomplish this, it is advantageous that the boost vehicle have
the capability of changing the launch azimuth and coast time while on the
pad. This is not the case with the present Delta M booster. The launch
time and parking orbit coast time are hard wired in the Delta M. It re
quires a period of four hours to make an adjustment to the azimuth or coast
time. Obviously, this time is too long if a vehicle is to be launched
within the window. As a result of this constraint, the launching would be
rescheduled for the following day if possible. It is apparent that greater
flexibility in controlling the Delta M vehicle launch azimuth and parking
orbit coast time is required if the total daily launch window is to be
utilized. On the other hand, the manufacturer contends that from past
Delta performance, a high confidence of achieving a two second launch
window on any given date can be considered feasible. It has also
been suggested that a doglegged second stage maneuver could be performed
and therefore achieve the desired transfer orbit inclination. Such a
maneuver not only affects the second stage guidance but requires changes in
the coast time. Degradation of performance (payload) based upon a doglegged
maneuver can be expressed as a sensitivity of 6.5 pounds/degree change in
inclination. This sensitivity does not include any degradation of performance
based oti the coast time interval requirements.
After liftoff, the Delta "M" booster will rise vertically from the
launch pad at Cape Kennedy and at two seconds start to roll until the
booster achieves the proper launch azimuth. At the end of the roll
maneuver, a pitch program and yaw program is initiated by the Stage I pro
grammer. The pitch program is generally divided into phases during the
Stage I firing. Approximately 75 seconds after liftoff, the three solid
motors will burn out and the motor casings jettisoned from the basic
vehicle. (In case of marginal performance, the solids may be dropped
several seconds earlier). At 124 seconds, Stage I programmer will initiate
25
radio guidance. The main engine, ThorRoeketdyne, continues to burn
approximately 200 seconds from the time of liftoff (MECOMain engine cutoff).
At this time, the Stage II programmer is initiated. Four seconds from MECO,
Stage I and Stage II are separated and Stage II engine is started. At
nine seconds from MECO, the pitch program for Stage II is initiated. The
Stage II program is divided into phases similarly as Stage I pitch program.
At ten seconds from MECO, Stage II closed loop guidance is scheduled. The
payload fairing is usually jettisoned approximately nineteen seconds after
MECO. (This occurs at about a 60 nautical mile altitude). Stage II closed
loop guidance is stopped 298 seconds after MECO and within four seconds,
open loop guidance is started. The open loop guidance lasts approximately
four seconds. At 378 seconds from MECO, the Stage II engine (AGC10118E)
is commanded to shut down and the vehicle (Stage II, III & payload) is
considered in the coast phase of flight (100 nautical mile parking orbit).
During the coast, pitch and yaw maneuvers are available by the vehicle.
Near the end of the coast phase, spin rockets are ignited therefore spinning
the third stage and payload. Soon after spinup, the Stage III engine
(Thiokol TE3643) is commanded to start. Two seconds later, Stage II and
III are separated with the third stage ignition completed. The solid fueled
third stage engine burns for fortyfour seconds which corresponds to fuel
depletion. With the completion of the third stage, both the third stage
engine and payload are spinning in the transfer orbit. Separation of the
third stage and the payload is achieved by the use of one center spring.
After separation the expended third stage is tumbled by a YO weight.(Fig. 3).
26
CE3 CSS (Oils!!
Stage IllSpacecraft
Separation
Coast
I Period
SECO
\n Fairing Spin
Jettison of
Solid Motor
Casings
Yaw Program
Pitch Program
Roll Program
Liftoff
28
CLASS I TYpE II
CLASS II
TARGET
PLANET
PATH
LAUNCH •.
PLANET PATH'*
29
The payload/Injection energy relationship for the Delta M launch
Ii vehicle employed in this analysis was presented in Figure 2.
 Because the total burning arc of the Delta M launch vehicle is relative
ly constant, and the angle between perigee and the departure radial asymptote
) is fixed for a given injection energy, variations of the central angle be
•" tween launch site and departure asymptote require the use of a variable
•n parking orbit coast prior to the final thrust period in order that the final
?!
t) velocity gain will occur near perigee of the required escape hyperbola
(Figure 5). This positioning of final burn (or injection) produces maximum
•{ payload capability. As launch time is varied within the daily "firing
jj
window", both launch azimuth and parkingorbit coast time must be altered.
H Launch azimuth is varied so that the spacecraft will travel in the plane
''J
0 210
DEPARTURE
RADIAL
ASYMPTOTE
LAUNCH SITE
BOOSTER ASCENT
. EPARTURE
ASYMPTOTE
PARKING ORBIT
PERIGEE OF
HYPERBOLIC CONIC
211
governed by the inertial direction of the launch site (at launch) and the
required direction of the departure asymptote; coast time is altered so
that injection will occur near perigee of the required escape hyperbola,
thereby maximizing payload.
With the present Delta M launch system, however, none of the above
alternatives is feasible. Therefore, the launch azimuth corridor con
straint of 90 to 114 degrees will be strictly adhered to. In addition,
launch will be constrained to occur only on days when the full azimuth
212
range of 90 to 114 degrees is available. This will limit the declination
of the outgoing radial asymptote between ± 28.3 degrees.
The available firing window for each launch day is a function of:
(1) launchsite latitude, (2) launch azimuth interval, and (3) declination
of the departure radial asymptote. For launchings from ETR, the permissible
firing window for the allowable range of launch azimuths may be determined
from Figure 6. Note that for a given departure radial declination, two
values of launch time exist for a fixed launch azimuth. The available
firing window can be extracted for the launch azimuth range by taking the
difference between the launch times plotted. These launch times plotted on
the curve correspond to a hypothetical launch date and a hypothetical right
ascension of the radial asymptote. However, the daily firing window which
can be extracted from this plot can be used for any launch date of an
interplanetary mission since the window is independent of the date or of
the right ascension of the departure asymptote. It can be seen that the
daily window can range from approximately seven to two hours in length.
LAUNCH AZIMUTH«KDEG)
Figure 6. Daily Launch Window vs. Declination and Launch Azimuth
214
while the spacecraftsun distance influences the sizing of the solar panels
and thermal protection coatings and techniques that are employed. The
angular relationships also enter into the design in the areas of antenna
location and beam width locations and, most important, the capability of
the spin stabilized spacecraft to deboost with the attitude control
limitations imposed.
(i_^_) jl/2
e VR R +R ' J
a p
where
V ,V = Velocity on hyperbola and ellipse respectively
H = Gravitational constant
From the above equations, other conic relations, and the law of
cosines, a general expression can be obtained for the required velocity
decrement AV. However, minimum AV occurs when the transfer is made from
the periapsis point of the approach hyperbola to the periapsis point of the
capture orbit. For this special case, the above equations result in:
215
APPROACH
HYPERBOLA
216
AV = [v 2 + 2y jl/2 _ r a ,1/2
1  R J 1R (R + R )J
P P a P
= sec2
then
217
TARGET
PLANET
SUN
'DEBOOST * ~~
SUN V APPROACH
HYPERBOLA
APPROACH
218
equal to sec (ZAP), for the maximum deboost thrust efficiency. Further
more, the periapsis radius will be a function of the asymptotic speed and
ZAP angle.
Since, for any given launch datearrival date combination, the values
of V and ZAP are fixed, the periapsis radius of the approach hyperbola,
and consequently, the periapsis radius of the capture orbit will be governed
by the choice of the launcharrival date for optimum AV deboost. In order
to estimate the AV required for capture for a spacecraft with the above
attitude control limitations imposed, it will be assumed for simplicity that
transfer onto a parabolic orbit is defined as our capture criteria. The
periapsis velocity of a vehicle in a parabolic orbit is given by
1/2
1/2
1/2 1/2
AV =
R
PJ
Then,
1/2
AV = V 1 1'
1 + 2 2
+ sec ZAP + 1
[_ sec ZAP  1
where the secant term is positive if ZAP is between zero and ninety degrees
and is negative if ZAP is between ninety degrees and one hundred and eighty
degrees.
It has been shown above that the minimum deboost velocity can be
determined for an orbiter simply by specifying the launch and arrival date
219
combination when the deboost maneuver is highly constrained due to the
assumed attitude control limitations. Generally, the class of spacecrafts
under consideration for the Delta M System will not be capable of large
variations from the orbits resulting from the minimum deboost velocity.
Any increase in orientation capability will relax the restrictions imposed
above and consequently the AV requirements will also be reduced.
These target error parameters are derived from the Delta launch
vehicle injection errors and /or midcourse guidance execution errors. The
guidance analysis is based on the assumptions that position and velocity
deviations (injection and midcourse) are propagated linearly (1st order
perturbation theory) and the applied velocity correction nulls the target
position error (B) in the target plane.
220
1J 2.3.1 Study Approach
o p 0 a p .a a. p .0 a. p .a a.
x xz x z xx x x xy x y XZ X Z
p o o p .a a. p .0 a. p yz.ayo.
z
yz y z yx y x yy y y
2 p zz.00.
a p .a a. p .0 a.
z zx z x zy z y zz
2
symmetric a. p . .0.0. p . .a. a.
x xy x y XZ X Z
2
a. p . .0.0.
y yz y z
2
0.
z
2
where 0 = the variances of six injection errors
p = coefficient of crosscorrelation
AM  *o AI <0T
221
3(BT) 3(BT) 3(BT) 3(BT) 3(BT) 3(B.T)
8(5x o ) 3(6y o ) 3( 5 z o )
o 3(6y 0 ) o
ECLIPTIC PLANE
222
The uncorrected terminal dispersion covariance matrix (A^) is a 2x2
matrix and is expressed as
2
0 B.T
s T
AM = LAML
2
0
cos 6 sin 6
L
sin 6 cos 9
Angle 6 is positive when turned clockwise from the R axis and has
been choosen such that QI > cr_
1 t 1 2p RT
2
°B.T °BR
^u
0_tJ • _
f?
O^.
H A Tr1
••• IS * H 13 * 1 — •*
223
°AB.R
BT
Midcourse Maneuver
1
1
224
where is a 3x2 state transition matrix of differential
coefficients relating terminal position dispersions to
midcourse velocity components
V V V
x xy xz
V V V
yx y yz
V V V '
zx zy z
Trace
V
•V
•V 2
V + V + V
x y
2
z
2
V + V + V
x y z V 9
, (the mean square value
of the maneuver) it may be reasoned that if a midcourse rocket can deliver
? 9
three times the rms value, then it can cope with a very high proportion of
all possible cases.
225
ME t.
BT
ME
.2
B.R
As with the uncorrected miss covariance A , covariance matrix A^ is
diagonalized.
AME
where
cos 9' sin 6'
'1
tan
—\
B.R> BT>
.,2
ME
0
226
3.0 RESULTS
It has been assumed that for this mission the full launch azimuth
corridor (90°114°) must be available for launch to take place on any
given day. In Figure 12, the region in the allowable energy range where
the declination of the outgoing radial asymptote allows the utilization
of the full azimuth range is indicated. Notice the minimum energy launch
is not included in the allowable launch region.
The minimum energy for launch on any given day occurs for the flight
time corresponding to the coincidence of Class I and II trajectories.
In order that launch for each day in the launch period be the minimum
energy launch permissable for that day, the flight times indicated in
Figure 13 are selected. Notice that the beginning of the launch window
31
trwi'* "• i
rF 170
ttHTtfi
C 3 =8.219
u>
K>
CLASS I
CLASS II
TWICE THE TOTAL
ENERGY/UNIT MASS
NOT
ALLOWABLE ALLOWABLE
r LAUNCH REGION : LAUNCH REGION
(90 114 )
Launch Azimuth i
Constraint
LO
The final launch window selected for this period consists of thirty
one days, from March 25 through April 24, 1972. Flight times to Venus
2 2
range from 164 to 184 days. The minimum launch energy is 8.33 km /sec
occurring for launch on April 7 and a flight time of 173 days. Maximum
2 2
energies occur at the beginning and end of the launch period, 9.56 km /sec
2 2
and 9.599 km /sec respectively.
The length of each daily launch window is given in Figure 14. The
maximum window length is 5.67 hours occurring on April 1, 1972 and the
minimum length is 3.75 hours occurring on April 24, 1972.
The variation in coast time for each day in the launch period is given
in Figure 15. The maximum coast time is 2790 seconds occurring on
April 1, 1972 and the minimum coast time is 1464 seconds occurring on
April 24, 1972. The largest variation in coast time for any given day
occurs on April 1, when the coast time changes by 1062 seconds over the
launch window.
35
MWy™^
WFfPpff
4f. End Of Daily Windows
m
Beginning Of Daily Windows
DIRECTION OF
APPROACH ASYMPTOTE
VENUS
38
results in an impact condition. By selecting periapsis distances above
the planet radius, the AV loss when the deboost maneuver is performed at
periapsis becomes sufficient enough to make the AV requirement for capture
unreasonable. Further study would be required to determine the optimum
position on the approach hyperbola to perform the deboost maneuver should
the attitude control limitations remain in effect.
It has been assumed that for this mission the full launch azimuth
corridor (90° to 114°) must be available for launch to take place on any
given day. In Figure 18, the region in the allowable energy range where
the declination of the outgoing radial asymptote allows the utilization of
the full azimuth range is indicated. Notice that the minimum energy
launch is not included in the allowable launch region.
The minimum energy for launch on any given day occurs for the flight
39
(•:(••.. n.,1
I
M
O
CLASS I
C,= 14.434 CLASS II
•J i^..it.j. >.!. j_t_a.i_i_ i_
TWICE THE TOTAL
ENERGY/UNIT MASSf
~(KM2/SEC2)
LAUNCH DATE t
1 Figure 17 1973: Energy Requirements
fail*
ste
f NOT ALLOWABLE
iLAUNCH WINDOW
ALLOWABLE LAUNCH
WINDOW
OJi Figure 18. MARS 1973: Acceptable Launch Considering Launch Azimuth Constraints;
time corresponding to the coincidence of Class I and II trajectories. In
order that launch for each day in the launch period be the minimum energy
launch permissable for that day, the flight times indicated in Figure 19
are selected. Notice that the beginning of the launch window requires
higher energies than the minimum due to the launch azimuth constraints.
This period from July 16, 1972 to August 10, 1972 represents the accept
able launch period for this mission based upon present assumed launch
constraints. Flight times to Mars range from 195 to 189 days. The
2 2
minimum launch energy is 14.44 km /sec occurring for launch on July 29,
1972 and with a flight time of 173 days. Maximum energies occur at the
2 2
beginning and end of the launch period and are slightly under 16 km /sec .
The length of each daily launch window is given in Figure 20. The maximum
window length is 5.67 hours occurring on July 22, 1973.
The variation in coast time for each day is given in Figure 21.
The maximum coast time is 2904 seconds occurring on April 22, 1973 and
the minimum coast time is 1728 seconds occurring on August 9, 1973. The
largest variation in coast time for any given day occurs on July 22, 1973,
when the coast time changes by 1080 seconds over the launch window.
For the launch/arrival date combinations selected for the Mars orbiter
mission in 1973, the magnitude of the approach vector ranges from a maximum
of 3.45 km/sec to a minimum of 2.67 km/sec. The direction of the planetary
approach with respect to the sun is shown in Figure 22, for the selected
launch and arrival date combinations. As seen in the figure, approach
is from the lighted side of the planet.
As in the case of the Venus mission the Mars deboost maneuver cannot
be performed in the optimum manner for an orbiter mission. Further study
should be made to determine the velocity requirements under these encounter
conditions.
312
rfrrrrr** f/yr—; v^ irwTisJwwg »^» «•>»•: .*M (j"*!a?r?i
SELECTED :
sMinimum Energy ; FLIGHT S
TIME
U)
M
Launch Azimuth: f^Lujinum Energy
U> toHS4±;ti:i;ltJ,m, g":
ms.
'SELECTED LAUNCH WINDOW
OF DAILY WINDOW'lr
±L. hHtitila:
U>
OJ
I
DIRECTION
TO SUN
\e 22.
316
3.3 Nominal Trajectories
317
II
318
::^±i 500
^£=300
• ' . I. I  [ """^
319
L
:DAYS FROM INJECTION K;:^^
Figure 24. MARS 1973 3o Midcourse Velocity Correction vs Execution ^Cime
BFJUJIw hl^^ "jffii^t'" qj^
320
can be acquired through a Monte Carlo stimulation in a detailed study. It
is shown in Figures 23 and 24, that for launches occurring at the beginning,
middle and the end of the launch window, the velocity correction require
ment for the midcourse maneuver increases with the time from injection.
For the Venus mission, launching at the beginning of the window re
quires the least amount of AV for any selected time. See Figure 25.
Requirements for AV increase as the middle of the window is reached and
then slightly decrease at the end of the window.
For the Mars mission, launching at the beginning of the window requires
the least amount of AV for any selected time. See Figure 26. Greater
AV for midcourse maneuvers is required at the end of the launch window.
321
AV MIDCOURSE VELOCITY CORRECTION
1*1 J» 'Tr^ JJ'I.¥'La 1»«".JI* »« Wr« I »! .'$ .^ K^H'J,^ 1'J'AI £r.'."" M »"«
. • E_i
pi±M150
rTi r i h i r i ,
1
N3
SteMH»lt«i
CO t10 DAYS FROM INJECTION^
$g p41. .HliiHl