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LTE eRAN7.

0 ICIC Feature P-0

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-1

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-2

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-3

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-4

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-5

 The LTE system uses the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
technology in the downlink (DL) and the Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple
Access (SC-FDMA) technology in the uplink (UL). One common characteristic of
OFDMA and SC-FDMA is that all the resource blocks (RBs) occupied by the UEs in a
cell are mutually orthogonal. Therefore, intra-cell interference is very low but inter-cell
interference is relatively high. This is because the frequency reuse factor is 1, that is,
every cell can provide services over the whole system band. The interference from
neighboring cells is significant especially for cell edge users (CEUs). Therefore, inter-
cell interference must be mitigated to increase the cell capacity and CEU throughput.
 Huawei provides two interference mitigation solutions to reduce inter-cell interference:
Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) and Inter-Cell Interference Coordination
(ICIC). They can work together to improve the performance of cells.
 IRC is a technology that combines receive (RX) antennas to combat highly
colored interference between cells. It is applied at the physical layer.
 ICIC is a technology that mitigates inter-cell interference together with the
scheduling and power control technologies. ICIC is applied at the Medium
Access Control (MAC) layer. ICIC restricts highly interfering CEUs within the
orthogonal bands at the edge of cells or schedules the CEUs in neighboring
cells at different points of time. In this way, ICIC mitigates inter-cell
interference, increases the CEU throughput, and improves the system
coverage. This document provides the details on ICIC.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-6

 Based on whether the edge band is adjusted dynamically during ICIC, ICIC is
classified into static ICIC and dynamic ICIC. Dynamic ICIC is an improvement over
static ICIC. Based on the actual edge load of the serving cell, dynamic ICIC increases
or decreases the edge band to achieve better utilization of the edge band. Dynamic
ICIC is an optional feature. It is license-controlled (LOFD-00101401 Downlink
Dynamic Inter-Cell Interference Coordination & LOFD-00101402 Uplink Dynamic
Inter-Cell Interference Coordination).
 Based on the application scope, ICIC is classified into DL ICIC and UL ICIC. Both of
them are implemented on the eNodeB.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-7

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-8

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-9

 When initially accessing a network, a UE is recognized as a CCU by the serving cell;


after a handover, the UE is recognized as a CEU by the target cell. After a short
period following the initial access or handover, the eNodeB starts to determine
whether the UEs are CEUs or CCUs by using ICIC event A3 or A6, respectively. In
carrier aggregation (CA) scenarios, the eNodeB uses ICIC event A3 on the primary
carrier and ICIC event A6 on the secondary carrier. In non-CA scenarios, the eNodeB
uses ICIC event A3.
 eNodeBs identify CEUs and CCUs based on ICIC event A3 or A6 as follows:
 If an ICIC event A3 or A6 report contains the measurement result only about the
serving cell of a UE, the eNodeB treats the UE as a CCU. An example of this is when
the UE moves from the cell edge to the cell center.
 If an ICIC event A3 or A6 report contains the measurement result about at least one
neighboring cell, the eNodeB treats the UE as a CEU.
 contains the measurement result about at least one neighboring cell, the
eNodeB treats the UE as a CEU.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-10

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-11

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-12

 Edge band mode assignment is a technique of allocating different edge bands to


neighboring cells. Edge band adjustment is a technique of expanding or shrinking the
edge band of a cell based on inter-cell interference and the cell load. Edge band
mode assignment and edge band adjustment collaborate to determine the edge band
of each cell.
 Exchange of interference and load information between cells

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-13

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-14

 For configuration of certain local cell ICIC mode the following MML commands are
used:
 MOD CELLDLICIC
 MOD CELLULICIC
 Assignment is usually the same for DL and UL.
 BandMode Downlink band division scheme
 Meaning: Indicates the band division scheme used in downlink ICIC. The band
division in the cell is adjusted according to the setting of this parameter so that
the edge bands for neighboring cells do not overlap. If this parameter is set to
INVALID, the cell does not distinguish center and edge bands.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-15

 Power offset of edge and center band from the reference signal power is configurable. However, it should
not exceed maximum output power of the radio amplifier.
 For example, if the reference signal power is configured to 18.2dBm, cell bandwidth is 20MHz and RRU
maximum power is 40W, in No ICIC configuration the amplifier is utilized on precisely 40W. With ICIC
configured according the figure, amplifier utilization is 34W. However, if the Center Pa is changed to -3dB
the total utilization of amplifier would be 42.96W.
 CcuPa Center UE PA Meaning:
 Indicates the PA value of cell center UEs when DL ICIC is enabled.
 Recommended Value: When PaPcOff is set to -6, you are not advised to enable the ICIC
function.
 When PaPcOff is set to -4.77, you are advised to set CcuPa to -6 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to -3, you are advised to set CcuPa to -6 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to -1.77, you are advised to set CcuPa to -4.77 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 0, you are advised to set CcuPa to -3 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 1, you are advised to set CcuPa to -1.77 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 2, you are advised to set CcuPa to 0 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 3, you are not advised to enable the ICIC function.
 CeuPa Edge UE PA Meaning: Indicates the PA value of cell edge UEs when DL ICIC is enabled.
 Recommended Value: When PaPcOff is set to -6, you are not advised to enable the ICIC
function.
 When PaPcOff is set to -4.77, you are advised to set CeuPa to -3 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to -3, you are advised to set CeuPa to -1.77 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to -1.77, you are advised to set CeuPa to 0 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 0, you are advised to set CeuPa to 1 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 1, you are advised to set CeuPa to 2 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 2, you are advised to set CeuPa to 3 dB.
 When PaPcOff is set to 3, you are not advised to enable the ICIC function.
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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-16

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-17

 The variables in the preceding conditions are described as follows:


 Mn is the measurement result of reference signal received power from the
neighboring cell (or RSRQ).
 Ms is the measurement result of reference signal received from the serving cell.
 Hys is the hysteresis for ICIC event A3 and is determined by the
CellMcPara.Hysteresis parameter.
 Ofn is the frequency-specific offset for the neighboring cell used in intra-
frequency measurement.
 Ofs is the frequency-specific offset for the serving cell used in intra-frequency
measurement.
 Ocn is the cell-specific offset for the neighboring cell.
 Ocs is the cell-specific offset for the serving cell.
 Off is the offset for ICIC event A3 and is determined by the
CellMcPara.A3Offset and CellULIcicMcPara.A3Offset parameter. This
parameter is used to adjust the probability of reporting ICIC event A3.
 The offset for ICIC event A6 is specified by CellMcPara.A6Offset. This
parameter is used to adjust the probability of reporting ICIC event A6.
 ICIC event A3 and event A6 share the preceding variable values except for Off.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-18

 For Mn and Ms in the preceding formulas, the triggering quantity is determined by the
CellMcPara.TriggerQuantity parameter for both UL and DL ICIC. The reporting
quantity is determined by the CellMcPara.ReportQuantity parameter.
 The triggering quantity is used to evaluate event triggering, and the reporting quantity
is included in measurement reports. ICIC event A3 currently uses only RSRP as the
triggering quantity and reporting quantity.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-19

 ICIC event A3 is reported only if the entering condition or leaving condition is met for a
period, which is called time-to-trigger. The time-to-trigger prevents the ping-pong
effect. Its value for both DL and UL ICIC is determined by the
CellMcPara.TimeToTrigger parameter. The contents of ICIC event A3 reports vary
as follows:
 If the RSRP measurement result of at least one neighboring cell meets the
entering condition for ICIC event A3, the UE reports the RSRP measurement
results of the serving and neighboring cells to the eNodeB. The maximum
number of neighboring cells to be included in a report for both DL and UL ICIC
is determined by the CellMcPara.MaxReportCells parameter.
 If the RSRP measurement result of at least one neighboring cell meets the
leaving condition for ICIC event A3, the UE reports only the RSRP
measurement result of the serving cell to the eNodeB.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-20

 Event A3 is reported periodically after the first report. The interval for both DL and UL
ICIC is determined by the CellMcPara.ReportInterval parameter. A longer interval
indicates a lower frequency of updating user location information, whereas a shorter
interval results in greater consumption of radio interface resources.
 The number of periodic reports for both DL and UL ICIC is determined by the
CellMcPara.ReportAmount parameter. A larger value results in greater UE power
consumption and a larger increase in the CEU throughput. A smaller value leads to
less UE power consumption but lower accuracy of neighboring cell conditions for
CEUs. The low accuracy has a negative impact on the CEU throughput gain.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-21

Parameter ID Description
 A3Offset A3 Offset
Indicates the interval between periodic measurement reports that
ReportInterval
Meaning: Indicates
 are sentthe offset
after a DLforICIC
event A3. This offset
measurement is the
event difference
is triggered.
between theIndicates
signal quality of a neighboring
the maximum numbercell and to
of cells that
beofincluded
the serving
in cell. A
MaxReportCellNum
larger value measurement reports
indicates a higher after a DLon
requirement ICIC measurement
neighboring event is
cell quality for
triggered.
reporting event A3.
Indicates the number of periodic measurement reports after a DL
Hysteresis Hysteresis
ReportAmount
ICIC measurement event is triggered.
 Meaning: Indicates the hysteresis for reporting event A3 or A6. This parameter
Indicates the quantity to be included in the measurement report
is used to prevent
after a frequent
DL ICIC entering or leaving
measurement eventofisevent A3 orThe
triggered. A6 and decision
quantity can
errors due toberadio
RSRP andfluctuation.
signal RSRQ. The measured RSRP values are stable,
varying little with the load, and therefore there is little signal
ReportQuantity
 TimetoTrigger Time to TriggerThe measured RSRQ values vary with the load but are
fluctuation.
likely to reflect the signal quality of the cell in real time. If this
 Meaning: Indicates the time-to-trigger for reporting event A3 or A6. When
parameter is set to BOTH, the actual quantity to be used is the
detecting that the signal
same as the quality
DL ICIC inmeasurement
the serving cell and that
trigger in at least one
quantity.
neighboring cell meet the entering condition, the UE does not report the event
to the eNodeB immediately. Instead, the UE reports the event only when the
signal quality continuously meets the entering condition during the time-to-
trigger.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-22

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-23

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-24

 If static ICIC is used, edge bands remain unchanged. When data services are
ongoing, CEUs in a cell may occupy some PRBs in the center band of the cell if the
edge band is overloaded, and the PRBs are in the edge band of a neighboring cell.
These PRBs in the current cell are represented by Y in the collision area. If the
neighboring cell schedules CEUs on these PRBs, interference increases on the PRBs
(the collision area) between the two cells. As a result, the service experience of the
related CEUs in the cells deteriorates noticeably. For better ICIC effects, the cells are
expected to dynamically adjust their edge bands based on the interference and edge
loads. This technique is called edge band adjustment in dynamic ICIC.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-25

 Edge band adjustment in dynamic ICIC applies to a cell and its interfering cells. The interfering
cells are the neighboring cells included in ICIC event A3 reports. eNodeBs periodically check
whether the edge band expansion and shrinking conditions are met. If the conditions are not
met, edge band distribution is relatively balanced and therefore the edge bands do not need to
be adjusted. The expansion and shrinking conditions are as follows:
 Edge band expansion condition
 The current cell expands its edge band if its edge band is heavily loaded while the
edge bands in its neighboring cells are lightly loaded. In the previous slide, yellow grids
for the current cell represent the PRBs defined in static ICIC, and green grids with Y
denote the PRBs that CEUs in the current cell actually use beyond the edge band
defined in static ICIC. In this situation, the current cell determines that the number of
PRBs required by CEUs is greater than the number of cell edge PRBs defined in static
ICIC. The edge load of the current cell is high while the edge load of the neighboring
cell is low.
 Edge band shrinking condition
 Active shrinking: The current cell actively shrinks its edge band if its edge load is
relatively low.
 Passive shrinking: When the neighboring cell expands its actual edge band within the
edge band defined in static ICIC, the current cell shrinks its edge band if the PRBs
used by the current and neighboring cells collide. Slide shows an example of passive
shrinking.
 The principle applies to both UL and DL ICIC.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-26

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-27

 DL ICIC consists of the following features:


 LBFD-00202201 Downlink Static Inter-Cell Interference Coordination
 LOFD-00101401 Downlink Dynamic Inter-Cell Interference Coordination

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-28

 Intra-eNodeB neighboring cells exchange interference and load information


through internal interfaces. Inter-eNodeB neighboring cells exchange this information
by Huawei-defined messages.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-29

 Intra-eNodeB neighboring cells exchange interference and load information through


internal interfaces. Inter-eNodeB neighboring cells exchange this information by
Huawei-defined messages. A Huawei-defined message includes the following
information:
 ID of the source cell: This is the ID of the cell that sends this message.
 ID of the target cell: This is the ID of the neighboring cell to which this message
is sent.
 Coordination request indication: This indicates whether the source cell requests
the target cell to adjust its edge band. The source cell sets the coordination
request indication to TRUE if the interference from the target cell is intolerable.
The tolerance is evaluated based on the measured RSRP values and DL edge
bands of the source cell and target cell.
 Load status of the source cell: This is determined based on the average number
of edge PRBs required by CEUs during historical adjustment periods and the
number of PRBs in the current edge band. Based on the load status, the target
cell decides whether to adjust its edge band.
 Edge band status of the source cell: This is indicated by the bitmap of all high-
power PRBs in the source cell. Based on this bitmap, the target cell can avoid
using the edge band of the source cell and perform inter-cell coordination
effectively. For details about the high-power PRBs, see the descriptions of
relative narrowband TX power (RNTP) in the LTE Protocols and Procedures
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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-30

 If the edge band of a cell is adjusted or the edge load is changed, this cell notifies its
neighboring cells of this adjustment or change by Huawei-defined messages. Based
on the information contained in these messages, the neighboring cells expand or
shrink their edge band. The expansion and shrinking policies are as follows:
 Expansion policy: A cell attempts to expand its edge band towards a
neighboring cell with a lower edge load. This expansion is canceled if the
estimated post-expansion edge band exceeds the edge-band range defined in
static ICIC and the extra PRBs collide with the edge band used by the
neighboring cell.
 Shrinking policy: A cell attempts to shrink its edge band to the average number
of edge PRBs in this cell during historical adjustment periods. If the estimated
post-shrinking edge band exceeds the edge-band range defined in static ICIC
and the extra PRBs still collide with the edge band used by a neighboring cell,
the colliding PRBs are removed from the edge band of the current cell.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-31

 DlIcicSwitch DlIcic algorithm switch


Parameter ID Description
 Meaning: Indicates the DL ICIC algorithm switch. There are four states.
Indicates the DL ICIC algorithm switch. There are four states.
 DlIcicSwitch_OFF_ENUM:Indicates
DlIcicSwitch_OFF_ENUM: that DL ICIC is disabled.

Indicates that the DL ICIC algorithm is disabled.
DlIcicDynamicSwitch_ON_ENUM:Indicates that dynamic DL ICIC is
DlIcicDynamicSwitch_ON_ENUM:
enabled.
Indicates that the dynamic DL ICIC algorithm is enabled.
DlIcicStaticSwitch_ON_ENUM:
DlIcicSwitch  DlIcicStaticSwitch_ON_ENUM:Indicates that static DL ICIC is enabled.
Indicates that the static DL ICIC algorithm is enabled.
 DlIcicReuse3Switch_ON_ENUM:
DlIcicReuse3Switch_ON_ENUM: This state will be removed in later
versions. In this version, the setting of algorithm
Indicates that the DL ICIC Reuse3 this state is is still
enabled. In this case,
synchronized
all UEs are scheduled on the edge frequency band defined by the
between
static the
ICICU2000 andThat
scheme. the eNodeB,
is, all UEsbut
in itone
is no
celllonger
use oneused internally.
third of the
total frequency
Therefore, band.
avoid using this state.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-32

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-33

 The procedure of static UL ICIC is as follows:


 The UL operating band of each cell is divided into the edge band and center
band during network planning, and the edge bands of neighboring cells are
mutually orthogonal.
 The eNodeB classifies the UEs in the serving cell into CCUs and CEUs based
on the RSRP measurement reports. (A UE is determined as a CCU by default
after initial access. It is determined as a CEU by default after a handover.)
Then, the eNodeB notifies the scheduler of the UE types.
 Each neighboring cell monitors the average interference caused to itself all the
time. When the interference exceeds the threshold for sending an Overload
Indicator (OI) message, the cell sends the message to its neighboring cells.
After receiving the OI message, the serving cell checks the validity of the
message.
 Based on the band division of the serving cell and the neighboring cell information,
the eNodeB schedules CEUs on the edge band and CCUs on the center band in UL
scheduling.
 If the OI message is valid, it is provided for UL power control to adjust the PUSCH
power.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-34

 Dynamic UL ICIC adjusts edge bands for cells based on the edge band modes and
the high interference indication (HII) messages exchanged between the cells. Intra-
eNodeB neighboring cells exchange HII messages through internal interfaces. Inter-
eNodeB neighboring cells exchange HII messages through X2 interfaces. As defined
in reference training document LTE Protocols and Procedures.
 An HII message contains the following information:
 ID of the source cell: This is the ID of the cell that sends this message.
 ID of the target cell: This is the ID of the neighboring cell to which this
message is sent.
 Interference information: This is indicated by the bitmap of all edge PRBs in
the source cell. Based on this bitmap, the target cell adjusts its edge band.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-35

 The eNodeB periodically measures the number of PRBs actually used by CEUs in
each cell and compares this number with the number of PRBs in the current edge
band of the cell. If the difference between the numbers is excessively large for a cell,
the eNodeB triggers an edge band adjustment. If the edge band of the cell is adjusted,
the cell transmits the updated HII messages to its neighboring cells.
 Based on the information in the HII messages from a cell, its neighboring cells expand
or shrink their edge band. The expansion and shrinking policies are as follows:
 Expansion policy: A cell attempts to expand its edge band to the average
number of edge PRBs in this cell during historical adjustment periods. If the
estimated post-expansion edge band exceeds the edge-band range defined in
static ICIC and the extra PRBs collide with the edge band used by a
neighboring cell, the colliding PRBs are removed from the edge band of the
current cell.
 Shrinking policy: A cell attempts to shrink its edge band to the average number
of edge PRBs in this cell during historical adjustment periods. In the passive-
shrinking situation, if the estimated post-shrinking edge band exceeds the
edge-band range defined in static ICIC and the extra PRBs collide with the
edge band used by a neighboring cell, the colliding PRBs are removed from
the edge band of the current cell.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-36

 UlIcicTimeSwitch UlIcic time switch


Parameter

ID
Meaning: Description
This parameter will be removed in later versions. In this version, the
Indicates
setting of this the switch
parameter that is used tobetween
is still synchronized control whether
the U2000 to enable
and theand
eNodeB, but it is no longer used internally. Therefore, avoid usingisthis
disable UL ICIC in the frequency domain. If this switch set to OFF,
UL ICIC in the frequency domain is disabled in the eNodeB cells. If
parameter.this switch is set to STATIC, static UL ICIC in the frequency domain is
UlIcicFreqSwitch
enabled in the eNodeB cells. If this switch is set to DYNAMIC,
 UlIcicFreqSwitch UlIcic freq switch
dynamic UL ICIC in the frequency domain is enabled in the eNodeB
 cells.
Meaning: Indicates the switch used to enable or disable UL ICIC in the
frequency domain.
IndicatesIfthe
thisadjustment
switch is set to OFF,
switch thatUL ICIC to
is used in the frequency
enable and disable UL
domain is ICIC algorithm
disabled in the in the time
eNodeB domain.
cells. If thisWhen
switchthis
is switch
set to is set tostatic
STATIC, ON, UL
UlIcicTimeSwitch
ICIC in the time domain is enabled in the cells under the eNodeB.
UL ICIC in the frequency domain is enabled in the eNodeB cells. If this switch
Otherwise, UL ICIC in the time domain is disabled.
is set to DYNAMIC, dynamic UL ICIC in the frequency domain is enabled in
the eNodeB cells,Dynamic ICIC and static ICIC will not take effect when the
UL adaptive ICIC switch of the cell is turned on.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-37

 Neighboring cell lists for UL ICIC are classified into two levels: UE level and cell level.
Based on the neighboring cell lists, the serving cell and neighboring cells can
exchange the information about edge bands and interference.
 A UE-level neighboring cell list, which records the information about neighboring cells,
is created on the basis of an RSRP measurement report sent from the UE. The list is
updated on the basis of the subsequent RSRP measurement reports from the UE.
 A cell-level neighboring cell list contains the information about the interfering cells
indicated in the RSRP measurement reports from all the CEUs in a cell. The list
records the following information about each neighboring cell: cell ID, band division,
intra-eNodeB flag, and scheme flag. The intra-eNodeB flag indicates whether the
neighboring cell is an intra-eNodeB cell, and the scheme flag indicates whether the
neighboring cell uses the same band division scheme as the serving cell. The cell-
level list is updated based on user-level lists and HII messages.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-38

 An OI message provides information that the average interference caused to all RBs
in a cell is large. It also provides the level of interference caused to each RB. A cell
sends an OI message to each inter-eNodeB cell in its cell-level neighboring cell list
over the X2 interface. In addition, the cell sends the OI message, which is constructed
in the format defined in 3GPP specifications, to each intra-eNodeB neighboring cell
over an internal interface.
 An OI message contains the following information:
 ID of the source cell
 This is the ID of the cell that sends the OI message.
 Interference indication
 Each element in an OI message indicates the level of interference
caused to an RB. The interference is divided into three levels: high
interference, medium interference, and low interference.
 A cell may either cause interference to neighboring cells or be affected by interference
from neighboring cells. Therefore, each cell needs to maintain two types of OI
message: OI message about the serving cell and OI message about a neighboring
cell. The former is sent from the serving cell to the neighboring cell, and the latter is
sent from the neighboring cell to the serving cell. For details about the OI message,
see 3GPP TS 36.423.

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-39

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-40

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-41

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-42

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-43

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-44

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-45

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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-46

 For more details of the MML and parameters, please refer to the help in LMT/M2000
or “eNodeB MO Reference”

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without


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LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-47

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without


Permission
LTE eRAN7.0 ICIC Feature P-48

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without


Permission