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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter discusses the ideas and findings from various literatures and studies,

the researchers have assembled from journals and other resources to support the purpose

of this study.

Laguna de Bay

As cited by Ilda.gov.ph (2015), Laguna Lake, well-known as Laguna de Bay is

the major lake in the Philippines and amongst the biggest in Southeast Asia. The Laguna

Lake Development Authority is the only legal office in the act of lake basin management

in the Philippines, which was articulated in 1996 through Republic Act 4850. It is a

quasi-government office established to lead, encourage and increase ecological

development in the Laguna de Bay region, this agency primarily highlights such

standards arranged to ecological administration, prevalently on water quality and amount

checking, as a supplementary structures LLDA is also concerned with preservation of

natural resources, and community-based natural resource management including the

protection of forests and all related activities under the authority of the Laguna de Bay

region, these are all vested within this agency.

Inside almost every surface of the earth, water composes it. Highlands and

ridgelines that descend into lower elevations and stream valleys define a watershed and is

a basin-like landform that was distinct by the Pennsylvania Environmental Council


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(2015). After rain falls, waters are collected by watershed. Drop by drop, water is

directed into soils, ground waters, creeks, and streams, making its way to larger rivers

and eventually the sea. Water being a universal solvent affects all that comes into contact

with it. The very significant essence of the watershed is; people’s actions on land deeply

affect the quality of the water for all communities living downstream.

In the study of Celeste (2009) entitled “Estimating the Benefits of Watershed

Protection for Sustainable Water Supply in Sibalom Natural Park, Sibalom, Antique”, it

was cited that David (1985) defined watershed as an eco-system that is build land-based

which converts, collects the mass amount of rain and drains water to a single exit point

known as catchments. Watershed delivers different functions which covers economic,

environmental and social aspects. It serves as a home for plants and animals, making it as

a source of food for the people. It is an avenue for such activities inclined to recreational

ones; its location could also cater to the development of tourism.

River Rehabilitation Program

According to Ilda.gov.ph, in 1996 the River Rehabilitation Program of Laguna

Lake Development Authority was launched under the Community Development Division

for implementation. It used a harmonized way to deal with watershed administration. It

considers both water quality and volume in the range of an interrelated biological

community - from the river's headwaters to the downstream territories of flourishing

urbanization all the way to the lake basin. Twenty-four (24) sub-basins embraces the

Laguna de Bay. These are used as the basic units for preparation and execution of the
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river rehabilitation strategies such as strengthening of River Councils and in coordination

with the Federation of River basin Council

According to King et.al (2007), a more general approach to river rehabilitation is

progressing. This comprises specialist inputs from significant groups including

government agencies, local municipalities and river rehabilitation organizations.

Adopting a holistic method to rehabilitation follows to the concept of Integrated

Catchment Management, whereby the complete catchment is considered and not just the

reach to be rehabilitated. Effective rehabilitation projects follow nine main stages. These

are: developing goals and objectives; river condition study; prioritization and program

limitations; strategies; study design, systems and rehabilitation alternatives; feasibility

studies; execution; monitoring and maintenance; and post project evaluation

As cited by Fryirs and Brierley (2009), river rehabilitation must test leading

mindsets that permeate contemporary management methods in many parts of the world.

Primarily, field evidence must be utilized to inform and control the restoration practice,

as opposed to rely upon cookbook uses of course book learning. Esteeming the decent

variety of river forms in a specific catchment offers the baseline whereupon to work.

Secondly, recovery arrangement ought to be encased around how a river functions and

modifies (its scope of conduct), instead of what it would appear that, ensuring that

training changes past discernments that test to "settle" a river set up. Thirdly, restoration

projects ought to be legitimately confined in connection to the spatial and the consecutive

point of view of any given movement. Due respect ought to be given to treatment

reactions, featuring how alterations in any given reach will have off-site outcomes.

Catchment-scale contemplations are important to order debilitating techniques and


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constraining variables that may settle the viability of river restoration. Activities ought to

likewise be circumscribed in connection to transformative way, propelled to guarantee

that transient advantages are not accomplished at the cost of longer-term losses, keeping

the ability of future ages to address these worries.

Junker and Buchecker (2008) explained that river rehabilitation programs differ

from scheme to scheme, reflecting combinations of biophysical, cultural, and socio-

economic values of a certain place. These aspects determine what is convincingly

achievable and what is anticipated in any given catchment. Societal visions are molded

largely by aesthetic and traditional values.

Public Participation

Reed (2008) defines participation as a “procedure where individuals, groups and

organizations select to take an active role in creating decisions that affect them. While the

context of participation is developing, different perspectives such as the ideological,

social, political, and methodological perspectives brought about various interpretations of

participation. However, Reed (2008) did not look at these contexts as conflicting ideas,

but rather as different perspectives of participation, each with different approaches. He

identified four typologies of participation classified according to their basis and contexts.

These are typologies based on: (a) different degrees of participation on a continuum; (b)

nature of participation according to the direction of communication flows; (c) theoretical

basis; and (d) the objectives for which participation is used.


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Yee (2010) states that public participation is an important factor in promoting

democracy because it gives the public the opportunity to participate in decision-making

and engage themselves in developing programs initiated by the government. Community

empowerment helps build a good relationship between government and the public.

IAP2 (2007) has developed a public participation spectrum which aims to help

stakeholders in defining the role of the public in terms of their participation. There are

five categories of participation stated in the spectrum: (1) Inform, wherein the goal of this

category is to provide the public with all the information that may influence their

decision-making process; (2) Consult, this category aims to continually provide

information to the public, get their opinions and concerns, and have them incorporated in

draft proposals; (3) Involve, this means that the policy-makers are working closely with

the public to ensure that all their inputs are obtained and taken care of; (4) Collaborate, in

this category, the policy-makers and the public are working hands-in-hand all throughout

the decision-making process as well as in the formulation of alternative solutions; and (5)

Empower, this category means that it is the public who has the final say in the decision-

making process.

Mefalopulos and Tufte (2009) also identified four levels of participation: (1)

Passive Participation, this is considered to be the least participatory among the four. In

this level, the stakeholders are merely provided with information and only a minimal

amount of feedback is obtained from them; (2) Participation by consultation, in this level

of participation, stakeholders are given the right to give their opinions. However, the final

decision will be in the hands of the policy-makers; (3) Participation by collaboration, at

this point, stakeholders have an active role in the decision-making process. It includes
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cooperative exertion wherein it "fuses a segment of horizontal communication and limit

working among all partners, (4) Empowerment participation, in this level of participation,

the sectors are willing and able to be a part of the procedure and take an interest in joint

analysis, which prompts community oriented basic leadership about what ought to be

accomplished and how. While the role of outsiders is that of equal partners in the

resourcefulness, local stakeholders are equal partners with a significant say in decisions

concerning their lives.

Mefalopulos and Tufte (2009) also mentioned two approaches to participation

which are institutional perspective and social movement perspective. According to them,

these two approaches both look at participation as the involvement of the public in

development processes that will lead to change. However, institutional perspective looks

at participation as a tool which can be used to achieve a pre-established goal and

determined by people or groups who are not members of the concerned community. On

the other hand, social movement perspective can serve as the goal of the empowering

process itself.

Amata (2012) aimed to determine the extent community participation in the whale

shark ecotourism project in Donsol, Sorsogon. Data were gathered through self-

administered questionnaires and key informant interviews. Chi-square test of

independence, at a 0.05 level of significance, was used to analyze the relationship

between the socio-demographic profiles of the respondents and their level of awareness,

nature of participation, and level of participation. Results of the study showed that

respondents’ level of participation fall under the third level which is Consultation.
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River Rehabilitation Program Public Participation

As cited by Carr (2015), stakeholders participation in river basin management is

elevated for the reason that it is expected to enhance resource management and allow

participants to involve voluntarily and equally in management (uphold democratic

processes). Three interacting mechanisms by which participation is anticipated to

improve river basin management are outlined: (1) giving space for consideration and

concurrence building for preferably quality decision; (2) organizing and advancing

human and social capital for better adequate decisions and their execution; and (3)

increasing the legality of decisions to promote their execution. There are several

diversities connected with each of the mechanisms that increase challenges ascertaining

the expectations of participation. They consists the need to meticulously manage

concurrence building and conflict to increase the quality of the decision without

jeopardizing the possibility for execution; being conscious of and executing plans to

manage asymmetrical power connections between stakeholders; assuring that

stakeholders perceive the advantages from participation that surpass costs; and defining

criteria for a lawful process, and a legal decision that satisfy all participants. Strategies

are determined to communicate these challenges focus on managing attributes of the

participation process. Ongoing assessment during a program participation is necessary to

articulate how participation is being done, to address the challenges and endeavor to

accomplish high-quality decisions that can be executed effectively.

In the study of Heyd and Neef (2008) entitled Public Participation in Water

Management in Northern Thai Highlands, it was taken that drawing on a water

management study in the Mae Sa watershed, northern Thailand. This article studies to
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what degree the constitutional right of participation has been put into actions.

Furthermore, they conducted a stakeholder analysis in the watershed, with the emphasis

on local people's strategies and interests in water management and changed participatory

policies through government agencies at the local level. While government officials

determined the significance of stakeholder involvement and collaboration with the local

people, there is a sharp comparison between the rhetoric and its application to the reality.

The study analyzes and reveals that government officials, specifically in the

conservation-oriented organizations, are not willing to delegate power to lower levels and

the involvement of the public in water management appears to be at inform level or, at

best, consultative in nature. In order to catch up with the gradually serious water

difficulties in northern Thailand, the implementers have to identify the importance of

participation and endorse a thorough transformation in government officials’ attitudes

towards the public through programs and trainings.

In the study of Chun, Samah and Solaiman (2012) on Public Participation in the

Conservation of a Tropical Urban River, it was said that even though there are various

programs, projects and activities carried by government agencies concerned with rivers,

still most river rehabilitation projects were not maintained according to the required goals

and objectives of the program. They also added that it is because of the lack of public

environmental participation and awareness.

On the statistical analysis in the study of Reyes and Silvestre (2015) on

Awareness of Siniloan Residents on Watershed Protection Program of the Laguna Lake

Development Authority it showed that the respondents are generally aware of the River

Rehabilitation Program implementation and participation in Siniloan, Laguna. However,


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the respondents are unaware that River Rehabilitation Program includes Formulation of

River Rehabilitation Plans where participatory planning is undertaken by bringing

together representatives from various sectors (LGUs, NGOs, POs, youth and civic

organizations, etc) to formulate realistic strategies to protect and rehabilitate the river.

Whereas, for Raven and Boon (2012) it was discovered that public engagement

has been shown to generate not only positive attitudes but also long-term interest and

pride in caring for the local environment; on the contrary, disregarding the public has

been shown to lead to negative feelings of exclusion and discontent, which might threaten

the possibilities for future river rehabilitation.

In the study of Medallon, Muya and Tenorio (2016), the respondents who are part

of the study are the local residents that are mostly female, elementary graduates but

employed. They lightly used Internet, television, radio, in terms of their media exposure.

Such exposure to media results in their awareness to the Adopt-a-River project. Though,

group discussion is the main source of information of the said project. The Adopt-a-River

project positively perceived by the local residents. Also, they agreed that Adopt-a-River

project’s message is comprehensible and suitable and easy words were used to promote

and execute the project. Furthermore, the project’s impact to the residents is useful and

positive and they learn everything about the project. While the perception of the project is

positive, results showed that the level of participation that most local residents faced is

passive participation, wherein they were only informed of the regulation and programs,

although some claimed that they are not hindered on their participation on the project.

In the study of Shrestha (2011) on Community Participation in Wetland

Conservation in Nepal it was inferred that keeping up ecological quality and food
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security is the real test of the twenty first century, which relate specifically to wetland.

Participatory coordinated wetland administration has turned into the acknowledged way

to deal with managing wetlands. Community role in the protection actions is relatively

growing if they go as one for practical use of wetland assets and looks for the contrasting

options to lessen and pursues for the replacements to lessen the weight on wetland.

Through various activities and strategies in light of nearby support, we can be idealistic

that once the general population made mindful, instructed and prepared, they will have

the capacity to comprehend the significance, dangers and conceivable answers for the

protection and administration of wetlands. Thus, it is basic to instruct the public about the

estimation of wetlands (especially for the endangered Ramsar places) and its wise use. in

wetland regions must be roused and assembled to cooperate, use their indigenous

information with the goal that they can enhance the wetland environment and inspire

their living styles. In addition, it is vital to secure group investment principally the

wetland clients and partners in maintainable administration of wetland assets. For the

effective wetland protection and administration, the group ought to have the capacity to

give and get data about the wetlands, valuation and existing biodiversity. The association

among ethnic individuals depending on wetlands and group advancement specialists

upgrades productivity in the administration assets. Group interest in such manner

advances mindfulness, self-assurance, and confidence at all levels of the group structure.

Pahl Wostl (2008) mentioned that participatory approaches, described extensively

as activities that involve the public and/or stakeholders, are frequently encountered in

river basin management. They have increased more unmistakable quality over late

decades as it has been quickening perceived that regulation‐based administration designs


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are constrained in their capacity to oversee water assets acceptably. Supporters for

involvement in water source management talk over that only by that exclusive by moving

far from a top– down administration demonstrate in which choices are set up by a small

group of chosen experts who are parted from the citizens who live and work in the basin,

toward a participatory model that involves the intricacy of understandings and advantages

in the basin, would more be able to ethically sound and realistic management strategies

be documented and utilized.

As cited by Berkes (2009), in this setting of supportable advancement,

participatory methodologies are especially appropriate for water administration. To begin

with, a wide range of interests and clashing targets regularly exist together inside a lake

basin, from requests by various clients on water quality and amount to surge hazard and

natural well-being. These distinctions should be tended to with a specific end goal to

achieve a choice and realize activities. Second, participatory methodologies may help

achieve a choice that is seen to be reasonable and true, i.e., residents are contented with

the legitimization for the choice. This might be especially imperative for freely claimed

state, oversaw assets, for example, water. Third, lake basin administration is data serious

in light of the fact that it requires information of the entire socio‐ecological framework,

which is divided across over a wide range of people, gatherings, and organizations

working at various scales. By bringing 'learning holders' as one with participatory

methodologies, this data can be prepared and incorporated into administration techniques.
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Implemented Laws for Water Resources

The Republic Act 9275 or the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 states that the

State should organize programs, strategies, and procedures to prevent the spread of water

pollution in the country and to promote proper environmental management. This act also

covers promotion of environmental-friendly industries and activities, and public

communication and information dissemination. Republic Act 9275 was signed by former

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in March 2004 and took effect on May 2004 under

the supervision of the DENR.

The Republic 9003 or Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 is an act

providing an ecological solid waste management program. This act required the State to

ensure public and environmental health; organize environment-friendly activities and

national policies that will ensure proper solid waste management; formulate strategies

and techniques to promote proper waste disposal, segregation, and collection.

The two Republic Acts both require the State to encourage public participation for

the improvement of the environment. Republic Act 9275 states that the State shall

encourage cooperation and self-regulation among Filipino citizens for the improvement

of water resources. Meanwhile, Republic Act 9003 requires the State to encourage the

public to cooperate in the implementation of national programs related to proper solid

waste management.

The Laguna Lake Development Authority was organized by prudence of Republic

Act No. 4850 as a quasi-government agency with supervisory and exclusive capacities

Through Presidential Decree 813 in 1975, and Executive Order 927 in 1983, its powers
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and purposes were additionally fortified to incorporate ecological assurance and locale

over the lake basins’ surface water. In 1993, through Executive Order 149, the

managerial supervision over LLDA was transferred from the Office of the President to

the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (llda.gov.ph, 2015).

Program Planning

Sanghera (2008) described program planning as the stage where program goals

and objectives are formulated and refined by the program management team and

develops the program management plan which consists of architectural plan and different

courses of action. The program management plan focuses on producing quality outputs

on this stage including subsidiary plans comprising program scope, schedule and quality

management plan. The processes under this stage falls under the group called process

planning group.

According to Barmuta and Turak (2011), in planning the river rehabilitation it has

its foundation in socio-economic limitations and processes that includes the protection of

the ecosystem. By aiming these two aspects, we guarantee that the river restoration will

not only enhance the signs but also address the factors that are accountable for the

damages done in the river. Primarily, river rehabilitation planning must distinguish the

sources of the hindrances being targeted and integrate the available information on the

environmental processes included in the degradation. For example, this can be done by

estimating the outcome of each rehabilitation action on the purposes followed (e.g. river

bank erosion models) using statistical models. Furthermore, socio-economic limitations

must lead to the identification of the most effective set of river restoration activities for
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attaining the river rehabilitation goals and objectives. These must contain not only the

expenses of the river rehabilitation but also social features, such as the possible future

result of the rehabilitation activities in local economies, and the residents’ willingness to

participate in the rehabilitation. If properly addressed, all these problems will help convey

more accurate and effective river rehabilitation plans and support their execution.

As cited by King et al (2007), in order to guide the plethora of procedures being

commenced, the science of river rehabilitation program is widely seen as still in a pre-

paradigmatic state with a frail conceptual basis. Where principles are given, the focus is

mainly on a wider set of management principles, such as ensuring that objectives are

realistic in terms of budget, or that stakeholders are involved. Successful rehabilitation

efforts are vital with such principles that sub-set of ecological and geomorphological

principles that will guide the scientific aspects of work should be nested within them.

Without these, rehabilitation efforts stand the risk of being random experiments that will

not yield to scientific advancement or technical expertise.

Asian Development Bank (2013) said that as part of the overall basin vision

statement many modern basin plan includes environmental aspirations. As with visions

more broadly in basin planning, environmental visions tend to set out and overall

philosophy or approach, and may identify issues of concern. Rather than specific these

vision statements can be aspirational and not provide a clear set of objectives that can be

implemented. Before difficult decisions over interchanges and investment need to be

made these vision statements can deliver a preliminary indication of political purpose

around which stakeholders can agree. Environmental vision statements play a significant

part in the process of approving a basin plan, signifying that maintenance and protection
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of the basin environment is an imperative consideration in the improvement of the basin

plan, while they may not provide a clear direction to the basin plan.

Le Quesne (2010) states that the maintenance and restoration of environmental

courses has materialized as a key issue in the environmental water management, as

economic progress has led to augmented water stress in recent decades. New challenges

are posed in the maintenance of environmental flows for basin planning; core water

resources and infrastructure planning in basins are intimately bound up with

environmental flows which requires action to be taken at a basin scale. This contrasts

with longer standing issues around water quality, which typically require remedial

measures in both industrial and agricultural activities outside the core concerns of water

resources planners, and can be addressed at a tributary of local level. Water resources

strategies, policies and plans in most countries in the world now have high-level

recognition of environmental flows. In implementing these high-level political aspirations

there has been limited progress. One of the key challenges in successful environmental

basin planning is “implementation”.


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Program Implementation

According to Sanghera (2008), Program implementation, this stage emphasizes

the implementation of the program management plan and the program team performs the

works indicated in the planning stage. All the activities are coordinated in order to

accomplish the objectives and program requirements. This produces the main output

which is the program deliverable. Enforcement of approved changes, recommendations

and defect repairs are also done on this stage. These recommendations arises from

monitoring and controlling the program. Suggested changes from the stakeholders are

also taken which must undergo an approval process earlier the implementation.

As cited by Wardam (2011), the primary guideline of river restoration is the

participatory administration of natural assets. This can be achieved through various

developments. The primary activity can be month to month clean up drives and

streamlining of the waterway course and the disposal of wastes and hindrances that keep

the regular run of water. The following stage will advance the appropriation of the

standards of incorporated characteristic resources administration and the biological

system approach (land, water and species) in all improvement undertakings and activities

along the Zarqa River Basin. This ought to be done in parallel to making every vital steps

that can protect the current quantity and the flow amount of permanent water stream in

Zarqa River Basin and intending to present extra water amounts from non-ordinary

sources (completely treated wastewater, water gathering, dim water, and so forth.) in the

dry territories of the river basin and usage of common filtration and developed wetlands

activities that depend on biological system administrations.


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The acknowledgment of river rehabilitation ventures is especially high as they

change the appearance and in addition the social, natural and monetary capacity of a

public environment basically. Because of these various impedances, the arranging and

usage of waterway rebuilding will incite eager issues. Uhlendahl (2009) states that other

than clashes identified by values, partner relations and coordination, the fundamental

explanations behind restricting interests in river basin arranging are the structure of the

waterway bed, the zone, water amount and emanation into the streams. These issues can

be separated into a few sub issues, e.g. surge security, relaxation use, approach and

economy. Other than these biological, political, specialized and temperate talks,

waterways and their floodplains additionally assume an exceedingly passionate part set

up a connection.

Lindemann (2011) contends that in this specific circumstance, the river can

represent to (1) a "physical place"; (2) a "social and cultural locus" and (3) an "image for

the aggregate condition". Other than the specialized development, this implies the

arranging and usage of stream reclamation ventures need to satisfy desires in numerous

segments, including different concerned groups and individuals. In addition, the

interconnection of stream basin forms causes interlinkages with other project frameworks

and in this manner adds another vital dimension to the effectively complex field. In this

way, river rehabilitation must be viewed as "issue in-setting" and must be evaluated from

inter- and transdisciplinary viewpoint that is grasping the public participation of all

affected stakeholders.
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Program Monitoring and Evaluation

Brown (2008) states that, in this stage the program manager does both monitoring

and execute the program through its life cycle including the executing stage. It includes

defending the program against scope creep or unapproved changes to program scope,

monitoring of the progress and performance of the program in order to identify variance

from the plan, and recommending preventive and corrective measures to have it inclined

with the planned expectations. Requests for changes in the program scope coming from

the stakeholders are also included in the stage. Changes must go through an approval

process and only the approved ones are implemented.

Mackechnie et al, (2011) defined Environmental monitoring as fundamental for

evaluating the present condition of the environment, measuring the effects of ecological

weights and giving confirmation to government. Late UK government declarations have

demonstrated an expanded part for 'Enormous Society' in monitoring. There are surveys

of accessible writing concerning the utilization of citizen science for monitoring, exhibit

cases of successful volunteer checking work and feature imperative issues encompassing

the utilization of volunteers. There are arguments that with a specific end goal to

guarantee that ecological observing keeps on being viable it is essential to gain from

cases where volunteers are right now utilized, recognizing requirements and

distinguishing potential methodologies which will amplify both their engagement and

information quality. Effective partnerships between ecological monitoring associations

and volunteers may accordingly help the UK in creating vigorous facilitated monitoring

frameworks that will be less vulnerable against financing differences.


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Boon and Raven (2012) revealed that both in size and number river restoration

ventures are expanding, however accessible proof that measures their environmental and

social advantages are practically nothing. Due essentially to deficient resources and poor

strategies, most river restoration ventures need compelling monitoring information

required for assessment which is the primary purpose for this. Long-term post-venture

monitoring of river restoration is especially uncommon. To set up how powerful plans

have been, river restoration monitoring requirements to cover ecological and social

aspects, both in short and longer term for sufficient assessment. Monitoring advancement

of the restoration work is critical, especially if the plan or area of structures should be

changed in light of the fact that they are not creating the required or expected outcomes.

The monitoring program incorporates water amount, water quality, organic pointers and

morphological structure.

Bloschl (2012) revealed that there is an extensive complexity in the difficulties

and methodologies portrayed in river rehabilitation. Nevertheless, there is one viewpoint

in like manner all through. This is continuous assessment is fundamental to evaluate

which methodologies are required, regardless of whether they are being executed, and on

the off chance that they are having the desired impact for conquering the difficulties. All

things considered, assessment, reflection, and refinement of a progressing cooperation

program are basic to beat the complexities of doing support and understanding the desires

of consultation and agreement restoration, creating human and social capital, and

delivering genuine choices that are the establishments for high‐quality choices that can be

actualized effectively. Much work has been led to assess investment forms in respect to

whether diverse targets are met, for example, regardless of whether a deliberative domain
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is made, whether the procedure meets the members' desires, or whether members

acknowledge the choices came to. The vast assortment of work has recognized a few

imperative qualities of good procedures for investment projects and tasks. Of specific

significance are unprejudiced assistance with an exceedingly talented facilitator,

formation of a space of trade where all members have the chance to be heard, member

access to data and gatherings, plainly characterized errands and guidelines for

association, and portrayal of an expansive area of society or interest groups.

Blackstock (2014) revealed that evaluating outcomes is critical for recognizing

whether interest is prompting high‐quality choices and what impacts they have on river

basin administration. Notwithstanding, characterizing results is subject to intrigue.

Diverse individuals have altogether different goals from a support program. Analysts

intrigued by recognizing whether investment enhances biological conditions will

concentrate on natural results, for example, environment well-being or water quality.

Water supervisors might be occupied with assessing whether an investment program is

prompting a lessening in conflict between interest groups, and agriculturalists may search

for financial advantages, for example, an expansion in trim yields. Members may think

the program is a win on the off chance that they are happy with how it has been run, or on

the off chance that they see unmistakable results, (for example, an assention that backings

their interests), or impalpable results, (for example, a change to organizations,

advancement of shared information, augmentation of personal networks, or finding out

about new issues). Assessment of these elusive, mediator results has been recommended

as a way to evaluate what support is accomplishing that overcomes the challenges of both

distinguishing and measuring asset administration results.


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Research Paradigm

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Classification of  Construction and


Respondents in terms Development of the
Level of
of: Instrument
Participation of Bay,
 Barangay Officials  Validation of
Laguna and Siniloan
 Non-governmental Laguna in the River
Questionnaire
Organizations Rehabilitation
 Residents Program
 Approval of Request
Level of Participation to Conduct the
on different stages of Study
Problems
program management encountered in the
in terms of:  Administration of
participation in the
the Questionnaire
 Program Planning River Rehabilitation
program
 Program  Retrieval of the
Implementation Questionnaire
 Program
Monitoring and  Analysis and A Proposed
Evaluation Interpretation of Extension Program
Data for Multi-sectoral
Participation in the
River Rehabilitation
Program

Feedback Mechanism

Figure 1. Conceptual Model of the Study


M u l t i - s e c t o r a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n … | 34

The first frame illustrates the input, which refer to the types of respondents as to

barangay officials, non-governmental organization members, and residents. And the level

of participation in the river rehabilitation program with the stages of program planning,

program implementation and program monitoring and evaluation.

The second frame is the process which discusses the data gathering procedure as

to how pertinent data will be accomplished from the construction and validation of the

questionnaire up to computation and analysis of the data gathered.

The third frame shows the output which includes the level of participation of

different sectors as to each stage from program planning, program implementation and

program monitoring and evaluation. Also, the researchers determined the problems

encountered by the residents that hindered their participation in the program. And also,

the researchers provide a proposal to improve multi-sectoral participation on the River

Rehabilitation Program in Laguna.

The feedback serves as the turning point as to how the data will influence the

participation of different sectors on River Rehabilitation Program in Laguna.

Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant difference in the level of participation of the three

groups of respondents as to each stage of program planning, program implementation and

program monitoring and evaluation.