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Reference Design Report for a 35 W Power

Title Supply Using TOP258PN


90 VAC to 265 VAC Input
Specification
5 V, 2.2 A and 12 V, 2 A Output
Application LCD Monitor
Author Power Integrations Applications Department
Document
RDR-142
Number
Date December 7, 2007
Revision 1.2

Summary and Features


Low cost, low component count, high efficiency
Delivers 35 W at 50 C ambient without requiring an external heat sink
Meets output cross regulation requirements without linear regulators
EcoSmart® – meets requirements for low no-load and standby power
consumption
0.42 W output power for <1 W input
No-load power consumption < 300 mW at 230 VAC
>82% full load efficiency
Integrated safety/reliability features:
Accurate, auto-recovering, hysteretic thermal shutdown function maintains
safe PCB temperatures under all conditions
Auto-restart protects against output short circuits and open feedback loops
Output OVP protection configurable for latching or self recovering
Input UV prevents power up / power down output glitches
Meets EN55022 and CISPR-22 Class B conducted EMI with > 10 dBµV margin
The products and applications illustrated herein (including circuits external to the products and transformer
construction) may be covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign
patent applications assigned to Power Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at
www.powerint.com.

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RDR-142 35 W, TOP258PN Dual Output Supply 07-Dec-07

Table of Contents
1 Introduction.................................................................................................................4
2 Power Supply Specification ........................................................................................5
3 Schematic...................................................................................................................6
4 Circuit Description ......................................................................................................7
4.1 Input EMI Filtering ...............................................................................................7
4.2 TOPSwitch-HX Primary .......................................................................................7
4.3 Output Rectification .............................................................................................8
4.4 Output Feedback.................................................................................................9
4.5 PCB Layout .......................................................................................................10
5 Bill of Materials .........................................................................................................11
6 Transformer Specification.........................................................................................13
6.1 Electrical Diagram .............................................................................................13
6.2 Electrical Specifications.....................................................................................13
6.3 Materials............................................................................................................13
6.4 Transformer Build Diagram ...............................................................................14
6.5 Transformer Construction..................................................................................15
7 Design Spreadsheet .................................................................................................16
8 Performance Data ....................................................................................................20
8.1 Efficiency ...........................................................................................................20
8.1.1 Active Mode CEC Measurement Data........................................................20
8.2 No-load Input Power..........................................................................................22
8.3 Available Standby Output Power.......................................................................23
9 Regulation ................................................................................................................24
9.1.1 Load ...........................................................................................................24
9.1.2 Line ............................................................................................................25
9.1.3 Cross Regulation Matrix .............................................................................26
10 Thermal Performance ...........................................................................................27
11 Waveforms............................................................................................................28
11.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation...................................................28
11.2 Output Voltage Start-up Profile..........................................................................28
11.3 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile ........................................................30
11.4 Load Transient Response (75% to 100% Load Step) .......................................31
11.5 Output Over-voltage Protection .........................................................................32
11.6 Output Ripple Measurements............................................................................33
11.6.1 Ripple Measurement Technique ................................................................33
11.6.2 Measurement Results ................................................................................34
12 Line Surge.............................................................................................................35
13 Control Loop Measurements.................................................................................36
13.1 90 VAC Maximum Load.....................................................................................36
13.2 265 VAC Maximum Load...................................................................................36
14 Conducted EMI .....................................................................................................37
15 Revision History ....................................................................................................38

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Important Note:
Although this board is designed to satisfy safety isolation requirements, the engineering
prototype has not been agency approved. Therefore, all testing should be performed
using an isolation transformer to provide the AC input to the prototype board.

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1 Introduction
This document is an engineering report describing a LCD Monitor power supply utilizing a
TOP258PN. This power supply is intended as a general purpose evaluation platform for
TOPSwitch-HX.

The document contains the power supply specification, schematic, bill of materials,
transformer documentation, printed circuit layout, and performance data.

Figure 1 – Populated Circuit Board Photograph (5”L x 2.84”W x 1.16”H).

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2 Power Supply Specification

Description Symbol Min Typ Max Units Comment


Input
Voltage VIN 90 265 VAC 3 Wire Input
Frequency fLINE 47 50/60 64 Hz
No-load Input Power (230 VAC) 0.3 W
Output
Output Voltage 1 VOUT1 4.75 5 5.25 V 5%
Output Ripple Voltage 1 VRIPPLE1 100 mV 20 MHz Bandwidth
Output Current 1 IOUT1 0 2.2 A
Output Voltage 2 VOUT2 9.6 12 14.4 V 20%
Output Ripple Voltage 2 VRIPPLE2 500 mV 20 MHz Bandwidth

Output Current 2 IOUT2 0 2 A


Total Output Power
Continuous Output Power POUT 35 W
Efficiency
o
Full Load 82 % Measured at POUT 25 C
5 V @ 82 mA, 12 V @ 0 mA;
Standby Input Power 1 W Vin at 264 VAC
Required Average Efficiency at * Per California Energy Commission
CEC 81 % (CEC) / Energy Star requirements
25, 50, 75 and 100 % of POUT
Environmental
Conducted EMI Meets CISPR22B / EN55022B
Designed to meet IEC950, UL1950
Safety Class II
1.2/50 s surge, IEC 1000-4-5,
Surge
Series Impedance:
Differential 1 kV Differential Mode: 2
Common Mode 2 kV Common Mode: 12
100 kHz ring wave, 500 A Short
Surge
1 kV Circuit Current, Differential and
Ring Wave Common Mode
o
Ambient Temperature TAMB 0 50 C Free Convection, Sea Level

*Shown for information only as CEC requirement does not apply to internal power supplies

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3 Schematic

*Optional for 2 wire input, floating output


Figure 2 – Schematic.

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4 Circuit Description
A Flyback converter configuration built around TOP258PN is used in this power supply to
obtain two output voltages. The 5 V output can supply a load current of 2.2 A, and the
12 V output can supply a load current of 2.0 A. This power supply can operate between
90 – 264 VAC. The 5 V output is the main regulated output. This output is regulated
using a TL431 voltage reference. Some feedback is also derived from the 12 V output for
improved cross regulation.

4.1 Input EMI Filtering


The three wire AC supply is connected to the circuit using connector J1. Fuse F1
provides protection against circuit faults and effectively isolates the circuit from the AC
supply source. Thermistor RT1 limits the inrush current drawn by the circuit at start up.
Optional capacitors C1 and C2 are Y capacitors connected from the Line/Neutral to Earth
to reduce common mode EMI.

Capacitor C3 is the X capacitor and helps to reduce the differential mode EMI. Resistors
R1 and R2 discharge C3 on AC removal, preventing potential user shock. Inductor L1 is
a common-mode inductor and helps in filtering common-mode EMI from coupling back to
the AC source.

Diodes D1, D2, D3 and D4 form a bridge rectifier. The bridge rectifier rectifies the
incoming AC supply to DC, which is filtered by capacitor C4.

Diodes D1 and D3 are fast recovery type diodes. These diodes recover very quickly
when the voltage across them reverses. This reduces excitation of stray line inductance
in the AC input by reducing the subsequent high frequency turnoff snap and hence EMI.
Only 2 of the 4 diodes in the bridge need to be fast recovery type, since 2 diodes conduct
in each half cycle.

4.2 TOPSwitch-HX Primary


Resistor R3 and R4 provide line voltage sensing and provide a current to U1, which is
proportional to the DC voltage across capacitor C4. At approximately 95 V DC, the
current through these resistors exceeds the line under-voltage threshold of 25 µA, which
results in enabling of U1.

The TOPSwitch-HX regulates the output using PWM-based voltage mode control. At
high loads the controller operates at full switching frequency (66 kHz for P package
devices). The duty cycle is controlled based on the control pin current to regulate the
output voltage.

The internal current limit provides cycle-by-cycle peak current limit protection. The
TOPSwitch-HX controller has a second current limit comparator allowing monitoring the
actual peak drain current (IP) relative to the programmed current limit ILIMITEXT. As soon

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as the ratio IP/ILIMITEXT falls below 55%, the peak drain current is held constant. The
output is then regulated by modulating the switching frequency (variable frequency PWM
control). As the load decreases further, the switching frequency decreases linearly from
full frequency down to 30 kHz.

Once the switching frequency has reached 30 kHz the controller keeps this switching
frequency constant and the peak current is reduced to regulate the output (fixed
frequency, direct duty cycle PWM control).

As the load is further reduced and the ratio IP/ILIMITEXT falls below 25%, the controller will
enter a multi-cycle-modulation mode for excellent efficiency at light load or standby
operation and low no-load input power consumption.

Diode D5, together with R6, R7, C6 and Zener VR1, forms a clamp network that limits the
drain voltage of U1 at the instant of turn-off. Zener VR1 provides a defined maximum
clamp voltage and typically only conducts during fault conditions such as overload. This
allows the RCD clamp (R6, C6 and D5) to be sized for normal operation, thereby
maximizing efficiency at light load. Resistor R7 is required due to the choice of a fast
recovery diode for D5. A fast versus ultra fast recovery diode allows some recovery of
the clamp energy but requires R7 to limit reverse diode current and dampen high
frequency ringing.

The output of the bias winding is rectified by diode D6 and filtered by resistor R10 and
capacitor C10. This rectified and filtered output is used by the optocoupler U2 to provide
the control current to the control terminal of U1.

Should the feedback circuit fail (open loop condition), the output of the power supply will
exceed the regulation limits. This increased voltage at output will also result in an
increased voltage at the output of the bias winding. Zener VR2 will break down and
current will flow into the “M” pin of IC U1, thus initiating a hysteretic OVP shutdown with
automatic restart attempts. Resistor R5 limits the current into the M pin; if latching OVP
is desired, the value of R5 can be reduced to 20 .

The output voltage of the power supply is maintained in regulation by the feedback circuit
on the secondary side of the circuit. The feedback circuit controls the output voltage by
changing the optocoupler current. Change in the optocoupler diode current results in a
change of current into the control pin of IC U1. Variation of this current results in
variation of duty cycle and hence the output voltage of the power supply.

4.3 Output Rectification


Output rectification for the 5 V output is provided by diode D8. Low ESR capacitor C17
provides filtering. Inductor L3 and capacitor C18 form a second stage filter that
significantly attenuates the switching ripple across C17 and ensures a low ripple output.

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Output rectification for the 12 V output is provided by diode D7. Low ESR capacitors C13
and C14 provide filtering. Inductor L2 and capacitor C15 form a second stage filter that
significantly attenuates the switching ripple and ensures low ripple at the output.

Snubber networks comprising R11, C12 and R12, and C16 damp high frequency ringing
across diodes D7 and D8, which results from leakage inductance of the transformer
windings and the secondary trace inductances.

4.4 Output Feedback


Output voltage is controlled using the shunt regulator TL431 (U3). Diode D9, capacitor
C20 and resistor R16 form the soft finish circuit. At start-up, capacitor C20 is discharged.
As the output voltage starts rising, current flows into the optocoupler diode (U2A) via
resistor R13 and diode D9. This provides feedback to the circuit on the primary side.
The current in the optocoupler diode U2A gradually decreases as capacitor C20 charges
and U3 becomes operational. This ensures that the output voltage increases gradually
and settles to the final value without any overshoot. Resistor R16 provides a discharge
path for C20 into the load at power down. Diode D9 isolates C20 from the feedback
circuit after startup.

Resistor R18, R20 and R21 form a voltage divider network that senses the output voltage
from both the outputs for better cross-regulation. Resistor R19 and Zener VR3 improve
cross regulation when only the 5 V output is loaded, which results in the 12 V output
operating at the higher end of the specification.

Resistors R13, R17 and capacitor C21 set the frequency response of the feedback
circuit. Capacitor C19 and resistor R14 form the phase boost network that provides
adequate phase margin to ensure stable operation over the entire operating voltage
range.

Resistor R15 provides the bias current required by the IC U3 and is placed in parallel with
U2A to ensure that the bias current to the IC does not become a part of the feedback
current. Resistor R13 sets the overall DC loop gain and limits the current through U2A
during transient conditions.

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4.5 PCB Layout

Figure 3 – Printed Circuit Layout.

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5 Bill of Materials

Ref
Item Qty Description Mfg Mfg Part Number
Des
1 2 C1 C2 1 nF, Ceramic, Y1 Panasonic ECK-ANA102MB
2 1 C3 220 nF, 275 VAC, Film, X2 Panasonic ECQ-U2A224ML
100 uF, 400 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, Nippon EKMX401ELL101ML40
3 1 C4 630 mΩ (16 x 40) Chemi-Con S
4 1 C6 3.9 nF, 1 kV, Disc Ceramic, Y5P Panasonic ECK-A3A392KBP
5 2 C7 C11 2.2 nF, Ceramic, Y1 Vishay 440LD22-R
6 1 C8 100 nF, 50 V, Ceramic, Z5U Kemet C317C104M5U5TA
47 µF, 16 V, Electrolytic, Gen Purpose,
7 1 C9 (5 x 11.5) Panasonic ECA-1CHG470
C10 10 µF, 50 V, Electrolytic, Gen Purpose,
8 2 C20 (5 x 11) Panasonic ECA-1HHG100
C12
9 2 C16 470 pF, 100 V, Ceramic, COG AVX Corp 5NK471KOBAM
C13 680 µF, 25 V, Electrolytic, Very Low Nippon
10 2 C14 ESR, 23 mΩ, (10 x 20) Chemi-Con EKZE250ELL681MJ20S
220 µF, 25 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, Nippon
11 1 C15 120 mΩ, (8 x 12) Chemi-Con ELXZ250ELL221MH12D
2200 µF, 10 V, Electrolytic, Very Low Nippon
12 1 C17 ESR,21 mΩ, (12.5 x 20) Chemi-Con EKZE100ELL222MK20S
220 µF, 10 V, Electrolytic, Low ESR, Nippon
13 1 C18 250 mΩ, (6.3 x 11.5) Chemi-Con ELXZ100ELL221MFB5D
14 1 C19 1.0 µF, 50 V, Ceramic, X7R Epcos B37984M5105K000
15 1 C21 220 nF, 50 V, Ceramic, X7R Epcos B37987F5224K000
600 V, 1 A, Fast Recovery Diode, On
16 2 D1 D3 200 ns, DO-41 Semiconductor 1N4937RLG
17 2 D2 D4 1000 V, 1 A, Rectifier, DO-41 Vishay 1N4007
800 V, 1 A, Fast Recovery Diode,
18 2 D5 D6 500 ns, DO-41 Diodes Inc. FR106
19 1 D7 60 V, 5 A, Schottky, DO-201AD Vishay SB560
20 1 D8 30 V, 5 A, Schottky, DO-201AD Fairchild SB530
21 1 D9 75 V, 300 mA, Fast Switching, DO-35 Vishay 1N4148
22 1 F1 3.15 A, 250V,Fast, TR5 Wickman 37013150410
23 1 J1 5 Position (1 x 5) header, 0.156 pitch Molex 26-48-1055
24 2 J2 J3 2 Position (1 x 2) header, 0.156 pitch Molex 26-48-1025
Wire Jumper, Non insulated,
25 1 JP1 22 AWG, 0.4 in Alpha 298
Wire Jumper, Non insulated,
26 1 JP2 22 AWG, 0.8 in Alpha 298
Wire Jumper, Non insulated,
27 1 JP3 22 AWG, 0.3 in Alpha 298
28 1 L1 6.8 mH, 0.8 A, Common Mode Choke Panasonic ELF15N008
29 2 L2 L3 3.3 µH, 5.0 A Coilcraft RFB0807-3R3L
30 2 R1 R2 1 M, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-1M0
31 2 R3 R4 2.0 M, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-2M0
32 1 R5 5.1 k, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-5K1
33 1 R6 22 k, 5%, 2 W, Metal Oxide Yageo RSF200JB-22K
34 1 R7 20 R, 5%, 1/2 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-50JB-20R
35 1 R8 6.8 R, 5%, 1/8 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-12JB-6R8
36 1 R9 100 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-100R

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37 1 R10 4.7 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-4R7


R11
38 2 R12 33 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-33R
39 1 R13 330 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-330R
40 1 R14 22 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-22R
41 1 R15 1 k, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-1K0
R16
42 2 R17 10 k, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-10K
43 1 R18 196 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film Yageo MFR-25FBF-196K
44 1 R19 10 R, 5%, 1/4 W, Carbon Film Yageo CFR-25JB-10R
45 1 R20 12.4 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film Yageo MFR-25FBF-12K4
46 1 R21 10 k, 1%, 1/4 W, Metal Film Panasonic ERO-S2PHF1002
47 1 RT1 NTC Thermistor, 10 Ω, 1.7 A Thermometrics CL-120
Core TDK PC40EER28-Z
Bobbin: EER28, Horizontal, 12 pins Ying-Chin YC-2806-5
(6/6),
48 1 T1 Complete Assembly (custom) Ice Components TP07074
Magtel 32/07 TR.RDK-142
Precision Inc. 019-4967-00R
Santronics SNX R1359
Power
49 1 U1 TOPSwitch-HX, TOP258PN, DIP-8B Integrations TOP258PN
Optocoupler, 80 V, CTR 80-160%,
50 1 U2 4-DIP NEC PS2501-1-H-A
2.495 V Shunt Regulator IC, 2%, 0 to On
51 1 U3 70C, TO-92 Semiconductor TL431CLPG
200 V, 600 W, 5%, TVS, DO204AC
52 1 VR1 (DO-15) OnSemi P6KE200ARLG
53 1 VR2 20 V, 5%, 500 mW, DO-35 Microsemi 1N5250B
54 1 VR3 8.2 V, 500 mW, 2%, DO-35 Vishay BZX55B8V2

Note – Parts listed above are RoHS compliant

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6 Transformer Specification

6.1 Electrical Diagram

Figure 4 – Transformer Electrical Diagram.

6.2 Electrical Specifications


Electrical Strength 1 second, 60 Hz, from Pins 2,3,4,5,6 to Pins 7,9,11 3000 VAC
Pins 2-4, all other windings open, measured at 100
Primary Inductance 1040 H, ±10%
kHz, 0.4 VRMS
Resonant Frequency Pins 2-4, all other windings open 1000 kHz (Min.)
Pins 2-4, with Pins 7-9 shorted, measured at
Primary Leakage Inductance 20 H (Max.)
100 kHz, 0.4 VRMS

6.3 Materials
Item Description
[1] Core: EER28 gapped for ALG of 213 nH/T2.
[2] Bobbin: EER28, Horizontal 12 pins (6/6), YC-2806-5.
[3] Magnet Wire: #27 AWG, double coated.
[4] Magnet Wire: #26 AWG, double coated.
[5] Tape: 3M Polyester Film, 2.0 mils thick, 16.0 mm wide.
[6] Tape: 3M Polyester Film, 2.0 mils thick, 10.0 mm wide.
[7] Copper Foil, 2 mils thick, 142 mm long, 8.5 mm wide. To be wrapped over with tape item [6].
[8] Tape: 3M Polyester Film, 2.0 mils thick, 13.5 mm wide.
[9] Bare Wire: #28 AWG.
[10] Tape: 3M Polyester Film, 2.0 mils thick, 8.0 mm wide.
[11] Varnish.
[12] Polyester Web Margin Tape 3.1 mm wide.

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6.4 Transformer Build Diagram

2
3
11
7
9
11
5
6
3
4

( 3.1 mm pre-molded margin bobbin) margin tape

Bobbin: EER28 (Horizontal, 12pins, 6/6), YC-2806-5)


Lp(2-4): 1.04mH +/- 5%

Tape: 3M Polyester Film – 2mil thick

2 x #28AWG connected to pin 7 Copper Foil – 2mil thick 2 x #28AWG connected to pin 11

8.5mm 13.5mm

142mm

Figure 5 – Transformer Build Diagram.

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6.5 Transformer Construction


General Note Primary side of the bobbin orients to the left hand side. Place 3.1 mm margin tape
on both sides for all windings except WD1 due to built-in 3.1 mm margin of bobbin
[12]. Winding direction is clockwise.
WD1 Start on pin 4, wind 24 turns of item [3] from left to right with tight tension and bring
1/2 Primary the wire across the bobbin to terminate at pin 3.
Insulation 2 layers of tape item [5].
WD2 Start on pin 6, wind 7 turns bifilar of item [4] from left to right, spread the winding
Bias evenly, and bring the wire across the bobbin to terminate on pin 5.
Insulation 2 layers of tape item [5].
WD3 Start on pin 11, wind 3 turns of item [7] and terminate at pin 9.
1st Secondary
Insulation 1 layer of tape item [5].
WD4 Start on pin 7, wind 4 turns quadfilar of item [4] from right to left, spread the winding
2nd Secondary evenly across the bobbin, and bring the wire back to the right to terminate on pin
11.
Insulation 2 layers of tape item [5].
WD5 Start on pin 3, wind 23 turns of item [3] from left to right with tight tension, place 1
2/2 Primary layer tape item [6], then wind another 23 turns of item [3] from right to left, also with
tight tension, and terminate at pin 2.
Insulation 3 layers of tape item [5].
Assembly Grind the cores to get 1038 µH with ALG of 213 nH/T2.
Finish Secure the cores by wrapping around 2 halves of cores with item [10]. Dip varnish
uniformly in item [11].

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RDR-142 35 W, TOP258PN Dual Output Supply 07-Dec-07

7 Design Spreadsheet
ACDC_TOPSwitchHX_09 TOPSwitch_HX_090607: TOPSwitch-HX
OUTPU
0607; Rev.1.2; Copyright INPUT INFO UNIT Continuous/Discontinuous Flyback
T
Power Integrations 2007 Transformer Design Spreadsheet
ENTER APPLICATION VARIABLES RD-142
VACMIN 90 Volts Minimum AC Input Voltage
VACMAX 265 Volts Maximum AC Input Voltage
fL 50 Hertz AC Mains Frequency
VO 5.00 Volts Output Voltage (main)
PO_AVG 35.00 Watts Average Output Power
PO_PEAK 35.00 Watts Peak Output Power
n 0.80 %/100 Efficiency Estimate
Z 0.50 Loss Allocation Factor
VB 12 Info Volts Ensure proper operation at no load.
tC 3.00 mSeco Bridge Rectifier Conduction Time Estimate
nds
CIN 100.0 100 uFara Input Filter Capacitor
ds

ENTER TOPSWITCH-HX VARIABLES


TOPSwitch-HX TOP258PN Univer
sal /
Peak 115 Doubled/230V
Chosen Device TOP258PN Power 35 W / 48W
Out 50 W
KI 1.00 External Ilimit reduction factor (KI=1.0 for
default ILIMIT, KI <1.0 for lower ILIMIT)
ILIMITMIN_EXT 1.534 Amps Use 1% resistor in setting external ILIMIT
ILIMITMAX_EXT 1.766 Amps Use 1% resistor in setting external ILIMIT
Frequency (F)=132kHz, H H Only half frequency option available for P, G
(H)=66kHz and M package devices. For full frequency
operation choose Y package.
fS 66000 Hertz TOPSwitch-HX Switching Frequency: Choose
between 132 kHz and 66 kHz
fSmin 59400 Hertz TOPSwitch-HX Minimum Switching Frequency
fSmax 72600 Hertz TOPSwitch-HX Maximum Switching Frequency
High Line Operating Mode FF
VOR 128.00 Volts Reflected Output Voltage
VDS 5.63 5.63 Volts TOPSwitch on-state Drain to Source Voltage
VD 0.50 Volts Output Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
VDB 0.70 Volts Bias Winding Diode Forward Voltage Drop
KP 0.69 Ripple to Peak Current Ratio (0.3 < KRP < 1.0
: 1.0< KDP<6.0)

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PROTECTION FEATURES
LINE SENSING Note - For P/G package devices only one of
either Line sensing or Overload power limiting
protection features can be used. For all
other packages both these functions can be
simultaneously used.
VUV_STARTUP 95.00 95 Volts DC Bus Voltage at which the power supply will
start-up
VOV_SHUTDOWN 445 Volts DC Bus Voltage at which power supply will
shut-down
RLS 4.0 M- Use two standard, 2 MΩ, 5% resistors in series
ohms for line sense functionality.
OUTPUT OVERVOLTAGE
VZ 22 Volts Zener Diode rated voltage for Output
Overvoltage shutdown protection
RZ 5.1 k- Output OVP resistor. For latching shutdown
ohms use 20 ohm resistor instead
OVERLOAD POWER LIMITING
Overload Current Ratio at VMAX 1.2 Enter the desired margin to current limit at
VMAX. A value of 1.2 indicates that the current
limit should be 20% higher than peak primary
current at VMAX
Overload Current Ratio at VMIN 1.25 Margin to current limit at low line.
ILIMIT_EXT_VMIN 1.23 A External Current limit at VMIN
ILIMIT_EXT_VMAX 1.14 A External Current limit at VMAX
RIL 8.29 k- Current limit/Power Limiting resistor.
ohms
RPL 29.27 M- Power Limiting resistor
ohms

ENTER TRANSFORMER CORE/CONSTRUCTION VARIABLES


Core Type EER28 EER28 Core Type
Core EER28 P/N: PC40EER28-Z
Bobbin EER28_BO P/N:
BBIN
AE 0.821 cm^2 Core Effective Cross Sectional Area
LE 6.4 cm Core Effective Path Length
AL 2870 nH/T^ Ungapped Core Effective Inductance
2
BW 16.7 mm Bobbin Physical Winding Width
M 3.00 mm Safety Margin Width (Half the Primary to
Secondary Creepage Distance)
L 3.00 Number of Primary Layers
NS 3 3 Number of Secondary Turns

DC INPUT VOLTAGE PARAMETERS


VMIN 100 Volts Minimum DC Input Voltage
VMAX 375 Volts Maximum DC Input Voltage

CURRENT WAVEFORM SHAPE PARAMETERS


DMAX 0.57 Maximum Duty Cycle (calculated at PO_PEAK)
IAVG 0.44 Amps Average Primary Current (calculated at
average output power)
IP 1.16 Amps Peak Primary Current (calculated at Peak
output power)
IR 0.80 Amps Primary Ripple Current (calculated at average
output power)
IRMS 0.60 Amps Primary RMS Current (calculated at average
output power)

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TRANSFORMER PRIMARY DESIGN PARAMETERS


LP 1040 uHenries Primary Inductance
LP Tolerance 10 Tolerance of Primary Inductance
NP 70 Primary Winding Number of Turns
NB 7 Bias Winding Number of Turns
ALG 213 nH/T^2 Gapped Core Effective Inductance
BM 2101 Gauss Maximum Flux Density at PO, VMIN
(BM<3000)
BP 3524 Gauss Peak Flux Density (BP<4200) at ILIMITMAX
and LP_MAX. Note: Recommended values for
adapters and external power supplies <=3600
Gauss
BAC 725 Gauss AC Flux Density for Core Loss Curves (0.5 X
Peak to Peak)
ur 1780 Relative Permeability of Ungapped Core
LG 0.45 mm Gap Length (Lg > 0.1 mm)
BWE 32.1 mm Effective Bobbin Width
OD 0.46 mm Maximum Primary Wire Diameter including
insulation
INS 0.06 mm Estimated Total Insulation Thickness (= 2 * film
thickness)
DIA 0.40 mm Bare conductor diameter
AWG 27 AWG Primary Wire Gauge (Rounded to next smaller
standard AWG value)
CM 203 Cmils Bare conductor effective area in circular mils
CMA 338 Cmils/A Primary Winding Current Capacity (200 < CMA
mp < 500)
Primary Current Density (J) 5.88 Amps/m Primary Winding Current density (3.8 < J
m^2 < 9.75)

TRANSFORMER SECONDARY DESIGN PARAMETERS (SINGLE OUTPUT EQUIVALENT)


Lumped parameters
ISP 26.95 Amps Peak Secondary Current
ISRMS 12.03 Amps Secondary RMS Current
IO_PEAK 7.00 Amps Secondary Peak Output Current
IO 7.00 Amps Average Power Supply Output Current
IRIPPLE 9.79 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
CMS 2407 Cmils Secondary Bare Conductor minimum circular
mils
AWGS 16 AWG Secondary Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next
larger standard AWG value)
DIAS 1.29 mm Secondary Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS 3.57 mm Secondary Maximum Outside Diameter for
Triple Insulated Wire
INSS 1.14 mm Maximum Secondary Insulation Wall Thickness

VOLTAGE STRESS PARAMETERS


VDRAIN 625 Volts Maximum Drain Voltage Estimate (Includes
Effect of Leakage Inductance)
PIVS 21 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse
Voltage
PIVB 49 Volts Bias Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse Voltage

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TRANSFORMER SECONDARY DESIGN PARAMETERS (MULTIPLE OUTPUTS)


1st output
VO1 5.00 5 Volts Output Voltage
IO1_AVG 2.20 2.2 Amps Average DC Output Current
PO1_AVG 11.00 Watts Average Output Power
VD1 0.5 Volts Output Diode Forward Voltage Drop
NS1 3.00 Output Winding Number of Turns
ISRMS1 3.782 Amps Output Winding RMS Current
IRIPPLE1 3.08 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
PIVS1 21 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse
Voltage
CMS1 756 Cmils Output Winding Bare Conductor minimum
circular mils
AWGS1 21 AWG Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger
standard AWG value)
DIAS1 0.73 mm Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS1 3.57 mm Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated
Wire

2nd output
VO2 12.00 Volts Output Voltage
IO2_AVG 2.00 Amps Average DC Output Current
PO2_AVG 24.00 Watts Average Output Power
VD2 0.7 Volts Output Diode Forward Voltage Drop
NS2 6.93 Output Winding Number of Turns
ISRMS2 3.438 Amps Output Winding RMS Current
IRIPPLE2 2.80 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
PIVS2 49 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse
Voltage
CMS2 688 Cmils Output Winding Bare Conductor minimum
circular mils
AWGS2 21 AWG Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger
standard AWG value)
DIAS2 0.73 mm Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS2 1.54 mm Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated
Wire

3rd output
VO3 Volts Output Voltage
IO3_AVG Amps Average DC Output Current
PO3_AVG 0.00 Watts Average Output Power
VD3 0.7 Volts Output Diode Forward Voltage Drop
NS3 0.38 Output Winding Number of Turns
ISRMS3 0.000 Amps Output Winding RMS Current
IRIPPLE3 0.00 Amps Output Capacitor RMS Ripple Current
PIVS3 2 Volts Output Rectifier Maximum Peak Inverse
Voltage
CMS3 0 Cmils Output Winding Bare Conductor minimum
circular mils
AWGS3 N/A AWG Wire Gauge (Rounded up to next larger
standard AWG value)
DIAS3 N/A mm Minimum Bare Conductor Diameter
ODS3 N/A mm Maximum Outside Diameter for Triple Insulated
Wire

Total Continuous Output Power 35 Watts Total Continuous Output Power

Negative Output N/A If negative output exists enter Output number;


eg: If VO2 is negative output, enter 2

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8 Performance Data
All measurements performed at room temperature, 60 Hz input frequency.

8.1 Efficiency

84.5%

84.0%

83.5%

83.0%
Efficiency (%)

82.5% 115 VAC


230 VAC
82.0%

81.5%

81.0%

80.5%

80.0%
20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%
Load (A)

Figure 6 – Efficiency vs. Input Voltage, Room Temperature, 60 Hz.

8.1.1 Active Mode CEC Measurement Data


All single output adapters, including those provided with products, for sale in California
after Jan 1st, 2008 must meet the California Energy Commission (CEC) requirement for
minimum active mode efficiency and no load input power. Minimum active mode
efficiency is defined as the average efficiency of 25, 50, 75 and 100% of rated output
power with the limit based on the nameplate output power:

Nameplate Output (PO) Minimum Efficiency in Active Mode of Operation

<1W 0.49 PO
1 W to 49 W 0.09 ln (PO) + 0.5 [ln = natural log]
> 49 W 0.85

For adapters that are single input voltage only, then the measurement is made at the
rated single nominal input voltage (115 VAC or 230 VAC); for universal input adapters the
measurement is made at both nominal input voltages (115 VAC and 230 VAC).

To meet the standard, the measured average efficiency (or efficiencies for universal input
supplies) must be greater than or equal to the efficiency specified by the CEC/Energy
Star standard.

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Percent of Efficiency (%)


Full Load
115 VAC 230 VAC
25 80.6 80.5
50 82.7 83.7
75 83.0 83.9
100 82.7 84.0
Average 82.2 83.0
CEC
specified
82.0*
minimum
average
efficiency (%)

*Although the CEC standard does not apply to this design, the data is provided for
reference.

More states within the USA and other countries are adopting this standard, for the latest
up to date information please visit the PI Green Room:
http://www.powerint.com/greenroom/regulations.htm

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8.2 No-load Input Power

0.260

0.240
Input Power (W)

0.220

0.200

0.180

0.160

0.140
85 105 125 145 165 185 205 225 245 265
AC Input (VAC)

Figure 7 – Zero Load Input Power vs. Input Line Voltage, Room Temperature, 60 Hz.

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8.3 Available Standby Output Power


The chart below shows the available output power vs line voltage for an input power of
1 W, 2 W and 3 W. This measurement was taken by loading the 5 V output.

1.800

1.600

1.400
Output Power (W)

1.200
1 W Input Power
1.000 2 W Input Power
3 W Input Power
0.800

0.600

0.400

0.200
85 105 125 145 165 185 205 225 245 265
Input Voltage (VAC)

Figure 8 – Available Standby Output Power for Fixed Levels of Input Power.

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9 Regulation

9.1.1 Load

13.0

12.0

11.0
Output Voltage (V)

10.0
5 V Output, 115 VAC
9.0
5 V Output, 230 VAC
8.0
12 V Output, 115 VAC
7.0 12 V Output, 230 VAC

6.0

5.0

4.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Output Power (W)
Figure 9 – Load Regulation, Room Temperature.

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9.1.2 Line

13.00

12.00

11.00
Output Voltage (V)

10.00

9.00 5 V Output
12 V Output
8.00

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00
85 135 185 235
AC Input (VAC)

Figure 10 – Line Regulation, Room Temperature, Full Load.

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9.1.3 Cross Regulation Matrix


The table below shows the data for the outputs under various loading conditions at 90
and 265 VAC. The regulation on the 5 V output was within ±5% under all conditions.

90 VAC constant 50 mA load on 12 V 265 VAC constant 50 mA load on 12 V


IO (12 V) IO (5 V) VO (5 V) VO (12 V) IO (12 V) IO (5 V) VO (5 V) VO (12 V)
0.05 0.05 4.96 12.23 0.05 0.05 4.95 12.27
0.05 0.5 4.9 13.12 0.05 0.5 4.89 13.2
0.05 1 4.85 13.82 0.05 1 4.85 13.95
0.05 1.5 4.82 14.4 0.05 1.5 4.8 14.64
0.05 2.2 4.79 14.9 0.05 2.2 4.78 14.98

90 VAC - 12 V held constant at full load 265 VAC - 12 V held constant at full load
IO (12 V) IO (5 V) VO (5 V) VO (12 V) IO (12 V) IO (5 V) VO (5 V) VO (12 V)
2 0.05 4.99 11.7 2 0.05 4.99 11.66
2 0.5 4.97 12 2 0.5 4.97 11.97
2 1 4.96 12.14 2 1 4.96 12.1
2 1.5 4.95 12.27 2 1.5 4.95 12.22
2 2.2 4.94 12.4 2 2.2 4.94 12.33

90 VAC constant 50 mA load on 5 V 265 VAC constant 50 mA load on 5 V


IO (5 V) IO (12 V) VO (12 V) VO (5 V) IO (5 V) IO (12 V) VO (12 V) VO (5 V)
0.05 0.05 12.26 4.95 0.05 0.05 12.27 4.95
0.05 0.5 11.91 4.97 0.05 0.5 11.91 4.99
0.05 1 11.79 4.98 0.05 1 11.76 4.99
0.05 1.5 11.73 4.98 0.05 1.5 11.69 4.99
0.05 2 11.68 4.98 0.05 2 11.63 4.99

90 VAC constant 2.2 A load on 5 V 265 VAC constant 2.2 A load on 5 V


IO (5 V) IO (12 V) VO (12 V) VO (5 V) IO (5 V) IO (12 V) VO (12 V) VO (5 V)
2.2 0.05 14.96 4.78 2.2 0.05 14.87 4.8
2.2 0.5 12.91 4.91 2.2 0.5 12.96 4.91
2.2 1 12.54 4.94 2.2 1 12.55 4.93
2.2 1.5 12.42 4.94 2.2 1.5 12.98 4.94
2.2 2 12.36 4.94 2.2 2 12.32 4.94

Table 1 – Cross Regulation Data Under Various Loading Conditions.

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10 Thermal Performance
Measurements were taken with no air flow across the power supply.

Temperature ( C)
Item
90 VAC 265 VAC
Ambient 50 51

Output Capacitor (C17) 71 61

Transformer (T1) 87 87

Clamp Diode 96 91

TOPSwitch (U1) 108 91

Source pin
Rectifier (D8) 89 88

Table 2 – Thermal Performance, Full Load.

90 VAC, 35 W load, 21 ºC Ambient


Figure 11 – Infrared Thermograph of Open Frame Operation, at Room Temperature.

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11 Waveforms
11.1 Drain Voltage and Current, Normal Operation

Figure 12 – 90 VAC, Full Load. Figure 13 – 265 VAC, Full Load.


Upper: VDRAIN, 100 V, 5 s / div. Upper: VDRAIN, 200 V, 5 s / div.
Lower: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div. Lower: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div.
11.2 Output Voltage Start-up Profile

Figure 14 – 5 V Start-up Profile, Full load; Figure 15 – 5 V Start-up Profile, Full load;
90 VAC; 1 V/div, 5 ms / div. 265 VAC; 1 V/div, 5 ms / div.

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Figure 16 – 12 V Start-up Profile, Full load; Figure 17 – 12 V Start-up Profile, Full load;
90 VAC; 2 V/div, 5 ms / div. 265 VAC; 2 V/div, 5 ms / div.

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11.3 Drain Voltage and Current Start-up Profile

Figure 18 – 90 VAC Input and Maximum Load. Figure 19 – 265 VAC Input and Maximum Load.
Upper: VDRAIN, 100 V, 2 mS / div. Upper: VDRAIN, 200 V, 2 mS / div.
Lower: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div. Lower: IDRAIN, 0.5 A / div.

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11.4 Load Transient Response (75% to 100% Load Step)


In the figures shown below, signal averaging was used to better enable viewing of the
load transient response. The oscilloscope was triggered using the load current step as a
trigger source. Since the output switching and line frequency occur essentially at random
with respect to the load transient, contributions to the output ripple from these sources
will average out, leaving the contribution only from the load step response.

Figure 20 – 5 V Transient Response, 90 VAC, Figure 21 – 5 V Transient Response, 265 VAC,


75-100-75% Load Step. 75-100-75% Load Step.
Output Voltage 20 mV/div. Output Voltage 20 mV/div.
Output Current 1 A / div, 10 ms / div. Output Current 1 A / div, 10 ms / div.
Note: 12 V Output maintained at full load. Note: 12 V Output maintained at full load.

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Figure 22 – 12 V Output in Response to 5 V Figure 23 – 12 V Output in Response to 5 V


Transient, 90 VAC, 75-100-75% Transient, 265 VAC, 75-100-75%
Load Step. Load Step.
Output Voltage 50 mV/div. Output Voltage 50 mV/div.
Output Current 1 A / div, 10 ms / div. Output Current 1 A / div, 10 ms / div.
Note: 5 V Output maintained at full load. Note: 5 V Output maintained at full load.
(Waveshape is combination of line ripple and
transient response - see Figure 26)

11.5 Output Over-voltage Protection


The figures below show the performance of the output overvoltage protection circuit when
the control loop was opened.

Figure 24 – 5 V Output in Response to Open Loop Figure 25 – 5 V Output in Response to Open Loop
R5 = 5.1 kΩ to Configure Hysteretic R5 = 20 Ω to Configure Latching
Shutdown. Shutdown.
Output Voltage 2 V/div, 1 s / div. Output Voltage 2 V/div, 1 s / div.
Note: 12 V Output maintained at no load. Note: 12 V Output maintained at no load.

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11.6 Output Ripple Measurements

11.6.1 Ripple Measurement Technique


For DC output ripple measurements, a modified oscilloscope test probe must be utilized
in order to reduce spurious signals due to pickup. Details of the probe modification are
provided below.

The 4987BA probe adapter is affixed with two capacitors tied in parallel across the probe
tip. The capacitors include one (1) 0.1 F/50 V ceramic type and one (1) 1.0 F/50 V
aluminum electrolytic. The aluminum electrolytic type capacitor is polarized, so proper
polarity across DC outputs must be maintained (see below).

Probe Ground

Probe Tip

Figure 23 – Oscilloscope Probe Prepared for Ripple Measurement. (End Cap and Ground Lead Removed)

Figure 24 – Oscilloscope Probe with Probe Master (www.probemaster.com) 4987A BNC Adapter.
(Modified with wires for ripple measurement, and two parallel decoupling capacitors added)

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11.6.2 Measurement Results

Figure 26 – 5 V Ripple, 90 VAC, Full Load. Figure 27 – 5 V Ripple, 115 VAC, Full Load.
2 ms, 5 mV / div. 2 ms, 10 mV / div.

Figure 28 – 12 V Ripple, 90 VAC, Full Load. Figure 29– 12 V Ripple, 115 VAC, Full Load.
2 ms, 20 mV /div. 2 ms, 20 mV /div.

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12 Line Surge

Differential input line 1.2/50 µs surge testing was completed on a single test unit to
IEC61000-4-5. Input voltage was set at 230 VAC / 60 Hz. Output was loaded at full load
and operation was verified following each surge event.

Surge Input Injection Injection Test Result


Level (V) Voltage Location Phase (°) (Pass/Fail)
(VAC)
+500 230 L to N 90 Pass
-500 230 L to N 270 Pass
+1000 230 L to N 90 Pass
-1000 230 L to N 270 Pass
+2000 230 L,N to G 90 Pass
-2000 230 L,N to G 270 Pass

Note: Unit passes under all test conditions.


Use a Slow Blow fuse at the input (F1) to increase differential surge withstand to 2 kV.

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13 Control Loop Measurements

13.1 90 VAC Maximum Load

Figure 30 – Gain-Phase Plot, 90 VAC, Maximum Steady State Load


Vertical Scale: Gain = 10 dB/div, Phase = 30 /div.
Crossover Frequency = 2.0 kHz Phase Margin = 65 .

13.2 265 VAC Maximum Load

Figure 31 – Gain-Phase Plot, 265 VAC, Maximum Steady State Load


Vertical Scale: Gain = 10 dB/div, Phase = 30 °/div.
Crossover Frequency = 350 Hz, Phase Margin = 90 .

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14 Conducted EMI
Conducted EMI measurements were made with the output connected to the earth ground
connection on the LISN. The result below represents the worst case results.

Figure 32 – Conducted EMI, Neutral Conductor, Maximum Steady State Load, 230 VAC, 60 Hz, and
EN55022 B Limits.

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15 Revision History

Date Author Revision Description & changes Reviewed


24-Sep-07 SGK 1.0 Initial Release
24-Sep-07 KM 1.1 Corrected Ice Components
part number
07-Dec-07 SGK 1.2 Updated transformer
materials list

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Notes

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For the latest updates, visit our website: www.powerint.com

Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability. Power
Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS
MAKES NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND
NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

PATENT INFORMATION
The products and applications illustrated herein (including transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be
covered by one or more U.S. and foreign patents, or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power
Integrations. A complete list of Power Integrations’ patents may be found at www.powerint.com. Power Integrations grants its
customers a license under certain patent rights as set forth at http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm.

The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, PeakSwitch, EcoSmart, Clampless, E-Shield,
Filterfuse, StackFET, PI Expert and PI FACTS are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of
their respective companies. ©Copyright 2007 Power Integrations, Inc.

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DI-142 Design Idea
®
TOPSwitch-HX

35 W LCD Monitor Power Supply

Application Device Power Output Input Voltage Output Voltage Topology


LCD Monitor TOP258PN 35 W 90-265 VAC 5 V, 12 V Flyback

Design Highlights Operation


• Low component count, high efficiency The power supply shown in Figure 1 is a universal input, 35 W out-
• >82% full load efficiency (Meets CEC/ENERGY STAR 2008 re- put, flyback power supply using the TOP258PN device. A typical
quirements of 81%) application would include LCD monitors, but the design is suitable
• Delivers 35 W at 50 °C ambient without requiring an external for any applicable needing a highly energy efficient dual output
heat sink power supply.
• Low no-load and standby power consumption
• 0.55 W standby output power for <1 W input The AC input is rectified (D1–D4) and filtered (C4) and connected
• No-load power consumption <300 mW at 265 VAC across the primary side power components (T1 and U1). EMI filter-
• Integrated safety and reliability features: ing is provided by components, C4, L1, C7 and C11. Thermistor
• Accurate, auto-recovering, hysteretic thermal shutdown func- RT1 limits the inrush current when the AC input is applied.
tion maintains safe PCB temperatures under all conditions
• Auto-restart protects against output short circuits and open Resistors R3 and R4 program the nominal undervoltage (UV) lock-
feedback loops out and overvoltage (OV) shutdown limits to 103 V and 450 V re-
• Output overvoltage protection configurable for latching or self spectively. UV lockout protects the supply from overheating at low
recovery line and eliminates power-up and power down glitches. OV shut-
• Meets EN55022 and CISPR-22 Class B conducted EMI with down protects the power supply from line surges.
>10 dBμV margin
Zener diode VR2 and resistor R5 form an optional latching output

C6 C7 C12
3.9 nF 2.2 nF R11 470 pF
1 kV 250 VAC 33 7 100 V

D7 C13 C14 C15


R6 T1 SB560 680 MF 680 MF L2 220 MF
22 k7 2 EER28 7 25 V 25 V 3.3 MH 25 V +12 V,
2W 2A
D1 D2 VR1 C16 C18
P6KE200A 470 pF R12 L3 RTN
1N4937 1N4007 33 7 3.3 MH 220 MF
100 V 10 V
3 11 +5 V,
2.2 A
R7 D8
20 7 SB530
4 9
1/2 W RTN
C10 C17
6 2200 MF
10 MF
D5 R10 50 V C11 10 V
D3 D4 R3 D6
2.0 M7 FR106 FR106 4.7 7 2.2 nF R19
1N4937 1N4007 250 VAC
5 10 7
L1 R4
6.8 mH 2.0 M7 VR3
R14 BZX55B8V2
C4 R13 22 7 8.2 V
R1 R2 100 MF 330 7 C19 2%
1 M7 1 M7 400 V VR2 1.0 MF
R5 1N5250B 50 V
5.1 k7 20 V U2B
C3 PS2501- R15
220 nF 1-H-A 1 k7
F1 275 VAC
3.15 A
U2A
TOPSwitch-HX PS2501-
RT1 O D M U1
L 10 7 t 1-H-A R18 R20
CONTROL TOP258PN 196 k7 12.4 k7
E C 1% 1%
R16 R17
10 k7 10 k7
N S R8 D9
C8 6.8 7 1N4148
90 - 265 100 nF C21
VAC 50 V C9 220 nF
47 MF 50 V
16 V C20
10 MF U3 R21
50 V TL431 10 k7
2% 1%
PI-4747-091407
Figure 1. Universal Input, 35 W Output, LCD Power Supply, Using a TOP258PN Device.

www.powerint.com September 2007


overvoltage protection (OVP) circuit. Increased voltage at the out- 80

PI-4766-062107
put will also result in an increased voltage at the output of the bias
70
winding across C10. Zener VR2 will breakdown and current will
QP
flow into the Multifunction (M) pin of IC U1, thus initiating a hyster- 60
etic OV shutdown. The value of R5 determines if the shut down is AV
50
latching or non-latching.
40

dBMV
For extremely low power levels, U1 operates in the multi-cycle
30
modulation mode for excellent efficiency that extends down to no-
load and standby power levels. 20

10
Due to the 700 V BVDSS rating of U1 the transformer turns ratio (VOR)
can be selected to allow a low cost 60 V schottky diode (D7) to be 0
used for the 12 V output.
-10

Output voltage feedback is derived from both outputs for better -20
cross-regulation. Capacitor C19 and resistor R14 form a phase 0.15 1.0 10.0 100.0
boost network that provides additional phase margin to ensure MHz
stable operation and improve transient response. The feedback Figure 2. Worst Case Conducted EMI (230 VAC) With Output Grounded
current is fed via U2 into the CONTROL pin of U1. This determines (EN55022B limits shown).
the duty cycle thereby providing output regulation.

Key Design Points Transformer Parameters


• Diodes D1 and D3 are selected as fast diodes for better EMI
performance. EER28 NC-2H or equivalent, gapped for ALG of
Core Material
213 nH/t2
• If latching OVP is desired the value of R5 should be reduced to
20 Ω. Bobbin EER28, 12 pin, horizontal
• Design the RCD clamp (R6, R7, C6 and D5) for normal operation 3mm margins on both sides of bobbin to meet
thereby maximizing efficiency at light load. Zener diode VR1 pro- safety
vides a defined maximum clamp voltage and typically only con- Primary: 24T × 1 AWG 27, tape
ducts during load transients or during an overload condition. Winding Details Bias: 7T × 2, AWG 26, 3 layers, tape
5 V: 3T, foil 2 mils thick
• The secondary side snubber (R11, C12, R12 and C16) reduce
12 V: 4T × 4, AWG 26, 3 layers tape
high frequency secondary diode ringing and improve high fre- Primary: 46T × 1, AWG 27, tape
quency conducted EMI.
• Post-filters (L2/C15 and L3/C18) reduce output noise and ripple Primary (4-3), Bias (6-5), 5 V (11-9), 12 V (7-11),
Winding Order
to <±1% of the respective output voltage. Primary (3-2)
• In a three wire system, placing Y capacitors (C1, C2) between Primary Inductance 1038 μH, ±5%
line/neutral and earth reduces common mode EMI. Resonant
• Soft finish capacitor C20 ensures no output overshoot at start- 1000 kHz (minimum)
Frequency
up. Diode D9 isolates this capacitor from the feedback loop after Leakage
start-up. Resistor R16 allows a path for this capacitor to dis- Inductance 20 μH (maximum)
charge into the 5 V load. Table 1. Transformer Parameters.
• Resistor R19 and VR3 improve cross regulation when the 5 V (AWG = American Wire Gauge, TIW = Triple Insulated Wire,
output is loaded while 12 V output is unloaded. NC = No Connection).

Power Integrations Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability. Power
5245 Hellyer Avenue Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS
San Jose, CA 95138, USA. MAKES NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
Main: +1 408-414-9200 WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.
Customer Service The products and applications illustrated herein (transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be covered by
Phone: +1-408-414-9665 one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power Integrations.
Fax: +1-408-414-9765 A complete list of Power Integrations' patents may be found at www.powerint.com. Power Integrations grants its customers a license
Email: usasales@powerint.com under certain patent rights as set forth at http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm.
The PI logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, PeakSwitch, EcoSmart, Clampless, E-Shield, Filterfuse, StackFET,
On the Web PI Expert and PI FACTS are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of their respective companies.
www.powerint.com ©2007, Power Integrations, Inc.

A
09/07 DI-142
DI-144 Design Idea
®
TOPSwitch-HX

Condensing Boiler Power Supply

Application Device Power Output Input Voltage Output Voltage Topology


Boiler TOP258PN 50 W, 70 W Peak 185 – 265 VAC 24 V Flyback

Design Highlights common mode EMI filtering is accomplished by common-mode


• High efficiency under all load conditions (see Figure 2) choke L1 and safety rated Y-capacitor C8. AC line voltage is full-
• High ambient temperature operation (65° C) bridge rectified by diodes D8 through D11 and filtered by bulk
• >3.2 mm creepage/clearance with P package, reliable in high capacitor C29. A metal film type capacitor, C4, which is located
humidity and pollution environments physically close to the switching circuitry, helps to decouple high
• Integrated safety/reliability features: frequency noise from the DC bus and improve differential EMI.
• Output OVP protection configurable for latching or self
recovering An RCD clamp is formed by D2, R17 and C34, which prevents
• Accurate, auto-recovering, hysteretic thermal shutdown drain voltage spikes from damaging the integrated MOSFET in U4.
function maintains safe PCB temperatures under all Zener diode VR1 is in place to assure the maximum clamp voltage
conditions and does not conduct under normal operating conditions.
• Auto-restart protects against output short circuits and open
feedback loops A bias winding on transformer T1, which is rectified by D13 and
• Meets EN55022 and CISPR-22 Class B conducted EMI limits filtered by C13, powers the TOPSwitch and provides the control
current used by phototransistor U2B.
Operation
The isolated flyback power supply shown in Figure 1 utilizes a The output voltage is rectified by ultrafast diode D14, while the
TOP258PN. The high efficiency of this design allows for operation parallel combination of low ESR capacitors C30 and C31 provide
at a high ambient temperature (65° C) without the need for any output filtering. Inductor L2 and C32 form a second stage filter,
external heatsinking. which helps reduce output voltage ripple.
Fuse F1 protects against catastrophic short circuit failures.
Differential EMI filtering is implemented with X-capacitor C1, while C8
2.2 nF
250 VAC

C34 C30-31 C32


T1 D14 680 MF 220 MF 24 V,
22 nF EER28 UG4D L2
1 kV 2 35 V 35 V 2.08 A
D8-D11 11,12
1N4007 3.3 MH
R17 VR1 3
100 k7 P6KE170A
2W 4 7,8 RTN

6 D13
5 BAV20 R27
R13 R26 240 7
L1 10 7 2.2 k7 0.125 W
10 mH 0.5 W 0.125 W C35
C13
C1 10 uF 1.0 MF
100 nF D2 50 V 50 V
C29 C4 R25
275 VAC
68 MF 22 nF 1N4937 86.6 k7
RT1 400 V 630 V R9 1%
O

t TOPSwitch-HX
10 1 k7
U4
F1 TOP258PN U2B
3.15 A D M U2A
PC817A PC817A
CONTROL
185 - 265 C
VAC C36
R10 1.0 MF
R6 U3 10 k7
S 6.8 7 50 V
TL431
PI-4800-100907

C6 2%
100 nF
50 V C7 R11
47 MF 10 k7
16 V 1%

Figure 1. 50 W Continuous, 70 W Peak Condensing Boiler Supply, Designed Around a TOP258PN Device

www.powerint.com October 2007


Feedback is provided from the output via photodiode U2A, whose -100

PI-4802-102307
bias point is set through the TL431 programmable shunt regulator -90
U3. Resistors R25 and R11 form a voltage divider network that
-80
sets the output voltage to 24 V. Resistor R10 and capacitor C36

Amplitude (dBµV)
provide compensation for the feedback network. Resistor R27 -70
and capacitor C35 form a phase boost network that helps to
-60
improve the phase margin of the system. Resistor R9 provides a
bias current to the shunt regulator, U3, while the photodiode, -50
U2A, is not conducting. Resistor R26 sets the overall loop gain as -40
well as limiting the current through U2A during transients.
-30
Key Design Points -20
• RCD clamp components may be sized for normal operation as
Zener diode VR1 will assure a safe clamping voltage during -10

start-up and load transients. 0


• The current limit was programmed to a lower value using 0.15 1 10 30

resistor R28 to approximately 50% of the internal current limit. Frequency (MHz)
This allows a larger TOPSwitch-HX part to be used in the Figure 3. Worst Case Conducted EMI (230 VAC) Output Floating
application, increasing efficiency.
• The core size and the winding wire diameter sizes (see Table 1)
were chosen based on the average of the peak and the
continuous output power.
Transformer Parameters
• The number of turns in the primary and secondary windings and
the primary inductance values (see Table 1) were chosen based EER28 NC-2H or equivalent,
Core Material
on the peak output power. gapped for ALG of 190 nH/t²
• Resistor R13 is used to dampen the high frequency resonant Bobbin EER28, 12 pin
ringing while diode D2 is still conducting, thereby improving
½ Primary: 38T, 27 AWG, 1 layers tape
EMI. Secondary: 14T X2, 25 AWG TIW, 3 layers tape
Winding Details
Bias: 9T x1, 25 AWG, 3 layers tape
1000 ½ Primary: 39T, 27 AWG, 3 layers tape
PI-4801-102307

95 ½ Primary (4–3) Secondary (11,12–7,8)


Winding Order
90 Bias (6–5) ½ Primary (3–2)

85 Primary Inductance 1240 μH, ±10%


Efficiency (%)

80 Primary Resonant
25% Load 600 kHz (minimum)
Frequency
75 50% Load
75% Load Leakage 31 μH (maximum)
70 100% Load Inductance

65 Table 1. Transformer Parameters. (NC = No Connection,


60 TIW = Triple Insulated Wire)

55
50
180 200 220 240 260

Input Voltage (V)


Figure 2. Efficiency Versus Load, at Standard Line Voltages

Power Integrations Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability. Power
5245 Hellyer Avenue Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS
San Jose, CA 95138, USA. MAKES NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
Main: +1 408-414-9200 WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.
Customer Service The products and applications illustrated herein (transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be covered by
Phone: +1-408-414-9665 one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power Integrations.
Fax: +1-408-414-9765 A complete list of Power Integrations' patents may be found at www.powerint.com. Power Integrations grants
Email: usasales@powerint.com its customers a license under certain patent rights as set forth at http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm.
The PI logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, PeakSwitch, EcoSmart, Clampless, E-Shield, Filterfuse, StackFET,
On the Web PI Expert and PI FACTS are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of their respective companies.
www.powerint.com ©2007, Power Integrations, Inc.

B
10/07 DI-144
DI-146 Design Idea
®
TOPSwitch-HX

35 W LCD Monitor Power Supply

Application Device Power Output Input Voltage Output Voltage Topology


LCD Monitor TOP258PN 35 W 90 – 264 VAC 5 V, 15 V Flyback

Design Highlights minimize cost by eliminating external heatsinks. Ideal applications


• High efficiency include LCD monitor power supplies, which typically require low
• >83% full load efficiency (Meets CEC 2008 requirements standby and no-load power consumption.
of 82%)
• Delivers 35 W at 50° C ambient without requiring an external The AC input is rectified (D1–D4), filtered (C4) and connected
heat sink across the primary side power components (T1 and U1). Diodes
• Low no-load and standby power consumption D1 and D3 were selected as fast recovery diodes for better EMI
• 0.55 W standby output power for <1 W input performance. EMI filtering is provided by components, C4, C5,
• No-load power consumption <160 mW at 230 VAC L1, C7 and C11. Thermistor RT1 limits the inrush current drawn
• Integrated safety/reliability features: by the circuit on application of input AC.
• Accurate, auto-recovering, hysteretic thermal shutdown
function maintains safe IC temperatures under all conditions To optimize efficiency under all load conditions, U1 operates in
• Auto-restart protects against output short circuits and open one of four modes. From no-load to full load, these are: multi-
feedback loops cycle modulation, fixed frequency PWM (25 kHz), variable
• Output OVP configurable for latching or self recovering frequency PWM and fixed frequency PWM (66 kHz). In all modes
• Meets EN55022 and CISPR-22 Class B conducted EMI with the controller maintains a linear relationship between duty cycle
>10 dBμV margin and control pin current so that the transition between modes is
seamless.
Operation
The isolated flyback converter shown in Figure 1 was designed
Zener diode VR2 and resistor R5 form the latching output over-
around a member of the TOPSwitch-HX family, the TOP258PN
voltage protection (OVP) circuit. Increased voltage at the output
(U1). A device in the P package (8-pin DIP) was selected to

C6 C7 C12
3.9 nF 2.2 nF R11 470 pF
1 kV 250 VAC 33 7 100 V

D7 C13 C14 C15


R6 T1 SB580 680 MF 680 MF L2 220 MF
22 k7 2 EER28 7 25 V 25 V 3.3 MH 25 V +15 V,
2W 1.9 A
D1 D2 VR1 C16 C18
P6KE170A 470 pF R12 L3 RTN
1N4937 1N4007 33 7 3.3 MH 220 MF
100 V 10 V
3 11 +5 V,
1.7 A
R7 D8
10 7 SB530
4 9
1/2 W RTN
C10 C17
6 2200 MF
D3 10 MF
1N4937 D5 R10 50 V C11 10 V
D4 R3 D6
2.0 M7 FR106 FR106 4.7 7 2.2 nF R19
1N4007 250 VAC
5 10 7
L1 R4
6.8 mH 2.0 M7 VR3
R14 BZX79-B10
C5 C4 R13 22 7 10 V
R1 R2 22 nF 100 MF 330 7 C19 2%
1 M7 1 M7 630 V 400 V VR2 1.0 MF
R5 1N5250B 50 V
5.1 k7 20 V U2B
C3 PC817A R15
F1 220 nF 1 k7
3.15 A 275 VAC
U2A
TOPSwitch-HX PC817A
RT1 O D M U1
L 10 7 t R18 R20
CONTROL TOP258PN 255k7 12.4 k7
E C 1% 1%
R16 R17
10 k7 10 k7
N S R8 D9
C8 6.8 7 1N4148
90 - 265 C21
VAC 100 nF
50 V C9 220 nF
47 MF 50 V
16 V C20
10 MF U3 R21
50 V TL431 10 k7
2% 1%
PI-4797-011608

Figure 1. Universal input, 35 W Output, LCD Power Supply, Using a TOP258PN With No External Heat Sink.

www.powerint.com January 2008


will also result in an increased voltage at the output of the bias 80

PI-4798-090407
winding. Zener VR2 will break down, and current will flow into the
M pin of U1. When the M pin current exceeds 112 μA, the M pin 70
voltage is internally reduced by 0.5 V. If the M pin current exceeds QP
60
336 μA, the OV condition causes a latched shutdown. If the M AV
pin current is between 112 μA and 336 μA for >100 μs, the 50
shutdown is hysteretic. Resistor R5 defines the M pin current. 40

dBMV
Output voltage feedback is derived from both the outputs for 30
better cross-regulation. Capacitor C19 and resistor R14 form the 20
phase boost network and provide adequate phase margin to
ensure stable operation over the entire operating voltage range. 10
Resistors R19 and VR3 improve cross regulation when only the 0
5 V output is loaded, preventing the 15 V output operating at the
higher end of the specification. -10

Key Design Points -20


0.15 1.0 10.0 100.0
• Capacitor C5 is a decoupling capacitor connected across the
DC supply and is located physically close to the high frequency MHz
switching circuit, which helps in reducing differential mode EMI. Figure 2. Worst Case Conducted EMI (230 VAC).
• If latching OVP is desired, the value of R5 should be reduced to
20 Ω to allow for more current into the M pin.
• Design the RCD clamp (R6, R7, C6 and D5) for normal opera- Transformer Parameters
tion, thereby maximizing efficiency at light load. Zener diode EER28 NC-2H or equivalent, gapped for ALG of
VR1 provides a defined maximum clamp voltage and typically Core Material
148 nH/t2
only conducts during load transients or during an overload Bobbin EER28, 12 pin, Horizontal
condition.
3mm margins on both sides of bobbin to meet
• The secondary side snubber (R11, C12, R12 and C16) reduce
safety
high frequency secondary diode ringing and improve EMI. Primary: 20T × 1 AWG 26, tape
• In a three-wire system, placing Y capacitors between line/ Winding Details Bias: 9T × 2, AWG 26, 3 layers, tape
neutral and earth ground helps reduce common mode EMI. 5 V: 3T, foil 0.52 mm thickness
• As the output return is connected to safety earth ground, two 15 V: 5T × 3, AWG 26, 3 layers tape
2.2 nF Y capacitors (C7 and C11) are acceptable. For floating Primary: 50T × 1, AWG 26, tape
outputs, the maximum capacitance is normally limited to 1 x 2.2 Primary-1 (4-3), Bias (6-5), 5 V (11-9),
Winding Order
nF due to line frequency leakage current limits. 15 V (7-11), Primary-2 (3-2)
• Soft finish capacitor C20 ensures no output overshoot at start- Primary Inductance 1041 μH, ±10%
up. Diode D9 isolates this capacitor from the feedback loop Resonant
after start-up. Resistor R16 allows a path for this capacitor to 1000 kHz (minimum)
Frequency
discharge into the 5 V load.
Leakage
Inductance 30 μH (maximum)

Table 1. Transformer Parameters. (NC = No Connection).

Power Integrations Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability. Power
5245 Hellyer Avenue Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein. POWER INTEGRATIONS
San Jose, CA 95138, USA. MAKES NO WARRANTY HEREIN AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
Main: +1 408-414-9200 WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.
Customer Service The products and applications illustrated herein (transformer construction and circuits external to the products) may be covered by
Phone: +1-408-414-9665 one or more U.S. and foreign patents or potentially by pending U.S. and foreign patent applications assigned to Power Integrations.
Fax: +1-408-414-9765 A complete list of Power Integrations' patents may be found at www.powerint.com. Power Integrations grants
Email: usasales@powerint.com its customers a license under certain patent rights as set forth at http://www.powerint.com/ip.htm.
The PI logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, PeakSwitch, EcoSmart, Clampless, E-Shield, Filterfuse, StackFET,
On the Web PI Expert and PI FACTS are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc. Other trademarks are property of their respective companies.
www.powerint.com ©2007, Power Integrations, Inc.

C
01/08 DI-146